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EXPERIMENTAL

OPERATING

AND

MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

OPTIONAL
RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION UNIT

H112B
H112B_E_1_066
NOV 11
This page is intentionally blank.
B(i)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page B

Typical Installation ......................................................................................................1


H112 shown with H112B Radial Heat Conduction Unit and HC112A .......................................1

SCHEMATIC H112B ..................................................................................................3

DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................4

INSTALLATION ..............................................................................................................5
Temperature Sensors .......................................................................................................5
Heating Element .............................................................................................................5
Cooling Water Supply ......................................................................................................5
Cooling Water Drain .......................................................................................................5

OPERATING PROCEDURE .............................................................................................6

MAINTENANCE ..............................................................................................................7
Water Cooling Circuit......................................................................................................7

USEFUL DATA ................................................................................................................8


Heated Disc ...................................................................................................................8

CAPABILITIES OF THE RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION UNIT H112B WITH THE HEAT
TRANSFER SERVICE UNIT H112 ....................................................................................9
1. To measure the temperature distribution for steady state conduction of heat energy through
the wall of a thick cylinder (Radial energy flow) and demonstrate the effect of a change in heat flow
10
2. To understand the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow for steady
state conduction of heat energy through the wall of a thick cylinder (Radial energy flow) and using
the equation to determine the constant of proportionality (the thermal conductivity k) of the disc
material. .....................................................................................................................14
3. To observe unsteady state conduction of heat and to use this in observation of the time to
reach stable conditions ..................................................................................................20
B(ii)

SYMBOLS AND UNITS

Symbol Units
R Radius m
x Distance or thickness m
V Voltage to heating element V
I Current to heating element A
Q Power to heating element and heat transfer rate W
T Temperature measured C

k Thermal conductivity W/mK


t Elapsed time seconds

Subscripts
i Inside diameter
o Outside diameter
1,2,3,4.... Thermocouple positions
B1

Figure B1
Typical Installation

H112 shown with H112B Radial Heat Conduction Unit and HC112A
Data Acquisition Upgrade.
Note that the digital temperature indicator and selector switch shown, have been replaced by a
combined indicator and selector
B2

Figure B2

Cooling water Thermocouple plugs


inlet & outlet and connectors.

Heater Plug
B3

Figure B3
SCHEMATIC H112B

Cooling Water
Inlet
B4

DESCRIPTION

RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION UNIT H112B

The Radial Heat Conduction unit H112B allows the basic laws of heat transfer by conduction through a
cylindrical solid to be investigated. The H112B is dependant upon the Heat Transfer Service Unit H112
for heater power and temperature measurement.

The unit is mounted on a plastic base plate that must be placed on a surface, ideally to the left of the
Heat Transfer service Unit H112.

The heat transfer module comprises an insulated solid disc of brass (3.2mm thick x 110mm diameter)
with a brass core (14mm diameter) and an electric heater at the centre. The brass disc is water cooled
around its circumference.

The central heater is nominally rated at 100Watts (at 240 V AC) and an integral high temperature cut
out (with automatic reset) prevents overheating. Power is supplied to the heater from the Heat Transfer
Service Unit H112 via an 8-pole plug and lead.

Six thermocouples T1, T2, T3,...T6 are located at increasing radii from the heated centre to record the
temperature distribution across the disc. The thermocouple sensing tips are located in drilled holes so
that in each case the measured point is the centre of the disc thickness. Each thermocouple is fitted
with a miniature plug for direct connection to the Heat Transfer Service Unit H112 and an edge
connector for use with HC112A Data Acquisition Upgrade.

Water for the cooled circumference is supplied from a local tap via the supplied hoses.

The water flow rate is adjusted by manual control of the supply tap. After cooling the disc, the water is
allowed to run to a drain via the outlet hose.
B5

INSTALLATION

RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION UNIT H112B


WITH HEAT TRANSFER SERVICE MODULE H112
Refer to figure B1 on page B1, Figure B2 on page B2 and Figure B3 on page 3.

It is assumed that the basic INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING procedures for the Heat
Transfer Service Unit H112 have been completed as detailed in the manual on pages 4 to 6.

Ensure that the main switch is in the OFF position.

Place the Radial Heat Conduction unit H112B on a flat surface adjacent to the Heat transfer Service
Unit H112

Temperature Sensors
The six temperature sensors are type K thermocouples and each lead has a number label.

