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Langdon & Seahs Reputation

Recognised as one of the worlds


leading multidisciplinary construction
and property consultancies, we focus
on clients needs when investing in
property and construction.
Contents

1. The Economics of Top-Down Construction

2. Approximate Building Costs in Hong Kong

3. Construction & Installation Price Index - Mainland China

4. Tender Price Index - Hong Kong

5. Materials

6. Labour

7. Gross Value of Construction Work Performed - Hong Kong

8. Approximate Building Costs for Major Cities in Asia

Statistical data are compiled from sources deemed reliable but accuracy is not guaranteed. All rights
reserved. Reproduction of this data, in whole or in part, is permitted providing the source is quoted.
1 The Economics of Top-Down Construction

What is top-down construction? If we consider that bottom-up is the conventional


way that a structure is built, then as the name suggests, top-down construction
will build the top portion first, normally the ground floor slab (thus allowing the
superstructure to commence), whilst at the same time constructing downwards floor
by floor until the lowest basement level is reached. It is usually adopted where there
is an economic advantage in having both above and below ground construction
built simultaneously. However, it may also be considered where lateral support
to a basements perimeter structure is restricted or in a situation where ground
movement must be reduced to an absolute minimum.

Construction Methodology
The construction begins with the basement retaining wall and foundation piles. Next are the topmost
horizontal structural elements of basement box, normally in the form of beam and slab, which also act
as lateral supports to the basement retaining wall. Before starting basement excavation, basement
columns (typically steel stanchions, often referred to king posts) are to be installed, usually by pre-
erecting them on top of the pile head inside the pile shaft during the pile construction. These columns
provide structural support to the horizontal elements already cast and allow the soil underneath to be
removed without the need for temporary propping.

"Top-Down" Construction Sequence

1) Construct retaining wall, 2) Cast the basement top 3) Excavate the soil 4 ) C o n stru ct th e 2 n d
piles and basement slab and beam underneath and start basement slab while
columns construction above work above ground
continues

Work above the top slab can also start once the basement excavation begins. When excavation below
the top slab is deep enough, the second top slab and beam can then be constructed, and so the cycle
repeats. Given the very restricted nature of the excavation works due to the presence of a slab above,
the whole process of basement excavation is actually slower than would be the case if conventional
excavation were being used.

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 1
1 The Economics of Top-Down Construction

So Why Top-Down?
The key motive for the use of top-down construction is that the overall construction period of the whole
development is shortened - given that above ground construction can get started without having to wait
for the completion of the basement underneath. Contractors find the overall project construction period
shorter and developers can take possession of their premises earlier.

From an engineering point of view, the stiffness of the


horizontal structural elements provides excellent lateral
structural support during excavation. This is particularly
crucial in the case of deep basement excavation where
lateral support may be uneconomically massive. Likewise,
top-down may be the preferred method in situations where
existing underground structures such as railways or
utility lines mean that temporary lateral support becomes
impractical. Top-down construction
(viewed through a mucking-out opening;
Upper floor slabs concreted,
with excavation underneath)
Traditional bottom-up excavation also quite often leads Source: www.cityu.edu.hk
to issues with buoyancy, whereby the upward pressure
exerted by ground water must be controlled. The fact
that top-down construction makes use of the eventual
permanent basement structure during the course of
excavation means that the dead weight of the permanent
basement structure itself (together with the ongoing
superstructure construction) can often be enough to
control such upward ground water pressure.

Steel stanchion protruding from a pile shaft


Generally, the deeper the basement, the greater the time
saved and the more the engineering benefit. Every project is different of course, but savings of up to a
year on the construction period of a sizeable property development are achievable.

Cost vs. Benefit


Whilst there are engineering benefits in adopting top-down, there are also challenges and not
unexpectedly such challenges usually require additional measures, which inevitably tend to carry a cost
premium. Such extraordinary measures might include:
smaller machinery for working with limited headroom, resulting in lower productivity
longer and more complex access routes to keep site traffic away from exposed stanchions

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 2
1 The Economics of Top-Down Construction

temporary ventilation and lighting brought in to place earlier, even when there are only
excavation activities

more extensive dewatering for surface/ground water due to the longer excavation period

provision of mucking out openings and hoisting facilities

strong permanent steel stanchions (or king posts) performing as full support to the already-
constructed structure above, all to be constructed using piling method

On the flip side, the overall construction period of the development will be shortened and so time-
related preliminaries (e.g. site management, plant hire, insurances etc.) will see a saving. Likewise, a
shorter construction programme would also mean a shorter exposure to price fluctuation risk a very
topical subject given the current construction market in Hong Kong. From the end-users perspective,
the earlier possession of revenue-generating space is a definite advantage, both in terms of the revenue
generated itself, but also in reduced financing costs.

