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Question Answer References (book, slides) Comments

Set of coherent entities which together act like a big

What is a system? entity. Every element has an effect to other, and vice versa. Slide #3 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.pdf
What is information and what purpose
it is needed for? Information decreases uncertainty. ???
Sum of procedures and activities which store, produce and
distribute the required information for administrational and
What is an information system? operational duties of the enterprise. Slide #5 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.pdf
Open systems
Big and complex systems
Manual vs Automatic Slide #4,6,10 on Lecture
Type of Information Systems Data-intensive systems vs Transaction-oriented systems presentation/service_science_1.pdf
Empirical - observation of the real world
Formal level - description of abstraction, structuration
or other representation of the gained knowledge
Problem types between Informations Design or development level - the implementation of
Systems and the real world the formal draft Slide #7 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.pdf
System quality properties -ISO 9126 Functionality, Reliability, Usability, Efficiency, Maintainability, Portability https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO/IEC_9126#Function
Consists of components called System, Architecture, Architecture Slide #11,12 on Lecture
Software Architecture description, View, Point of View, Model, Parties involved. presentation/service_science_1.pdf Diagram
Strategy< Information, support of decision-making < Enterprise systems, Slide #15 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.
Traditional view of organizations databases, ERP < Services: hardware, network, PCs, e-commerce pdf Diagram
Scope (Contextual ) - Enterprise model (Conceptual) - System model
The Zachman Framework for (Logical) - Technlogy model (Physical) - As built - Functioning enterprise
Enterprise Architectures Rows OR Planner's view - Owner's - Designer's - Builder's - Integrator's - Slide #22, 30 on Lecture
(Views) User's view presentation/service_science_1.pdf
The Zachman Framework for
Enterprise Architectures Columns What, How, Where, Who, When, Why OR Data - Function - Network - Slide #22, 30 on Lecture
(Perspectives) People - Time - Motive presentation/service_science_1.pdf
High level approach design.
Relies heavily on: modularization, standardization, and already existing, Slide #32 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.
Properties of TOGAF proven technologies and products. pdf The Open Group Architecture Forum
TOGAF - Enterprise architecture Business architecture, Applications architecture, Data architecture, Slide #35 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.
domains Technical architecture pdf
Detailed step-by-step process for developing or changing
an enterprise architecture.
Applied to develop an enterprise architecture which will
meet the business and information technology needs of an
TOGAF Architecture Development Tailored to the organization's needs and is then employed Slide #36 on Lecture presentation/service_science_1.
Method (ADM) to manage the execution of architecture planning activities. pdf
A service is a change in the condition of a person, or
a good belonging to some economic unit, which is
brought about as the result of the activity of some
other economic unit, with the prior agreement of the
Definition (Service) former person or economic unit. Slide #11on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.pdf
Service Industries - The services are Slide #9,10 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
categorized into Logistics, Infrastructure, Government, Finance, Entertainment, Business pdf
Resources are fundamental elements of services.
Characterization of services is based on proportion or intensity.
Following main types of services have been distinguished
according to their resource intensity:
Labor- and capital-intensive services.
Knowledge-intensive service.
Information-intensive service.
Resource Intensity of Services Technology-intensive service. Slide #29on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.pdf
Recent development in the domain of
services types of services in service Service Economies, Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic, Electronic Services, Slide #5,6 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
economy Mobile Services, Cloud Services, Service Marketplaces pdf
Intense competition of economies
Globalization of worldwide markets
Generalization and expansion of information systems and
information technologies
Service-Oriented Societies Significant opportunities for the conception of new specialized
characteristics services. Slide #3 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.pdf
Recent theoretical contributions, such as S-D Logic, indicate that all
markets are centered
on the exchange of services, and all economies and societies are
Service-Dominant (S-D) Logic service based Slide #5 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.pdf
A service system consists of elements (e.g., people,
facilities, tools, and computer programs) that have a
structure (i.e., an organization), a behavior (possibly Slide #18 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Definition (Service System) described as a process), and a purpose pdf
Transformation Process
One of the basic concepts of OM
Activity, or group of activities that
takes one or more inputs,
transforms and adds value to them,
Operations Management View on provides output for customers or clients. Slide #25 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Services Input-transformation-output model pdf
inseparability, Slide #35 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Services and Goods IHIP criteria and perishability. pdf
Labor-intensive service:
Labor costs outweigh the costs for equipment and
Capital-intensive service: Slide #30 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Labor- and Capital-Intensive Services The capital costs (for facilities, equipment, tools) prevail. pdf
Mostly used in the form of knowledge-intensive
business services.
Heavily rely on professional knowledge.
Similarly to skills-intensive services. Slide #31 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Knowledge-intensive services Forms of labor-intensive services pdf
The proportion of labor is very low or zero.
Delivered by resources that are purely technological.
Can be used in a self-service mode.
Technology used in services today is predominantly ICT.
ICT and the internet led to concepts like Electronic
Services, Web Services, Cloud Services, the Internet of Slide #33 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Technology-intensive Services Things, and the Internet of Services. pdf
Involve substantial information processing.
and transmitting data to create value.
The collection and processing can be automated using information and
technology (ITC).
The amount of data available gets bigger and bigger (Big Data)
The task if extracting valuable information becomes more and more
sophisticated (data Slide #32 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Information-intensive Services scientist, Big Data analytics) pdf
giving up resources and demanding them back as a
service without ownership is called outsourcing
pay for the service only on demand
non-ownership gives more flexibility and avoids risks
service provider can mitigate risks and handle varying Slide #39 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Non-ownership Outsourcing demand pdf
IT resources of a company are taken over by a third
party and provided back to the first company as a
service. Slide #40 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
IT outsourcing Cloud services are type of IT outsourcing pdf
Goods and services bundling :Companies combine products with
services into new offerings with a superior value, for example company Slide #41 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
Hybrid Offering offers an extended warranty contract in addition to an electronic product pdf
for example: companies have added services to their core
offerings and services have become a dominant portion of their Slide #41 on Lecture presentation/service_science_2.
revenues and profits pdf