The miniature plugs on each thermocouple have one wide and one narrow flat blade that match the
slots on the thermocouple sockets. Connect the plugs to the corresponding numbered sockets on the
Heat transfer service Unit H112.

Heating Element
Connect the heater plug to the 8-pole socket on the front panel of the Heat Transfer Service Unit H112.

Cooling Water Supply


The Radial Heat Conduction H112B requires connection to a source of clean, cold water with a flow of
approximately 1.5 litres/minute. This should be fitted with an isolation valve so that when not in use
the supply can be turned off.

Connect to the cold-water inlet point using the PVC tubing supplied.

Cooling Water Drain


Connect the PVC tubing to the outlet nozzle. This should be led to a drain and the tube secured so that
it cannot fall out during use.
B6

OPERATING PROCEDURE

Heat Transfer Service Unit H112 with Radial Heat Conduction Unit H112B

1. Ensure that the main switch is in the off position (the digital displays should not be
illuminated). Ensure that the residual current circuit breaker on the rear panel is in the ON
position. Note that this should be tested for normal operation at intervals specified by
local regulations using the method described in the MAINTENANCE section.

2. Turn the voltage controller anti-clockwise to set the AC voltage to minimum. Ensure the
Radial Heat Transfer Unit H112B has been connected to the Heat Transfer Service Unit H112
as detailed in the INSTALLATION procedure on page B5.

3. Ensure the cold water supply and electrical supply are turned on at the source. Open the water
tap until the flow through the drain hose is approximately 1.5 litres/minute. The actual flow
can be checked using a measuring vessel and stopwatch if required but this is not a critical
parameter. The flow has to dissipate up to 100W only.

4. Turn on the main switch and the digital displays should illuminate. Set the temperature
selector switch to T1 to indicate the temperature of the heated centre of the disc. Rotate the
voltage controller to increase the voltage to that specified in the procedure for each
experiment.

5. Observe the temperature T1. This should begin to increase.

6. Allow the system to reach stability, and take readings and make adjustments as instructed in
the individual procedures for each experiment. If using the optional Computerised Data
Acquisition Upgrade HC112, additional instructions will be given in the HC112 manual.

7. When the experimental procedure is completed, it is good practice to turn off the power to the
heater by reducing the voltage to zero and allow the system a short time to cool before turning
off the cooling water supply.

8. Ensure that the locally supplied water supply isolation valve to the unit is closed. Turn off the
main switch and isolate the electrical supply.
B7

MAINTENANCE

Radial Heat Conduction Unit H112B

Water Cooling Circuit


The unit should be disconnected from the water supply when not in use. If the ambient storage
conditions are likely to be at or below 0C then the unit should be drained by disconnecting the supply
tube and allowing the water to drain through the outlet tube.
B8

USEFUL DATA

Radial Heat Conduction Unit H112B

Heated Disc
Material: Brass Outside diameter: 0.110 m

Diameter of heated brass core: 0.014 m

Thickness of disc: 0.0032 m

Radial position of thermocouples:


T1 = 0.007 m
T2 = 0.010 m
T3 = 0.020 m
T4 = 0.030 m
T5 = 0.040 m
T6 = 0.050 m

Thermal conductivity of brass disc (From supplier specification) 121 W/Mk


B9

CAPABILITIES OF THE RADIAL HEAT CONDUCTION UNIT H112B WITH THE HEAT
TRANSFER SERVICE UNIT H112

1. To measure the temperature distribution for steady state conduction of heat energy through the
wall of a thick cylinder (Radial energy flow) and demonstrate the effect of a change in heat
flow.

2. To understand the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow for steady
state conduction of heat energy through the wall of a thick cylinder (Radial energy flow) and
using the equation to determine the constant of proportionality (the thermal conductivity k) of
the disc material.

3. To observe unsteady state conduction of heat and to use this in observation of the time to
reach stable conditions.
B10

1. To measure the temperature distribution for steady state conduction of heat energy
through the wall of a thick cylinder (Radial energy flow) and demonstrate the effect of a
change in heat flow

It is assumed that the INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING procedures for the radial heat
conduction unit H112B have been completed as detailed on page B5.