As noted before, every project is different, and developers will quite often instruct their design teams to
design a number of alternative design options which may include, for example, partial top-down (part
of the floor area) or semi-top-down (beam only, with slab cast later). The costs of each of these options
then need to be evaluated - with the premium for top-down being compared with the benefits associated
with an earlier completion.

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 3
2 Approximate Building Costs in Hong Kong

Building Type HK$/m2 CFA Outline Specification

DOMESTIC
Apartments, high rise, public authority 10,200 - 12,200 Apartment units with fit-out, based on Hong Kong Housing
standard Authority Non-standard Cruciform Block design

Apartments, high rise, average standard 22,500 - 26,700 Apartment units with fit-out, including air-conditioning,
kitchen cabinets and home appliances, but excluding
decorative light fittings and loose furniture
Apartments, high rise, high end 30,500 - 35,600 Apartment units with good quality fit-out, including air-
conditioning, kitchen cabinets and home appliances, but
excluding decorative light fittings and loose furniture
Terraced houses, average standard 30,900 - 36,000 Houses with fit-out, including air-conditioning, kitchen
cabinets and home appliances, but excluding decorative
light fittings, loose furniture, garden and parking
Detached houses, high end 41,400 - 45,700 Houses with good quality fit-out, including air-conditioning,
kitchen cabinets and home appliances, but excluding
decorative light fittings, loose furniture, garden and parking
OFFICE / COMMERCIAL
Medium/high rise offices, average 22,600 - 26,800 RC structure, curtain wall/window wall, including public area
standard fit-out, tenant area with screeded floor, painted wall and ceiling
High rise offices, prestige quality 28,400 - 34,500 RC structure, curtain wall, including public area fit-out, tenant
area with raised floor/carpet, painted wall and false ceiling
Out-of-town shopping centre, average 22,600 - 26,800 Including public area fit-out and M&E, but excluding shop
standard fit-out
Retail malls, high end 30,800 - 35,600
INDUSTRIAL
Owner operated factories, low rise, light 17,400 - 21,800 RC structure, including small office with simple fit-out and
weight industry M&E, but excluding a/c and heating
HOTEL
Budget hotels - 3-star, mid market 29,000 - 31,200 1) Interior decoration
2) Furniture (fixed and movable)
Business hotels - 4/5-star 30,500 - 35,600
3) Special light fittings (chandeliers, etc.)
Luxury hotels - 5-star 35,500 - 40,960 4) Operating Supplies and Equipment (OS&E) excluded

OTHERS
Underground/basement car parks 16,600 - 20,700 RC structure
(<3 levels)
Multi storey car parks, above ground 9,850 - 11,600 RC structure, natural ventilation, no facade enclosure
(<4 levels)
Schools (primary and secondary) 19,150 - 20,300 Including fit-out and a/c, but excluding educational
equipment
Students' residences 16,700 - 19,800 Including fit-out, loose furniture and a/c

Sports clubs, multi purpose sports/ 27,800 - 31,800 Dry sports (no swimming pool) and are for 'leisure centre'
leisure centres (dry sports) type schemes including main sports hall, ancillary sports
facilities, changing and showers, restaurant / cafe, bar, etc.
Costs include a/c, Furniture, Fittings and Equipment (FF&E)
General hospitals - public sector 37,800 - 42,700 Excluding medical and operating equipment

Notes: 1. The costs for the respective categories given above are averages based on fixed price competitive tenders. It must be understood
that the actual cost of a building will depend upon the design and many other factors and may vary from the figures shown.

2. The costs per square metre are based on Construction Floor Areas (CFA) measured to the outside face of the external walls /
external perimeter including lift shafts, stairwells, balconies, plant rooms, water tanks and the like.

3. All buildings are assumed to have no basements (except otherwise stated) and are built on flat ground, with normal soil and site
conditions. The cost excludes site formation works, external works, land cost, professional fees, finance and legal expenses.

