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PRODUCTION OF HIBISCUS ROSSA-SINENSIS SHOWER CREAM

PART 1: PRELIMINARY REPORT

a) Chemical Product Design

Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis is a member of family Malvaceae. It grows as an evergreen


herbaceous plant. Grown in different region of Asian, these beautiful flowers are denoted by
several other names such as China rose .This plant is cultivated as an ornamental plant and is
used in traditional medicine. Flowers are used in all kind of inflammation, internally are
prescribed in the form of bronchial catarrh, as a becenic and sudorific roots are mucilaginous
and demulcent, valuable in cough (Caius, 1992). Dasuki (2001) stated that leaves and flower
are used for skin infections and relieves swellings. Besides that, leaves and flower of Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis also can be used for ulcers, anti-cancer, gastric, hepatic toxicity and nerves
system. In traditional treatment, it is used for relieve headache, induce abortion, ease menstrual
cramps and assist in childbirth.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers consist of cyanidin diglucoside, flavonoids and
vitamins, thiamine, niacin, ascorbic acid, and riboflavin (Ghani, 2003). Leaves and stems of
hibiscus rosa-sinensis contains of -sitosterol, stigmasterol, taraxeryl acetate and three
cyclopropane compounds and their derivatives. In this study, hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower is
used as additional enhancement of a basic shower cream production.
In a plant design production, there were several strategies need to be done such as needs,
ideas, selection and manufacture. Basically, need means a need for a product must be identified.
This process involves in dealing with industrial customers. Probably, there will be the same
process for same production but somehow the raw materials can be differing from other. The
product is focused more on the adult person. Based on review literature, the researcher has been
used the hisbiscus rosa-sinensis to produces drug in pharmaceutical field. Other than that, there
are has a review for each part of the product.
In order to complete the identification process, ten products has been suggested due to
produce new esthetics products. This esthetics product can be divided into two main parts.
Category Products

Skincare Foundation
Sunblock
Hair gel
Lotion body
Lipstick
Scar removal gel
Health and hygiene Shower cream
Perfume
Talcum powder
Deodorant
Sanitizer
Feminine wash

Concept Screening
Criterion Alternative
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Odor + + + + - - + + + + + +
Quality - - 0 0 - 0 + - 0 - 0 0
Price - - 0 0 - - 0 - 0 0 + +
Environmental - - 0 0 - - 0 - 0 - 0 0
friendly
Hygiene - - - - - - + - 0 + + +
Healthy - - - + - - + - - 0 0 0
Skin care 0 0 - 0 - 0 + - 0 0 - -
Cosmetic - - - - 0 - - 0 - - - -
Total score -5 -5 -3 0 -7 -6 4 -5 -1 -1 1 1
Rank 8 8 7 4 12 11 1 8 5 5 2 2
Concept Scoring
Criterion Weight Alternatives
4 7 11 12
Odor 2% 3 5 4 3
Quality 2% 3 3 3 3
Price 2% 3 4 3 3
Environmental 2% 2 3 3 3
friendly
Hygiene 30% 2 5 5 4
Healthy 30% 2 4 4 3
Skin care 30% 4 5 2 2
Cosmetic 2% 1 1 1 1
Total score 2.64 4.52 3.58 2.96
Rank 4 1 2 3

Based on the screening and scoring method, alternative 7 is chosen (shower cream).

b) Selection of Process Routes

i. Chemical reaction involved


The reaction involved in our production of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis scented shower cream
is through a saponification reaction. Saponification is the process of making soap molecules
from the chemical reaction in which fatty esters such as fats and oils, are hydrolysed in
basic conditions. The reaction usually requires fats and lye (Schumann & Siekmann, 2000).
This process converts fats and oils, via a basic reaction medium, to salts of these fatty acids
(Nsb.wikidot.com, 2015).

Stearin + Potassium Hydroxide Glycerol + Potassium Stearate


ii. Stoichiometry of equation
(C18H35O2)3C3H5 + 3 KOH C3H5(OH)3 + 3 C18H35O2K

iii. Equilibrium (Thermodynamic) controlled or kinetic controlled


The reaction is an equilibrium controlled reaction. Equilibrium controlled reaction exhibits
two particular requirements which are reversible and requires heat. When two or
more reversible reactions of the same reactants compete under a given set of conditions,
the system is said to be under thermodynamic control, and the major product is the more
stable product, which is called the thermodynamic product (Science.uvu.edu, 2015). In
saponification, the reversible reaction of saponification is esterification. The temperature
for the reaction to occur is between 40oC to 80oC.

iv. Catalysts used


There are no catalysts used in the reaction. However, there are suggestions that thymol or
some other oils do speed up the reaction.

v. Use of excess reactants to increase yield at equilibrium


In the production of liquid soap, potassium hydroxide is used in excess and assumed to be
negligible in the rate of reaction. The use of high concentration alkali and oils that have
high free fatty acids in saponification will increase the yield at equilibrium. According to
Vogel, achieving yields around 100% are called quantitative, yields above 90% are called
exceptional or excellent, yields above 80% are considered very good, yields above 70% are
good, yields above 50% are considered fair, and yields below 40% are classified as poor
(Vogel, et.al, 1989). The yield obtained when the conversion is 70% is 1.000038, which is
exceptional.


