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Field Test Report

ASTM E 2128 Water Leakage Investigation

Eudora Welty Library


300 North State Street
Jackson, MS 39201

C lien t: Patty Fu r r
Ja ck s o n Hin d s Lib rar y System

Testing Date
18 - 20 Aug 2015

13 Sept 2015

2725 AUGUSTUS RD, NAVARRE, FL 32566 TELEPHONE: 850-685-6023 FAX: 850-939-8557 EMAIL: jkirkland@bli-testing.com
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
1.0 Testing Summary and Recommendations 3
1.1 Testing Summary 3
1.2 Recommendations 5
2.0 Leakage Areas Identied 8
3.0 Test and Inspection Areas Identied 9
4.0 Test Area 1, Insp 12 Roof Drain Between RTU-1 and Penthouse 10
4.1 General Information 10
4.2 Building Construction Materials 10
4.3 ASTM D 5759 Flood Test 1 Roof Drain Field Notes 10
5.0 Test Area 2 Spray Nozzle & Flood Test RTU-1 Base and Housing 18
5.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 & 2 Field Notes 18
6.0 Test Area 3 Roof Drain Between RTU-2 and Penthouse 21
6.3 ASTM D 5759 Flood Test 1 Roof Drain Field Notes 21
7.0 Test Area 4 Spray Nozzle & Flood Test RTU-2 Base and Housing 23
7.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 & 2 Field Notes 23
8.0 Test Area 5 Spray Rack Test West Elevation Penthouse Tower Wall 26
8.3 ASTM E 1105 Spray Rack Test 1 Field Notes 26
9.0 Test Area 6 Spray Rack Test Penthouse West Elevation Wall Above Steel Door 33
9.3 ASTM E 1105 Spray Rack Test 1 Field Notes 33
10.0 Test Area 7 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test Parapet Cap Above Steel Door 40
10.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes 40
11.0 Test Area 8 Flood & Water Flow Tests Above Technology Room 46
11.3 Flood and Water Flow Test 1 Field Notes 46
12.0 Test Area 9 Flood Test Above 2nd Floor Ofces 55
12.3 Flood and Water Flow Test 1 Field Notes 55
13.0 Test Area 10 Spray Nozzle Test Above Pattys and Operators Ofces 58
13.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes 58
14.0 Test Area 11 Spray Nozzle Test Exhaust Fan Hood Above Staircase 68
14.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes 68
15.0 Test Area 14 Flood & Spray Nozzle Test Above 1st Floor Meeting Room 70
15.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes 70
16.0 Inspection Area 13 TPO Roof Parapet Perimeter 76
17.0 Inspection Area 15 Exterior Building Walls 85

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1.0 Testing Summary and Recommendations

1.1 Testing Summary


Building Leakage Investigation & Testing (BLI&T) was contracted by Jackson Hinds Library System
Executive Director Patty Furr to conduct a series of water spray and ood tests to determine the
cause(s) of water leakage from the rst oor meeting rooms ceiling cavity and the ve areas on
the second oor ceiling cavity.

BLI&T arrived 18 Aug 2015at 8:00 AM and met Laurn with building maintenance to begin a
preliminary inspection of all identied leakage areas in the building and determine their status.
This inspection revealed that none of them were actively leaking since it had not rained in the
previous weeks. During the preliminary inspection of this building conducted on 19 Jun 2015,
there were six water leakage areas identied; some of which were actively leaking. After this
inspection today, thirteen leakage areas were identied. All of these leakage areas are identied
in a roof plan located in section 2 of this report.

All together, twelve areas were spray and/or ood tested and three inspections were conducted.
All of these areas are identied in the table of contents and on a roof plan view drawing located
in section three of this report.

The overall results of this series of water tests revealed a number of facts. First, the two rooftop
HVAC units (RTU-1 and RTU-2) closest to the penthouse that were ood and spray tested did not
leak. These tests were seen in test areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. This means that the leakage seen
underneath them during the preliminary inspection was from water pooling and migrating
underneath the roof membrane from other source(s).

Second, none of the retrot roof drains ood tested leaked between the drain ange and the TPO
roof membrane. However, water did leak between the newly installed retrot drain gasket and
the drain pipe at the end of the ood test when the water owed through the drain. This leakage
was seen from the roof drain closest to roof top unit number one (RTU-1) and the rst oor
meeting room roof drain in test areas 1 and 14. When the retrot drain nearest to RTU-1 was
removed, it revealed that the its compression gasket had not been tightened during installation
which allowed water to bypass it and pool on the structural concrete underneath the roof
membrane. One of the installers stated that they did not tighten the screws that compress this
gasket on the retrot drains. Water bypassing this gasket caused it to leak through penetrations in
the structural concrete underneath RTU-1 within four minutes of removing the pneumatic test
plug from this drain.

Third, water leakage did occur through voids in the sealant between the top edge of the TPO roof
membrane and the structural brick wall along the parapet walls, the eld of the brick walls,
underneath the penthouse steel door frame, underneath windows, and underneath brackets
installed along the side of the precast parapet caps. Securing the top edge of a roof membrane
with a termination bar and sealant along is not adequate. In a structural brick wall such as this, it
should have a roof ashing sealed into a reglet cut into the brick mortar joint and a counter
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ashing installed into this roof ashings hem that also laps over the top of the TPO roof
membrane to protect it from direct exposure to rain. Water leakage from this condition were
seen in test areas 5, 6, 8, 10, & 14.

Fourth, water is leaking through cracks and deteriorated mortar joints in the structural brick walls.
Once water penetrates the structural brick wall, it bypasses the TPO roof membrane and pools on
the structural concrete roof where it leaks inside at penetrations through it and cracks or cold
joints in it. This was another source that caused water leakage through cold joints in the concrete
ceiling by the cargo elevator and below RTU-1. Also, water wicked completely through the
structural brick wall and wet its interior side thereby causing the white interior formations
(eforescence) on the brick. All of these conditions were seen in test areas 5, 6, and 10 while
spray testing the exterior structural brick walls outside of the penthouse and the operators ofce.

Fifth, water is leaking through deteriorated mortar joints, sealant voids, cracks, and improper
terminations in the precast parapet caps. Depending upon where these joints have failed
determines whether the water leaks into the core of the brick and downward through it or leaks
behind the roof membrane onto the structural concrete roof. These areas as well as the improper
termination of the TPO roof membrane described above were the sources of water leakage into
the operators ofce, the stairwell, and a new area of leakage below RTU-1 as seen in test area
10. Also, these areas were a source of water leakage by the cargo elevator and below RTU -1 as
seen in test area 7.

Sixth, water is leaking inside the technology room in two locations between the oor drains and
the steel sleeve installed into the concrete oor/ceiling slab. This leak is caused by a plumbing
issue. The third leak into the technology room is being caused by the same conditions discussed
in facts four and ve above as well as many unsealed penetrations through this structural brick
wall above this area that allow water to enter its core and bypass the TPO roof membrane. These
penetrations allowing this leakage are the older steel windows with extremely deteriorated
sealant, precast sills below the windows with extremely deteriorated sealant and/or mortar, pipe
penetrations without sealant, and at metal plates placed over old penetrations without sealant.
These leaks were seen in test area 8.

Seventh, while spray testing the exterior brick wall in test area 10, severe water leakage occurred
from the head of the storefront windows in Pattys ofce. Water leakage such as this only occurs
when water runs down the brick core into their head or bypasses their exterior perimeter sealant
at the head. This leak was not reported during the preliminary inspection or the pretest
inspection. However, evidence seen on other windows points to this type of leakage as being a
wide spread issue. This leakage may not have been reported since the part of the water leaking
inside runs back into the window through joints in its sill and part of it runs into the wall cavity
behind the drywall where it cannot be seen.

Eight, when the pneumatic test plugs were removed from the retrot drains in test area 9, little to
no water drained from the roof. The drain pipes appeared to be fully to partially clogged. Due to
this slow rate of drainage, it took approximately twenty-ve minutes for this water to drain from

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this section of the roof. During this test, no signs of water leakage were found in the ofces
below.

After this series of testing, BLI&T inspected the perimeter of the parapet wall from the roof. This is
inspection area 13 which is shown in section 16 of this report. This inspection revealed that all
the issues described in facts 3 and 5 above were widespread along the parapet walls. In addition,
there was a large amount of metal framing and equipment along the south parapet wall that was
not properly supported to prevent damage to the TPO roof membrane and not properly secured
to prevent being blown over and damaging the roof membrane or blowing off of the roof. Also, a
nearby satellite dish was properly secured to a stanchion pole that had a TPO boot installed
around its base. However, the TPO boot terminated against the upper part of the two piece
stanchion pole which can cause water leakage below the roof membrane. The top of the hood
next to this equipment where the cables ran through the roof was not secured which could allow
it to blow off. Also, these open holes will allow water to leak through them.

Two other concerns were seen along the parapet walls. The rst one was steel pipe penetrations
through the roof membrane that did not appear to be a vent stack pipe. The top of these pipes
were not capped off. Any pipe penetration other than a vent stack pipe should be capped. These
pipes should be further investigation to determine their purpose. Second, the overow scupper
drains through the parapet wall appear to be to high above the surface of the roof. This is a
structural concern for the concrete roof slab since it may not be able to support the weight of this
much water. This should be determined by a structural engineer.