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 4
3 Construction & Installation Price Index
- Mainland China


Construction & Installation Price Index
Published (by NBS of China) Projected (by Langdon & Seah)
Index (Base : Corresponding Quarter in (Base : Q4/2002 = 100)
Preceding Year = 100) (see explanatory notes below)
Quarter / Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2011 2012 2013 2014
1st Quarter 109.1 103.2 100.2 101.5 145.2 149.8 150.1 152.4
2nd Quarter 109.4 102.4 99.8 100.7 151.7 155.4 155.1 156.2
3rd Quarter 110.2 100.4 100.1 159.1 159.8 159.9
4th Quarter 107.9 100.5 101.1 161.2 162.0 163.8

Source : National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) of China

Explanatory Notes:

Data are published on a quarterly basis, measuring the year-on-year change in price level of each quarter, but the quarter-on-quarter change is not
published, ie. the changes between consecutive quarters are not given.

To give an illustration of the price trend over time, Langdon & Seah (L&S) applies a hypothetical calculation to derive the data table and chart as
above, based on the following understanding and assumptions:

1. Only indices from 1st Quarter 2003 and onwards are published.

2. For 2002 and before, indices were only published annually. This annual index indicates that the average fluctuation in 2002 was moderate.
L&S's own in-house data further substantiates that construction costs in 2002 were rather stable throughout the year.

3. Changes between quarters in 2002 are assumed to be evenly distributed throughout the year. This establishes a notional relationship between
the four quarters in 2002 and can be compared with the published data for 2003 to find their notional quarter-on-quarter changes.

4. For comparison purposes, 4th Quarter 2002 is referred to as base and the base index as 100.

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 5
4 Tender Price Index - Hong Kong

Quarter / Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
ASD BW TPI (Base = 100, at Year 1970)
Q1 711 714 821 1,118 1,074 1,134 1,273 1,414 1,516 1,621
Q2 716 730 859 1,305 983 1,161 1,320 1,438 1,532
Q3 718 751 906 1,401 1,111 1,249 1,369 1,467 1,559
Q4 697 789 998 1,262 1,107 1,266 1,408 1,496 1,590
ASD BS TPI (Base = 100, at Year 1989)
Q1 112 116 124 148 128 130 149 149 193 211
Q2 110 119 120 163 134 135 162 200 230
Q3 114 124 127 170 129 143 187 281 215
Q4 113 122 147 145 133 148 175 203 219
L&S TPI (Base = 100, at Year 1970)
Q1 945 970 1,020 1,239 1,245 1,297 1,385 1,511 1,688 1,789
Q2 955 980 1,074 1,360 1,242 1,315 1,425 1,552 1,713 1,808
Q3 963 985 1,175 1,355 1,253 1,342 1,452 1,595 1,747 1,835*
Q4 970 990 1,150 1,281 1,273 1,367 1,491 1,632 1,786 1,855*
Source: Competitive tenders received by Langdon & Seah Hong Kong, Building Works Tender Price Index (BWTPI) and Building Services
Tender Price Index (BSTPI) of Architectural Services Department (ArchSD) of HKSAR.

Notes: 1. [*] denotes forecast figures.


2. Both BWTPI (ArchSD) and L&S TPI measure the trend of general builders works only. Special works and Mechanical and Electrical
Services would have to be considered separately.
3. All indices were published quarterly. For reference purpose, only indices from 1st quarter of 1998 and onwards are given in detail,
whereas indices between the years 1970 to 1997 are shown with their 4th Quarter figures.

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 6
5 Materials
Mainland China

Construction Material Prices
Year-on-Year Change

Quarter / Year 2012 2013 2014


1st Quarter (+)1.0% (-)3.1% (-)0.4%
2nd Quarter (-)1.2% (-)3.2% (-)1.2%
3rd Quarter (-)3.9% (-)2.3%
4th Quarter (-)3.9% (-)1.0%

Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China

Basic Construction Materials

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 7
6 Labour
Mainland China

Construction Labour Prices
Year-on-Year Change

Quarter / Year 2012 2013 2014


1st Quarter (+)10.4% (+)9.4% (+)6.9%
2nd Quarter (+)9.9% (+)8.4% (+)6.0%
3rd Quarter (+)9.1% (+)7.1%
4th Quarter (+)9.4% (+)7.5%

