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ECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

LAB MANUAL

Subject: Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Semester-VIII

INDEX OF EXPERIMENTS

S.NO Name of Practical Date of Signature


Practical

1 Basic concepts of CAD/CAM

Study and development of 2 D model on CAD


2
software (SolidEdge).

Study and development of 3 D model on CAD


3
software (SolidEdge).

Study of Part Programming fundamentals and G & M


4
codes.

Manual part programming for CNC lathe and


5
simulation.

Manual part programming for CNC milling and


6
simulation.

Part program generation by CAM software


7
(UGCAM).

Study of Group technology and part families.


8
Study of Computer Aided Process Planning.
9
Study of Flexible Manufacturing System
10
A Case study on CIM model for a modern industry
11
CNC application.
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

1.0 TITLE :- Basic concepts of


CAD/CAM Section : Batch No :

2.0 PRIOR CONCEPT :-

Session : Jan June 20

Experiment No. 1Era of CAD/CAM

I. Importance of CAD/CAM
II. Basic of CAD/CAM
3.0 NEW CONCEPT :

Figure 1.1 : Elements of CAD System


3.0 INTRODUCTION :
Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools allow designers to spend their intellectual energy on
innovation instead of focusing their attention on the mechanics of designing. As idea sere
developed, designers must document and further develop them into fully market able
concepts. The more fluid the innovation process, the more readily innovative designs can be
achieved. CAD tools have relieved the burden of documenting a design idea, and have gone
further to provide automated calculations and analysis to allow the designer to focus their
attention on their designs. The ideal design tool must embed significant industry knowledge
and become a natural part of the innovation process, enabling product advancements that
were previously unachievable. In essence, what would have taken a small army of assistants
to retrieve information, perform calculations and analyze designs should now be automated
at the designers fingertips.

3.1 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)


CAD can be defined as the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification,
analysis, and optimization of a design.

2.2 COMPUTER AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAM)


CAM can be define as the use of computer systems to plan, manage and control the operation
of a manufacturing plant through either direct or indirect computer interface with the plants
production resources

2.3 DEFINITION OF CAD/CAM: -

4.0 DESIGNS STEPS & REASONS OF IMPLEMENTING CAD SYSTEM


The process of designing something is characterize by SHIGLEY as an interactive procedure
which consist of six identifiable steps or phases :

(1) Recognition of need: - It involves the realization by someone that a problem exists
for which some corrective action should be taken. This might be the identification of
some defect in a current machine design by an engineer or the perception of a new
product marketing opportunity by a sales person.
(2) Definition of the problem:- It involves a thorough specification of the item to be
designed. This specification includes physical & functional characteristics, cost,
quality & operating performance

(3) Synthesis:-Synthesis & analysis are closely related & highly iterative in the design
process.

(4) Analysis & Optimization:-A certain component or sub system of the overall system is
conceptualized by the designer, subjected to analysis, improved through this analysis
procedure, & redesigned.

(5) Evaluation:- It is concern with measuring the design against the specifications
established in the problem definition phase. This evaluation often requires the
fabrication & testing of a prototype model to assess operating performance, quality,
reliability, & other criteria.

(6) Presentation: - The final phase in the design process is the presentation of the design
.This includes documentation of the design process by means of drawings, material
specifications, assembly lists, & so on.

5.0 BENEFITS OF CAD/CAM


a. Improved engineering productivity
b. Shorter lead times
c. Reduced engineering personnel requirements
d. Customer modifications are easier to make
e. Faster response to requests for quotations
f. Avoidance of subcontracting to meet schedules
g. Minimized transcription errors
h. Improved accuracy of design
i. In analysis, easier recognition of component interactions
j. Provides better functional analysis to reduce prototype testing
k. Assistant in preparation of documentation
l. Designs have more standardization
m. Better designs provided
n. Improved productivity in tool design
o. Better knowledge of costs provided

5.1 FUNCTIONAL AREA OF CAD


a. Geometric modeling
b. Engineering analysis
c. Design review and evaluation
d. Automatic drafting
e. Part coding and classification
6.0 Answer the following questions on separate A4 size (Un ruled) paper

1. What is CAD and what are its applications and benefits?


2. What are the hardware requirements of a Design workstation? Explain.
3. Discuss different types of Manufacturing units based on quantity
4. Described the need of CAD/CAM and the various issues raised by Computer
Integrated Manufacturing.
5. What are various activities of a manufacturing plant which can be carried out through
computer control
6. Differentiate between physical integration , application integration and business
integration
7. Discuss the stages in product development cycle and importance of each stage
8. What are the important output devices used in CAD
9. How CAD data can be imported to CAM software?
10. List out the names of CAD/CAM/CAE software

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MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 2

1.0 TITLE : Study and development of 2 D model on CAD software (SolidEdge).

2.0 LEARNING:-

I. Introduce to various CAD packages available


II. Solid Edge Software Sketching Commands
III. Drawing different views of a Component/Part

3.0 NEW CONCEPTS:

4.0 PROPOSITION:

DESIGN PROCESS AND ROLE OF CAD

1. Recognition of need
2. Definition of problem
3. Synthesis
4. Analysis and optimization
5. Evaluation
6. Presentation

Concept structure:
Fig. 1.1 Role of computers in design process

Benefits of Using CAD:


(1) Increasing productivity
(2) Improving quality of design
(3) Improving communications
(4) Creating data-base for manufacturing

Geometric Modeling

The term geometric modeling (or representation) means a method of describing


commonly used curves and surfaces in terms of values of a few parameters.

