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Simple Past Present Perfect Present Future Past Future

indicatif pass antrieur

(indicatif pass simple) (pass compos) (indicatif prsent) (indicatif futur simple) (indicatif futur antrieur)
I had spoke j'eus parl I spoke je parlai I have spoken J'ai parl I speak je parle I will speak je parlerai I will have spoken J'aurai parl
you (fam) tu eus parl you (fam) tu parlas you (fam) tu as parl you (fam) tu parles you (fam) tu parleras you (fam) tu auras parl
he/she/it il/elle eut parl he/she/it il parla he/she/it il a parl he/she/it il parle he/she/it il parlera he/she/it il aura parl
we nous emes parl we nous parlmes we nous avons parl we nous parlons we nous parlerons we nous aurons parl
you (unfam/pl) vous etes parl you (unfam/pl) vous parltes you (unfam/pl) vous avez parl you (unfam/pl) vous parlez you (unfam/pl) vous parlerez you (unfam/pl) vous aurez parl
they ils/elles eurent parl they ils parlrent they ils ont parl they ils parlent they ils parleront they ils auront parl
If the verb uses tre (to be): -ir verbs: -is,-is,-it,-imes,-ites,-irent If the verb uses tre (to be): -ir verbs: -s,-s,-t,-ssons,-ssez,-ssent Keep the verb ending and add: If the verb uses tre (to be):
fus,fus,fut,fmes,ftes,furent -re verbs: -is,-is,-it,-imes,-ites,-irent suis,es,est,sommes,tes,sont -re verbs: -s,-s,--,-ons,-ez,-ent -ir verbs: -ai,-as,-a,-ons,-ez,-ont serai,seras,sera,serons,serez,seront
plus past particle plus past particle -re verbs: -ai,-as,-a,-ons,-ez,-ont plus past particle

Most common pass compos verbs w/

The French past anterior is the literary
The pass simple, simple past or preterite, tre: advenir, aller, arriver, dcder,
equivalent of the past perfect. Used in literature often follows: aprs que (after),
also called the pass dfini is the literary descendre, devenir, entrer, intervenir, Note: To conjugate French compound tenses,
and historical accounts to indicate an action in aussitt que (as soon as), ds que
equivalent of the pass compos in the monter, mourir, natre, partir, passer, French has around 300 irregular verbs (or you need an auxiliary verb, usually avoir (to
the past that occurred before another action in (as soon as), esprer que (to hope
French language, used predominantly in parvenir, provenir, redevenir, remonter, "group 3"). have) or tre (to be), plus the past participle of
the past. Because it is a literary tense, you that), lorsque (when), quand (when),
formal writing (including history and renatre, rentrer, ressortir, rester, the desired verb.
don't need to practice conjugating it, but it is une fois que (once), etc.
literature) and formal speech. retourner, revenir, sortir, survenir,
important for you to be able to recognize it
tomber, venir.

<---------------------------------------------------------------- PAST ---------------------PRESENT------> FUTURE----------------------------------->