Source : National Bureau of Statistics of China

Hong Kong SAR


No. of Workers Employed
Age Group
by Construction Industry

Age 15 - 24 23,294 7.0%

Age 25 - 39 84,270 25.4%

Age 40 224,189 67.6%

Total (as at Jun 2014) : 331,753 100.0%

Source : Census & Statistics Department, Hong Kong SAR


Age Distribution of Workers

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 8
7 Gross Value of Construction Work
Performed - Hong Kong

Value Performed (HK$ Million)


Quarter
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
A. Private sector sites
1st Quarter 6,725 6,051 6,959 8,382 8,600 6,349 7,529 11,209 11,675 12,777*
2nd Quarter 6,421 6,161 7,429 8,122 9,055 9,276 8,458 12,260 12,176
3rd Quarter 6,524 6,016 6,582 7,688 8,408 7,360 9,192 12,481 11,848
4th Quarter 6,685 6,627 8,004 9,303 7,543 7,322 10,102 13,411 13,781
Year Total : 26,355 24,855 28,974 33,495 33,606 30,307 35,281 49,361 49,480
B. Public sector sites
1st Quarter 6,924 4,693 4,293 3,819 3,967 6,511 9,880 13,168 16,829 18,362*
2nd Quarter 5,895 3,998 3,575 3,762 4,652 6,937 9,263 12,023 14,690
3rd Quarter 4,951 3,918 3,105 3,653 4,428 8,651 10,814 12,137 13,792
4th Quarter 4,565 4,526 3,530 4,105 5,605 9,117 12,113 17,332 16,976
Year Total : 22,335 17,135 14,503 15,339 18,652 31,216 42,070 54,660 62,287
C. Locations other than sites
1st Quarter 9,579 11,229 10,995 11,883 11,750 11,926 12,172 13,347 15,140 18,039*
2nd Quarter 10,027 12,305 11,979 13,213 12,415 12,109 11,620 13,245 15,914
3rd Quarter 11,137 12,368 13,057 12,818 11,969 12,620 12,953 14,358 16,038
4th Quarter 11,417 12,338 13,358 12,851 12,552 13,097 14,439 16,479 17,716
Year Total : 42,160 48,240 49,389 50,765 48,686 49,752 51,184 57,429 64,807
Annual gross value performed (A + B + C)
Total : 90,850 90,230 92,866 99,599 100,944 111,275 128,535 161,450 176,574

* Provisional

Source : Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong SAR

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 9
8 Approximate Building Costs for
Major Cities in Asia

Guangzhou/ Chongqing/
Shanghai Beijing Dalian Shenyang
Shenzhen Chengdu
Building Type

RMB / m2 CFA

DOMESTIC

Apartments, high rise, average standard


- Shell and core 2,600 - 3,000 2,600 - 3,000 2,310 - 2,550 2,300 - 2,700 2,500 - 2,700 2,400 - 2,600
- Full fit 4,500 - 5,000 4,100 - 4,500 3,450 - 3,810 3,300 - 4,200 3,800 - 4,400 3,500 - 4,000

Apartments, high rise, high end


- Shell and core 3,200 - 3,500 3,100 - 4,500 2,900 - 3,150 2,800 - 3,400 2,900 - 3,300 2,800 - 3,200
- Full fit 11,000 - 12,000 10,100 - 11,500 5,730 - 6,330 5,300 - 7,000 7,200 - 7,900 5,800 - 6,500

Terraced houses, average standard


- Shell and core 3,000 - 3,200 3,000 - 3,500 2,600 - 2,870 2,600 - 3,200 2,800 - 3,200 2,600 - 3,000
- Full fit N/A 6,000 - 6,500 N/A N/A N/A N/A

Detached houses, high end


- Shell and core 4,500 - 5,000 4,500 - 5,000 3,550 - 3,920 3,600 - 4,200 3,800 - 4,200 3,500 - 3,800
- Full fit N/A 11,500 - 12,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A

OFFICE / COMMERCIAL

Medium/high rise offices, average standard 6,000 - 8,000 6,000 - 8000 5,020 - 5,550 5,500 - 6,500 5,700 - 6,100 5,500 - 6,000

High rise offices, prestige quality 8,000 - 10,000 8,000 - 12,000 6,900 - 7,620 7,000 - 9,500 7,800 - 8,200 7,500 - 8,500