=

824.8684
=
3546.8830 2722.046
= 1.000038
vi. Issue on competing reaction and selectivity
Selectivity is generally defined as the number of moles of desired product divided by the
number of moles of the undesired product (Fogler, 1992). The selectivity that was achieved
with the stoichiometry and conversion set was


=

824.8684
=
2722.046
= 0.3030

vii. Temperature and Ph


Substance Boiling point
Stearin 285oC (Inoxia.co.uk, 2015)
Potassium Hydroxide 1327oC (Pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, 2015)
Potassium Stearate 359.4C (Lookchem.com, 2015)
Glycerine 290oC (O'Neil, 2006)

Saponification is the reaction between a fat or oil and a base, producing glycerol and a salt.

fat or oil + base -----> glycerol + salt

Thus, it can be said that the base, potassium and salt are alkali or having a pH greater than
having an alkali shower cream or soap is essential to balance out the pH of the skin.
Variable skin pH values are being reported in literature, all in the acidic range but with a
broad range from pH 4.0 to 7.0 (Lambers, et.al, 2006). With this, people having acidic skin
should be encouraged to use alkali soap to achieve a balanced skin pH of 5.5 for an optimal
healthy skin (Health24, 2005).

viii. Single pass conversion


Single-pass conversion gives the fraction of reactant converted on a single pass through
the reactor. In contrast, overall conversion gives the fraction of reactant converted by the
process, which may involve recycling reactant molecules many times through the reactor
in order to increase their conversion.
c) Chemical Reactor Design

i. Type of reactor process


The type of process chosen for the chemical reactor design of a shower cream with Hibiscus
Rosa Sinensis plant is a batch process. Batch production is a technique used in
manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of
workstations, and different batches of products are made. (Bbc.co.uk, 2015)

Factor Reasoning
Size Smaller processes to help ease the difficulty of
moving large amounts of chemicals from
equipment to equipment.
Product Quality The product quality of each batch must be
verified and certified especially with the fact that
soap has to be approved by the Ministry of Health
Malaysia.
Operational Flexibility The stirrer tank, in which the grinded up leaves of
Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis and methanol are mixed,
can be used as a mixer and also a sedimentation
tank for the heavy grinded up leaves.
Standardized Equipment Multiple The process flow structure of the designed plan is
Products able to produce either bar soap or liquid soap.
Process Efficiency More efficient compared to continuous process as
the process requires recycling and filtering of
either the methanol or the waste of grind up
leaves.
Maintenance and Operation Labour Higher cost due to equipment cleaning and
preparation time before a new batch is made.
Feedstock Availability The feed of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis is available
all year round, thus there should be no shortage of
supply to the plant.
Product Demand Product demand is available all year round.
However, since the plant is flexible, it can
produce other hygiene products.
Rate of Reaction to Produce The process to produce soap is not as fast as other
Products chemical reactions, thus batch process is
reasonable.
Equipment Fouling Batch process is chosen as the equipment can
experience fouling, and cleaning of equipment is
always a standard operating procedure.
Safety Operator training is needed in chemical exposure
and equipment is critical.
Controllability The efficiency of scheduling of equipment would
not be a problem as the main product produced is
soap and the equipment does not have to perform
more than one task at one particular time.

ii. Input output structure

iii. Material Balance in the Reacting System


By using stearin (from animals), beef tallow (Mixon, 2015)
Amount of caustic potash:
= ( ) ( )
= 1000 0.1990
= 199


= +
0.3
119 kg of caustic potash
total weight of caustic potash and water =
0.3
total weight of caustic potash and water = 663.33kg

Amount of water:
= ( ) ( )
= 663.33 199
= 464.33

Number of moles of stearin:



=

1000
1000
1
=
(12.0107 57) + (1.00794 110) + (15.9994 6)

1000000
=
891.4797

= 1121.7305 mol

Number of moles of KOH:



=

1000
199
1
=
39.0983 + 15.9994 + 1.00794

= 3546.8805 mol

Total moles in inlet:


= 1121.7305 + 3546.1056
= 4668.635

Mole fraction of Stearin inlet:


1121.7305 mol
= = 0.2403
4668.635 mol

Mole fraction of KOH in:


3546.8805 mol
= = 0.7597
4668.635 mol
Material Balance
(C18H35O2)3C3H5 + 3 KOH C3H5(OH)3 + 3 C18H35O2K

Let
A= (C18H35O2)3C3H5
B= KOH
C= C3H5(OH)3
D= C18H35O2K

Assuming that the conversion is 70%,


112.7305 1
0.7 =
112.7305
= 33.8192

By applying atomic species balance,


57 57 3 54
Carbon: (1121.7305 mol) ( 1 ) = (33.8192mol) ( 1 ) + (3 ) (1 ) + (4 ) ( 1 )

63938.6385 = 1927.6944 + 33 + 544


33 + 544 = 62010.9441

6 3 6
Oxygen: (1121.7305 mol) (1 ) + (3546.8830) (1 ) = (33.8192mol) (1 ) +
3 3 6
(2 ) ( ) + (3 ) (1 ) + (4 ) (1 )
1

6730.383 + 10640.649 = 202.9152 + 3X2 + 3X3 + 6X4


32 + 33 + 64 = 17168.1168

110 3 110
Hydrogen: (1121.7305 mol) ( ) + (3546.8830) (1 ) = (33.8192mol) ( )+
1 1
3 3 105
(2 ) ( ) + (3 ) (1 ) + (4 ) ( )
1 1

123390.355 + 10640.649 = 3720.112 + 3X2 + 3X3 + 105X4


3X2 + 3X3 + 105X4 = 130310.892

3 3 3
Potassium: (3546.8830 mol) (1 ) = (2 ) (1 ) + (4 ) (1 )

10640.649 = 32 + 34
Thus, the equations are:

1. 33 + 544 = 62010.9441
2. 32 + 33 + 64 = 17168.1168
3. 32 + 33 + 1054 = 130310.892
4. 32 + 34 = 10640.649

By solving the equations simultaneously, it was determined that the values of 2 , 3 4,


are 2404.0267, 1032.9668 1142.8563 respectively.