Lastly, the buildingss exterior walls were briey inspected. This is inspection area 14 which is
shown in section 17 of this report. This inspection revealed that the cracking along the exterior
structural brick walls is widespread around the building. These cracks appear to be more
concentrated at the corners of the building. Also, signs of eforescence (white deposits) can be
seen forming on the brick below or from these cracks. As stated earlier, eforescence is caused
by water repeatedly entering the structural brick wall and saturating its mortar. This type of
saturation releases minerals such as salt and lime which are left being on the surface of the brick
as the water leaks out of the brick at cracks or debonded joints as it drys. This is similar to how a
stalactite forms over time in a cave. However, this process deteriorates the structural brick wall
causing it mortar to fail and form more cracks which further accelerates this process.

This report is organized into sections that are identied in the Table of Contents. Each of these
sections will be discussed in detail. Photos and captions are used in each section to help the
reader understand the written description.

1.2 Recommendations
Ensure the seal between the retrot drains and the drain pipes are tight to prevent water from
leaking underneath the roof membrane and then into the building.
Have a plumber determine the cause of the blockage in the drain pipes on the north elevation
east roof.

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Have a plumber determine the cause of water leakage through the oor drains inside the
penthouse above the technology room.
At all parapet walls, extend the TPO roof membrane over the precast parapet cap and down
onto its outer face. Terminate the lower outer edge of the TPO roof membrane with a
continuous metal clip and install a metal coping cap over it with its top surface sloped toward
the roof. Properly overlap and seal all metal coping cap joints. Do not seal the lower edges of
the coping cap along the roof membrane and structural brick wall. Also, along the main roofs
west and north sides, two brick walls turn a few feet onto the roof. These should be completely
covered by the TPO roof membrane and capped out to the exterior side of the main parapet
wall as described above. Additionally, the roof above the rst oor meeting room will be more
difcult to wrap the TPO roof membrane over the parapet was since it has a sawtooth shape
with a precast parapet cap between the teeth and a continuously installed precast parapet cap
over the top of its teeth. Likely, the area between the teeth will have to be lled and the TPO
roof membrane wrapped completely over the continuous parapet cap as described above. This
will change the look but will be the best and most economical choice from a waterproong
perspective.
Add a metal roof ashing set in sealant along a reglet cut into the brick mortar just above the
TPO roof membranes termination bar on the structural brick walls. The lower side of this roof
ashing should have a hem on its bottom edge for a roof counter ashing to set into. Then, the
roof counter ashing should extend downward and completely lap over the top of the roof
membrane. Together, they will prevent water from reaching the top of the TPO roof membrane.
For the structural brick walls, there area two options.
Option 1: Clean all exterior brick walls in accordance with manufacturers instructions.
Repair the cracks and replace the deteriorated mortar on all exterior structural brick walls.
Afterwards, coat the entire exterior with a clear siloxane type sealer with a higher perm
rating (30 to 40 perms). Ensure that the type of sealant used to seal penetrations through
the brick (door frames, window, pipes, roof ashing, etc...) will be compatible with the
selected siloxane sealer. The sealants may have to be placed rst depending upon
compatibility with the siloxane.
Option 2: Clean all exterior brick walls in accordance with manufacturers instructions.
Remove the loose and deteriorated mortar on all exterior brick walls. Use a compatible
sealant and/or brick repair material to ll all gaps and form a continuous substrate. Seal all
penetrations through the brick (door frames, window, pipes, roof ashing, etc...). Apply a
waterproof coating over all exterior brick walls. This coating will be applied to the building
like paint but is actually a waterproof coating. This coating must be compatible with the
applied sealant/brick repair material and all sealant applied to seal all penetrations through
the brick. This coating must be applied over the sealants.
Inspect all pipe penetrations through the roofs. Ensure all pipe penetrations are a plumbing
vent stack or something required that does not allow water penetration below the roof
membrane or into the building. Remove all that are not needed.
Remove the framing and equipment not need on the south elevation of the main roof. For the
equipment that is needed, make sure that it is installed on properly designed stanchion legs that
have a TPO boot properly installed around its base to prevent water leakage.

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The upper section of the satellite dishs stanchion pole on the south elevation of the main roof
should be removed to inspected its bottom pole to ensure that it is not open to the underside of
the roof membrane. Also, the top section of the bottom pole should have a stop to limit the
vertical movement of the upper pole. The TPO boot must seal against the lower stanchion pole
where the upper stanchion pole cannot contact the TPO boot.
A structural engineer should be hired to determine the correct height of all roofs over ow
scupper to prevent structural damage and/or its failure.

Building Leakage Investigation & Testing


Written by:

Jim Kirkland
President

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2.0 Leakage Areas Identied
This second oor plan view drawing shows the areas identied as having water leakage from the
concrete ceiling. The red shapes are areas where the water leakage was identied to BLI&T
during the preliminary inspection conducted on 19 Jun 2015 and the blue areas are where water
leakage was found and/or identied after arrival to conduct these water leakage tests.

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3.0 Test and Inspection Areas Identied
The following roof plan view drawing shows the location and number of the areas tested and
inspected during this water leakage investigation.

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4.0 Test Area 1, Insp 12 Roof Drain Between RTU-1 and Penthouse
18 Aug 2015
4.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1, Inspection #: 12

4.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

4.1.2 Client: Endora Welty Library, Patty Furr

4.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Jim Kirkland
2. Dave Anders
3. Brian Connors
4. Blake Gladstone

4.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test (All or Part of Testing)


1. Laurn Eudora Welty Library
2. Philip Barnes City of Jackson MS
3. Carl Buckner City of Jackson MS
4. Mike McBride JBHM Architecture
5. Chris Creely Central Roong

4.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Cladding #: None
2. Wall Construction: Structural Brick Walls with Precast Parapet Caps
3. Weather Barrier: None
4. Exterior Sealants: Urethane (Extremely Deteriorated)
5. Window Sealant: Original Steel Frame Single Hung
6. Roof System: New TPO with termination bars and sealant along parapet and penthouse walls.

4.3 ASTM D 5759 Flood Test 1 Roof Drain Field Notes


Start: 10:13 AM Stop: 11:27 AM Date: 18 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

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Photo #: 1 Test 1 Photo #: 2 Test 1


Upon arrival, the underside of RTU 1 was inspected from the No signs of water leakage could be seen from the underside of
underside. this HVAC unit. It was currently operating. According to Patty,
it had not rained in weeks.

Photo #: 3 Test 1 Photo #: 4 Test 1


One of the concrete slab penetrations below this RTU was The primary reason to inspect this penetration is to study its
inspected. layering above the structural concrete slab.

Photo #: 5 Test 1 Photo #: 6 Test 1


Moving closer, (red shape) on top of the concrete roof was a Looking below RTU 1, this unit was installed on top of the
layer of lite-weight concrete and an asphalt roof membrane. upper layer of lite-weight concrete.
(Blue shape) Over that was the base of a second roof system
consisting of a layer of lite-weight concrete, styrofoam, and Understanding the layering of the roof system helps BLI&T
another layer of lite-weight concrete. 11 understand how the water could be owing below the new
TPO roof system.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 7 Test 1 Photo #: 8 Test 1


The rst test will be a ood test of the drain between RTU-1 After speaking with the City of Jacksons Carl Buckner, BLI&T
and the penthouse. learned that all of the roong layers described in photo 5 were
removed except underneath the RTUs. This means that the
TPO roof membranes insulation was installed on the structural
concrete.

Photo #: 9 Test 1 Photo #: 10 Test 1


To begin the ood test of this area, a pneumatic test ball was At 10:13 AM, the water was turned on to begin ooding this
inserted into this retrot drain. (Note: this will only test the section of the TPO roof membrane.
drain to TPO roof membrane juncture.)

Photo #: 11 Test 1 Photo #: Test 1


At 10:49 AM, a view showing the amount of water on the roof By 11:25 AM, the water pool had formed around RTU-1 and to
membrane around the drain and RTU-1. the penthouse wall. No signs of water leakage were found
inside the building.
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Photo #: Test 1 Photo #: 14 Test 1


At this time, the water pool around the drain was At 11:27 AM, the test ball was removed to drain the water from
approximately three inches deep. the roof.

Photo #: 15 Test 1 Photo #: 16 Test 1


There was a good ow of water through this drain. At 11:31 AM, four minutes later, water was found leaking from
the roof drain side of RTU-1.

Photo #: 17 Test 1 Photo #: 18 Test 1


Moving closer, the water was dripping from the edge of the Numerous drips of water could be seen along the rebar at the
concrete beside this duct penetration. edge and through some of the cracks in the concrete.

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Photo #: Test 1 Photo #: 20 Test 1


To the right of this concrete penetration, water was leaking out Afterwards, this drain was inspected more closely.
of this drilled hole in the concrete and dripping off of the duct.

Photo #: 21 Test 1 Photo #: 22 Test 1


The rst issue noticed was that one of the bolts was not The only other path that can allow water to leak underneath
secured. However, water leaking through this could allow the roof membrane while a large amount of water ows down
some leakage but would not cause the leakage seen so rapidly the drain or higher winds is the compression plug at its bottom.
after the drain plug was removed.

Photo #: 23 Test 1 Photo #: 24 Test 1


For this compression plug to form a water tight seal to the drain BLI&T returned below RTU-1 at 12:45 PM. The rate of and
pipe, these three screws must be tightened to expand it which amount of water leakage from this same area had increased
will prevent water leakage between them. even through no further testing had occurred.
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Photo #: 25 Test 1 Photo #: 26 Test 1


A view showing the increased areas of water leakage near one A view showing the increased areas of water leakage near the
side of this concrete penetration. other side of this concrete penetration.