Out-of-town shopping centre, average standard N/A 4,500 - 6,000 4,780 - 5,280 4,300 - 5,600 5,000 - 5,600 4,500 - 5,000

Retail malls, high end 8,500 - 11,000 8,000 - 11,000 7,060 - 7,800 7,500 - 10,000 7,700 - 8,700 7,500 - 8,500

INDUSTRIAL

Industrial units, shell only. 3,500 - 4,000 3,500 - 4,000 3,260 - 3,600 3,000 - 4,000 N/A N/A
(Conventional single storey framed unit)

Owner operated factories, low rise, light N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
weight industry

HOTEL

Budget hotels - 3-star, mid market 6,500 - 8,000 6,500 - 8,000 6,490 - 7,170 6,500 - 8,000 6,800 - 7,400 6,600 - 7,300

Business hotels - 4/5-star 11,000 - 15,000 11,000 - 14,000 10,480 - 11,580 12,000 - 15,000 11,500 - 13,000 10,000 - 13,000

Luxury hotels - 5-star 15,000 - 18,000 14,000 - 18,000 14,300 - 15,800 N/A N/A N/A

OTHERS

Underground/basement car parks 5,000 - 7,000 4,500 - 5,000 3,300 - 5,300 N/A N/A 3,800 - 4,200
(<3 levels)

Multi storey car parks, above ground 2,500 - 3,500 2,500 - 3,000 2,360 - 2,600 2,300 - 2,700 2,400 - 2,500 2,300 - 2,500
(<4 levels)

Schools (primary and secondary) 3,500 - 4,500 3,500 - 4,500 2,610 - 2,890 N/A N/A N/A

Students' residences 2,500 - 3,500 2,500 - 3,500 1,660 - 1,840 N/A N/A N/A

Sports clubs, multi purpose sports/leisure 6,500 - 8,000 6,000 - 8,000 4,890 - 5,410 N/A N/A N/A
(dry sports)

General hospitals - public sector 10,000 - 13,000 8,000 - 10,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 10
8 Approximate Building Costs for
Major Cities in Asia

Hong Kong Macau Singapore Kuala Lumpur Bangkok


Building Type
USD / m2 CFA (See also exchange rates per U.S. dollar below)

HK$ 7.80 MOP 7.98 S$ 1.25 RM 3.24 BAHT 32.22

DOMESTIC

Apartments, high rise, average standard


- Shell and core N/A 1,520 - 2,118 N/A N/A 528 - 652
- Full fit 2,880 - 3,420 1,955 - 2,381 1,560 - 1,760 405 - 610 683 - 869

Apartments, high rise, high end


- Shell and core N/A 2,118 - 3,371 N/A N/A 636 - 869
- Full fit 3,910 - 4,560 2,719 - 4,160 2,360 - 3,520 975 - 1,170 993 - 1,179

Terraced houses, average standard


- Shell and core N/A 2,657 - 3,296 N/A N/A 310 - 435
- Full fit 3,960 - 4,620 3,321 - 3,960 2,000 - 2,240 285 - 405 497 - 621

Detached houses, high end


- Shell and core N/A 3,208 - 4,624 N/A N/A 559 - 807
- Full fit 5,310 - 5,860 4,048 - 5,439 2,520 - 3,360 950 - 1,165 838 - 1,024

OFFICE / COMMERCIAL

Medium/high rise offices, average standard 2,900 - 3,440* 2,243 - 2,907 2,000 - 2,200@ 765 - 880 652 - 807#

High rise offices, prestige quality 3,640 - 4,420 2,907 - 3,170 2,200 - 2,440@ 1,105 - 1,490 869 - 1,117##

Out-of-town shopping centre, average standard 2,900 - 3,440 2,118 - 3,170 2,200 - 2,360 685 - 820 652 - 850

Retail malls, high end 3,950 - 4,560 3,321 - 4,098 2,360 - 2,600 845 - 1,090 854 - 916

INDUSTRIAL

Industrial units, shell only. N/A N/A 840 - 1,080 410 - 515 512 - 621
(Conventional single storey framed unit)

Owner operated factories, low rise, light 2,230 - 2,790 N/A N/A 545 - 610 N/A
weight industry

HOTEL

Budget hotels - 3-star, mid market 3,720 - 4,000 2,982 - 3,383 2,480 - 2,680 1,280 - 1,765 1,179 - 1,304