Total moles out:


= 33.8192+ 2404.0267+ 1032.9668 + 1142.8563
= 4613.669

Mole fractions of each component in the output are:


A = 0.00730
= 0.52107
C = 0.22391
D = 0.24771

From the material balance as shown above, it can be said that the amount of Potassium
Hydroxide, KOH, is a lot. Thus, it can be recycled back into the system to save cost on fresh
supply of KOH. Also, the desired product, Potassium Stearate, with 70% conversion rate is
1142.8563 moles in the output. From here, the total mass of shower cream that can be made
is:

= 1142.8563 322.5676

= 368648.4138 368.4841
(1142.8563 moles) x (322.5676 g/mol) = 368648.4138 g or 368.4841 kg of shower cream.
iv. Chemical Engineering Design (sizing) and Heuristics
Sizing of the Equipment based on Heuristics
1. Pump
From Table 11.5
Rule 1: electric motor (85-95%)
-Selected 90% - dr
-Shaft power 70 kW
Rule 6:

Drive Power =
70
Drive Power = 0.9 = 77.78 kW

Theoretical electric power: 77.78 kW



Efficiency of pump, sh =

77.78
Efficiency of pump, sh = = 1.11
70

Overall efficiency = (1.11) (0.9) = 0.999

2. Heat Exchanger
Rule 1: Set F = 0.9
Rule 6: minimum temperature = 10C
Rule 8: 280 W

A =

Q = noutHout - ninHin
Reference state: (KOH, C57H110O6, C3H8O3, C18H35KO2, 1 atm, 80C)
Component nin Hin nout Hout
KOH 0.7507 - 0.77310 H1
C57H110O6 0.2403 - 0.06194 H2
C3H8O3 - - 0.01314 H3
C18H35KO2 - - 0.15180 H4

15 15
H1 = 80 : 80 65.87 = 4281.55
15
H2 = 80 1969.4 = 128011
15
H3 = 80 150 = 9750
15
H4 = 80 2496 = 162240
Q = (0.77310 4281.55) + (0.06194 128011) + (0.01314 9750) +
(0.15180 162240)
Q = 35995.215 Watt

3. Separator
Flowrate liquid: 377.3 kg/h Flowrate vapour: 10622.7 kg/h
l = 1690 kg/m3 v = 1650 kg/m3
Rule 9:
u = kl/v 1m/s

u = 0.03051690/1650 1m/s
u= 0.00475 m/s
75% UACT = 3.562510-3 m/s
Mass of vapour flowrate = u vD2/4
10622.7
= = 2.95075 kg/s
3600

2.95075 kg/s = (3.562510-3 m/s) (1650 kg/m3) ( D2/4)


D = 0.639 m
(5)(377.3)
Volume of 5 mins liquid flow = (1690)(60) = 0.0186 m3

Rule 5: 5 mins flow


= 0.5LD2/4
= 0.5(0.0186) L/4
= 0.0001359 m3/L
Rule 4: L/D = (2.5 to 5)
0.0186 m3 = 0.0001359 m3/L L = 136.91 m

4. Filters
Rule 1: Pressure vessels inside which are fitted a number of filter cartridges. Almost
without exception the flow is from the outside inwards. Cartridges are available in
cleanable or (much more common) disposable form. A very wide variety of materials,
textures, pore size and physical sizes are available.
Rule 2: Cartridge filter is used to filter the solid leaf to obtain liquid product in mesh form.
Rule 6: Cake buildup is negligible clarification is accomplish with cartridges, pre-coat
drums, or sand filters.
Rule 8: For finely ground ores and minerals, rotary drum filtration rates may be 1500
lb/(day)(sqft) at 20 rev/min and 18-25 in Hg vacuum.

5. Storage tank
Volume of glycerol, retinol and stearin is 54 L (range 55-60L):
0.264172
54 = 14.27
1
The type of storage tank for glycerol, retinol and stearin is vertical tanks on legs

Volume of ascorbic acid:


0.264172
18140 = 4792.1
1
The type of storage tank for ascorbic acid is horizontal tank on concrete support.

Total volume of the product:


Total volume of soap product is = 45 350 L for 8hours/day.
0.264172
45 350 = 11 980.2
1
The storage tank for soap storage is vertical tanks on concrete pads.