Three Types of Geometric Models

Wireframe Model : connect 3D vertex points, sometimes ambiguous.


Surface Model : define surface to form an object.
Solid Model : various representation schemes are used to describe a solid object
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 3

1.0 Title : - Study and development of 3 D model on CAD software (Solid Edge).

2.0 Learning:-

I. Introduce to Solid Edge Software Modeling Commands


II. Various 3D Commands
III. Part Modeling of given part

3.0 INTRODUCTION
Following are the important features of Solid Edge for 3D modeling

Protrusion Feature
Hole Feature
Round Feature
Chamfer Feature
Rib Feature
Shell Feature
Pipe Feature

3.1 PROTRUSION ( EXTRUDE) FEATURE


Protrusion is the method of adding a solid material. It can add material in a void or
on An existing solid. Pro/engineer provides the following basic method of adding
material to a model.
Extrude creates a solid feature by extruding a section normal to the section plane.
Revolve - creates a solid feature by revolving a section about an axis.
Sweep - creates a solid feature by sweeping a section about a trajectory.
Blend - creates a solid feature by blending various cross sections at various level.
3.2 HOLE FEATURE
Insert > Hole

Feature > Create > Solid > Hole

When you invoke this command Software displays the hole dialog box.

`3.2.1 TYPES OF HOLES :


Straight Hole: Straight Hole is An Extruded Cut with a Circular Section. The Diameter
Of the hole is Constant. It Begins At the Placement Surface and Extends To The
Specified End Surface Or User Defined Depth.
Sketched Hole: A Sketched Hole is created by sketching a section for revolution in
sketcher mode and placing it into the part. Sketched holes are always blind and one-
sided. A tapered Hole could be created as a sketched hole.
Standard Hole: Standard Hole is the combination of the sketched and extruded feature.
It is based on industries standard fastener tables. You can calculate either the tapered
or the clearance diameter appropriate to the selected faster. You can use system-
supplied standard lookup tables for these diameters or create your own.

3.3 ROUND FEATURE


Insert > Round

Feature > Create > Solid > Round

In Solid Edge Round option is used to create a filleting between surfaces or in place of a
middle surface. Surfaces can be Pro/Engineer Zero thickness quilts, surfaces and surfaces
of solid Models.

Simple & Advance Rounds you can create two different types of round simple and
advanced. the type of round you create depend on the complexity of the reference
geometry and on your need to customize the default round geometry supplied by the
system .Generally, after you specify the placement references and radius of the round, the
system generates the default round geometry by using some default attributes. The
System Normally terminates the round geometry whenever it encounters non-tangents
Edges.
3.4 CHAMFER FEATURE
Insert > Chamfer

Feature > Create > Solid > Chamfer

In Solid Edge chamfer command is used to create a beveled surface. There are two types
of chamfer.

1. Edge

2. Corner

Edge: An Edge Chamfer removes a flat section of material from a selected edge to create
a beveled surface between the two original surfaces common to that edge. One can select
multiple edges to create an edge chamfer.

45 x d: this option is used to create a chamfer that is at angle of 45 degrees to both


surfaces & distance d from the edge along each surface. The dimension appears as "45 x
d", but you can modify the distance, D only. You can create 45 x d chamfers only on an
edge formed by the inter section of two perpendicular surfaces.

d x d: creates a chamfer that is at a distance d from the edge along each surface. If you
modify the chamfer, the system displays the distance as the only dimension.

d1 x d2: Creates a chamfer at a distance d1 from the selected edge along one surface and
a distance d2 from the selected edge along the other surface. the system displays both
distances their respective surfaces when you modify the chamfer.

Ang x d: Creates a chamfer at a distance d from the selected edge along one adjacent
surface at a specified angle to that surface. The system displays both values as
dimensions when you modify the chamfer. you can use this option between two planer
surfaces only.

Corner: A corner chamfer removes material from the corner or a part. In the next step is
you have to select the corner and the edges. Pro/ENGINEER Displays the pick/Enter

Menu, which allows you to specify the location of the chamfer vertex on the high lighted
edge.
3.5 SHELL FEATURE:
Insert > Shell

Feature > Create > Solid > Shell

The Shell option Removes a surface or surfaces from the solid then hollows out the
inside, leaving a shell of a specified wall thickness.

When Pro/Engineer Makes the shall all the features that ware added to the solid before
you chose shell are hollowed out. Therefore, the order of feature creation is very
important when you use shell.After involving this command Pro/Engineer Displays the
feature creation dialog box. if desired, select the optional element spec thick to specify
thickness individually.