Business hotels - 4/5-star 3,910 - 4,560 3,985 - 4,762 3,160 - 3,600 2,220 - 2,560 1,490 - 1,707

Luxury hotels - 5-star 4,550 - 5,250 4,762 - 6,015 3,160 - 3,600 2,465 - 2,845 1,738 - 1,862

OTHERS

Underground/basement car parks 2,130 - 2,650 1,617 - 1,955 1,080 - 1,480 455 - 625 559 - 745
(<3 levels)

Multi storey car parks, above ground 1,260 - 1,490 977 - 1,328 760 - 1,080@@ 265 - 345 186 - 310
(<4 levels)

Schools (primary and secondary) 2,460 - 2,600 1,955 - 2,331 N/A 280 - 320 N/A

Students' residences 2,140 - 2,540 1,554 - 1,805 1,840 - 2,000 360 - 395 N/A

Sports clubs, multi purpose sports/leisure 3,560 - 4,080 N/A 2,280 - 2,440 740 - 805 N/A
(dry sports)

General hospitals - public sector 4,850 - 5,470 N/A 3,160 - 3,320 1,105 - 1,360 N/A

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 11
8 Approximate Building Costs for
Major Cities in Asia

Jakarta Brunei Manila Seoul


Building Type
USD / m2 CFA (See also exchange rates per U.S. dollar below)

IDR 11,600 B$ 1.26 PHP 44.13 KWR 1,025

DOMESTIC

Apartments, high rise, average standard


- Shell and core N/A N/A N/A 966 - 1,190
- Full fit 664 - 750 757 - 1,039 865 - 925 1,366 - 1,659

Apartments, high rise, high end


- Shell and core N/A N/A N/A 1,063 - 1,273
- Full fit 914 - 1,034 1,089 - 1,371 1,180 - 1,240 1,678 - 2,049

Terraced houses, average standard


- Shell and core N/A N/A N/A N/A
- Full fit 353 - 457 479 - 754 610 - 690 N/A

Detached houses, high end


- Shell and core N/A N/A N/A 1,122 - 1,376
- Full fit 957 - 1,155 712 - 986 1,285 - 1,380 2,439 - 3,707

OFFICE / COMMERCIAL

Medium/high rise offices, average standard 655 - 724 781 - 1,071 825 - 875 1,298 - 1,390

High rise offices, prestige quality 966 - 1,078 1,128 - 1,394 1,270 - 1,375 1,432 - 1,659

Out-of-town shopping centre, average standard 560 - 621 766 - 1,060 740 - 875 1,220 - 1,902

Retail malls, high end 621 - 672 1,010 - 1,302 1,080 - 1,120 1,415 - 2,341

INDUSTRIAL

Industrial units, shell only. 302 - 328 361 - 650 450 - 460 727 - 878
(Conventional single storey framed unit)

Owner operated factories, low rise, light 328 - 362 490 - 781 480 - 510 N/A
weight industry

HOTEL

Budget hotels - 3-star, mid market 1,138 - 1,345 1,461 - 1,748 1,180 - 1,375 1,815 - 2,244

Business hotels - 4/5-star 1,552 - 1,759 2,060 - 2,348 1,270 - 1,375 2,546 - 4,390

Luxury hotels - 5-star 1,655 - 1,862 2,116 - 2,545 1,575 - 1,650 2,829 - 4,488

OTHERS

Underground/basement car parks 466 - 569 N/A 510 - 560 1,005 - 1,061
(<3 levels)

Multi storey car parks, above ground 302 - 328 397 - 683 460 - 510 605 - 732
(<4 levels)

Schools (primary and secondary) N/A 575 - 858 690 - 765 N/A

Students' residences N/A 671 - 955 690 - 785 1,523 - 1,595

Sports clubs, multi purpose sports/leisure 1,034 - 1,569 1,381 - 1,671 1,180 - 1,425 N/A
(dry sports)

General hospitals - public sector N/A 1,322 - 1,478 1,330 - 1,475 N/A

QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW


SECOND QUARTER 2014 12
8 Approximate Building Costs for
Major Cities in Asia
Building Type Outline Specification