6. Assumptions of batch reactor:


a) Steady state condition
b) Isothermal reaction
c) Adiabatic reaction
d) Based on heuristics rule 6, batch reactions are conducted in stirred tanks for small
daily production rates or when the reaction times are long or when some condition
such as feed rate or temperature must be programmed in some way.
e) First-order reaction because potassium hydroxide solution is excess. Therefore, the
rate of reaction is written below:
=
Table 1 Data for plotting K value

time ln(1/1-x)
0 0
6.67 0.1054
13.34 0.2231
20 0.3567
26.68 0.5108
33.35 0.6931
40.02 0.9163
46.69 1.204
53.36 1.6094
60 2.3026

Figure 1 K value graph plotted

Volume of reactor:

=


=

1119.94
0.7
=
336.5192 60
0.0281
3
= 13.773

Diameter:
d2 h
=
4
(4)13.773
=
(7)
= 1.5826

Heuristics (range 2.5 to 5):


L 7
= 1.5826
D

= 4.4231

Area of the reactor:


Cylinder = 2
= 2 (0.7913)(7)
= 34.80 2

d) Recycle Structure

The production is based on per hour (mol/hr)


The feedstock recycled are the water used to wash the leaves, methanol used to extract the
hibiscus rosa sinensis and lye used in removing the excess glycerine.

Inlet

Assumptions:
1) Recycle ratio = 0.7
2) Recycle composition, A3 = 0.1, B3 = 0.9
3) Assume that KOH is negligible because it was fed in access and continuously in access
in the process. KOH outlet flow are also being recycled back.

=


= 0.7
4668.611
= 3268.0277
Mol flowrate entering the reactor per hour:
= 4668.611 mol/hr + 3268.0277 mol/hr
= 7936.6387 mol/hr

Balance on A at junction of feed and recycle


0.2403(4668.611) + 0.1(3268.0277) = A (7936.6387)
A = 0.1825
B = 1 - 0.1825 = 0.8175

A = 0.1825(7936.6387) = 1448.4365
= 0.8175(7936.6387) = 6488.2017

Conversion of reactor is 70%,


1448.4365 4
0.7 =
1448.4365
= 434.531 mol A/hr at exit

By applying atomic species balance,


57 57 3
Carbon: (1448.4365 mol) ( 1 ) = (434.531 mol) ( 1 ) + (4) (1 ) +
54
(4) ( )
1

34 + 544 = 57792.6135

6 3
Oxygen: (1448.4365 mol) (1 ) + (6488.2017 mol) (1 ) =
6 3 3 6
(434.531 mol) ( ) + (4) (1 ) + (4) (1 ) + (4) (1 )
1

3B4 + 3C4 + 6D4 = 25548.0381

110 3
Hydrogen: (1448.4365 mol) ( ) + (6488.2017 mol) (1 ) =
1
110 3 3 105
(434.531 mol) ( ) + (4) (1 ) + (4) (1 ) + (4) ( )
1 1

3B4 + 3C4 + 105D4 = 130994.2101


3 3 3
Potassium: (6488.2017 mol) (1 ) = (4) (1 ) + (4) (1 )

3B4 + 3D4 = 19464.6051

Thus, the equations are


1. 3C4 + 54D4 = 57792.6135
2. 34 + 34 + 64 = 25548.03
3. 34 + 34 + 1054 = 130994.2101
4. 34 + 34 = 19464.6051

By solving the equations simultaneously, it was determined that the values of


4, 4 4 are 5423.0889, 92.1741 1065.1128 / respectively.

Total mol flowrate out of reactor:


= 434.531 + 5423.0889 + 92.1741 + 1065.1128
= 7014.9068 mol/hr

Mole fractions of each component in the output are:


Stearin (A4) = 0.06194
KOH (B4) = 0.7731
Glycerol (C4) = 0.01314
Potassium Stearate (D4) = 0.1518

e) Downstream Processing
Balance at separator
Overall balance at separator,
Product = Recycle + Final product
Final product = Product - Recycle
Final product = 7014.9068 mol/hr - 3268.0277 mol/hr = 3746.8791 mol/hr

Balance of A
7014.9068(0.06194) = 3268.0277(0.1) + 3746.8791(A)
A = 0.02874
Balance of B
7014.9068(0.7731) = 3268.0277(0.9) + 3746.8791(B)
B = 0.6624

Balance of C
7014.9068(0.01314) = 3746.8791(C)
C = 0.0246

Balance of D
7014.9068(0.1518) = 3746.8791(D)
D = 0.2842

Mol flowrate of final product:


A = 3746.8791(0.02874) = 107.6853 mol/hr
B = 3746.8791(0.6624) = 2481.9327 mol/hr
C = 3746.8791(0.0246) = 92.1723 mol/hr
D = 3746.8791(0.2842) = 1064.8630 mol/hr

Thus, it is proven that with recycle stream added, the amount of desired product increases
significantly compared to the system without recycle stream. The amount of increase is by

1064.8630 [0.2086(3954.7857)]
(%) = 100%
1064.8630
= 22.53%

e) Capital Cost Estimation

Generally, capital cost estimating has five classifications:


1. Order of magnitude Estimate also known as Ratio or Feasibility
2. Study Estimate, also known as Major equipment or Factored
3. Preliminary Design Estimate, also known as Scope
4. Definitive Estimate, also known as Project Control
5. Detailed Estimate, also known as Firm or Contractors
This five classifications roughly correspond to the five classes of estimate defined in the
AACE Recommended Practice No. 17R-97[4]. This part will discuss on Preliminary
Design Estimate which is Class 3. For the cost estimation of a chemical plant, a Class 3
estimate is typically +10% to -40% accurate. This means by doing such an estimate, the
true cost of building the plant would likely be in the range of 0.1 higher than and 0.4 lower
than the estimated price.
If greater accuracy is required in the capital cost estimate, then more money and time must
be expended in conducting the estimate.