Pluperfect Imperfect Past Imperative Present Imperative Present Participle Past Conditional
(indicatif plus-que-parfait) (indicatif imparfait) (impratif pass) (impratif) (participe prsent) (Second Past)
I had spoken J'avais parl I was speaking je parlais aie parl! sois tu parle! I had spoken j'eusse parl
you (fam) tu avais parl you (fam) tu parlais ayons parl! soyons nous parlons! you (fam) tu eusses parl
he/she/it il avait parl he/she/it il parlait ayez parl! soyez vous parlez! Past Participle he/she/it il et parl
we nous avions parl we nous parlions In French, the imperative mood expresses an order, request, or directive we nous eussions parl
(participe pass)
you (unfam/pl) vous aviez parl you (unfam/pl) vous parliez and is created with regular verbs by using the verb directly. The you (unfam/pl) vous eussiez parl
they ils avaient parl they ils parlaient parl ayant parl they ils eussent parl
imperative drops the subject, uses the present tense of a verb and uses
If the verb uses tre (to be): -ir verbs: -ais,-ais,-ait,-ions,-iez,-aient the conjugations of three subject pronouns: tu (familiar), vous (unfamiliar), Past Participle (reg verbs) formed by dropping infinitive ending of a verb and
tais,tais,tait,tions,tiez,taient plus and nous (when including yourself in the group). Regular -er, -ir, and -re adding: [] for ER verbs, [i] for IR verbs, [u] for RE verbs
-re verbs: -ais,-ais,-ait,-ions,-iez,-aient
past particle verbs follow the same pattern in commands.
Past Imperfect irregular verbs to know (past participle): acqurir
One of the clauses shows a Yellow indicates 1st year students must know these tenses (acquis), apprendre (appris), atteindre (atteint), avoir (eu), boire (bu),
The subjunctive is needed when the Wish/will, Emotion, Impersonal and conjugations. Ex: comprendre (compris), conduire (conduit), connatre (connu), craindre
sentence contains two different clauses expressions, Recommendations, Present & Imperfect of these 2 auxiliary verbs (craint), croire (cru), dcouvrir (dcouvert), devoir (d), dire (dit), crire
(a dependent and a main clause) with two Doubt/desire/denial, or one of the have: avoir (to have) ai,as,a,avons,avez,ont (crit), tre (t), faire (fait), finir (fini), instruire (instruit), joindre (joint), lire
different subjects. The clauses are joined clauses requires the subjunctive in am/is/are: tre (to be) suis,es,est,sommes,tes,sont (lu), mettre (mis), ouvrir (ouvert), paratre (paru), parler (parl), peindre
by que (that) or, by qui (who) --> some other respect. Memory had: avoir (to have) avais,avais,avait,avions,aviez,avaient (peint), pouvoir (pu), prendre (pris), produire (produit), savoir (su), souffrir
Aid: (WEIRD) (souffert), suivre (suivi), tenir (tenu), vendre (vendu), venir (venu), voir (vu),
was/were: tre (to be) tais,tais,tait,tions,tiez,taient
vouloir (voulu).

<----------------------------------------------------------------------------- PAST ------------------- PRESENT------> CONDITIONAL

Pluperfect Subjunctive Imperfect Subjunctive Past Subjunctive Present Subjunctive Conditional Past Conditional
that...I had plus-que-parfait) (subjonctif imparfait) (subjonctif pass) (subjonctif prsent) (conditionnel prsent) (First Past)