4.0 Draw the 3D Models in the CAD Software to understand the commands

Fig. 3.1 Fig. 3.2

Fig. 3.3 Fig. 3.4


MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 4

1.0 TITLE: Study of Part Programming fundamentals and G & M codes

2.0 LEARNING:-

I. Introduce NC & CNC


II. Designation of different motion
III. Knowing of G & M codes
3.0 NC SYSTEM
Flexible automation is implemented in machine tools in the form of digital control. The
programs are in binary, in numerical form; strictly speaking alphanumeric. This instructions
when read by the system, regulate the various slides of the machine tool to enable the tool/tools
to shape the objects to required profiles by positional and/or continues control. Such systems are
known as numerical control (NC) system.

3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF NC MACHINE

N C Machine

Rotating Rotating work Both Tool and Machines


spindle / tool piece and work piece other than
and stationary stationary / not rotating machine tools
work piece rotating tool

Example: Vertical Example: Lathes, Example: Example:


knee mill, drilling Grinding machines Shaper, drafting
machines, vertical etc. surface Planner machine
boring mill, tapping generating etc. etc.
machines, etc. machines

Horizontal Vertical
spindle spindle
3.2 COORDINATE SYSTEM

The guiding coordinate system for designating the axes is the conventional mathematical
right-hand coordinate system. Some possible dispositions of these coordinates are shown
in Figure below. One could use his right hand to get to these alternative relative positions
of the same right-hand coordinate system.

Figure: Finding positive direction for rotary motion

3.2.1 Z-MOTION
Location: Z-axis motion is either along the spindle axis or parallel to the spindle axis. It
is also recognized as the one perpendicular to the work holding surface which may or
may not be passing through the controlled point (i.e. cutting tool tip or drafting machine
pen tip).

3.2.2 X MOTION
The X-Motion is principal motion in the positioning plane of the cutting tool or the work
piece.
Location: It is perpendicular to the axis and should be horizontal and parallel to the
work holding surface wherever possible.

Direction: For normal machines, when looking from the principal tool spindle to the
column the positive (+) X is to the RIGHT.

For Gantry profiler when looking from the principal spindle to the left hand gantry
support the positive (+) X is to the Right.

For Horizontal boring machine when looking from the principal tool spindle towards the
work piece the positive (+) X is to the RIGHT.

For Turret Lathe it is radial and parallel to the cross slide, X is positive (+) when the tool
recedes from the axis of rotation of the work pieces.

For Shaper and Drafting Machine the x-axis is parallel to the positive (+) in the principle
direction of movement (or cutting) of the guided point (or the cutting tool).

3.2.3 Y MOTION
It is designation is derived from the already recognized Z and X axes. It is perpendicular
to both X and Z axes and + Y is in the direction which completes with +X and +Z
motions a right hand Cartesian coordinate system. In Figs this has been demonstrated in
the columns under coordinate system Y. The first two columns under Z and X show the
designation of Z and X axes as per the principles mentioned earlier. The column under
coordinate system shows the relevant right hand coordinate system. From the third
column the Y axis designation is derived and is mentioned in column under Y.

3.2.4 ROTARY MOTIONS


Location: These motions are located about the axis parallel to X, Y and Z respectively.
If, in addition to the above mentioned primary rotary motions, there exist secondary
rotary motions, whether parallel or not to A, B and C those should be designated as D and
E.

Direction: Positive (+) A,B and C are in the directions which advance right and screws in
the positive (+) X, Y and Z directions respectively.
3.3 OBJECTVIES OF AXIS DESIGNATION:
The conventional mathematical right hand coordinate system is in general known and
well understood. The machine movements designated as above permit the part
programmer to assume safely that the tool moves relative to the right hand coordinate
system of a stationery work piece. The programmer can thus imagine to be sitting on a
tool and describe all the machining operations without having to know whether the tool
approaches the work piece or the work piece approaches the tool. He thus uses only the
unprimed letters for the intended motions. For example in Fig. on a Vertical Milling
Machine, For a moving a tool (say a drill) from position P to Position Q, the part
programmer specifies the movement from coordinates (5,7,6) to (8,6,5). The actual
motions which take place on the machine tool are:

Movement of Quill (Z): 5-6 : -1 i.e. the tool tip comes down one unit.

Movement of table (X): 8-5 : +3 i.e. Table moves left by 3 units, and

(Y): 6-7 : -1 i.e. Table moves towards the column by 1 unit.

3.4 STRUCTURE OF CNC PART PROGRAMMING


There are many codes specifying the particular area of instruction required to control the
machine tool. The tool path of C.N.C machine is then described in machines codes,
which usually take the structure of

N G X Y Z I J K F S T M - EOB
Where,
N = sequence number.
G = preparatory function ISO codes.
XYZ = dimension words in mm or inch.
IJK = dimensions words for arc and circle in mm or inch.
F = feed rate.
S = spindle speed revolution/min.
T = tool selection.
M = miscellaneous function ISO codes.
EOB = End of block.
1.N: The sequence number is designated by the address character N and three
numeric digits. The word indicates the start of specific sequences of operation. It is the
first word for the programming sequence in the block.