i. Estimation Of Purchased Equipment Costs

The purchased cost and an attribute of the equipment are the most common simple
relationship related to units of capacity and it is given by

= ( )

Where: A = Equipment cost attribute
C = Purchased cost
N = Cost exponent
Subscripts: a refers to equipment with the required attribute
b refers to equipment with the base attribute

ii. Effect of Time on Purchased Equipment Cost


The cost of equipments are depend on past records or published correlations for price
information, it is essential to be able to update these costs to take into account changing
economic conditions(inflation). This can be achieved by using the following expression:

C2 = C1(2 )
1

Where: C= Purchased cost


I =Cost Index
Subscripts: 1 refers to base time when cost is known
2 refers to time when cost is desired
iii. Calculation for Cost of Equipments
log10 Cp0= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2
The value of K1, K2, and K3 can be obtained from Table A.1 and A is the capacity of the
equipment.

FBM= B1 + B2FMFP
B1 and B2 can be obtained from Table A.4
FM can be obtained by referring the Table A.3 for the identification number for the material
and then refer the material factor at Figure A.8

FP can be obtained by two methods which are


1. For process vessel,
(+1)
+ 0.00315
FP,vessel = 2[8500.6(+1)]
0.0063
2. For other equipment
Log10 FP = C1 + C2log10P + C3(log10P)2
Value of C1, C2, and C3 can be obtained from the Table A.2 and P is the unit pressure of
bar gauge or barg.

CBM = CPoFBM

Sample of Calculations
Calculations for heat exchanger :
Step 1 (Characteristics)
E1 A = 14.28 Double Pipe CS-shell / CS-tube
E2 A = 14.28 Double Pipe CS-shell / CS-tube
E10 A = 14.28 Double Pipe CS-shell / CS-tube
E11 A = 14.28 Double Pipe CS-shell / CS-tube

Step 2 (Find K from Table A.1)


i) For E1, E2, E10, E11
K1 = 3.3444
K2 = 0.2745
K3 = -0.0472
Step 3 (Find CPo)
log10 Cpo= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2

i) CPo for E1 = $ 3966.43


ii) CPo for E2 = $ 3966.43
iii) CPo for E10 = $ 3966.43
iv) CPo for E11 = $ 3966.43

Step 4 (Find FM at table A.3)


i) All Heat Exchanger are CS-shell / CS-tube
Identification number = 1
Material factor, FM = 1

Step 5 (Find B1 and B2 at table A.4)


i) For E1, E2, E10, E11
B1 = 1.74
B2 = 1.55

Step 6 (Find C at table A.2)


i) For E1, E2, E10, E11
C1 = 0
C2 = 0
C3 = 0

Step 7 (Find FP)


log10 FP = C1 + C2log10P + C3(log10P)2

i) FP for E1 = 1
ii) FP for E2 = 1
iii) FP for E10 = 1
i) FP for E11 = 1

Step 8 (Find CBM for 2011)


CBM = CPo(B1 + B2FMFP)

i) CBM for E1 = $ 13049.56


ii) CBM for E2 = $ 13049.56
iii) CBM for E10 = $ 13049.56
iv) CBM for E11 = $ 13049.56

Step 9 (Find CBM for 2014)



C2014 = C2011(2014 )
2011

i) CBM for E1 = $ 14240.16


ii) CBM for E2 = $ 14240.16
iii) CBM for E10 = $ 14240.16
iv) CBM for E11 = $ 14240.16

Calculations for pump :


Step 1 (Characteristics)
P1 A = 70 Centrifugal Carbon Steel
P2 A = 70 Centrifugal Carbon Steel

Step 2 (Find K from Table A.1)


i) For P1 and P2
K1 = 3.3892
K2 = 0.0536
K3 = 0.1538

Step 3 (Find CPo)


log10 Cpo= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2

i) CPo for P1 = $10 272.76


ii) CPo for P2 = $10 272.76

Step 4 (Find FM at table A.3)


i) All pumps are Carbon Steel
Identification number = 38
Material factor, FM = 1.60

Step 5 (Find B1 and B2 at table A.4)


i) For P1 and P2
B1 = 1.89
B2 = 1.35

Step 6 (Find C at table A.2)


i) For P1 and P2
C1 = 0
C2 = 0
C3 = 0

Step 7 (Find FP)


log10 FP = C1 + C2log10P + C3(log10P)2

i) FP for P1 and P2 = 1

Step 8 (Find CBM for 2011)


CBM = CPo(B1 + B2FMFP)

i) CBM for P1 = $41 604.68


ii) CBM for P2 = $41 604.68

Step 9 (Find CBM for 2014)



C2014 = C2011(2014 )
2011

i) CBM for P1 = $67 096.48


ii) CBM for P2 = $67 096.48

Calculations for filter :


Step 1 (Characteristics)
F1 A = 200
F2 A = 200
F3 A = 200
F4 A = 200

Step 2 (Find K from Table A.1)


i) For F1, F2, F3 and F4
K1 = 3.2107
K2 = 0.7597
K3 = 0.0027

Step 3 (Find CPo)


log10 Cpo= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2

i) CPo for F1 = $12 821.39


ii) CPo for F2 = $12 821.39
iii) CPo for F3 = $12 821.39
iv) CPo for F4 = $12 821.39

Step 4 (Find FBM at table A.7)


i) All filter are Cartridges
Material factor, FBM = 1.65

Step 5 (Find CBM for 2011)