Photo #: 27 Inspection 12 Photo #: 28 Inspection 12


This next series of photos skips forward to Thursday, 30 Aug During this initial attempt at removing the nuts, one of the
2015 after all of the testing on this roof was complete. Chris bolts broke off of the drain ange.
Creely with Central Roong sent a worker to remove this drain.

Photo #: 29 Inspection 12 Photo #: 30 Inspection 12


The roong worker cut the TPO roof membrane around the When the TPO roof membrane was lifted, water could be seen
drain to expose the insulation and concrete around it while on the structural concrete between the drain and the roof
Chris observed. insulation. This area should be dry. Water here can cause the
adhesive on the roof insulation to release.
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Photo #: 31 Inspection 12 Photo #: 32 Inspection 12


A closer view of the previous photo showing the water below The retrot drain was lifted out of the drain pipe without
the roof insulation. The roof insulation was not bonded in this loosening the expansion plug showing that it had not been
area. tightened. The expansion plug must be tightened to form a
water tight seal to the pipe and prevent it from being lifted.

Photo #: 33 Inspection 12 Photo #: 34 Inspection 12


The area around the drain was wet. This could only occur A closer view of the previous photo showing the wet debris in
when the water draining during the test owed upward past the the lower tier of the existing drain bowl.
expansion seal and into this area. This would not have
occurred if water leaked between the TPO membrane and the
drain since the retrot drain head covered this area.

Photo #: 35 Inspection 12 Photo #: 36 Inspection 12


The top surface was also wet. This could only occur if the The retrot drain tube was measured at fourteen inches long.
water draining during the test owed upward past the 16
expansion seal and out of this bowl.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 37 Inspection 12 Photo #: 38 Inspection 12


BLI&T measured fourteen inches down into the existing bowl Looking down into the drain, the retrot expansion seal sits in
to determine where the bottom of this retrot drain tube would the drain pipe below the existing drain. This area should have
set. been cleaned with a rotary wire brush.

Photo #: 39 Inspection 12 Photo #: 40 Inspection 12


By measuring this seal, BLI&T could see that it had not been After this investigation, the TPO membrane around this drain
compressed to form the seal to the drain pipe. was repaired.

Photo #: 41 Inspection 12
Sealant was injected into the hole where the broken bolt had
broken off.

All of these retrot drains should be removed, the pipe


cleaned, reinstalled, and the expansion plug tightened to form 17
and water tight seal.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
5.0 Test Area 2 Spray Nozzle & Flood Test RTU-1 Base and Housing
18 Aug 2015
5.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

5.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Passed

5.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

5.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

5.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

5.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

5.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 & 2 Field Notes


Start: 1:12 PM Stop: 2:13 PM Date: 18 Aug 2015 Spray Test
Start: 4:36 PM Stop: 4:46 AM Date: 18 Aug 2015 Flood Test

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Notes: The water pressure supplied to the nozzle was set to 30 psi. The spray time for each area
will be approximately equal to one minute for each foot of frame sprayed. However, more time
may be required to document/troubleshoot a leak or less time required if an area leaks to rapidly.

Results: Passed

Photo #: 42 Photo #: 43
The beginning of test 1 (1:12 PM), AAMA 501.2 hand held A closer view of the previous photo showing the angle and
spray nozzle. For the rst segment of this test, the nozzle was distance that the nozzle was positioned to spray the base of
angled approximately 15 degrees below horizontal to spray this housing.
two sides of RTU-1 housings base to TPO roof membrane
juncture for a period of fteen minutes.
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Photo #: 44 Photo #: 45
The water pressure was set to 30 psi. The underside of RTU-1 was monitored for additional signs of
water intrusion; since the leak seen earlier continued to drip.
No new signs of water intrusion were found.

Photo #: 46 Photo #: 47
At 1:28 PM, the nozzle was moved to spray the other two sides At 1:43 PM, the nozzle was moved upward to spray the top
of RTU-1s base to roof membrane juncture. No new signs of two sides of RTU-1s housing.
water intrusion were found.

Photo #: 48 Photo #: 49
A closer view of the previous photo showing the angle and At 1:58 PM, the nozzle was moved to spray the other two sides
distance that the nozzle was positioned to spray the top of this of RTU-1s housing.
housing. No new signs of water intrusion were found.

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Photo #: 50 Photo #: 51
At 2:14 PM, water was found inside RTU-1. Looking upward into the unit through the opening in the
concrete, a drop of water was found on the bottom of a chiller
pipes valve. This water did not drip throughout this test.

Photo #: 52 Photo #: 53
After this test segment was stopped, the housing was opened to This water drop was caused by condensation on exposed metal
inspect this area. parts below the dew-point of the air, not a water leak.

Photo #: 54 Photo #: 55
At 4:36 PM, a hose was placed in RTU-1s condensate pan to This water was directed to all corners of the condensate pan for
ll it with water to ensure it did not leak. ten minutes. This test ended at 4:46 PM. No signs of water
leakage was found inside the building.

20 These two water tests prove that the water leakage seen in the
building is not from RTU-1 or the roof membrane around it.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
6.0 Test Area 3 Roof Drain Between RTU-2 and Penthouse
18 Aug 2015
6.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

6.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Passed

6.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

6.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

6.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

6.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

6.3 ASTM D 5759 Flood Test 1 Roof Drain Field Notes


Start: 1:12 PM Stop: 2:13 PM Date: 18 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Notes: The water pressure supplied to the nozzle was set to 30 psi. The spray time for each area
will be approximately equal to one minute for each foot of frame sprayed. However, more time
may be required to document/troubleshoot a leak or less time required if an area leaks to rapidly.

Results: Passed

Photo #: 56 Photo #: 57
The next test will be a ood test of the drain between RTU-2 This drain is much further away from RTU-2 that seen during
and the penthouse. test 1.

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B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 58 Photo #: 59
The pneumatic test ball was installed into this retrot drain. At 2:34 PM, two water supplies were turned on to begin
ooding this section of the roof.

Photo #: 60 Photo #: 61
By 3:16 PM, the water had spread considerably but still had At 3:33 PM, thunder and rain began to move in and the drain
not reached the HVAC unit. plug was removed. The water level had reached approximately
four inches high at the drain.

Photo #: 62 Photo #: 63
This drain had a good ow through it. The entire underside of the test area and RTU-2 was monitored
for signs of water leakage. No signs of water leakage were
found inside the building in this area.
22
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
7.0 Test Area 4 Spray Nozzle & Flood Test RTU-2 Base and Housing
18 & 19 Aug 2015
7.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

7.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Passed

7.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

7.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

7.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

7.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

7.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 & 2 Field Notes


Start: 4:24 PM Stop: 4:34 AM Date: 18 Aug 2015 Flood Test
Start: 8:09 AM Stop: 9:20 AM Date: 19 Aug 2015 Spray Test

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Notes: The water pressure supplied to the nozzle was set to 30 psi. The spray time for each area
will be equal to one minute for each foot of frame sprayed. However, more time may be required
to document/troubleshoot a leak or less time required if an area leaks to rapidly.

Results: Passed

Photo #: 64 Photo #: 65
At 4:24 PM, a hose was placed in RTU-2s condensate pan to This water was directed to all corners of the condensate pan for
ll it with water to ensure it did not leak. ten minutes.

23
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 66 Photo #: 67
Another view of the previous photo showing water lling the The underside of RTU-2 was monitored for signs of water
condensate pan. intrusion.

Photo #: 68 Photo #: 69
The ceiling tiles had already been removed where water The beginning of test 2 (8:09 AM), AAMA 501.2 hand held
leakage had been occurring in the past making it easier to spray nozzle. For the rst segment of this test, the nozzle was
inspect for signs of water leakage. This test ended at 4:34 PM. angled approximately 15 degrees below horizontal to spray
two sides of RTU-2 housings base to TPO roof membrane
No signs of water leakage was found inside the building. juncture for a period of fteen minutes.

24
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 80 Photo #: 81
A closer view of the previous photo showing the angle and At 8:27 AM, the nozzle was moved to spray the other two sides
distance that the nozzle was positioned to spray the base of of RTU-2s base to roof membrane juncture. No signs of water
this housing. intrusion were found.

Photo #: 82 Photo #: 83
At 8:42 AM, the nozzle was moved upward to spray the top At 9:07 AM, the nozzle was moved to spray the other two sides
two sides of RTU-2s housing. of RTU-2s housing. This test ended at 9:20 AM. No signs of
water intrusion were found inside the building.

These two water tests prove that the water leakage seen in the
building is not from RTU-2 or the roof membrane around it.

25
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
8.0 Test Area 5 Spray Rack Test West Elevation Penthouse Tower Wall
19 Aug 2015
8.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

8.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

8.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

8.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

8.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

8.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

8.3 ASTM E 1105 Spray Rack Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 9:59 AM Stop: 10:44 AM Date: 19 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Photo #: 84
At 9:59 AM, (red arrows) a spray rack was placed on the
middle section of the penthouses upper wall to apply water
down its west face. This test area (5) is above the leak
identied from the concrete ceiling on the north side of the
cargo elevator shaft.