Servitization is the innovation of an organisations Slide #34 on Lecture presentation/service_science_4.

capabilities and processes to better create mutual pdf
value through a shift from selling product to selling
Servitization product service systems
Services in Computer Science
Evolution of services can be observed from two distinct perspectives:
Evolution of services from two distinct As the automation of economic activities and self service.
perspectives As the improvement of a programming paradigm. Slide #7 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.pdf
Service automation - person delivering the service was replaced by
Self-service is a direct consequence of service automation
no availability limitations (e.g., opening hours)
customer has the service encounter completely under his/her own
Computers and ICT accelerated the progress of service automation
Automation and Self Service - Self (self-service Slide #11 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Service gasoline stations, ATM, kiosks, electronic ticket machines) pdf
Manufacturing industry - automation of production
Vending machines - automate the sales process
Automation and Self Service Telephonys modern switching systems - caller Slide #10 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Automation directly dial and automatically get routed pdf
Face-to-screen service - architectural Slide #10 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
components Technology, Cutomer, (Provider) pdf Diagram
An electronic service is a service system (with
elements, a structure, a behavior, and a purpose) for
which the implementation of many of its elements
and behavior is done using automation and Slide #21 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Electronic Services programming techniques. pdf
Transactions between two parties where the buyer and seller are both
(ariba.com, salesforce.com)
The business offers products or services to consumers rather than other
businesses. (Amazon, eBay)
Governments are recognizing the value of using electronic services for
improving Slide #33 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Electronic Business Models citizens experience and lowering costs. pdf
Traditional human-based services are characterized by the
personal service encounter involving human touch and service
Provider understands what the customer wants -> deliver a very
individual, personalized experience
This advantage was lost in automated services
Service experience is influenced by the outcomes of the
The Value of Electronic Services - interactions that occur between service systems and their Slide #29 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Human Touch customers pdf
Technology-free services, Technology-assisted services, Technology-
Facilitated Services, Technology-Mediated Services, Technology-
Generated Services, further classification:
face-to-face or Slide #15-17 on Lecture
The Role of Technology face-to-screen. presentation/service_science_3.pdf
The disadvantage of losing human touch can be overcome with
electronic services
Provide possibilities to focus on the customer
The Value of Electronic Services interaction, Slide #30 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Personalization localization. pdf
Standard internet devices -> using electronic
services is very comfortable
Can be used from everywhere
The Value of Electronic Services First - widely accepted - service electronic mail or email Slide #27 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Accessibility Instantaneously delivered pdf
According to Hofacker the three types:
1. Complements to existing offline services and goods.
(DHL, FedEx, UPS)
2. Substitutes for existing offline services. (Spotify, Netflix,
Google Maps) Slide #31,32 on Lecture
E-Service Strategy -Types 3. New core services. (Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter) presentation/service_science_3.pdf
In software engineering: web-accessible programs are called
web applications
Residing on the providers web application server
Uses the clients web browser as the presentation layer
Communicates via standard internet protocols (such as HTTP)
Developing Electronic Services - web- Database server is responsible for the persistence of data Slide #36 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
accessible programs stored for the web application pdf
Subroutines, Components, Business Process Modeling, Service- Slide #38,39 on Lecture
Service-oriented programming Oriented Architecture (SOA), presentation/service_science_3.pdf
Subroutines- Services as Often used functions are isolated from the rest of the code and Slide #38 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Programming Paradigms put it into a subroutine. Can be shared with other developers. pdf
Many recurring, separable functions. Extensively reuse preprogrammed
Components- Services as object or components. Concept of modules, later evolved into concept of Slide #38 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Programming Paradigms components. pdf