CBM = CPo(FBM)

iii) CBM for F1 = $21 155.29


iv) CBM for F2 = $21 155.29
v) CBM for F3 = $21 155.29
vi) CBM for F4 = $21 155.29

Step 6 (Find CBM for 2014)



C2014 = C2011(2014 )
2011
v) CBM for F1 = $24 172.28
vi) CBM for F2 = $24 172.28
vii) CBM for F3 = $24 172.28
viii) CBM for F4 = $24 172.28

Calculations for vessel :


Step 1 (Characteristics)
i) For V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, V10 and V11
A = 0.2232

Step 2 (Find K from Table A.1)


i) For V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7,V8, V9, V10 and V11
K1 = 3.4974
K2 = 0.4485
K3 = 0.1074

Step 3 (Find CPo)


log10 Cpo= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2

i) CPo for V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8,V9, V10 and V11
CPo = $ 1 781.76

Step 4 (Find FM at table A.3)


i) Vessels are vertical and Carbon Steel
Identification number = 18
Material factor, FM = 1

Step 5 (Find B1 and B2 at table A.4)


i) For V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, V10 and V11
B1 = 2.25
B2 = 1.82

Step 6 (Find FP)


(+1)
+ 0.00315
FP,vessel = 2[8500.6(+1)]
0.0063
i) FP for V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, V10 and V11
FP = 0.619

Step 7 (Find CBM for 2011)


CBM = CPo(B1 + B2FMFP)
CBM = (1781.76)(2.25 + ((1.82)(1)(0.619)))

i) CBM for V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9,V10 and V11
CBM = $ 6 016.26

Step 8 (Find CBM for 2014)



C2014 = C2011(2014 )
2011

i) CBM for V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9,V10 and V11
CBM = $ 6 565.17

Calculations for reactor :


Step 1 (Characteristics)
R1 A = 13.77

Step 2 (Find K from Table A.1)


i) For R1
K1 = 4.7116
K2 = 0.4479
K3 = 0.0004

Step 3 (Find CPo)


log10 Cpo= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2

i) CPo for R1 = $ 166 801.52

Step 4 (Find FBM at table A.7)


i) Reactor is mixer
Material factor, FBM = 4

Step 5 (Find CBM for 2011)


CBM = CPo(FBM)

ii) CBM for R1 = $ 667 206.08

Step 6 (Find CBM for 2014)



C2014 = C2011(2014 )
2011

ii) CBM for R1 = $ 762 357.46

CTM = 1.18 CBM


i=1

= 1.18 x (RM 1 122 417.05)


= RM 1 324 452.12

n
o
CGR = CTM + 0.50 CBM
i=1

= RM 6702299.12
Equipment
No. Actual bare module cost, CBM ($)
identification
E1 13 049.56
E2 13 049.56
Heat Exchanger
E10 13 049.56
E11 13 049.56
P1 41 604.68
Pump
P2 41 604.68
F1 21 155.29
F2 21 155.29
Filter
F3 21 155.29
F4 21 155.29

V1 6 016.26

V2 6 016.26

V3 6 016.26
V4 6 016.26
V5 6 016.26
Vessel
V6 6 016.26
V7 6 016.26
V8 6 016.26
V9 6 016.26
V10 6 016.26
V11 6 016.26
Reactor R1 667 206.08
Total bare module cost, CBM2011
953 413.70
($)
Total bare module cost, CBM2014
1 122 417.05
($)
Table: Estimation of fixed and total capital investment cost

Range Cost (RM)


Direct cost
Onsite
Purchased equipment cost 12% GRC 804 275.89
Instrumentation and control 6% GRC 402 137.95
Piping (installed) 15% GRC 1 005 344.87
Electrical and material (installed) 3% GRC 201 068.97
Offsite
Building 8% GRC 536 183.93
Yard improvements 1% GRC 67 022.99
Service facilities 5% GRC 335 114.96
Land 2% GRC 134 045.98
Indirect cost
Engineering and supervision 3% GRC 201 068.97
Construction expenses 6% GRC 402 137.95
Contractors fee 1% GRC 67 022.99
Contingency 8% GRC 536 183.93
Fixed Capital Investment (FCI) TOTAL + GRC 11.38 x 106

f) Manufacturing Cost Estimation

Factors affecting the cost of manufacturing (COM), for a chemical Product


Factor Description of Factor
1.Direct cost Factors that vary with the rate of production
A. Raw materials Costs of chemical feed stocks required by the process.
Flowrates obtained from the PFD

B. Waste treatment Cost of waste treatment to protect environment

C. Utilities Costs of utility streams required by process. Includes but


not limited to:
a. Fuel gas
b. Electric power
c. Steam(all pressures)
d. Cooling water
e. Process water
f. Boiler feed water
g. Instrument air
h. Inert gas (nitrogen) etc.
i. Refrigeration

D. Operating labor Costs of personnel required for plant operations

E. Direct supervisor Cost of administrative/ engineering and support personnel


and clerical labor

F. Maintenance and Costs of labor and materials associated with the


repairs maintenance

G. Operating supplies Costs of miscellaneous supplies that support daily


operation not considered to be raw materials. Examples
include chart paper, lubricants, miscellaneous chemicals,
filters, respirators and protective clothing for operators,
etc.

H. Laboratory charges Costs of routine and special laboratory tests required for
product quality control and troubleshooting.