DOMESTIC
Apartments, high rise, average standard Shell and core, including finishes to public area, but excluding finishes to apartment
units
Full fit, with air-conditioning, kitchen cabinets and home appliances, but excluding
decorative light fittings and loose furniture
Apartments, high rise, high end Shell and core, including finishes to public area, but excluding finishes to apartment
units
Full fit, good quality provisions, with air-conditioning, kitchen cabinets and home
appliances, but excluding decorative light fittings and loose furniture
Terraced houses, average standard Shell and core, joined houses in row(s), excluding garden, parking, finishes and
fittings to house interior
Full fit, joined houses in row(s), with air-conditioning, kitchen cabinets and home
appliances, but excluding decorative light fittings, loose furniture, garden and parking
Detached houses, high end Shell and core, good quality facade, excluding garden, parking, finishes and fittings
to house interior
Full fit, good quality provisions, with air-conditioning, kitchen cabinets and home
appliances, but excluding decorative light fittings, loose furniture, garden and parking
OFFICE / COMMERCIAL
Medium/high rise offices, average standard RC structure, curtain wall, including public area fit-out, tenant area with raised floor/
High rise offices, prestige quality carpet, painted wall and false ceiling

Out-of-town shopping centre, average standard


Including public area fit-out and M&E, but excluding shop fit-out
Retail malls, high end

INDUSTRIAL
Industrial units, shell only. (Conventional single storey RC structure with steel roof and M&E to main distribution, but excluding a/c, heating
framed unit) and lighting
Owner operated factories, low rise, light weight industry RC structure, including small office with simple fit-out and M&E, but excluding a/c
and heating
HOTEL
Budget hotels - 3-star, mid market 1) Interior decoration
2) Furniture (fixed and movable)
Business hotels - 4/5-star
3) Special light fittings (chandeliers, etc.)
Luxury hotels - 5-star 4) Operating Supplies and Equipment (OS&E) excluded

OTHERS
Underground/basement car parks (<3 levels) RC structure

Multi storey car parks, above ground (<4 levels) RC structure, natural ventilation, no facade enclosure

Schools (primary and secondary) Including fit-out and a/c, but excluding educational equipment

Students' residences Including fit-out, loose furniture and a/c

Sports clubs, multi purpose sports/leisure centres (dry Dry sports (no swimming pool) and are for 'leisure centre' type schemes including
sports) main sports hall, ancillary sports facilities, changing and showers, restaurant / cafe,
bar, etc. Costs include a/c, Furniture, Fittings and Equipment (FF&E)
General hospital - public sector Excluding medical and operating equipment

Notes: 1. The costs for the respective categories given above are averages based on fixed price competitive tenders. It must be understood that the actual cost of a
building will depend upon the design and many other factors and may vary from the figures shown.
2. The costs per square metre are based on Construction Floor Areas (CFA) measured to the outside face of the external walls / external perimeter including lift
shafts, stairwells, balconies, plant rooms, water tanks and the like.
3. All buildings are assumed to have no basements (except otherwise stated) and are built on flat ground, with normal soil and site conditions. The cost excludes
site formation works, external works, land cost, professional fees, finance and legal expenses.
4. The standard for each category of building varies from region to region and do not necessarily follow that of each other.
5. Shell and core generally covers ONLY base building elements. Shell refers to overall structure and foundations, exterior walls, floors and roof, completing
with common areas, staircases, lift shafts, service ducts and fire services systems to local statutory requirements. Core refers to fully-fitted public areas (like
lobbies, corridors and lavatories) and M&E main plant and upfeed, with tenant or occupant areas unfurnished.
6. Full fit buildings should complete with all elements that allow the buildings to be ready for operation, including public and tenants (or occupants) areas (i.e.
with ALL finishes, fittings and M&E distributions).
7. Fluctuation in exchange rates may lead to changes in construction costs expressed in U.S. dollars.
8. Hong Kong: * (i) Tenant area with screeded floor, painted wall and ceiling (ii) Facade in curtain wall/window wall
Singapore: @ Excluding carpet @@ Open on all side with parapet
Bangkok: # (i) Excluding raised floor/carpet and inter-tenancy partition (ii) Facade in windows and brick wall/pre-cast concrete panel
## Excluding raised floor/carpet and inter-tenancy partition
Seoul Curtain wall to external wall Steel structure Medium to high grade cladding, with garden
Mechanical ventilation and car guidance system
QUARTERLY CONSTRUCTION COST REVIEW
SECOND QUARTER 2014 13
Langdon & Seah
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