spoken que j'eusse parl that I spoke que je parlasse that I had spoke que j'aie parl that I speak que je parle I would speak je parlerais I would have spoken J'aurais parl
that you (fam) que tu eusses parl that you (fam) que tu parlasses that you (fam) que tu aies parl that you (fam) que tu parles you (fam) tu parlerais you (fam) tu aurais parl
that he/she/it qu'il et parl that he/she/it qu'il parlt that he/she/it qu'il ait parl
que nous ayons that he/she/it qu'il parle he/she/it il parlerait he/she/it il aurait parl
that we que nous eussions parl that we que nous parlassions that we parl that we que nous parlions we nous parlerions we nous aurions parl
that you que vous eussiez parl that you que vous parlassiez that you que vous ayez parl that you que vous parliez you (unfam/pl) vous parleriez you (unfam/pl) vous auriez parl
that they qu'ils eussent parl that they qu'ils parlassent that they qu'ils aient parl that they qu'ils parlent they ils parleraient they ils auraient parl
-ir and -er verbs: same endings -ir / -er verbs: If the verb uses tre (to be): Keep the verb ending and add: Keep the verb ending and add: If the verb uses tre (to be):
-isse,-isses,-t,-issions,-issiez,-issent sois,sois,soit,soyons,soyez,soient -ir verbs: same -ir verbs: same serais,serais,serait,serions,seriez,seraient
plus past particle -re verbs: same -re verbs: same plus past particle
Conjuctions Adverbs Personal Pronouns Negatives Demonstrative Adjective
alors que whereas bas downwardly Subject Dir Obj/Ind Obj Reflexive Stressed neplus no longer Female Male these-/those
comme as cause de because of je me*/me* me* moi nejamais never this/-that cette ce (cet) ces
de faon que so that alors then tu te*/te* te* toi nerien nothing cet is used in front of masculine nouns which begin with a vowel and most words
de manire so that aprs afterward il/elle/on le/la lui** se lui/elle/soi neaucun(e) not a sinlge one beginning with h
de sorte que so that assez enough nous nous/nous nous nous neque only add -ci to the end of nouns for close
et and aussi also, too vous vous/vous vous vous nepersonne nobody add -l to the end of nouns for far
et...et both..and beaucoup much, a lot ils/elles les/leur se eux/elles neni neithernor celui, celle, ci, ceci, cela, and l are used for "that". Celui is masculine, and its plural is
mais but bientt soon *in the imperative, me and te sometimes change to moi and nenulle part nowhere ceux. Celle is feminine, and its plural is celles. Ceci is the contraction of ce + ici (this +
nanmoins nonetheless davantage more toi **changes based on dirrect/indirect object. Use of "ne ... pas de" in negative
here). Cela is the contraction of ce + l (this + there). Comparisons like to use celui-ci
ou or d'habitude usually Pluralizing Nouns Pass Compos sentences, is because the partitives and
and celle-ci depending on masc/fem. i.e. [This masculine one] is bigger than [that
ou...ou either...or dedans inside Singular Plural Uses avoir for every verb indefinite articles become "de" before the
dehors outside -eau -x masculine one] --[Celui-ci] est plus grand que [celui l]. If feminine, use celle-ci vice
parce que because except 14 verbs that use noun (unless the verb is tre) i.e. Partitive:
pour que in order that, so dj already -eu -x celui-ci or celle l vice celui l.
tre. They are DR MRS Je prends du pain et du beurre (I'm having
pourtant however depuis since -ou -s* VANDERTRAMPP (Devenir some bread and butter), Negative: Je ne Possessive Adjectives
quand when dessous below -al -aux Adjective Masculine Feminine Plural
Revenir Monter Rester prends pas de pain ou de beurre (I am not
que that dessus above -ail -aux my ma mon mes
Sortir Venir Aller Natre having any bread or butter). Indefinite: J'ai
quoique although donc then -s / -x /-z nothing added your (tu) ta ton tes
encore still, yet, again *some -ou will add -x, in Descendre Entrer un chien (I have a dog), Negative: Je n'ai his/her/its sa son ses
si if
soit...soit either... or ensemble together general, all others take -s Retourner Tomber Rentrer pas de chien (I don't have a dog)....but our notre notre nos
tandis que whereas ensuite afterwards Pronouns Arriver Mourir Partir) when the verb is tre: C'est une chatte your (vous) votre votre vos
Prepositions environ about who qui Questions brune (It's a brown cat), Negative: Ce n'est their leur leur leurs
to ici here whom que how comment pas une chatte brune (It's not a brown Possessive Pronouns
la (f), au (m) to + the jamais ever which lequel what qu'est que cat). Masculine Feminine Plural M/F
aprs after l there whose dont what que Avant vs. Devant mine le mien la mienne les miens/miennes