Reusable set of services is available.

Business Process Modeling - Instead of programming composing or modeling. Composition of Slide #39 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Services as Programming Paradigms services into business applications is business process modeling (BPM). pdf
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Service-Oriented Computing
(SOC) are programming paradigms that were introduced to overcome
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) - the inflexibility of monolithic software. They utilize services as Slide #39 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Services as Programming Paradigms fundamental elements for developing applications. pdf
REST web services are resource-based services. Uses the set of well-
known HTTP operations GET, PUT, POST, DELETE to change states of
remote resources.
Definition (REST Service):An application-accessible web service that
uses REST architectural principles and web specifications as underlying Slide #43 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Resource-based web services paradigms and technologies, respectively pdf
The World Wide Web Consortium defines a web
service as a software system designed to support
interoperable machine-to- machine interaction over a Slide #40 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
Web Services network. pdf
Web services + provide a technological infrastructure
outsource computing resources as a service (data storage, hardware,
servers, networking)
Cloud indicates that the service is remotely accessed using the internet

Delivery Models
Software as a Service
Platform as a Service
Infrastructure as a Service

Economies of Scale

On-demand self service
Broad network access
Resource pooling
Rapid elasticity Slide #44-47 on Lecture
Cloud Services Measured services presentation/service_science_3.pdf
The preferred communication medium is WWW, existing protocols were
Operation-based web services adopted, new ones Slide #42 on Lecture presentation/service_science_3.
technologies were created (HTML, HTTP, XML, WSDL, SOAP, UDDI) pdf
An innovation is the combination of a novelty and
its introduction to a market. The novelty can either
be newly discovered, or re-used in the context of
Definition (Innovation) this innovation. Slide #3 on Lecture presentation/service_science_4.pdf
The novelty in a service innovation can be
constituted by changes in one or several of the
following dimensions: Service concept, customer
interaction, value system, business partners,
revenue model and organizational or
Definition (Service Innovation) technological service delivery system. Slide #7 on Lecture presentation/service_science_4.pdf
Analyze innovations along two dimensions:
First dimension describes the degree of change in
the employed core concepts. Second dimension describes the degree of
in the linkages between these core concepts
The linkages between the core concepts
characterize the way in which the concepts are connected to form a new
This can include technical interfaces, physical integration, and the
connection of different service components.

4 types:
Types of Innovation - Henderson and Inceremntal Innovation, Modular innovation, Architectural Iinnovation, Slide #4-6 on Lecture presentation/service_science_4.
Clark Radical innovation pdf Diagram
Assimilation approach of Service
The demarcation approach of Service
The synthesis approach of Service
Name from the ancient Roman god Janus, who is
characterized by looking into the future and the past
at the same time
Janus cones capture past events relevant to ones
innovation project Slide #15-17 on Lecture
Janus Cones Projection of potential future events and their timing presentation/service_science_4.pdf Diagram
Developed at the Stanford University
Puts the central topic or opportunity to be addressed
by the team in the center
Arranges the relevant dimensions around the topic
By capturing and discussing these dimensions, the
problem space defining the teams challenge is Slide #12-14 on Lecture
Context Map properly explored presentation/service_science_4.pdf Diagram