(Red circle) A pneumatic test ball was placed in this drain


throughout this test and test areas 6 and 7. (Blue arrow) As the
water formed a pool around this drain, a pump was used to
transfer it to the adjacent roof section. Test balls had also been Photo #: 85
placed in these drains. This process saved water and prevented
Another view of the previous photo showing the water ow
it from draining through this drain that leaked in test area 1
26 down the exterior face of the structural brick wall and over the
under RTU-1.
TPO roof membrane.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 86 Photo #: 87
At 10:04 AM, water was found leaking from the concrete Looking in the ceiling cavity, water could be seen leaking out
ceiling to wall juncture on the elevator shaft wall. between a section of steel embedded in the concrete ceiling
and the top of the CMU wall.

Photo #: 88 Photo #: 89
Moving closer, this water is difcult to see in this photo since it At 10:06 AM, water began to leaking from the ceiling to wall
slowly leaking out of this joint and is not dripping. juncture near the south beam seen on the right side of photo
86.

Photo #: 90 Photo #: 91
Moving closer, three drips of water could be seen along this By 10:10 AM, this leakage had spread along the width of this
ceiling to wall juncture. ceiling to wall juncture and was streaming down the beam to
wall juncture above the doorway into the mail room.

27
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 92 Photo #: 93
By 10:14 AM, the water leaking from the ceiling to wall A closer view of the previous photo showing the water drip
juncture had streamed down the wall and was now clinging to from the ceiling to wall juncture. Even through only two drips
the underside of the north beam over the doorway. could be seen, this entire joint was wet.

Photo #: 94 Photo #: 95
A closer view of photo 92 showing the water run down the Water reaching this beam would also wet the ceiling tiles on
wall and cling to the underside of this beam. the mail room side.

Photo #: 96 Photo #: 97
At 10:37 AM, water began to leak inside along the south beam. A closer view of the previous photo showing water dripping
from the ceiling near the beam.

28
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 98 Photo #: 99
A closer view of the previous photo showing the droplets of At 10:39 AM, water was found leaking from more locations
water on the ceiling. along the north beam to wall juncture.

Photo #: 100 Photo #: 101


Moving closer, water could be seen leaking from this ceiling to A closer view of the previous photo showing water drip from
wall juncture up to this next column. the ceiling along the right side of the red shape.

Photo #: 102 Photo #: 103


At the left end of the red shape above the column, water could Upon return to the penthouse, BLI&T noticed that there was
be seen leaking out of the cracks in the ceiling. water in the elevator shaft near its south end.

This test was stopped at 10:44 AM.


29
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 104 Photo #: 105


Looking from the north side of this elevator shaft, the water Moving closer, this water was leaking inside from the top of the
could be seen running down its south wall. oor slab to wall juncture. This is the same level that the water
was seen leaking inside.

Photo #: 106 Photo #: 107


Also, water was found dripping from the middle of the door Moving closer, this water was dripping inside between the
openings double steel lintel. lintels. This shows that water is owing through the core of the
brick.

Photo #: 108 Photo #: 109


Next, the exterior of this structural brick wall was inspected. Zooming in with a camera along the top of this wall, many
concerns could be seen.

30
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 110 Photo #: 111


First, the mortar was heavily deteriorated. Also, there were Just to the left of this area, not only is the mortar deteriorated
unsealed penetrations through it such as this pipe. Both will and beginning to fall out, it has large cracks.
allow water to bypass the face of the brick and enter its core.

Photo #: 112 Photo #: 113


Looking upward along the left side of this wall, there is one At the bottom of this wall, the TPO roof membrane has been
long crack and many other short cracks that will allow water to terminated along its face up to the steel door frame.
reach the brick walls core.

Roof ashing
sealed into brick
mortar

Roof counter
ashing

Photo #: 114 Photo #: 115


There are also cracks along the bottom this wall just above this This termination bar and sealant are not enough to stop water
TPO roof membranes termination bar. penetration on the surface of a wall. In addition, its top edge
must have a roof ashing sealed in to a reglet cut into the brick
mortar above it and a counter ashing. However, this will not
31 stop water reaching the bricks core from bypassing it.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 116 Photo #: 117


Areas such as this where there are gaps between the brick and Looking across the top of this termination bar, this sealant was
mortar will allow water to bypass this sealant and leak behind poorly applied and does not follow any manufacturers
the roof membrane. guidelines for application. However, no direct voids could be
seen at this time.

Photo #: 118 Photo #: 119


Moving further across this wall, more of the same gaps At 3:47 PM, the exterior of this wall was inspected again.
between the mortar and brick could be seen. Typically, the grout will stay dark longer where water has
leaked through and saturated it. Notice the dark patterns in
this wall.

Photo #: 120 Photo #: 121


At the top half of this wall, the deteriorated mortar joints and At the bottom half of this wall, the center section of this wall
the cracks are still much darker that the brick and mortar that is has dried and is very light as compared to the corners where
in better condition. the cracks can be seen.
32
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
9.0 Test Area 6 Spray Rack Test Penthouse West Elevation Wall Above Steel Door
19 Aug 2015
9.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

9.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

9.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

9.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

9.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

9.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

9.3 ASTM E 1105 Spray Rack Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 11:23 AM Stop: 12:10 AM Date: 19 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Photo #: 122 Photo #: 123


At 11:23 AM, a spray rack was placed over the penthouses Another view of the previous photo showing water being
twin steel door and adjacent brick wall. This test area (6) is sprayed over the exterior face of the structural brick wall, the
above part of the leak identied from the concrete ceiling on edge of the parapet cap, and the steel door.
the west side of the cargo elevator shaft.

(Red shape) A pneumatic test ball was placed in the drain by


RTU-1 throughout this test and test area 7. (Blue arrow) As the
water formed a pool around this drain, a pump was used to
transfer it to the adjacent roof section. Test balls had also been
placed in these drains. This process saved water and prevented
it from draining through this drain that leaked in test area 1
under RTU-1.
33
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 124 Photo #: 125


A wooden block was placed between the steel door and the By 11:25 AM (two minutes into the test), many drops of water
header ashing to ensure the doors were fully closed. began to rapidly drip from the door openings head.

Photo #: 126 Photo #: 127


Moving closer, BLI&T was surprised to see that this water was The right side of the steel door frame to brick juncture was
leaking inside between the steel door frame and the lintel, not inspected.
the head of the doors. This means that water is leaking inside
between the brick and the door frame.

Photo #: 128 Photo #: 129


A large amount of water could be seen owing downward At 11:34 AM, water began to leak inside between the interior
between this doors steel frame and the brick wall. Water edge of the lintel and the brick.
running down this area will leak behind the roof membrane
since the roof membrane is sealed to the bottom edge of the
door frame. 34
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 130 Photo #: 131


A closer view of the previous photo showing the water leaking At 11:35 AM, the elevator shafts wall was inspected. Water
inside from the interior edge of this lintel. could be seen leaking inside from its southwest corner.

Photo #: 132 Photo #: 133


Zooming in closer with a camera, the rate of leakage in this This water was owing down the south & west corner of the
area is much higher that seen during the previous test (5). into the elevator pit.

Photo #: 134 Photo #: 135


At 11:39 AM, water began to wick inside through the brick A view showing a wet nger after touching the wet brick wall.
above the steel door. To reach this surface, the water has to wick through all three
wythes of this brick wall.

35
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 136 Photo #: 137


The top of the parapet wall was inspected to determine how Moving closer, very little water was reaching this area. This
much water was reaching this area. means that the water seen inside is leaking through the brick.

Photo #: 138 Photo #: 139


At 11:54 PM, water began to leak inside at the corner between The water was primarily leaking inside from this corner.
the cargo elevator wall and the south beam. Notice the streaks from previous water leakage in this area.

Photo #: 140 Photo #: 141


A closer view of the previous photo showing the drips of water At 11:55 AM, water began to rapidly drip along the steel
and the wet corner between the steel and the wall. embed in the concrete ceiling along the south column.

36
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 142 Photo #: 143


A closer view of the previous photo showing the multiple drips At 11:56 AM, BLI&T noticed that the rate of water leakage from
of water. The rate of water leakage in this area was much the edge of concrete penetrations below RTU-1 had increased
higher that seen in test area (5). considerably.

Photo #: 144 Photo #: 145


A closer view of the previous photo showing the location of A closer view of the previous photo showing the many drops of
the water leakage. This is the same area that leaked inside in water falling from the concrete and the increased size of the
test area (1). wet area.

Photo #: 146 Photo #: 147


Moving to the right, the concrete is much wetter and there are By 12:03 PM, the rate of water leakage along this south beam
many more water drops falling. Also, water is now streaming had increased signicantly. Note: this became the most
down RTU-1s ducting. aggressive leak in this area where containers had to be placed
below it.
37
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 148 Photo #: 149


Looking upward, multiple drips of water could now be seen on Also, many more drips of water could be seen on the concrete
the drywall below this beam. above as well and streaming down the beam.

Photo #: 150 Photo #: 151


At 12:05 PM, the penthouses door area was inspected again. Water could now be seen wetting the interior of the brick
down the jambs.

Photo #: 152 Photo #: 153


A view showing water on the nger after touching the paint on The cargo elevator shaft was inspected again.
this brick.

38
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 154 Photo #: 155


Looking closer, water could now be seen owing down the At 3:58 PM, BLI&T noticed a new water leak under RTU-1.
east side of this column. This test was stopped at 12:10 PM.

