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The Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath () is perhaps the most widely known of Greek medical
texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will
uphold a number of professional ethical standards. It also strongly binds the student
to his teacher and the greater community of physicians with responsibilities similar to
that of a family member. In fact, the creation of the Oath may have marked the early
stages of medical training to those outside the first families of Hippocratic medicine, the
Asclepiads of Kos, by requiring strict loyalty.

Over the centuries, it has been rewritten often in order to suit the values of different
cultures influenced by Greek medicine. Contrary to popular belief, the Hippocratic
Oath is not required by most modern medical schools, although some have adopted
modern versions that suit many in the profession in the 21st century. It also does not
explicitly contain the phrase, "First, do no harm," which is commonly attributed to it.

The Old Hippocratic Oath ( 425 BC )

I swear by Apollo the physician, and Asclepius, and Hygieia and Panacea and all
the gods and goddesses as my witnesses, that, according to my ability and
judgement, I will keep this Oath and this contract:

To hold him who taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents, to be a

partner in life with him, and to fulfill his needs when required; to look upon his
offspring as equals to my own siblings, and to teach them this art, if they shall
wish to learn it, without fee or contract; and that by the set rules, lectures, and
every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the art to my own
sons, and those of my teachers, and to students bound by this contract and
having sworn this Oath to the law of medicine, but to no others.

I will use those dietary regimens which will benefit my patients according to my
greatest ability and judgement, and I will do no harm or injustice to them.

I will not give a lethal drug to anyone if I am asked, nor will I advise such a
plan; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion.
In purity and according to divine law will I carry out my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, even upon those suffering from stones, but I will leave
this to those who are trained in this craft.

Into whatever homes I go, I will enter them for the benefit of the sick, avoiding
any voluntary act of impropriety or corruption, including the seduction of
women or men, whether they are free men or slaves.

Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, whether in connection with my

professional practice or not, which ought not to be spoken of outside, I will keep
secret, as considering all such things to be private.

So long as I maintain this Oath faithfully and without corruption, may it be

granted to me to partake of life fully and the practice of my art, gaining the
respect of all men for all time. However, should I transgress this Oath and
violate it, may the opposite be my fate.

Translated by Michael North, National Library of Medicine, 2002.

The New Hippocratic oath

(2010 AD)
I promise that my medical knowledge will be used to benefit peoples health.
Patients are my first concern. I will listen to them, and provide the best care I
can. I will be honest, respectful, and compassionate towards all.

I will do my best to help anyone in medical need, in emergencies. I will make

every effort to ensure the rights of all patients are respected, including
vulnerable groups who lack of making their needs known.

I will exercise my professional judgment, uninfluenced by political or religious

pressure, or the age, race, sexual orientation, social class, wealth, or celebrity of
my patient. I will not put profit or my own career above my duty to patient.

I recognize the special value of human life, but I also know that prolonging life
is not the only aim of health care. If I agree to perform abortion, I agree it
should take place only within an ethical and legal context.

I will not provide treatments that are pointless or harmful, or which an informed
and competent patient refuses. I will help patients find the information and
support they want to make decisions on their care.

I will be as truthful as I can, and respect patients decisions, unless that puts
others at risk of substantial harm. If I cannot agree with teir requests, I will
explain why.

If my patient has limited mental awareness, I will still encourage him or her to
participate in decisions as much as they feel able. I will do my best to maintain
confidentiality about all patients.

If there are overriding reasons preventing my keeping a patients confidentiality

I will explain them. I will recognize the limits of my knowledge and seek advice
from colleagues as needed.

I will do my best to keep my self and my colleagues informed of new

developments, and ensure that poor standards or bad practices are exposed to
those who can improve them.

I will show respect for all those with whom I work and be ready to share my
knowledge by teaching others what I know. I will use my training and
professional standing to improve the community which I work.

I will respect each of my roles, as expert, communicator, scholar, partner,

manager, teacher, professional, and health advocate. I will promote fair use of
health resources and try to influence positively those whose policies harm public

I recognise that I have responsibilities to humankind that transcend diktats and

orders of States, and which no Legislature can countermand. I will oppose
health policies that breach internationally accepted standards of human rights.

I will learn from my mistakes and seek help from colleagues to promote patient
safety. While keeping within this framework, I will not be discouraged by failure,
and will try to continue in a spirit of practical and rational optimism.

While I continue to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy

life and the practice of the Art, respected by all, in all times.