I. Patents and royalties Costs of using patented or licensed technology.


2. Fixed costs Factors not affected by the level of production
A. Depreciation Costs associated with the physical plant (buildings,
equipment, etc.). Legal operating expense for tax
purposes.
B. Local taxes and Costs associated with property taxes and liability
Insurance insurance. Based on plant location and severity of the
process.

C. Plant overhead Catch-all costs associated with operations of auxiliary


costs (sometimes facilities supporting the manufacturing process. Costs
referred to as factory involve payroll and accounting services, fire protection
expenses) and safety services, medical services, cafeteria and any
recreation facilities, payroll overhead and employee
benefits, general engineering, etc.
3. General expenses Costs associated with management level and
administrative activities not directly related to the
A. Administration manufacturing process
costs Costs for administration. Includes salaries, other
administration, buildings, and other related activities.

B. Distribution and Costs of sales and marketing required to sell chemical


selling costs products. Includes salaries and other miscelleaneous costs.

C. Research and Costs of research activities activities related to the process


development and product. Includes salaries and funds for research
related equipment and supplies, etc.

Costs of Manufactures (COM) = Direct Manufacturing Costs (DMC) +


Fixed Manufacturing Costs (FMC) + General Expenses (GE)

The cost of manufacturing, COM, can be determined when the following costs are known
or can be estimated:
1. Fixed capital investment (FCI) : (CTM or CGR)
2. Cost of operating labor (COL)
3. Cost of utilities (CUT)
4. Cost of waste treatment (CWT)
5. Cost of raw materials (CRM)
The table above gives data that are needed to calculate to estimate the individual cost items
that are identified above. With the exception of the cost of raw materials, waste treatment,
utilities, and operating labor all the data need to be calculate by using certain equations. If
no other information is available, the midpoint values for each of these ranges is used to
estimate the costs involved. Hence, all the summation of the datas for the calculation of
manufacturing cost can be simplified into these equations:

DMC = CRM+ CWT + CUT + 1.33COL + 0.069FCI + 0.03COM


FMC = 0.708COL + 0.069FCI + depreciation
GE = 0.177COL + 0.009FCI + 0.16COM

We can obtain the total manufacturing cost by adding these three categories together and
solving for the COM and the result is:
COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)

The cost of manufacture without depreciation:


COMd = 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)

i.Cost of operating labor, COL

The technique used to calculate operating labor requirements is based on data obtained
from five chemical companies and correlated by Alkayat and Gerrard. According to this
method, the equation for the operating labor requirement for a chemical processing plant is
given by:
NOL= (6.29 + 3.17P2 + 0.23Nnp)0.5

Where NOL is the number of operators per shift, P is the number of processing step
involving the handling of particulate solids, and Nnp is the number of nonparticulate
processing steps handling steps includes compression, heating and cooling, mixing, and
reaction.
Nnp =

Equipment Quantity Nnp


Compressor 0 -
Tower 0 -
Reactor 1 1
Heater 0 -
Heat Exchanger 4 4
Vessel 8 -
Pump 2 -
Filter 4 -
Total 19 5

Hence, when Nnp is equal to 5, the number of operating labor requirement is

NOL = [6.29 + 3.172 + 0.23(5)]0.5


NOL = 2.73

The value of NOL is the number of operators required to run the process unit per shift. A
single operator works on the average 49 weeks (3 weeks time off for vacation and sick
leave) a year, five 8-hour shift a week.

= 49 week/yr 5 shift/week
= 245 shifts per operator/year

A chemical plant operates 8 hours per day. This requires (365 days/year 1 shift/day) 365
operating shifts per year. The number of operators needed to provide this number of shifts
is

= 365 shift/year 245 shifts per operator/year


= 1.49 operators
Hence,
the operating labor = NOL 1.49 operators
=2.73 1.5
= 4.1 4

The cost of operating labor, COL is equal to the salary given to each of operator yearly which
in this case the yearly salary given is RM14 400

COL = ( 1200 12) 4 = RM 57 600.00

ii.Cost Of Utilities

Utility Description Cost Quantity Cost


(RM/GJ) RM/year
Steam Process heating: 20.00 3 22 075.20
25oC to 80oC

Cooling Process cooling 1.17 1 438.00


water water: 80oC to
15oC
36 000.00
Other water High purity
water for
process use at
20oC 120 000.00
Electricity

Total per 178 513.20


year
iii.Raw Material Costs
The cost of raw materials can be estimated by using the current price listed in AliBaba
website.

Chemical Cost (RM/kg) Typical Shipping


Capacity or Basis for
Price
Stearin 2.20 F.O.B. Gulf Coast-Spot
Price
KOH 4.62

Hibiscus 2.50 Railroad tank car

Yearly cost for raw materials = (Mass of raw materials per kg) x (cost, RM/kg)
Yearly cost for stearin = (2.92 x 106 kg/year) x (RM 2.20) = RM 6.42 x 106
Yearly cost for KOH = (581080 kg/year) x (RM 4.62) = RM 2.68 x 106
Yearly cost for Hibiscus = (7.05 x 106 kg/year) x (RM 2.50) = RM 17.62 x 106
Total cost for raw materials, CRM = RM 6.42 x 106 + RM 2.68 x 106 + RM 17.62 x 106
= RM 26.72 x 106

Yearly Cost and Stream Factor


Manufacturing and associated costs are most often reported in terms of RM/yr. The
fraction of time that the plant is operating in a year must be known in order to calculate
the yearly costs of raw materials or utilities. This fraction is known as the Stream
Factor(SF), where :