Photo #: 156 Photo #: 157


This new leak was found on a concrete penetration at the Moving closer, some of this water was wetting the concrete on
southeast corner of this unit. the east (penthouse) side of this opening.

Photo #: 158
(Red arrows) Moving even closer, some of this water could be seen
dripping from the steel and cracks in the concrete. (Red shape) This
water was leaking inside through the older lite-weight concrete
below the asphalt roof membrane. Remember that these layers
were removed outside of RTU-1 and now aligns with the bottom of 39
the TPO roof membranes insulation on the structural concrete.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
10.0 Test Area 7 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test Parapet Cap Above Steel Door
19 Aug 2015
10.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

10.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

10.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

10.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

10.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

10.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

10.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 4:05 PM Stop: 4:49 PM Date: 19 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Photo #: 159 Photo #: 160


At 4:05 PM, the AAMA 501.2 spray nozzle was positioned to Another view of the previous photo showing the other side of
spray the top four feet of the parapet wall next the penthouse the parapet cap being sprayed.
tower. This test area (7) is above part of the leak identied
from the concrete ceiling on the west side of the cargo elevator
shaft.

(Red shape) A pneumatic test ball was placed in the drain by


RTU-1 throughout this test. (Blue arrow) As the water formed a
pool around this drain, a pump was used to transfer it to the
adjacent roof section. Test balls had also been placed in these
drains. This process saved water and prevented it from
draining through this drain that leaked in test area 1 under 40
RTU-1.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 161 Photo #: 162


At 4:09 PM, water was found leaking from door openings steel Moving closer, water was leaking inside between the steel door
lintel frame and the lintel, not the head of the doors. This means that
water is leaking inside between the brick and the door frame.

Photo #: 163 Photo #: 164


Water was also leaking inside from the interior edge of this The doors right jamb to brick juncture was inspected again.
lintel.

Photo #: 165 Photo #: 166


A stream of water could be seen owing downward in this At 4:23 PM, water began to leak down the interior side of the
cavity. This water will bypass the roof membrane since it is brick wall to the right of the door.
sealed to the bottom of the door frame.

41
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 167 Photo #: 168


Moving closer, this water was not only leaking down the Water was also leaking down the corner of the brick at the left
corner as seen during the previous test area, it was streaming side of the door.
down the face of the brick wall.

Photo #: 169 Photo #: 170


At 4:27 PM, the nozzle was moved upward to include the Looking downward from the corner of the parapet, most of the
crack in the brick wall directly above the parapet wall. water owing downward was now missing the door frame.

Photo #: 171 Photo #: 172


At 4:35 PM, the underside of RTU-1 was inspected again. The rate of leakage had increased from this same eastern side.

42
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 173 Photo #: 174


A closer view of the previous photo showing the area of At 4:37 PM, water began to leak inside between the (red) cargo
leakage. The rate of leakage had increased even through it was elevator wall and ceiling and (blue) between the south beam
still leaking from the same locations. and the ceiling.

Photo #: 175 Photo #: 176


A closer view of the red shape in the previous photo showing A closer view of the blue shape in photo 174 showing the
the water leak inside between the ceiling and wall. water leak inside between the ceiling and the south beam.

Photo #: 177 Photo #: 178


At 4:42 PM, BLI&T peered through the separation in the mail Looking upward, water could be seen owing down the
rooms cargo elevator doors to look for signs of water leakage southeast corner of the elevator shaft.
in the elevator shaft.

43
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 179 Photo #: 180


Zooming in closer with the camera, the water could be seen At 4:48 PM, the interior side of the penthouse door area was
leaking in from the penthouse level in the same corner seen inspected again.
during the last two test areas.

Photo #: 181 Photo #: 182


Water was now leaking from the brick below the base of the After this test, the exterior of the penthouses twin steel door
angled beam. Water had not leaked inside from this area and frame were inspected.
before this test.

This test was stopped at 4:49 PM.

44
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 183 Photo #: 184


As stated earlier, the TPO roof membrane is sealed to the jamb With the door open, the threshold to jamb area was inspected.
and threshold of this door. This means that any water reaching
the interior of this door frame will leak behind this roof
membrane.

Photo #: 185 Photo #: 186


Moving closer, (red shape) any water reaching this juncture At 4:56 PM, water was found leaking from the north side of the
will leak inside below the roof membrane. (Red arrow) cargo elevator ceiling to wall juncture.
Remember, water was seen leaking behind this door jamb
during the last two tests.

45
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
11.0 Test Area 8 Flood & Water Flow Tests Above Technology Room
19 Aug 2015
11.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

11.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

11.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

11.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

11.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

11.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

11.3 Flood and Water Flow Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 2:29 PM Stop: 3:43 PM Date: 19 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Photo #: 187 Photo #: 188


There were two main water damage areas identied on the Looking in the ceiling cavity, (red arrows) there was a container
technology rooms ceiling tiles. The rst part of this with water in it below a oor drain P-trap. Also, (blue arrows)
investigation will focus on the water damage identied by the there was a crack in the concrete ceiling that had deposits from
red arrow. previous water leakage.

46
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 189 Photo #: 190


Directly above this water damage were (red arrows) two oor The crack had been routed out and lled. Then, a waterproof
drains and (red shape) a crack in the concrete oor slab. deck coating had been applied over the concrete oor. This is
the top side of the crack seen in photo 188.

Photo #: 191 Photo #: 192


At 2:29 PM, this leak investigation began by placing a sheet of The water level was brought up to the top surface of the
plastic over the drain screen and lling the bowl with water. concrete and maintained at that level for seven minutes.

Photo #: 193 Photo #: 194


By 2:36 PM, no signs of water leakage were found in the At 2:37 PM, this same process was used to ll the second oor
technology room below. The plastic was removed to stop this drain with water.
test segment.

47
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 195 Photo #: 196


Immediately, water began to leak inside and drip through the Some of this water landed on the technology desk. This test
light and adjacent ceiling tile. was stopped immediately to further investigate its source.

Photo #: 197 Photo #: 198


Moving into the ceiling cavity, water droplets could be seen on The top of this insulation was cut open and a hole was cut into
the electrical conduit and on the P-Traps foil faced insulation. its bottom.

Photo #: 199 Photo #: 200


At the bottom of the P-trap, the insulation was saturated with The remainder of the insulation was cut off of the drain pipe
water. and P-trap.

48
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 201 Photo #: 202


Water was then poured into the drain again. Immediately, water began to stream inside between the steel
sleeve set into the concrete slab and the drain bowl. This test
was stopped as this leak is caused by a plumbing issue.

Photo #: 203 Photo #: 204


At 3:00 PM, a stream was water was directed along the By 3:07 PM, no signs of water leakage were found in the
concrete oor and around this concrete pad that the oor technology room below and this test was stopped. (Red arrow)
crack ran underneath. Note: this water ran toward the center of the room toward
another drain.

Photo #: 205 Photo #: 206


The third drain was behind all of these shelve, chairs, and The red arrow in this photo shows the path that the water was
equipment stored in the penthouse and could not be reached. owing in the previous photo toward the center of the
penthouse. This is the same location that a second area of
49 water damage was identied in the technology room by the
blue arrow in photo 184.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 207 Photo #: 208


A closer view of the previous photo showing the area of water Looking upward, a P-trap from a third drain could be seen
damage on the ceiling tile. directly above this water damage. This drain is most likely the
source of leakage causing this water damage. It will not be
investigated further due to the amount equipment stored in the
penthouse above this area.

Photo #: 209 Photo #: 210


Adjacent to the technology room, there are two more areas of Moving closer to the left arrow from the previous photo,
water damage on the ceiling tiles. (green) the water damage could be seen. Also, BLI&T could see
(blue) a crack in the concrete slab and a (red) container to
catch water.

Photo #: 211 Photo #: 212


Moving into the ceiling cavity, (red) the crack could be seen in Below this crack, a large amount of eforescence could be
the concrete ceiling slab. (Blue) Also, the path of water could 50 seen. The eforescence is formed by deposits left from water
be seen below it. releasing salts and lime from the concrete.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 213 Photo #: 214


A closer view of the previous photo showing water droplets on Moving to the second leak, a core had been cut out of the
the end of all three stalactites. concrete slab above it.

Photo #: 215 Photo #: 216


Moving closer, this core had been lled with spray foam and In the penthouse above, the blue arrow identies the
plastic. BLI&T removed this spray foam. Some water was approximate location of the core cut into the concrete slab and
found on top of it. the red arrows identies the approximate location of the crack.

Photo #: 217 Photo #: 218


(Red arrowO The deck coating applied over the oor did not At 3:38 PM, this cavity between the column and the
appear to have been continuously applied between the equipment pad was lled with water.
equipment pad, the wall, and this column. (Blue arrow) To
ood test this area, BLI&T placed an improvised dam between
the column and the pad. 51
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 219 Photo #: 220


Excess water spilling out of this test area was collected with a After this test, the exterior side of this wall was inspected. (Red
shop vacuum. No signs of water leakage were found. This test shape) For reference, the concrete column seen in the previous
ended at 3:43 PM. few photos was drawn over the brick wall.

Photo #: 221 Photo #: 222


The rst area inspected was along the windows precast sill. The windows perimeter sealant is extremely deteriorated along
Notice that the roof membrane is terminated around the its jambs and is nonexistent under its sill or in its joints. These
underside of this sill. openings will allow water to leak inside the penthouse and
into the bricks core.