2. G: The preparatory function is designated by the character G and two numeric


digits. This word immediately follows the sequence number word. The G word prepare
numeric control unit for specific mode of operation.

3. XYZ: These addresses signify axis motion in accordance with the designated axis
motion of machine tools. These address could be supplement by W, A, B, etc if the
machines have extra axis of motion. XYZ are three axes. C.N.C can have up to six axes.

4.IJK: These addresses are used when employing circular interpolation to specify the
center of the program arc, I, J, and K which are equivalent to X, Y, and Z but with
reference to the start point.

5. F: The feed rate for slide displacement is expressed in mm/min and is a three digit
number is prefixed by the letter F.

6.S: The spindle speed is expressed in rev/min and is a four digit number prefixed to
the letter S.

7. T: The tool function is designated by the letter T and maximum of five numeric
digits. This word immediately follows the spindle speed word. Tool function code to
identify the tool to be used or loaded if at a tool change.

8. M: The miscellaneous function is designated by the letter M and two numeric


digits. These functions are a family of instruction that cause the starting stopping or
setting of a variety of machines function. Some M- functions have been standardized by
popular usage and others have special significance for individual machines.

3.4.4 LIST OF G CODES

SR.NO. CODE FUNCTION

1. G00 RAPID POSITIONING


2. G01 LINEAR INTERPOLATION

3. G02 CLOCKWISE CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION


4. G03 COUNTER CLOCKWISE CIRCULAR INTERPOLATION

5. G04 DWELL IN SECONDS

6. G20 INCH PROGRAMMING

7. G21 METRIC PROGRAMMING

8. G28 AUTO. RETURN TO REF. POINT

9 G32 THREAD CUTTING CYCLE

10. G70 FINISHING CYCLE

11. G71 STOCK REMOVAL IN TURNING

12. G72 STOCK REMOVAL IN FACING

13. G73 PATTERN REPEATING CYCLE

14. G74 PECK DRILLING CANNED CYCLE

15. G90 DIAMETER CUTTING CYCLE

16. G92 THREADING CANNED CYCLE

17. G96 CONSTANT SURFACE SPEED ON

18. G97 CONSTANT SURFACE SPEED OFF

3.4.2 LIST OF M - CODES


Sr. No. CODE FUNCTION

1. M01 OPTIONAL PROGRAM STOP

2. M02 PROGRAM END

3. M03 SPINDLE START CLOCKWISE

4. M04 SPINDLE START ANTICLOCKWISE

5. M05 SPINDLE STOP

6. M07 COOLANT NO. 1 ON

7. M08 COOLANT NO. 2 ON

8. M09 COOLANTS OFF

9. M13 SPINDLE CLOCKWISE & COOLANT ON


10 M14 SPINDLE ANTI-CLOCKWISE & COOLANT ON

9. M30 PROGRAM END & REWIND

10. M98 START OF SUBROUTINE

11. M99 END OF SUBROUTINE


MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 5

1.0 TITLE: Manual part programming for CNC lathe and simulation.

2.0 LEARNING:-

I. Manual Part Programming Fundamentals


II. Motion Statements for a particular Cut on CNC Lathe
III. Simulation of Lathe on CNC Simulator

3.0 PRINCIPLE OF CNC MACHINE


3.1 BASIC COMPONENTS OF CNC MACHINE:

1. Program of instructions: Detailed step-by-step commands that direct the processing


equipment. The most common medium on which the program is submitted to the machine
control unit has been 1-in.-wide punched tape. More recently, magnetic tape cassettes and floppy
diskettes are being used.
2. Machine Control Unit (MCU): Electronics and control hardware that read and interpret the
program of instruction and convert it into mechanical actions of the machine. Tool or other
processing equipment.
3. Processing Equipment: Component that performs useful work. Ex. Work table, spindle,
motors.

3.2 CNC PROGRAMMING STANDARDS (ISO)


The ISO- Norm 6983 is for standardizing the CNC programming of machines. This is however
limited to standardizing certain commands as well the general structure of a CNC program. CNC
manufacturers have considerable liberty for incorporating their own CNC commands in their
control. Sequentially the general structure of a CNC program according to ISO 6983 is
illustrated.

3.3 STRUCTURE OF A CNC PROGRAM

The structure of a CNC program involves step by step description of following information of a
machine tool:
Dimensioning & Coordinate system setting
Datum and Reference points
Axis movements
Tool movements
Spindle movement & speed control
Spindle direction control
Coolant Control
The first line of the CNC program contains the program name (ex.G02- dia 25). This name can
contain alphanumerical or numerical characters. A CNC program consists of a sequence of
blocks. They contain the relevant geometric & technical information that the CNC control
requires for each machining step. The program end is commanded with M30 or M02.The
comments are also allowed within the program for identifying an operation. These however must
be set in brackets.

3.3.1STRUCTURE OF A PROGRAM BLOCK


Every CNC block consists of a block number as well as specific control character, which inform
the CNC Control about the necessary action to be performed. According to ISO following are the
standards codes used in CNC programming.

