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1.

0 FURNACE (CASCADE CONTROL)

Objective: To control the exit temperature of furnace before entering the reactor.
Manipulated Variable: Flow rate of fuel
Controlled Variable: The temperature of the furnace output

In this cascade control strategy, the outlet temperature of the furnace is controlled by adjusting
the fuel flow controller set point that adjusts the valve position. The primary loop of this control
is the temperature of the exit stream from furnace while the secondary loop is the fuel flow into
furnace. The primary temperature loop is used to set the set point for the secondary flow loop
controller. The output of the exit temperature controller adjusts the set point of flow controller in
this cascade control where the secondary controller set point is equal to the primary controller
output. The secondary flow control loop is the manipulated variable for the primary temperature
controller. Primary temperature loop will direct the secondary flow loop and the secondary flow
loop will measure the flow of the fuel. If the flow of fuel decreases, the controller will send
signal to valve to maintain the flow in order to maintain the temperature of the furnace outlet.

2.0 REACTOR (RATIO CONTROL)

Objective: To maintain the stoichiometric ratio of the reactants in reactor.


Manipulated Variable: Flow rate of hydrogen stream
Controlled Variable: Ratio of reactants into reactor

Ratio control is used as the control strategy in this reactor. This ratio control is used in order to
introduce the feed mixture in stoichiometric proportions before entering the reactor. In this case,
the hydrogen flow rate is considered to be the disturbance variable while the feed flow rate is the
controlled variable. The flow rate of the feed stream is measured and the value measured is
transmitted to the multiplier which multiplies the signal with desired ratio to obtain the required
flow rate in hydrogen stream. The output signal is then used as the set point for the flow
controller that adjusts the flow rate of hydrogen stream. Then, the flow rate of hydrogen stream
is manipulated to keep it at the desired ratio before entering the reactor by adjusting the valve
positioned.
3.0 STRIPPER TOWER (FEEDFORWARD CONTROL)

Objective: To strip volatile components from liquid stream inside the stripper
Manipulated Variable: Flow of steam into stripper
Controlled Variable: The top stream of the stripper

Control strategy for this section is by feedforward control whereby its measure disturbance and
takes a corrective action before it disturbs the process. Steam flow is used to strip the volatile
components from a liquid stream. Therefore in order to make sure that the separation process
occurs, there must be a sufficient flow of steam so that the liquid and vapor streams can have
either co-current or countercurrent flows and strip the volatile components from the liquid
streams. Thus, the valve is used to control the flow of steam into the stripper.

4.0 STRIPPER (RATIO CONTROL)

Objective: To maintain the reflux ratio in stripper.


Controlled Variable: Ratio stream A and B
Manipulated Variable: Flow rate of stream B

Ratio control is usually used as the control strategic in stripper. Ratio control is used in order
maintaining the reflux ratio in stripper to achieve the purity that we want. Stream A is the wild
stream which is used in order to adjust the flow of stream B. The measured value for stream A is
transmitted into the multiplier which multiplies the signal with the desired ratio to obtain the
required flow rate in stream B. The output signal from multiplier is the set point to the flow
controller of stream B. Then, the flow rate of stream B is manipulated to keep it at the desired
ratio before entering the stripper by adjusting the valve positioned. So when the flow in stream A
increases, the flow in stream B will be decreases.
5.0 STRIPPER (FEEDBACK CONTROLLER)

Objective: To maintain the pressure inside the stripper.


Controlled Variable: Pressure of the stripper.
Manipulated Variable: Flow rate steam inlet of the coolant

Feedback controlled is used for this stripper to maintain the pressure inside the stripper by
manipulated the flow rate steam inlet of the coolant. This is because, if the flow rate steam inlet
of the coolant increase, the pressure of vapour gas will be decrease and it will give effect to the
stripper.
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA
ADVANCED PROCESS CONTROL (CHE 645)
NAME: NUR IZZATI BINTI AHMAD TARHIZI (2014233914)