Berikut isi sumpah Hip-

pocrates jika dituangkan ke
dalam bahasa Indonesia,
Saya bersumpah demi Appolo sang penyembuh dan
Asclepios, Segala Kesembuhan, seluruh Dewa-Dewi, bahwa
sesuai dengan kemampuan dan penilaian,
Saya akan menaati sumpah dan perjanjian ini dengan
menghormati orang-orang yang mengajarkan Seni ini pada
saya selayaknya orang tua saya, berbagi pengetahuan
dengannya, dan meringankan bebannya bila diperlukan;
memandang anak-anaknya seperti saudara-saudara saya
sendiri, dan mengajarkan mereka Seni ini, bila mereka
ingin mempelajarinya, tanpa biaya atau imbalan, dan
melalui bimbingan, ceramah dan cara-cara pembelajaran
yang lainnya, saya akan mengajarkan pengetahuan Seni ini
kepada anak-anak saya, dan anak-anak guru saya dan
kepada siswa-siswa yang terkait perjanjian atau sumpah
sesuai dengan hukum dunia kedokteran, namun tidak
kepada pihak-pihak lain.
Saya akan menaati sistem prosedur kesehatan yang sesuai
dengan kemampuan dan penilaian saya, saya akan memper-
hatikan kepentingan pasien saya, dan tidak akan melakukan
hal-hal yang membahayakan baik secara langsung maupun
tidak langsung.
Saya tidak akan memberikan obat yang mematikan kepada
siapa pun bila diminta, atau tidak akan memberikan saran
untuk itu; dalam bentuk apapun.
Saya tidak akan memberikan obat untuk melakukan aborsi
kepada wanita, dan dengan ketulusan dan kesucian, saya
akan menjalani hidup saya dan mempraktekkan Seni ini.
Saya tidak akan membedah orang tetapi akan memberikan
hal ini dikerjakan oleh orang yang dapat mengajarkannya.
Di rumah mana pun yang saya kunjungi, saya akan men-
datanginya untuk kepentingan si sakit, dan akan menjauhi
tindakan penyelewengan dan korupsi dengan sengaja; dan
selanjutnya menjauhkan diri dari rayuan wanita dan pria
baik dari golongan orang merdeka maupun budak.
Apa pun, yang berhubungan dengan praktek profesional
atau tidak berhubungan dengannya, yang saya lihat atau
dengar selama saya hidup, yang tidak boleh disebarluaskan,
saya tidak akan menyebarluaskan hal-hal yang harus
dirahasiakan itu. Selama saya memegang teguh sumpah ini,
semoga saya dikarunia kebahagiaan hidup, dan praktek
Seni ini dihormati oleh semua orang selamanya. Tapi bila
saya melanggar sumpah ini, semoga kebalikannya yang ter-
jadi pada saya.
Isi sumpah Hippocrates ini dikutip dari buku Medical Ethics oleh Tarmizi
Taher, M.D. Sedangkan versi bahasa asli dan bahasa Inggrisnya bisa dilihat
di situs Wikipedia Online. Mungkin dahulu profesi kedokteran sangat dihor-
mati baik oleh masyarakat maupun yang mengemban sendiri, namun kini
banyak pergeseran sosial yang terjadi, seakan-akan profesi dokter hanyalah
tukang bantu yang bekerja untuk membantu menyembuhkan si sakit,
sedangkan nilai seni kedokteran dan kemanusiaan yang ada bersamanya
seakan menghilang tertelan oleh paradigma baru di dunia modern ini. Namun
di balik semua keluh kesah dan tuntutan akan keprofesionalismean seorang
tenaga medis atau dalam hal ini dokter, tetap ada terlihat mereka di antara
yang banyak yang masih bermekaran dengan kuntum-kuntum kemanusiaan
yang luar biasa memukau.

Sumpah Dokter Indonesia

Demi Allah, saya bersumpah bahwa :
Saya akan membaktikan hidup saya guna kepentingan
Saya akan memberikan kepada guru-guru saya
penghormatan dan pernyataan terima kasih yang
Saya akan menjalankan tugas saya dengan cara yang
berhormat dan bermoral tinggi, sesuai dengan martabat
pekerjaan saya;
Kesehatan penderita senantiasa akan saya utamakan;
Saya akan merahasiakan segala sesuatu yang saya ketahui
karena pekerja an saya dan karena keilmuan saya sebagai
Saya akan memelihara dengan sekuat tenaga martabat dan
tradisi luhur jabatan kedokteran;
Saya akan memperlakukan teman sejawat saya sebagai
mana saya sendiri ingin diperlakukan;
Dalam menunaikan kewajiban terhadap penderita, saya
akan berikhtiar dengan sungguh-sungguh supaya saya tidak
terpengaruh oleh pertimbang an keagamaan, kebangsaan,
kesukuan, politik kepartaian atau kedudukan sosial;
Saya akan menghormati setiap hidup insani mulai dari saat
Sekalipun diancam, saya tidak akan mempergunakan
pengetahuan kedokteran saya untuk sesuatu yang
bertentangan dengan hukum perikemanusiaan;
Saya ikrarkan sumpah ini dengan sungguh-sungguh dan
dengan mempertaruhkan kehormatan diri saya.