N75 G01 Z-11 F0.3 S2000 T03 M08


Number Word Word Word Word Word Word
of NC-
block

A word consists of a address letters & a number with a plus or minus sign. The definition &
sequence are designated in the programming instructions of the CNC control system.

Example Address Number Definition


N75 N 75 For the address N, 75 is the number of NC-block
For the address G, 01 is a code. The NC-
G01 G 01 command G01 is Moving the tool along a
straight line at in feed speed
For the address Z, -11 is a value. Corresponding
to the NC-command G01 of the preceding NC-
Z-11 Z -11 block example, this means that the tool is to be
moved to the position of Z=-11 in the current tool
coordinate system.
The sequence of word in an NC-block is designated as following:

Sr. No. Address Definition


1 N Block number
2 G G - function
3 X, Z OR X, Y, Z Coordinates
4 I, J, K Interpolation function
5 F Feed
6 S Speed
7 T Tool position
8 M Miscellaneous function

Datum and reference point for Turning Machine

Where,

M = Machine zero point (-by manufacturer of the machine tool)


R = Reference point (- defined by limit switches)
N(T) = Tool mount reference point (-established by manufacturer of machine tool)
W = Work piece zero point
A = Dead stop point (- a point on clamping device)

4.0 STEPS OF PROGRAMMING ON CNC SIMULATOR:

Flow chart of instructions to be followed for running a program on CNC Simulator

(A) Program of Instructions for Machine Setup

1. Open Smarpan CNC Setup


2. Click Yes for Administrative rights
3. Select the Type of Controller ( May be FANUC OYT Controller)
4. Run
5. Release Emergency ( Red Button)
6. Unlock Machine
7. Select Reference Mode
8. Click X and Z to set reference mode. This command moves the tool pallet to home position
9. Open a Program or Edit an existing program
10. Click on PROG
11. Click on DIR Soft key ( Below DIR)
12. Write O10 and click down arrow key
13. This will open an existing program O10
14. For Creating a new program you have to write a program name that does not exist in
directory ( As Write )113 and Click Insert)

(B) Tool Management Steps of Instructions

1. Click on Machine Operations


2. Click on Tool Management
3. Click edit to change various parameters of tool, an Optional tool editor will be opened
4. Drag the tool to required tool number
5. Mount the tool

(C) Workpiece Setting Steps of Instructions

1. Click on Work piece


2. Select Stock Size
3. Select Work piece Material Length, external diameter and internal diameter( if Tube)
4. Click on Replace Workpiece
5. Click on Tail Stock if length is more
6. Click on Steady rest if required

(D) Offset Setting Steps of Instructions

1. Click on Machine Operations


2. Click on Rapid Position
3. Offset can either be taken from Centre potion of from surface of the job
4. This will automatically make selected tool to come to position
5. Click on Offset Setting
6. Click on Work Soft Key
7. Write zero offset values ( in front of G54)
8. Type X0 , click on Measure Soft Key, This will take X0 at periphery
9. Type Z0 , click on Measure Soft Key, This will take X0 at periphery
10. Click on Reference to keep tool at reference position
11. Click on Auto Mode
12. Click on Cycle Start button
EXAMPLE 1
PRACTICE EXAMPLE - 1

70 70 65
65
50 50

20 20 30 20 20 30 5

PROGRAM: PROGRAM:

O1234 (Program Name);


G21 (Metric Data Input);
G95 (Feed per Revolution);
G90 (Absolute Zero Command);
G28 X50 Z50 (Reference Point Return);
M06 T01 (Automatic Tool Change LH Tool);
M03 S1200 (Spindle Forward);
M08 (Coolant On);
G00 X75 Z0;
G01 Z-2;
G01 X0 ;
Z2 ;
X70;
Z-70 F0.5;
X75;
Z2 F5;
X65;
Z-50 F0.5;
X75;
Z2 F5;
X60;
Z-30 F0.5;
X75;
Z2 F5;
G28 X50 Z50 (Reference Point Return);
M06 T01 (Automatic Tool Change LH Tool);
M09 (Coolant Off);
M05 (Spindle Stop);
M30 (Program Reset and Rewind);

Simulate this program on CNC Simulate this program on CNC


simulator simulator
EXAMPLE -2
PRACTICE EXAMPLE - 2

70
R5 50

R10
R5

R5
R10
R5
20 20 30 5

PROGRAM
O1234 (Program Name)
G21 (Metric Data Input)
G95 (Feed per Revolution)
G90 (Absolute Zero Command)
G28 X50 Z50 (Reference Point Return)
M06 T01 (Automatic Tool Change LH Tool)
M03 S1200 (Spindle Forward)
M08 (Coolant On)
G00 X61 Z5
G01 Z0 F5
Z-80 F0.1
X65
Z5 F5
X60.5
Z-80 F0.1
X70
Z5 F5
X40
Z-10 F0.1
X60 Z-20 F0.1
X70
Z5 F5
M06 T0202 (Auto. Tool Change Groove Tool)
S1200 M03
G01 X65
Z-70
X57 F0.1
G04 X5 (Dwell)
G01 X65
Z5 F5
M06 T0303 (Auto. Tool Change Contour Tool)
M03 S1200
G01 X62
Z-35
G02 X60 Z-55 R10 F0.1
X70
G28 X50 Z50
M06 T01 (Automatic Tool Change LH Tool)
M09 (Coolant Off) Simulate this program on CNC
M05 (Spindle Stop)
M30 (Program Reset and Rewind) simulator
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 6

