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TM353 Block 2 - Glossary terms

Agency
capacity for action. Technologies capable of acting, of possessing agency

Agile
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools, Working software over comprehensive
documentation, Customer collaboration over contract negotiation, Responding to change over
following a plan

Availability
probability that at any given time, the system will be functioning correctly. It is sometimes expressed
as the 'mean time between failures' or the 'mean time to repair'.

Captology
refers to the study of computers as persuasive technologies

computer ethics
concerned with the determination of right and wrong conduct in relation to ICT

consequentialist ethics
view of ethics emphasises ends over means.

consequentialist
emphasises ends over means

corporate social responsibility


a business approach that contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and
environmental benefits for all stakeholders

critical
Approaches tend to look at issues of power and attempt to provide intellectual and practical tools to
reshape society in a way that puts power in the hands of the disadvantaged.

dependability
often divided into a number of more specialised characteristics - for example, 'reliability', availability,
'safety', 'security' and 'maintainability'

diversity
hardware using different processors, software developed by different teams or using different
languages or methodologies

emancipatory
an approach to systems development. one devoted to human freedom

fact
something that we believe to be objectively true

IS methodology
the study of the methods by which IS projects are accomplished
Jurisdiction
meaning the geographic area over which the law applies and can be enforced.

maintainability
a measure or a judgement of how easy it is to keep the system in good working order.

metadata
data about the communication rather than the content of the communication

method
a particular procedure for accomplishing or approaching something

methodology
the study of method

multi method
is to utilise more than one methodology or part thereof within a single intervention

non-consequentialist ethics
would be wrong to tell a lie, even if telling the truth is likely to have negative consequences for
someone

non-consequentialist
approach to ethics concerned with the duties, rights and rules that govern ethical behaviour rather
than the consequences of taking a particular course of action

normative ethics
involves arriving at moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct.

Operational Research
method of approach to problems; looking at the whole system first and considering whether altering
the factors directly involved in the problem posed will affect other parts of the system

Organisation
specific organisation where the technology is located to form the IT system. Means by which
activities are organised

Panopticon
a prison where everyone fears they are being watched and will modify their behaviour as a result

participation
the involvement of users at each stage of systems design

persuasive technology
refers to technologies designed to change people's attitudes and behaviours

privacy
complex, multifaceted and impossible to reduce to one simple idea. four general privacy problems,
Information collection, Information processing, Information dissemination, Privacy invasion and
erosion
privacy paradox
care about privacy when asked but still do things without caution or to protect privacy

Professional bodies
typically have at least some of the following functions, set and assess professional examinations,
provide support for CPD through learning opportunities and tools for recording and planning
professional development, publish professional journals or magazines, provide networks for
professionals to meet and discuss their field of expertise, issue codes (sets of rules) of conduct,
practice and ethics to guide professional behaviour, deal with complaints against professionals and
implement disciplinary procedures, enabling fairer access to the professions, so that people from all
backgrounds can become professionals, provide careers support and opportunities for students,
graduates and people already working.

professional codes
known by a variety of names, including codes of ethics, codes of conduct or codes of practice.
Purpose of such codes in general terms, Codes of ethics tend to be aspirational, because they often
serve as mission statements for the profession and thus can provide an ethical vision and objectives,
Codes of conduct are oriented more toward the attitude and behaviour of the individual
professional, Codes of practice relate to operational activities within a profession.

Professionalism
A profession is something a little more than a job, it is a career for someone that wants to be part of
society, who becomes competent in their chosen sector through training; maintains their skills
through continuing professional development (CPD); and commits to behaving ethically, to protect
the interests of the public.

Professions
requires a certain level of specialist training, expertise and specialised knowledge, ethical behaviour,
legal and/or professional body regulation, compliance with a code of conduct.

Redundancy
spare capacity that can be used if a particular part of a system fails

reliability
probability, over a given time period, that the system will continue to function correctly as required
by the user

safety
judgement - rather than a numerical measure - of how likely the system is to cause damage to
people, property or the environment.

SCRUM
one presentation of Agile and it contains tools and techniques which demonstrate key themes

Security
judgement of the resilience of the system to accidents or to deliberate attempts to cause a
malfunction.

Soft Systems Methodology


developed to understand the rich and complex messiness of social contexts
Systems Development Life Cycle
another label for the waterfall model already described. Second era (1970s-80s)

Value
belief that something is good or bad

virtue ethics
emphasises the moral character of the actor. Character traits that impel people to act wisely, justly,
temperately and with fortitude are said to be virtuous

waterfall
model as comprising a number of stages. Requirements, design, implementation, verification,
maintenance.

whistle blowing
refers to exposing misconduct or alleged dishonest or illegal activity