aux (p) to + them l-bas over there this ce when quand Both mean "before" but avant has to do yours le tien la tienne les tiens/tiennes
avant/aprs before/after loin far that a who qui his/hers le sien la sienne les siens/siennes
with time and devant has to do with
avec with longtemps a long time this ceci why pourquoi ours le ntre la ntre les notres
position. i.e. Before you go to lunch, get in
chez at maintenant now the one celle /celui where o yours le vtre la vtre les votres
contre against mal badly Definite Articles Adjective Endings front of me -> Avant d'aller djeuner, aller
theirs le leur la leur les leurs
d'aprs according to mme even masc le Male Female au-devant de moi. Common Expressions: Avoir / Etre
dans into moins less feminine la - -e Il y a avoir chaud to be hot avoir de la chance to be lucky
de from nagure recently plural les -e - Il y a is made up of three words: il the avoir froid to be cold j'ai froid I'm cold
de la (f), du (m) from + the parfois sometimes Indefinite Articles -f -ve avoir peur to be afraid tu avois raison you were right
subject "it", y the adverbial pronoun
depuis since peu few masc un -x -se avoir raison to be right vou aviez tort you were wrong
"there", a the third person singular
derrire behind peut-tre perhaps, maybe feminine une -er -re avoir tort to be wrong tre de retour to be back
une, une, des changes present tense of avoir (to have). Adds up
des (p) from + them puis after -an -anne avoir faim to be hungry tre en retard to be late
devant/derrire before/behind quand when to de when used in negative to "there is/there are". avoir soif to be thirsty tre en avance to be early
-en -enne
durant during quelquefois sometimes Partitive Articles -on -onne Que vs. Qui avoir sommeil to be sleepy tre d'accord to agree
en in si if, so de -el -elle que=that, and "qui"=who/whom" but avoir honte to be ashamed tre sur le point de to be about to
entre ... et between/and soudain suddenly du (de + le) -eil -eille avoir besoin de to need tre en train de to be in the act of
when you have subordinate clauses (two
envers reverse souvent often de la -et -ette / -te avoir l'air de to look like tre enrhumee to have a cold
sentences with one introducing the other)
jusqu' ce que until surtout especially des (de + les) avoir l'intention de to intend to je suis en retard I am late
jusque until tard late they must be joined by que. elle sera d'accord
With food & drink, put a "de", when an adjective avoir envie de to feel like she will agree
malgr despite tt soon, early Time and Weather C'est vs. Il est
or "du" (de + le), or "des" (de + describes a masculine and
par by/per toujours always, still Il faitsoleil It issunny il est is used to describe a person, unmodified adverb, unmodified noun and
les) where applicable, because feminine noun, use the
parmi among trs very Il estune heure It isone o'clock prepositional phrase. C'est is used to describe a situation, modified adverb, modified
it is an inexact quantity like the masculine plural form
pendant during trop too much Nous sommes Today is noun, proper name and stressed pronoun.
pour for vite quickly
sans without Comparatives
sauf except Many adverbs are formed by adding -ment to the masculine singular form of an adjective ending in a vowel, when the masculine singular form of an adjective ends in a consonant, the adverb is morethan plus
selon according to formed from the feminine singular form: poli poliment, rapide rapidement doux (douce) doucement naturel (naturelle) naturellement. Adjectives ending in-antand-entbecome adverbs lessthan moins
sous under ending in-ammentand-emment: suffisant suffisamment, evident videmment. Exception: lent lentement irregular-mentadverbs: gentil gentiment, bref brivement. Some adverbs are asas aussi
sur on related to adjectives but do not end in-ment: bon bien; mauvais mal, petit peu; meilleur mieux. Some adverbs do not come from adjectives; others are composed of several words. Adverbs not asas
travers through of frequency: jamais(never), de temps en temps(sometimes), souvent(often), toujours(always). Adverbs of quantity: beaucoup(much, many), peu(little), moins(less, fewer), plus(more), tant(so much, nepas si
vers towards so many), trop(too much, too many), autant(as much, as many), assez(enough). Others: trs(very), dj(already), d'abord(first), tt(early), tard(late), peu prs(approximately), vite(quickly),
voici/voil this is/that is ensemble(together), plutt(rather [more likely]), exprs(on purpose), Most adverbs that modify verbs come immediately after the conjugated part of the verb.

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