1.0 Title : Manual part programming for CNC milling and simulation

2.0 LEARNING:-

I. Manual Part Programming for Milling


II. Motion Statements for a particular Cut on CNC Milling
III. Simulation of Milling on CNC Simulator

3.0 DATUM AND REFERENCE POINT FOR TURNING MACHINE

Where,

M = Machine zero point (-by manufacturer of the machine tool)


R = Reference point (- defined by limit switches)
N(T) = Tool mount reference point (-established by manufacturer of machine tool)
W = Work piece zero point
A = Dead stop point (- a point on clamping device)

4.0 STEPS OF MILLING PROCESS ON CNC SIMULATOR:

Flow chart of instructions to be followed for running a program on CNC Simulator

(A) Program of Instructions for Machine Setup

15. Open Smarpan CNC Setup


16. Click Yes for Administrative rights
17. Select the Type of Controller ( May be FANUC OYT Controller)
18. Run
19. Release Emergency ( Red Button)
20. Unlock Machine
21. Select Reference Mode
22. Click X and Z to set reference mode. This command moves turret and workpiece to home
position
23. Open a Program or Edit an existing program
24. Click on PROG
25. Click on DIR Soft key ( Below DIR)
26. Write O10 and click down arrow key
27. This will open an existing program O10
28. For Creating a new program you have to write a program name that does not exist in
directory ( As Write )113 and Click Insert)

(B) Tool Management Steps of Instructions

6. Click on Machine Operations


7. Click on Tool Management
8. Click edit to change various parameters of tool, an Optional tool editor will be opened
9. Drag the tool to required tool number
10. Mount the tool

(C) Workpiece Setting Steps of Instructions

7. Click on Work piece


8. Select Stock Size
9. Select Work piece Material Length, external diameter and internal diameter( if Tube)
10. Click on Replace Workpiece
11. Click on Tail Stock if length is more
12. Click on Steady rest if required

(D) Offset Setting Steps of Instructions

13. Click on Machine Operations


14. Click on Rapid Position
15. Offset can either be taken from Centre potion of from surface of the job
16. This will automatically make selected tool to come to position
17. Click on Offset Setting
18. Click on Work Soft Key
19. Write zero offset values ( in front of G54)
20. Type X0 , click on Measure Soft Key, This will take X0 at periphery
21. Type Z0 , click on Measure Soft Key, This will take X0 at periphery
22. Click on Reference to keep tool at reference position
23. Click on Auto Mode
24. Click on Cycle Start button
EXAMPLE - 1 PRACTICE EXAMPLE - 1

BILLET SIZE 100X100X10 mm

O1234 (Program Name)


G21 (Metric Data Input);
G94 (Feed Per minute);
G90 (Absolute Command);
G28 X0 Y0 Z0 (Reference Point Return);
M06 T01 (Auto. Tool Change END MILL of 5);
M03 S1200 (Spindle Forward);
M08 (Coolant On);
G00 X30 Y0 Z0 F50 (Rapid Positioning);
G01 Z-12 F5 (Linear Interpolation);
G01 X30 Y30;
G01 X-30 Y30;
G01 X-30 Y-30;
G01 X30 Y-30;
G01 X30 Y0;
G01 Z0;
G00 X0 Y0 Z0 F50;
M05 (Spindle Stop);
M06 T02 (Auto. Tool Change END MILL of 5);
M03 S1300 (Spindle Forward);
G01 X20 F5;
G01 Z-12;
G03 X20 Y0 R20 (Circular Interpolation);
G01 Z0;
G28 X0 Y0 Z0;
M09 (Coolant Off);
M05 (Spindle Stop);
M30 (Program Reset and Rewind);
Example 2

PROGRAM

O1234 (Program Name)


G21 (Metric Data Input)
G94 (Feed Per minute)
G90 (Absolute Command)
G28 X0 Y0 Z0 (Reference Point Return)
M06 T01 (Automatic Tool Change END MILL of
Diameter 5)
M03 S1200 (Spindle Forward)
M08 (Coolant On)
G00 X50 Y50 Z0 (Rapid Positioning)
G01 Z-12 F5
G01 X-50
G01 Y-50
G01 X50
G01 Y50
G01 Z5
G01 X20 Y0
G01 Z-12
G03 X20 R20
BILLET SIZE: 200x200x10 mm
G41 (Cutter Compensation Left)
G03 X20 R20
G42 (Cutter Compensation Right)
G03 X20 R20
G01 Z5
G40 (Cutter Compensation Cancel)
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M06 T02 (Automatic Tool Change-STDRILL of Diameter 20)
M03 S1200
G00 X75 Y75 Z0
G01 Z-12 F5
G01 Z5
G01 X-75 Y75
G01 Z-12
G01 Z5
G01 X-75 Y-75
G01 Z-12
G01 Z5
G01 X75 Y-75
G01 Z-12
G01 Z5
M06 T03 (Automatic Tool Change-STDRILL of Diameter 10)
M03 S1000
G00 X75 Y0 Z0
G83 X75 Y0 Z-14 Q0 R0 F5 (Deep Hole Peck Drilling Canned Cycle)
X-75
X0 Y75
Y-75
G80 (Canned Cycle Cancel)
G28 X0 Y0 Z0
M09 (Coolant Off)
M05 (Spindle Stop)
M30 (Program Reset and Rewind)
PRACTICE EXAMPLE 2

Find the coordinates of points a to h?