PROCEDURE
Follow the basic OPERATING PROCEDURE on page B6

Again following the above procedure ensure the cooling water is flowing and then set the heater
voltage V to approximately 100 volts. If however the local cooling water supply is at a high
temperature (25-35 C or more) then it may be necessary to increase the voltage supplied to the heater.
This will increase the temperature difference between the hot centre and cool circumference of the disc.

Monitor temperatures T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 until stable.

When the temperatures are stabilised record:


T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I.

Increase the heater voltage by approximately 50 volts and repeat the above procedure again recording
the parameters T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I when temperatures have stabilised.

Increase the heater voltage by approximately 50 volts and again repeat the above procedure recording
the parameters T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I when temperatures have stabilised.

If time is available, the procedure may be repeated further noting that the maximum safe temperature
for T1 is 100C

When completed, if no further experiments are to be conducted reduce the heater voltage to zero and
shut down the system as detailed in the operation section on page B6.

The theory being demonstrated, sample observations and calculations are shown in the following
pages.
B11

THEORY

If the inner surface of a thick walled cylinder is at a temperature higher than its surroundings then heat
will flow radially outward.

If the cylinder is imagined as a series of concentric rings, each of the same material and each in close
contact, then it can be seen that each cylinder presents a progressively larger surface area for heat
transfer.

If the heat input at the centre remains constant then the heat transfer per unit area must reduce as the
heat moves towards the outside diameter. Therefore, the temperature gradient will decrease as the
radius increases.
B12

OBSERVATIONS
Sample test results

Sample
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 V I
No.
C C C C C C Volts Amps
1 37.1 33.1 26.8 24.4 21.1 20.3 106 0.185
2 56.3 48.6 36.5 30.5 25 22 149 0.261
3 76.3 64.6 46.4 37.1 28.8 24.1 185 0.324
4 93.8 78.7 56.2 42.5 31.8 25.9 211 0.372
Radius 0.007 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 --- ---

CALCULATED DATA

Sample 
Q
No.

-- W
1 19.56
2 38.93
3 59.85
4 78.48

For sample No.1 the example calculations are as follows:

Heat transfer rate from the heater

 = VI
Q
= 1060.185
= 19.56 Watts
The data is plotted graphically overleaf.

If lines are drawn between each temperature measurement point and a second line is drawn between T1
and T6 as shown on the example the change in temperature gradient as the radius increases may be
seen.

In addition as the heat input Q is increased the overall slope of the temperature gradients also increases.
B13
B14

2. To understand the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of heat flow for
steady state conduction of heat energy through the wall of a thick cylinder (Radial
energy flow) and using the equation to determine the constant of proportionality (the
thermal conductivity k) of the disc material.

It is assumed that the INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING procedures for the radial heat
conduction unit H112B have been completed as detailed on page B5.

PROCEDURE
Follow the basic OPERATING PROCEDURE on page B6

Again following the above procedure ensure the cooling water is flowing and then set the heater
voltage V to approximately 100 volts. If however the local cooling water supply is at a high
temperature (25-35 C or more) then it may be necessary to increase the voltage supplied to the heater.
This will increase the temperature difference between the hot centre and cool circumference of the disc.

Monitor temperatures T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 until stable.

When the temperatures are stabilised record:

T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I

Increase the heater voltage by approximately 50 volts and repeat the above procedure again recording
the parameters T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I when temperatures have stabilised.

Increase the heater voltage by approximately 50 volts and again repeat the above procedure recording
the parameters T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, V, I, when temperatures have stabilised.

If time is available, the procedure may be repeated further noting that the maximum safe temperature
for T1 is 100C

When completed, if no further experiments are to be conducted reduce the heater voltage to zero and
shut down the system as detailed in the operation section on page B6.

The theory being demonstrated, sample observations and calculations are shown in the following
pages.

When completed, if no further experiments are to be conducted reduce the heater voltage to zero and
shut down the system as detailed in the operation section on page B6.
B15

THEORY

When the inner and outer surfaces of a thick walled cylinder are a uniform temperature difference, heat
flows radially through the cylinder wall.

Due to symmetry, any cylindrical surface concentric with the central axis of the tube has a constant
temperature (is isothermal) and the direction of heat flow is normal (at right angles) to the surface.

For continuity, the radial heat flow per unit length of tube through these isothermal surfaces must
remain steady. As each successive layer presents an increasing surface area with radius the temperature
gradient must decrease with radius.

The temperature distribution will be of the form shown below.