Stream Factor (SF) = 365
365
= 365 = 1.00

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)


= 0.280(11.39 x 106) + 2.73(57 600.00) + 1.23(26.72 x 106 .00 + 0.00 + 178 513.20)
= RM 36 431 619.24

COMd = 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)


= 0.180(11.39 x 106) + 2.73(57 600.00) +1.23(26.72 x 106.00 + 0 + 178 513.20)
= RM 35 292 619.24

Total Direct Manufacturing Cost

=CRM + CWT + CUT + 1.33COL + 0.03COM + 0.069FCI


=RM (26.72 X 106.00 + 0.00 + 178 513.20 + 1.33(57 600) + 0.03(33 613 265.83) +
0.069(11.39 x 106)
=RM 28 835 979.78

Fixed Manufacturing Cost

=0.708COL + 0.068FCI + depreciation


=RM [0.708(57 600.00) + 0.068(11.39 x 106)]
=RM 815 300.80

General Expenses
=0.177COL + 0.009FCI + 0.16COM
=RM [0.177(57 600.00) + 0.009(11.39 x 106) + 0.16(33 613 265.83)]
=RM 5 400 237.80

Total Cost
=CRM + CWT + CUT + 2.215COL + 0.0190COM + 0.146FCI + depreciation
=RM [26.72 x 106.00 + 0.00 + 178 513.20 + 2.215(57 600.00) + 0.0190(33 613 265.00) +
0.146(11.39 x 106)]
=RM 35 611 044.86

Profitability analysis

Non-discounted cash flow


Working capital = labor cost + utility cost + raw material cost + waste treatment
Working capital = RM 57 600 + RM 178 513.20 + RM 26.72 x 106.00 + RM 0
= RM 26 956 113.20
Assumptions:

Land cost, L = $10 million


Total Fixed Capital Investment, FCIL = RM 11.39 million
Fixed Capital Investment during year 1 = RM 7.60 million
Fixed Capital Investment during year 2 = RM 3.79 million
Plant start-up at year 2
Working capital = RM 26.96 million at end of year 2

Yearly sales revenue, R = RM 331 million / year


Cost of manufacture without depreciation, COMd = RM 33.48 million/ year
Taxation rate = 20% = 0.02
Plant salvage value, S = RM 1 million
Depreciation by 5 year MACRS
Plant life = 10 years.
All of the calculation is done in million (RM)
E INVESTM R ( CAS CUM
N ENT (R (RM) (RM H ULAT
D (RM) M (RM) ) ) FLO IVE
O ) ( W CASH
F . ) (RM FLO
Y + ) W
E (RM) (RM)
A
R
(
K
)
0 -10 - 11.39 -10 -10
1 -7.60 - 11.39 -7.60 -17.6
(-3.79+ (-
-
2 26.96)) - 11.39 -48.35
30.75
= -30.75
2. 238.3
3 9.11 331 33.48 238.37 190.02
28 7
3. 238.6
4 5.47 331 33.48 238.64 428.66
64 4
3. 238.5
5 2.19 331 33.48 238.57 667.23
28 7
1. 238.2
6 0.44 331 33.48 238.26 905.49
75 6
0. 238.0 1143.4
7 0 331 33.48 238.00
44 0 9
237.9 1381.4
8 0 331 33.48 237.91
1 0
237.9 1619.3
9 0 331 33.48 237.91
1 1
1 237.9 1857.2
0 331 33.48 237.91
0 1 2
1 237.9 2095.1
0 331 33.48 237.91
1 1 3
1 10 + 26.96 274.8 2370.0
0 331 33.48 274.87
2 = 36.96 7 0

Land + Working Capital = 10 + 36.96 = 36.96


Payback period
Find the value of -36.96 in cumulative cash flow
2 (17.6 (36.96)
: = = 2.63
2 3 (17.6 (48.35)
PBP = 2.63 years
Cumulative cash Position
CCP= RM 2370.00
Cumulative cash ratio
= 50.02
Rate Of Return On Incremental
= 0.0021 %

Discounted cash flow


NON DISCOUNTED CUMULATIVE
END OF YEAR DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW DISCOUNTED
CASH FLOW (RM) CASH FLOW
(RM) (RM)
0 -10 -10 -10
1 -7.60 -7.60/1.1 = -7.6 -17.6
2 -30.75/1.12 = -
-30.75 -43.01
25.41
3 238.37/1.13 =
238.37 136.08
179.09
4 238.64/1.14 =
238.64 299.07
162.99
5 238.57/1.15 =
238.57 447.20
148.13
6 238.26/ 1.16 =
238.26 581.69
134.49
7 238.00/1.17 =
238.00 703.82
122.13
8 237.91/1.18 =
237.91 814.81
110.99
9 237.91/1.19 =
237.91 915.71
100.90
10 237.91/1.110 =
237.91 1007.43
91.72
11 237.91/1.111 =
237.91 1090.81
83.38
12 274.87/1.112 =
274.87 1178.39
87.58

Discount rate: 10 % p.a


Discounted payback period
Discounted value of land + working capital
= 32.28 106
= 2.42 years
Net present value
NPV = RM 1178.39 million
Present value ratio
PVR = 28.24

Cumulative Cash Flow Diagram For Discounted


1300

1100
Cumulative Discounted Cash Flow

900

700

500

300

100

-100 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

-300

-500
Time (years)