PRACTICE EXAMPLE 3

Find the values of b (x), c (x) & f (x) and make a CNC program for the given part?
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment no. 7

1.0 Title: Part program generation by CAM software (UGCAM).

2.0Learning :

I. CAD/CAM Integration
II. Cutting Simulation
III. Cutter Location File
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 8

1.0 TITLE : - Study of Group technology and part families

2.0 LEARNING :

I. Part Classification &Coding

II. Part Family Concept

III. Types of Coding System

3.0 THEORY :
Group Technology is an approach to manufacturing in which similar parts are identified and
grouped together in order to take advantage of their similarities in design and production
Similarities among parts permit them to be classified into certain groups and in each group
processing steps are similar The improvement is typically achieved by organizing the
production facilities into manufacturing cells that specialize in production of certain part
family

3.1 PART FAMILY


A group of parts that possess similarities in geometric shape and size, or in the processing
steps used in their manufacture
Part families are a central feature of group technology
There are always differences among parts in a family
But the similarities are close enough that the parts can be grouped into the same family
Figure 8.1 A Family of Similar Parts

Here Ten parts that are different in size and shape, but quite similar in terms of manufacturing.
Here similarity is that all parts are machined from cylindrical stock by turning; some parts
require drilling and/or milling

3.2 METHODS OF CLASSIFICATION.

1.Visual Inspection (VI)- using best judgment to group parts into appropriate families, based on
the parts or photos of the parts

2.Production Flow Analysis (PFA) - using information contained on route sheets to classify
parts

3.Parts Classification and Coding - identifying similarities and differences among parts and
relating them by means of a coding scheme

3.3 PARTS CLASSIFICATION AND CODING


Most classification and coding systems are one of the following:
Systems based on part design attributes
Systems based on part manufacturing attributes
Systems based on both design and manufacturing attributes
3.3.1 PART DESIGN ATTRIBUTES
Major dimensions
Basic external shape
Basic internal shape
Length/diameter ratio
Material type
Part function
Tolerances
Surface finish

3.3.2 PART MANUFACTURING ATTRIBUTES


Major process
Operation sequence
Batch size
Annual production
Machine tools
Cutting tools
Material type

3.3.3 THREE STRUCTURES USED IN CLASSIFICATION AND CODING SCHEMES

I. Hierarchical structure, known as a mono-code, in which the interpretation of each


successive symbol depends on the value of the preceding symbols

II. Chain-type structure, known as a polycode, in which the interpretation of each symbol in
the sequence is always the same; it does not depend on the value of preceding symbols

III. Mixed-mode structure, which is a hybrid of the two previous codes


3.4 SOME OF THE IMPORTANT PART CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

OPITZ classification system the University of Aachen in Germany, nonproprietary, Chain


type.Brisch System (Brisch-Birn Inc.)
CODE (Manufacturing Data System, Inc.)
CUTPLAN (Metcut Associates)
DCLASS (Brigham Young University)
MultiClass (OIR: Organization for Industrial Research), hierarchical or decision-tree coding
structure
Part Analog System (Lovelace, Lawrence & Co., Inc.)

BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE OPITZ PARTS CLASSIFICATION AND CODING


Form code (digits 1-5) for rotational parts in the Opitz coding system

Example 1: A part coded 20801


2 - Parts has L/D ratio >= 3
0 - No shape element (external shape elements)
8 - Operating thread
0 - No surface machining
1 - Part is axial

MultiClass developed by the Organization for Industrial Research (OIR)

First 18 digits of the Multiclass Classification and Coding System

Benefits of aWell-Designed Classification and Coding System

Facilitates formation of part families

Permits quick retrieval of part design drawings

Reduces design duplication

Promotes design standardization

Improves cost estimating and cost accounting

Facilitates NC part programming by allowing new parts to use the same part program as

existing parts in the same family

Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) becomes feasible

Composite Part Concept

A composite part for a given family is a hypothetical part that includes all of the design
and manufacturing attributes of the family

In general, an individual part in the family will have some of the features of the family,

but not all of them

A production cell for the part family would consist of those machines required to make

the composite part

Such a cell would be able to produce any family member, by omitting operations

corresponding to features not possessed by that part

Composite Part Features and Corresponding Manufacturing Operations


Design feature Corresponding operation
1.External cylinder Turning
2.Face of cylinder Facing
3.Cylindrical step Turning
4.Smooth surface External cylindrical grinding
5.Axial hole Drilling
6.Counterbore Counterboring
7.Internal threads Tapping