Considering a plane section of flat surface, according to Fouriers law of heat conduction:

If a plane section of thermal conductivity k, thickness x and constant area A maintains a temperature
 by conduction through the wall is found to be:
difference T then the heat transfer rate per unit time Q

T
Q = - k A
x

The negative sign follows thermodynamic convention in that heat transfer is normally considered
positive in the direction of temperature fall.

Returning to the thick walled cylinder, if an elemental thickness of dr is considered then the area of
this length of cylinder x can be considered as 2r x. The temperature gradient normal to the elemental
thickness is (dT/dr).
B16

Applying Fouriers law to this elemental cylinder:


dT
Q = - k 2 r x
dr

Since Q is independent of r, by integration between Ri and Ro it can be shown that

Ro
Q ln = - 2 kx (To - Ti )
Ri

Where ln = loge

By rearranging the equation


Ro
Q ln
Ri
k = -
2 x (To - Ti )

For the purposes of the experiment, the negative sign in the above equation may be ignored.

Overleaf are sample test results and illustrative calculations showing the application of the above
theory.
B17

OBSERVATIONS
Sample test results

Sample
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 V I
No.
C C C C C C Volts Amps
1 37.1 33.1 26.8 24.4 21.1 20.3 106 0.185
2 56.3 48.6 36.5 30.5 25 22 149 0.261
3 76.3 64.6 46.4 37.1 28.8 24.1 185 0.324
4 93.8 78.7 56.2 42.5 31.8 25.9 211 0.372
Radius R 0.007 0.010 0.020 0.030 0.040 0.050 -- --

CALCULATED DATA

Sample Q Q ln ( R 6 / R1) Q ln ( R 3 / R1) Q ln ( R 6 / R 4 )


No.
2 x (T 1 - T 6 ) 2 x (T 1 - T 3 ) 2 x (T 4 - T 6 )
Watts W/mK W/mK W/mK
1 19.56 114 99 121
2 38.93 111 103 116
3 59.85 112 105 117
4 78.48 113 109 120

For sample No.1 the example calculations are as follows:

Heat transfer rate from the heater


 =VI
Q
=106 0.185
= 19.56 Watts

From Fouriers equation (ignoring the negative sign)

Ro
Q ln
Ri
k =
2 x (To - Ti )

Examining the points T1 and T6 and substituting values gives

R6
Q ln
R1
k =
2 x (T 6 - T 1)
0.05
19.56 ln
0.007
=
2 0.0032 ( 20.3 - 37.1)
= 114 W / mK

Similarly for other pairs of points on the radius


B18

R3
Q ln
R1
k =
2 x (T 3 - T 1)
0.05
19.56 ln
0.02
=
2 0.0032 ( 26.8 - 37.1)
= 99 W / mK

R6
Q ln
R4
k =
2 x (T 6 - T 4)
0.05
19.56 ln
0.03
=
2 0.0032 ( 20.3 - 37.1)
= 121 W / mK

It may be seen that the thermal conductivity in every case is similar. Differences occur due to the heat
losses from the specimen that are not accounted for and due to temperature measurement errors.

From Fouriers equation


Ro
Q ln = - 2 kx (To - Ti )
Ri

-2 kx (To - Ti )
Q =
Ro
ln
Ri

As -2kx is a constant, the temperatures plotted against the log of the radius should produce straight
line for constant heat input.

The sample data is plotted on the following page. Note that the temperature profiles are straight lines
and that increased heat flow results in an increased slope.
B19
B20

3. To observe unsteady state conduction of heat and to use this in observation of the time to
reach stable conditions

It is assumed that the INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING procedures for the radial heat
conduction unit H112B have been completed as detailed on B5.

PROCEDURE
Follow the basic OPERATING PROCEDURE on page B6

Again following the above procedure, ensure the cooling water is flowing.

Disconnect the heater plug and then set the heater voltage V to approximately 66 volts but do not re-
connect the heater plug at this stage.

Start a stopwatch or alternatively use a clock to record regular time intervals and then re-connect the
heater plug with the voltage still set at approximately 66 volts.

Record T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 at regular intervals of say 30 seconds.

Note that if the Data Acquisition Upgrade HC112A is available then more temperatures may be
recorded simultaneously.
B21

THEORY

Heat transfer through a solid material is not instantaneous. If heat is introduced at the centre of a disc at
a constant rate Q the temperature closest to the heat source will begin to rise as soon as the heat input
starts. Due to conduction, the heat will transfer through the material away from the heat source towards
any area of lower temperature.

