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Animal Nutrition

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1. Nutrition The taking in of nutrients which are organic 9. Defaecation When some excretory materials are added to
substances and mineral ions, then absorbing egested substances and expelled from the body
and assimilating them. as faeces.
2. Alimentary 10. Mouth Where food enters the alimentary canal.
Canal 11. Mastication Food is cut up by the teeth, and the peices are
mixed with saliva by the tongue. This cutting
and mixing produces a ball of food called a
bolus.
12. Salivary Three pairs, produce saliva and pour it into the
Glands mouth through salivary ducts.
13. Epiglottis

A specialized tube running from the mouth to the


anus.
3. Ingestion

Flap of muscle which closes the entry to the


trachea during swallowing.
14. Oesophagus Muscular tube which helps food move to the
stomach by peristalsis.
15. Peristalsis

When food and drink are taken into the body


through the mouth.
4. Mechanical The teeth and tongue break the food into small
Digestion pieces.
5. Chemical Enzymes break down the food to small, water- Waves of muscular contraction pushing the
Digestion soluble molecules. bolus down towards the stomach occurring
along the length of the gut.
6. Absorption

When digested food molecules cross the gut wall


into the bloodstream or lymph.
7. Assimilation Moving the digested food molecules into the
cells for energy, growth, and repair.
8. Egestion When dietary fiber and other indigestible
substances pass out through the anus.
16. Stomach 22. Ileum

Longest part of the small intestine, where


digested food is absorbed into the blood and
lymphatic system.

Muscular bag which stores food for a short time, 23. Colon Part of the large intestine which reabsorbs water
from gut contents, and also absorbs some
and mixes food with acidic digestive juices to
form the creamy liquid chyme. vitamins and minerals.

17. Liver 24. Rectum Stores faeces before expelling them at a


convenient time.
25. Anus Exit for faeces, defaecation is controlled by two
anal .
26. Enamel

Produces bile, which helps to neutralise acidic


chyme and also emulsifies fat. Important in The hardest tissue in the body. Produced by
assimilation. tooth forming cells and calcium salts. Once
formed, enamel cannot be renewed or extended.
18. Pancreas
27. Dentine Forms the major part of the tooth. Harder than
bone and calcium salts deposited on a
framework of collagen fibres. The dentine
contains a series of fine canals which extend to
the pulp cavity.
28. Pulp Cavity Contains tooth producing cells, blood vessels,
and nerve endings which can detect pain.
29. Cement Similar to composition to dentine, but without any
canals. It helps anchor the tooth to the jaw.
Produces pancreatic juice (contains enzymes, 30. Periodontal Bundles of collagen fibres, anchoring the cement
mucus, and hydrogencarbonate which neutralises Membrane covering the tooth to the jawbone. The tooth is
acidic chyme) which is poured into the small held firmly but not rigidly. The periodontal
intestine through the pancreatic duct. membrane haws many nerve endings which
19. Pancreatic Contains enzymes, mucus, and detect pressures during chewing and biting.
Juice hydrogencarbonate which neutralises acidic 31. Gum Usually covers the junction between enamel and
chyme. cement. The gums recede with age.
20. Gall Stores bile before pouring it into the duodenum 32. Vitamin C Impairs production of collagen fibres, including
Bladder through the bile duct. Deficiency those in the periodontal membrane, so that the
21. Duodenum The first part of the small intestine, where semi- tooth become loose and may fall out. A classic
liquid food is mixed with pancreatic juice and bile. symptom of scurvy.
33. Incisors 45. Pepsin Secreted by the stomach digestive glands, is a
protease or protein digesting enzyme.
Produces peptide by hydrolysis.
46. Hydrochloric Provides the acidic conditions needed for the
acid action of pepsin.
47. Chyme

For cutting and biting


34. Canine For holding and cutting
35. Premolars For chewing and crushing
The churning action of the stomach muscles
36. Molars For chewing and crushing mixes the food into a creamy liquid called
37. Plaque Produced by bacteria, it's a sticky matrix chyme. Contains partly digested food
which traps food particles and forms a molecules. Once the food is sufficiently liquid, it
coating on the teeth. squeezes past the pyloric sphincter and enters
the duodenum.
38. Dental decay The bacteria in the plaque convert
sugars into acids, removing calcium and 48. Enzymes Amylase converts starch to maltose. Protease
phosphate from the enamel, allowing from the breaks down peptides to amino acids. Lipase
bacteria to enter the dentine. The pancreas converts fats to fatty acids and glycerol.
dentine decays rapidly and the pulp 49. Bile Made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder
cavity may be infected. from where it is released when needed. Bile
39. Prevention of Eating food with a low sugar content. emulsifies the fats, converting them to small
dental decay Regular brushing of teeth. droplets providing a larger surface area for
lipase to work on.
40. Digestion
50. Enzymes Maltose breaks down maltose to glucose..
from the
intestine
walls
51. Water The solvent for the biochemical reactions of
digestion and is also used in the hydrolysis
reactions that split up the large insoluble food
molecules.
52. Ileum Adapted for absorption. It is very long (6m) so
adaptions food takes a long time to pass through it, and
there is enough time for absorption to occur.
The surface of the ileum is highly folded, giving
The breakdown of large insoluble food a larger surface area for absorption.
molecules into small water soluble
53. Villi
molecules.
41. Hydrolosis Breakdown of food molecules in the
presence of water, catalysed by a series
of enzymes.
42. Salivary Amylase In the saliva, catalyses the conversion of
the insoluble polysaccharide starch to
the soluble simpler sugar maltose.
43. Mucus Contained in the saliva, lubricates the Projections on the lining of the ileum which
food and protects the walls of the project out into the liquid digested food. Used
stomach by gastric stomach juices. for absorption.
44. HydrogenCarbonate Provides the ideal conditions for pH
(Alkaline(8)) for amylase to work. It
neutralises the acid coming through from
the stomach.
54. Microvilli

Each villus has tiny foldings which increase cell surface area.
55. Epithelium Only one cell thick so that there is a short distance for absorption by active transport and diffusion.
56. Goblet Produces mucus which protects gut lining against digestion by body's own enzyme.
Cell
57. Capillary Transports glucose (from carbohydrate breakdown) and amino acids ( from protein breakdown).
58. Lacteal Transports fatty acids and glycerol
59. Gland Lined with cells which produce digestive enzymes including maltase.
60. Vein Delivers absorbed products to the liver via the hepatic portal vein.
61. Artery Delivers blood to villi.
62. Hepatic Delivers blood from the intestine to the liver. This blood contains variable and potentially dangerously high concentrations
Portal of food molecules.
Vien
63. Hepatic Returns blood to general circulation. This blood contains a constant and ideal concentration of food molecules such as
Vein glucose and amino acids.
64. Hepatic The liver reveives oxygenated blood through the hepatic artery, to provide energy for the biochemical reactions.
Artery
65. Functions Makes Bile. Storage of glucose as glycogen. Interconversion of glucose and glycogen. Interconversion of amino acids.
Of Liver Excretion of excess amino acids. Removal of old blood cells. Breakdown of alcohol and other toxins.