Benefits of Group Technology

Standardization of tooling, fixtures, and setups is encouraged

Material handling is reduced


Parts are moved within a machine cell rather than entire factory

Process planning and production scheduling are simplified

Work-in-process and manufacturing lead time are reduced

Improved worker satisfaction in a GT cell

Higher quality work

Problems in Group Technology

Identifying the part families (the biggest problem)

If the plant makes 10,000 different parts, reviewing all of the part drawings and grouping

the parts into families is a substantial task

Rearranging production machines in the plant into the appropriate machine cells

It takes time to plan and accomplish this rearrangement, and the machines are not

producing during the changeover

1. Conclusion
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 9

1.0 Title Study of Computer Aided Process Planning.

Theory
1) Introduction.
2) Types of Computer aided process planning.
i) Retrieval process planning.
ii) Generative process planning.
3) Advantages of computer aided process planning.
Conclusion.
MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 10

1.0 Title Study of Flexible Manufacturing System

2.0 LEARNING

I. What is a Flexible Manufacturing System?

II. FMS Components

III. FMS Applications and Benefits

IV. FMS Planning and Implementation Issues

V. Quantitative Analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

3.1 THEORY

To qualify as being flexible, a manufacturing system should satisfy the following criteria (yes

answer for each question):

1. Can it process different part styles in a non-batch mode?

2. Can it accept changes in production schedule?

3. Can it respond gracefully to equipment malfunctions and breakdowns?

4. Can it accommodate introduction of new part designs?


Automated manufacturing cell with two machine tools and robot. Is it a flexible cell?

1. Part variety test

Can it machine different part configurations in a mix rather than in batches?

2. Schedule change test

Can production schedule and part mix be changed?

3. Error recovery test

Can it operate if one machine breaks down?

Example: while repairs are being made on the broken machine, can its

work be temporarily reassigned to the other machine?

4. New part test

As new part designs are developed, can NC part programs be written off-line and

then downloaded to the system for execution?

Types of FMS

Kinds of operations

Processing vs. assembly


Type of processing

If machining, rotational vs. non-rotational

Number of machines (workstations):

Single machine cell (n = 1)

Flexible manufacturing cell (n = 2 or 3)

Flexible manufacturing system (n = 4 or more)

Features of three Catagories


1. Dedicated FMS

Designed to produce a limited variety of part styles

The complete universe of parts to be made on the system is known in advance

Part family likely based on product commonality rather than geometric similarity

2. Random-order FMS

Appropriate for large part families

New part designs will be introduced

Production schedule is subject to daily changes

FMS Components

1. Workstations

2. Material handling and storage system

3. Computer control system

4. Human labor
Workstations

Load and unload station(s)

Factory interface with FMS

Manual or automated

Includes communication interface with worker to specify parts to load, fixtures

needed, etc.

CNC machine tools in a machining type system

CNC machining centers

Milling machine modules

Turning modules

Assembly machines

Material Handling and Storage

Functions:

Random, independent movement of parts between stations

Capability to handle a variety of part styles

Standard pallet fixture base

Workholding fixture can be adapted

Temporary storage

Convenient access for loading and unloading

Compatibility with computer control

FMS In-Line Layout


Straight line flow, well-defined processing sequence similar for all work units

Work flow is from left to right through the same workstations

No secondary handling system

FMS Loop Layout

One direction flow, but variations in processing sequence possible for different part types

Secondary handling system at each workstation

FMS Rectangular Layout

Rectangular layout allows recirculation of pallets back to the first station in the sequence

after unloading at the final station

FMS Benefits

Increased machine utilization

Reasons:

24 hour operation likely to justify investment


Automatic tool changing

Automatic pallet changing at stations

Queues of parts at stations to maximize utilization

Dynamic scheduling of production to account for changes in demand

Fewer machines required

Reduction in factory floor space required

Greater responsiveness to change

Reduced inventory requirements

Different parts produced continuously rather than in batches

Lower manufacturing lead times

Reduced labor requirements

Higher productivity

Opportunity for unattended production

Machines run overnight ("lights out operation"


MEDICAPS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT , INDORE , 453331

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Page No :

CAD/CAM/CIM (ME 804) Enroll No : 0812 ME

Session : Jan June 20 Section : Batch No :

Experiment No. 11

1.0 Title : A Case study on CIM model for a modern industry CNC application.

PART I
1) Definition of Automation.
2) Types of automation.
a) Fixed automation.
b) Programmable automation.
c) Flexible automation.
3) Information processing cycle.
a) Business functions.
b) Product Design
c) Manufacturing Planning
d) Manufacturing control
e) Shop floor control
f) Inventory control
g) Quality control
4) Difference between Automation & CIM.
5) Evolution of CIM.
6) Various elements of CIMS.
7) CIM Hardware & Software
PART II
Case Study of any one local CIM based Industry.
Objective-
Company profile-
Plant Layout
Type of operation in industry
Advancement in industry-
Suggestion if any
Conclusion