The rate of heat transfer through the disc and the subsequent temperature rise will not only depend
upon the thermal conductivity (W/mK) of the bar but also the material specific heat (J/kg K), the
material density (kg/m3) and the bar dimensions.

The heat will transfer through the disc and the temperatures at various points along the radius will rise
until a steady state condition exists where all intermediate temperatures are constant. As long as the
heat input and the sink temperature are constant, the system will remain in equilibrium. It is under these
conditions that all previous experiments (1 to 2) have been undertaken.

The subject of unsteady state heat transfer is beyond the capabilities of this unit but the procedure
allows the concept unsteady state heat transfer to be introduced.

Overleaf are sample test results showing the temperature rise of T1 to T6 with time.
B22

OBSERVATIONS
Sample test results

Sample
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 V I
Time.
seconds C C C C C C C C Volts Amps
0 19.85 19.65 19 19.7 19.05 19.55 19.85 19.65 66 1.189
30 54.5 46 34.1 28.65 23.8 22 54.5 46 - -
60 86.4 72.4 51.65 40.2 31.25 25.5 86.4 72.4 - -
90 93.25 78.2 55.35 42.6 32.6 26.05 93.25 78.2 - -
120 95.35 80.05 56.6 43.5 33.15 26.5 95.35 80.05 - -
150 96.35 80.95 57.25 44.1 33.6 26.9 96.35 80.95 - -
180 96.75 81.25 57.4 44.2 33.55 26.8 96.75 81.25 - -
210 96.7 81.15 57.15 43.9 33.15 26.4 96.7 81.15 - -
240 96.45 80.9 56.85 43.6 32.8 26.1 96.45 80.9 - -
270 96.3 80.75 56.7 43.5 32.7 25.95 96.3 80.75 - -
300 96.3 80.7 56.6 43.45 32.6 25.9 96.3 80.7 - -
330 96.3 80.7 56.6 43.45 32.55 25.85 96.3 80.7 - -
360 96.3 80.7 56.55 43.45 32.55 25.85 96.3 80.7 - -
390 96.35 80.7 56.55 43.5 32.55 25.85 96.35 80.7 - -
420 96.55 80.85 56.65 43.55 32.6 25.9 96.55 80.85 - -
450 96.55 80.8 56.65 43.55 32.6 25.9 96.55 80.8 - -
480 96.55 80.8 56.65 43.6 32.6 25.9 96.55 80.8 - -
510 96.6 80.85 56.65 43.6 32.6 25.95 96.6 80.85 - -
540 96.55 80.8 56.65 43.6 32.6 25.95 96.55 80.8 - -
570 96.6 80.85 56.65 43.65 32.6 25.95 96.6 80.85 - -
600 96.55 80.8 56.65 43.65 32.6 25.95 96.55 80.8 - -
630 96.55 80.8 56.6 43.65 32.6 25.95 96.55 80.8 - -
660 96.5 80.8 56.6 43.65 32.55 25.95 96.5 80.8 - -
690 96.65 80.9 56.65 43.7 32.6 26 96.65 80.9 - -
720 96.65 80.9 56.65 43.7 32.6 26 96.65 80.9 - -
900 96.65 80.9 56.65 43.7 32.55 26 96.65 80.9 - -
930 96.55 80.8 56.6 43.65 32.55 26 96.55 80.8 - -
960 96.6 80.85 56.6 43.7 32.55 26 96.6 80.85 - -
990 96.7 80.9 56.65 43.7 32.55 26 96.7 80.9 - -
1020 96.65 80.95 56.65 43.75 32.55 26 96.65 80.95 - -
1050 96.6 80.9 56.6 43.7 32.55 26 96.6 80.9 - -
1080 96.65 80.9 56.6 43.7 32.55 26 96.65 80.9 - -
1110 96.65 80.9 56.6 43.7 32.55 26.05 96.65 80.9 - -
B23

CALCULATED DATA

For all of the above sample points the heat input Q was constant.

Heat transfer rate from the heater

 = V I
Q
= 66 x 1.189
= 78.48 Watts
The data is plotted on page B24.

The data illustrates the time delay between the introduction of heat and any response by the
thermocouples at a distance from the centre. The data also shows the differences between the
temperatures when the system has reached stability.
B24