Photo #: 223 Photo #: 224


Below the precast sill, the roof membranes termination bar is Moving closer to the windows right jamb, the same missing
sealed to the face of the brick wall. However, this will not stop and extremely deteriorated sealant can be seen.
the water leaking past the window and the precast sill from
leaking behind the roof membrane.
52
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 225 Photo #: 226


At the head of the window, the same extremely deteriorated to the right of this window, a at metal plate has been installed
sealant can be seen. over the brick wall.

Photo #: 227 Photo #: 228


There are no signs of sealant to prevent water from behind it. Also, there are holes in the brick wall beside the plate for water
Very likely, this metal plate covers a hole in the brick wall to enter.
which thin would allow water to leak into the brick wall.

Photo #: 229 Photo #: 230


Further to the right are two more penetrations through the brick Moving further right, there are many more unsealed
that will allow a large amount of water to leak into the brick penetrations through this brick wall that can allow water to
wall and into the penthouse. Note: these penetrations are enter its core and inside the penthouse.
above the water leakage seen in the room adjacent to the
technology room seen in photo 209. 53
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 231 Photo #: 232


Moving closer to the metal plate, it had not been sealed. Also, Looking above this eforesce, there is a large crack in the
notice the white deposits on the face of this brick wall. They block.
are eforescence from water exiting the brick.

Photo #: 233 Photo #: 234


Moving closer, this crack runs upward underneath the parapet Moving to the base of this brick wall, the TPO roof membrane
cap. This parapet cap is also suspected as being a source of termination was inspected again.
water leakage into the brick core.

Photo #: 235
The sealant applied along its top edge was poorly applied.
Also, as stated earlier, it should have a roof ashing sealed into
a reglet cut into the brick and a counter ashing as previously
stated in test area 5.
54
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
12.0 Test Area 9 Flood Test Above 2nd Floor Ofces
19 Aug 2015
12.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

12.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Undetermined

12.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

12.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

12.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

12.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

12.3 Flood and Water Flow Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 10:00 AM Stop: 5:30 PM Date: 19 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Undetermined

Photo #: 236 Photo #: 237


The water pool around the drains in this section had been When the test ball was removed from this drain, it bubbles
pumped from the adjacent section of the roof by RTU-1 as some but the water did not drain through it.
described at the beginning of test areas 5, 6, and 7.

At 5:05 PM, the pneumatic test ball was removed from the
south drain.

55
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 238 Photo #: 239


A closer view of the previous photo showing no water A view showing the size of the water pool around the north
movement through this drain. This is the sign of a clogged drain in this roof section.
drain pipe as no obstruction could be seen in the drain or
section of pipe directly below it.

Photo #: 240 Photo #: 241


At 5:09 PM, the test ball was removed from this north drain. It also bubbled rst and then some water began to ow down
it.

Photo #: 242 Photo #: 243


A closer view showing some water ow through it. However, By 5:15 PM, some water began to ow down this south drain.
it was very slow. However, the water did not form a vortex.

Even with the clogged drain pipes, the water drained off of this
56 roof section by 5:30 PM.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 244 Photo #: 245


The corridor by Pattys ofce was monitored for signs of water Looking into the ceiling cavity, stalactites could be seen below
intrusion. From this location, the ceiling cavity above Pattys a crack in the concrete ceiling from previous water leakage.
ofce could also be seen; where water leakage had occurred in
the past.

Photo #: 246 Photo #: 247


Looking closer into the ceiling cavity, some water had formed On the east side of this ofce area by the mail room, damage
on the end of these stalactites. However, it was very little. No from previous leakage could be seen. During this test, no signs
other signs of water leakage was found in this area. of water leakage were found in the ceiling cavity above this
area.

Photo #: 248
On the north side of this ofce area, water leakage had been
reported by the identied light and in the drywall by the
window as shown by the red arrows. No signs of water
leakage were found in the ceiling cavity above this area.
57
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
13.0 Test Area 10 Spray Nozzle Test Above Pattys and Operators Ofces
20 Aug 2015
13.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

13.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

13.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

13.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

13.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

13.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

13.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 8:41 AM Stop: 11:19 AM Date: 20 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Pattys Stairs
Operators
Ofce
Ofce

Photo #: 249 Photo #: 250


For the next test area, this entire parapet wall above Pattys and Approximately one foot below the parapet cap, the brick sets
the Operators ofce will be sprayed with the hand held AAMA out forming a small ledge. This the dark line along this wall.
501.2 spray nozzle. Also, notice the white deposits. This is eforescence from
water saturating and exiting the brick wall. This means that
water is entering above this area.

58
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 251 Photo #: 252


A closer view of the previous photo showing the small brick The beginning of test 1, AAMA 501.2 spray nozzle test (8:41
shelf. The mortar has separated along this shelf leaving a path AM). For this test segment, the brick shelf will be sprayed from
for water to enter the brick walls core. the north side of Pattys ofce to the south side of the operators
ofce.

Photo #: 253 Photo #: 254


A view showing the brick shelf being sprayed above the south A view showing the hand held spray nozzle apply water over
side of the operators ofce. This corner is also the northwest the small brick shelf.
corner of the staircase.

Photo #: 255 Photo #: 256


At 9:07 AM, water was found on the north windows sill. Moving closer, the pool of water could be seen on the north
windows sill.

59
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 257 Photo #: 258


Looking upward, one water stream could be seen owing At 9:13 AM, a water pool was found on the sill by the north
down the glass and a second water stream could be seen windows vertical mullion.
owing down the jamb. On a storefront window such as this,
water leaking from this area means that the water is reaching
its head. Water must never reach its head.

Photo #: 259 Photo #: 260


Moving closer, the pool of water could be seen on the north Looking upward, a stream of water could be seen owing
windows sill. down the glass and the vertical mullion.

Photo #: 261 Photo #: 262


At 9:14 AM, a pool of water was found on the south windows Moving closer, the pool of water could be seen on the south
sill by the jamb. windows sill.
60
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 263 Photo #: 264


Looking upward, a stream of water could be seen owing At 9:31 AM, the nozzle was moved to spray a partially open
down the glass from the head. Notice the deposits left from joint in the parapet cap above Pattys ofce.
water repeatedly leaking down the glass in this area.

Photo #: 265 Photo #: 266


Another view of the previous photo showing the nozzle At 9:35 AM, water was found on the south windows sill by the
spraying the partially open precast parapet cap joint. vertical mullion.

Photo #: 267 Photo #: 268


Moving closer, the pool of water could be seen on the south Looking upward, multiple streams of water could be seen
windows sill and spattered on the glass. owing down the glass and the vertical mullion from the
windows head.

61
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 269 Photo #: 270


At 9:53 AM, the nozzle was moved to spray a larger section of At 10:13 AM, the nozzle was moved southward to spray the
the parapet cap as shown above. No additional signs of water next section of the parapet cap as shown above. No
intrusion were found. additional signs of water intrusion were found.

Photo #: 271 Photo #: 272


At 10:42 AM, the nozzle was moved south to spray the parapet During this test, the underside of the rst oor concrete roof
cap as shown above including the corner of the TPO roof with a new TPO roof membrane installed over it was
membrane. inspected.

Photo #: 273 Photo #: 274


Below the south end of Pattys second oor ofce, water could A closer view of the previous photo showing the area of the
be seen leaking through a crack in the rst oor concrete crack that has water leaking out of it.
ceiling. This means that either water is leaking by the TPO roof
membrane termination mounted to the face of the brick or is
leaking through the brick core past it. 62
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 275 Photo #: 276


A closer view of the previous photo showing water leak out of Moving further south, more water could be seen leaking out of
this ceiling crack. these two cracks in the concrete roof.

Photo #: 277 Photo #: 278


At 10:53 AM, (red arrow) the rate of water leakage began to A closer view of the red arrow in the previous photo (red
increase in the stairwell at the roof to wall juncture near the arrows) shows streams of water owing down the wall from the
beam. For reference, the blue arrow is pointing at the same (red shape) concrete ceiling to CMU wall juncture. (See video
corner as the parapet wall being sprayed in photo 271. DSC00933.MP4)

Exterior Wall

Operators
Ofce

Photo #: 279 Photo #: 280


At 11:09 AM, BLI&T inspected the cavity on the other side of Looking over this wall, BLI&T realized that there was an open
this wall. space between the operators ofce and the exterior wall.

63
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 281 Photo #: 282


Looking downward, BLI&T could (blue arrow) see water A closer view of the red arrow from the previous photo
wetting the interior side of this wall and (red arrow) a second showing the water drip out of the brick wall. (See videos
area where water was rapidly dripping out of this brick wall. DSC00962.MP4 & DSC00963.MP4).

Photo #: 283 Photo #: 284


Looking across this exterior wall, water can be seen leaking A closer view of the previous photo showing the water leak
inside between it and the concrete column at the inside corner inside and run downward between the wall and column. (See
of this wall; which is currently being sprayed. video (DSC00963.MP4).

Photo #: 285 Photo #: 286


Looking downward, multiple streams of water could be seen A closer view of the previous photo showing the multiple
leaking down the interior face of this structural brick wall. streams of water leak down the interior face of this structural
brick wall.

64
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 287 Photo #: 288


At 11:19 AM, (red shape) a pool of water was found on the Looking along the oor, (red shape) the water pool can be
oor of the operators ofce. (Red arrow) The concrete column seen. (Red arrow) It was leaking inside along the exterior wall
that water was seen leaking down is behind this drywall. side. This test was stopped at 11:20 AM.

Photo #: 289 Photo #: 290


At 11:25 AM, the rate of water leakage from the beam above Looking closer at the section of beam illuminated in the
the stairwell increased dramatically. It increased from 2 drops previous photo, multiple streaks of water can be seen running
per minute to at least sixty drops per minute. from the ceiling down its side.

Photo #: 291 Photo #: 292


Zooming closer, the water droplets can be seen on the lower Also, water was found on the oor. The operators ofce seen
edge of this beam. in photos 287 & 288 is on the other side of this wall.

65
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 293 Photo #: 294


A closer view of the previous photo showing the water pool on The base trip was pulled away from this wall.
the oor. The source of this water leakage is the same as for
the operators ofce which was seen in photo 283.

Photo #: 295 Photo #: 296


There was a pool of water along the VCT oor tile and the The entry door area below the concrete roof was inspected
bottom of the drywall was wet. again.

Photo #: 297 Photo #: 298


Moving closer, water had leaked from the concrete roof to wall Looking up at the concrete roof to brick wall juncture, multiple
juncture, wet the concrete walkway, and spattered onto the streams of water could be seen leaking down the face of the
doors. brick.

66
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 299 Photo #: 300


Moving inside, water damage could be seen on the ceiling tiles A closer view of the previous photo showing some of the water
along this exterior wall. This area is directly below the landing damage on the ceiling tiles closest to the staircase.
shown in photo 292 with water on the oor.

Photo #: 301 Photo #: 302


At 4:38 PM, just over ve hours after stoping the spray test of Two days earlier, BLI&T had removed sections of the spray foam
the parapet wall, water was found leaking from the northwest applied between the metal duct and the concrete slab. This
side of RTU-1. This area had not leaked since BLI&Ts arrival. water was now leaking off of the concrete out of these areas.

Photo #: 303 Photo #: 304


A closer view of the right side of the spray foam shows the Water was also found leaking from the left side of this spray
water dripping from the structural concrete side of this spray foam above the water stains seen on the metal duct. (See
foam. video DSC01217.MP4). The water causing this leak came from
the earlier spray test of the parapet wall over the operators
67 ofce. This same spray test increase the rate of water leakage
in the stair case.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
14.0 Test Area 11 Spray Nozzle Test Exhaust Fan Hood Above Staircase
20 Aug 2015
14.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

14.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Passed

14.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

14.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

14.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

14.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

14.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 11:42 AM Stop: 12:00 PM Date: 20 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Passed

Photo #: 305
At 11:42 AM, the next test area (11) was be sprayed with the
hand held AAMA 501.2 spray nozzle. For this test, the entire
base of this exhaust hood to TPO roof membrane was sprayed
at one time.

68
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 306
A closer view of the previous photo showing the base of this exhaust hood to TPO roof
membrane being sprayed.

No signs of water intrusion were found.

Photo #: 307
At 11:54 AM, the nozzle was moved upward to spray the top of this exhaust hood.

No signs of water intrusion were found inside the stairwell. This test was stopped at 12:00
PM.

69
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
15.0 Test Area 14 Flood & Spray Nozzle Test Above 1st Floor Meeting Room
20 Aug 2015
15.1 General Information
1. Test #: 1

15.1.1 Overall Results of the Test: Failed

15.1.2 Client: Same as in section 4.1.2

15.1.3 BLI&T Testing Personnel


1. Same as in section 4.1.3

15.1.4 Personnel Witnessing Test


1. Same as in section 4.1.4

15.2 Building Construction Materials


1. Same as in section 4.2

15.3 AAMA 501.2 Spray Nozzle Test 1 Field Notes


Start: 1:35 PM Stop: 11:19 AM Date: 20 Aug 2015

Observations: See photographs and captions on the following page.

Results: Failed

Photo #: 308 Photo #: 309


For the next test, (blue arrows) a spray rack was positioned to The spray rack was positioned to apply water along the top
apply water along the structural brick wall above the meeting outer edge parapet cap and above a (red arrows) long
room where water is leaking inside around (red arrow) the horizontal crack in this structural brick wall.
exhaust fan.

70
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 310 Photo #: 311


At 1:35 PM, this test began by applied water to the exterior Before this test began, a pneumatic test ball was installed into
surface of this structural brick wall. the retrot roof drain. This was done to: 1) ood test the TPO
roof membrane to drain juncture; and 2) ow test the retrot
drain pipe seal after all of the spray tests area complete..

Photo #: 312 Photo #: 313


Another view of the previous photo showing the pneumatic By 2:34 PM, the water pool on the TPO roof membrane had
test ball installed in the retrot drain and the water pooling grown considerably.
around the drain.

Photo #: 314 Photo #: 315


(Red arrows) Another view showing the location of the water The interior of the meeting room below the test area was
pooling on the TPO roof membrane. (Red circle) Notice that monitored for signs of water leakage. No signs of water
this water pool has completely surrounded the exhaust fan leakage were found.
base where the water has been leaking inside. Note: Also, the second oor room behind the structural brick
71 wall was also monitored for signs of water leakage. No water
The spray rack test ended at 2:35 PM. was found.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Spray
Test 3
Spray
Test 2 Spray
Test 1

Photo #: 316 Spray Test Locations Photo #: 317 Spray Test Location 1
For the next series of tests, an AAMA 501.2 spray nozzle will In spray test location 1, (red arrow) the sealant has failed
be used to apply water to each of these three test locations. between the top of the TPO roof membrane and the precast
(Note: the failures seen in the next few photos are widespread cap. (Red shape) Also, there are gaps in the sealant against the
around the entire perimeter of this TPO roof membrane.) precast cap.

Photo #: 318 Spray Test Location 1 Photo #: 319 Spray Test Location 2
A closer view of the previous photo showing the sealant failure In spray location 2, the sealant has completely failed between
along the top of the TPO roof membranes termination bar. the top of the TPO roof membrane and the precast cap.

Photo #: 320 Spray Test Location 3 Photo #: 321 Spray Test Location 3
In spray test location 3, there area gaps and sealant failures Also in test area 3, there is sealant failure between the TPO
between the TPO roof membrane and the precast cap. roof membrane and the structural brick wall. Notice that this
failure is located at a gap between the termination bars.
As stated in previous sections, this TPO roof membrane
termination is inadequate to prevent water intrusion over time. 72
Its top edge should have additional protection.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 322 Spray Test Location 1 Photo #: 323 All Spray Test Locations
At 2:52 PM, the AAMA 501.2 spray nozzle was positioned to The water pressure supplied to this spray nozzle was set to 30
spray test location 1 for a period of 15 minutes. psi. No signs of water leakage were found inside during this
rst spray test.

Photo #: 324 Spray Test Location 2 Photo #: 325 Spray Test Location 3
At 3:07 PM, the nozzle was positioned to spray test location 2 At 3:23 PM, the nozzle was positioned to spray test location 3
for a period of fteen minutes. No signs of water leakage were for a period of fteen minutes.
found inside during this rst spray test.

Photo #: 326 Photo #: 327


Upon arrival inside at 3:29 PM, water was already leaking from Moving closer, this water was leaking from the penetration in
the concrete ceiling below the exhaust fan. (Note: with the structural concrete slab around the exhaust fan duct.
roong systems such this, there is usually a time delay between
the time water leaks behind the roof membrane and the time it
leaks inside. Some of the factors are how rapidly water leaks 73
in, how far the water has to travel, the slope of the roof, etc...)
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 328 Photo #: 329


A closer view of the previous photo showing the locations of At 3:45 PM, the pneumatic test plug was removed from the
water leakage. (See video DSC08989.mp4) roof drain.

Photo #: 331 Photo #: 332


By 3:50 PM, there was a considerable increase in the rate of Moving closer, many more drops of water could be seen falling
water leakage from the structural concrete slab penetration and at a much higher rate. (See video DSC08994.MP4). It
around this exhaust fan. appears that water has leaked past the retrot drain to drain
pipe seal pushing water underneath the roof membrane as the
(Note: the drain is approximately seven feet from this exhaust water pool rapidly drained from this roof (as seen in test area 1
fan.) in section 4 of this report).

Photo #: 330 Photo #: 333


There was a good ow of water through this drain. The roof At 3:53 PM, water could be seen leaking from the exhaust duct
completed draining by 3:51 PM. by test location 3 on this roof. A photo of this exhaust fan can
74
be seen in photo 316.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 334 Photo #: 335


Moving closer, this water has been leaking from the structural A closer view of the previous photo showing the water leak
concrete penetration and running down this duct. from this penetration and run down the duct. (See video
DSC09002.MP4)

Photo #: 336 Photo #: 337


After this series of spray tests, the exterior of the structural brick The same cracking and eforescence can be seen on the south
parapet wall was inspected. Notice the (blue arrows) cracking, elevation of this structural brick parapet wall.
mortar failure, and (red arrows) eforescence (white deposits).
These white deposits are signs of water leaking out of the brick
from entry points above.

Photo #: 338
Moving closer to the southeast corner, there are considerable signs
of eforescence and cracking. This is the exterior side of spray test
location 3 forty minutes after the test. Notice that the mortar
damaged and cracked ares are still wet (dark). Also, notice how 75
much water is still leaking out between the brick and the concrete.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G
16.0 Inspection Area 13 TPO Roof Parapet Perimeter
The following photos were taken to show concerns found primarily around the perimeter of this
roof.

Photo #: 339 Photo #: 340


This inspection began along the south elevation parapet wall Moving closer, some pads were used below this equipment.
where a large amount of stands/equipment were sitting on the
TPO roof membrane.

Photo #: 341 Photo #: 342


However, more that rubber type pads are required to prevent from Some of the equipment did not have pads below it and was
damaging this roof membrane. This pole should have a foot at weighted down with hardened bags of concrete.
least one foot square to spread out the force and a pad. Also,
none of this equipment is tied down. Stronger winds could push
it over or around which could cause punctures in the TPO roof
membrane.

This equipment should be mounted to stanchion poles that


properly integrate with the roof membrane and properly secure
them to the roof.

76
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 343 Photo #: 344


The cables from this equipment ran through a hood that was A closer view of the previous photo showing the fasteners with
integrated with the roof membrane. However, its top was not a rubber gasket missing. These fastener holes also provide a
secured. path for water to leak past this top into the building.

Photo #: 345 Photo #: 346


A satellite dish was mounted to a stanchion pole which is the However, the top of this pole was open. If it is open all of the
best method to mount equipment on the roof. way through, water will leak below the roof membrane. The
top of these poles must be capped.

Photo #: 347 Photo #: 348


Also, the fasteners at the bottom of this stanchion pole tell Just past this equipment was an opening in the TPO roof
BLI&T that the upper pole slides over a base pole. (Blue arrow) membrane.
Since the TPO membrane is sealed to the bottom of this upper
pole, water can leak past it from the (photo 346) top hole or
(red arrows) past these fasteners. 77
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 349 Photo #: 350


Moving closer, this TPO roof membrane boot was installed Further west along this south parapet, a section of the previous
around whatever this object is but was not nished around it to roof membrane had been left on top of this concrete block.
form a water tight seal. This is a path of water leakage below
the roof.

Photo #: 351 Photo #: 352


It was not fully adhered and will allow water to leak behind On the other side of this concrete block were two open ended
the roof membrane. pipes. They do not appear to be vent stacks. They appear to
be open ended stanchion poles which could allow water to
leak below the roof membrane.

Photo #: 353 Photo #: 354


Looking inside, their are open and extend below the roof In this same area was a precast concrete parapet cap joint.
membrane. Typically, roof vent stacks are either made of PVC
or cast iron pipe, not steel. These pipes should be investigated
further. 78
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 355 Photo #: 356


Attempts have been made to smear sealant over this open grout Just west of the previous photo was an overow scupper. BLI&T
joint. However, it is still open for water to ow through this is highly concerned that they are to high from the top surface of
open joint. These joints are open along its entire length which the roof. At this height, water would have to rise approximately
can allow water to leak behind the roof membrane or into the nine inches to reach it. Typically, overow scuppers are less
top of the structural brick wall, both of which will cause water that four inches over the surface of the roof. This is a structural
intrusion. concern for this roof and should be evaluated by an engineer.

Photo #: 357 Photo #: 358


The southwest corner of this parapet cap was inspected. A fastener and washer had been left from the previous roof
membrane in a parapet cap grout/sealant joint which had
failed. As stated earlier, this is a water intrusion concern.

Photo #: 359 Photo #: 360


In three locations along the perimeter of this roof (west & Moving closer, the mortar is deteriorated, the brick is cracked,
north), the precast parapet cap abuts a projecting structural and there is a mixture of sealant and mastic. All of these show
brick wall. 79 a poor transition that can allow water leakage below the roof
membrane and/or into the structural brick wall.
B U I L D I N G L E A K AG E I N V E S T I G AT I O N & T E S T I N G

Photo #: 361 Photo #: 362


This same transition on the exterior side of the parapet cap is Moving to the north elevation parapet wall, gaps could be seen
just as concerning for allowing water intrusion into the between the precast parapet cap and the top of the structural
structural brick wall. brick wall.

Photo #: 363 Photo #: 364


A closer view of the previous photo showing the open gap for A little further north, the top end of this wall projecting onto
water to reach the top of the structural brick wall. the roof was inspected.

Photo #: 365 Photo #: 366


Moving closer, the side of the structural brick wall was directly The inside corner of this north elevation parapet wall was
exposed to rain. The holes in the core of this brick could be inspected. This is the location that was sprayed when water
seen. This surface of the brick should never be directly leaked into the staircase and eventually below RTU-1.
exposed to water as it will allow water to run downward into
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Photo #: 367 Photo #: 368


Two main issues can be seen. (Red) The rst is an open A closer view of the blue arrow in the previous photo showing
parapet cap but joint which is the same seen along the entire that the TPO roof membrane is open at this corner; a direct
perimeter of this roof. (Blue) The second is a void above the point of water entry below the roof membrane.
TPO roof membrane.

Photo #: 369 Photo #: 370


Moving further north along this west facing parapet wall, a Moving closer, it has been mounted to the side of the precast
light has been mounted to the side of the precast parapet cap. cap with a section of unistrut.

Photo #: 370 Photo #: 371


Looking into this unistrut, the top edge of the TPO roof At the northwest corner of this parapet cap, more of the same
membrane stops at its bottom edge and the holes in the precast joint failure can be seen. Also, another piece of
unistrut above it are open. This is a direct path of water unistrut has been mounted to the side of the parapet cap;
leakage behind the TPO roof membrane and could be one another possible source of water leakage.
source of water leakage into Pattys ofce. 81
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Photo #: 372 Photo #: 373


Another issue found in this same corner was that the precast At the east end of this parapet cap near the penthouse, there
coping cap was cracked. was a long crack along its top surface.

Photo #: 374 Photo #: 375


Moving closer, sealant has been smeared over this crack but Moving to the middle section of the roof, this curb was
has failed since it was improperly applied inspected near RTU-1.

Photo #: 376 Photo #: 377


On one corner of this curb, the end of this electrical conduit is On another side of this curb, there is a second piece of open
completely open for water to enter. conduit that is open. All opens must be capped and sealed.

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Photo #: 378 Photo #: 379


Also, the top of this curb is very suspicious. If not being used The TPO roof membrane and structural brick walls were
any longer, all of this should be removed and this curb capped inspected on the top level of the penthouse.
with the TPO roof membrane.

Photo #: 380 Photo #: 381


Along the north side of this roof, there was not enough space There were areas on this brick wall that were open directly
to terminate the TPO roof membrane along the underside of above this roof membrane for water to bypass it.
the parapet cap. Therefore, it was installed on part of its top.

Photo #: 382 Photo #: 383


At the top of this penthouse, a concrete pad had been poured Looking closer, there was a cold joint for water to easily bypass
over the brick. between the brick and the concrete.

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Photo #: 384 Photo #: 385


Along its west face near the south side, the mortar joints and A closer view showing the heavily deteriorated sealant between
sealant were heavily deteriorated. the brick and the steel frame.

Photo #: 386
A closer view showing the heavily deteriorated mortar joints.

All of these area are points of water entry into the brick wall and/
or below the roof membrane.

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17.0 Inspection Area 15 Exterior Building Walls
The following photos were taken to show concerns found on all of the exterior building walls
around the building.

Photo #: 387
North Elevation Penthouse. The red arrows point to the larger cracks in this structural brick
wall. Many of the darker lines are deteriorated grout lines. The white areas are the
formation of eforescence from water leaking into the structural brick wall above and out of
a crack or deteriorated mortar joint just above it.

Photo #: 388
South and West Elevation Penthouse. Same comments as photo 387. (Blue rectangle) These
windows will have to be at minimum have their metal joints and the perimeter sealant
removed and reapplied. (Red shape) There is a large amount of eforescence on the interior
side of this structural brick wall. This means that there is water leakage into the bricks core.
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Photo #: 389
South Elevation Second Level Penthouse. Same comments as photo 387. These steel doors
and frames are the same type as tested on the penthouses west elevation that allowed water
leakage behind the roof membrane and into the penthouse. They will require additional
work to prevent water intrusion.

Photo #: 390
North Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

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Photo #: 391
North and West Elevation. Same comments as photo 387. The blue arrow shows that the
lower TPO roof membrane is improperly terminated just as seen on the upper roofs. It
should have a metal roof ashing sealed into a reglet above it and a counter ashing
installed into a hem in the roof ashing that overlaps the TPO roof membrane to protect it
from direct water exposure.

Photo #: 392
West Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

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Photo #: 393
North and West Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

Photo #: 394
West and South Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

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Photo #: 395
A closer view of the previous photo.

Photo #: 396
South Elevation. Same comments as photo 387

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Photo #: 397
South Elevation. Same comments as photo 387

Photo #: 398
South and East Elevation. Same comments as photo 387. (Red dashed area). There is a large
amount of eforescence on the interior side of this structural brick wall. This means that
there is water leakage into the bricks core.

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Photo #: 399
East Elevation. Same comments as photo 387. (Red dashed area). There is a large amount of
eforescence on the interior side of this structural brick wall. This means that there is water
leakage into the bricks core.

Photo #: 400
East Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

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Photo #: 401
East and South Elevation. Same comments as photo 387.

Photo #: 402
A closer view of the previous photo showing the large amount of eforescence forming on
the wall where water is leaking out of it.

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