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Ch a pt er 23

Filters

Learning Outcomes A filter is a frequency selective circuit. It passes some


frequencies but rejects others. Filters are used to select
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: one radio signal and block others. Filters are also used
Name and define the five basic types of filters. to reject noise and interference.
List the key specifications of a filter. The key quality of a filter is its selectivity, the abil-
Determine the attenuation of a filter is decibels ity to discriminate between signals that are close in
(dB). frequency. We say that a filter has good selectivity if
Plot a filter response on log graph paper. its response curve is very steep and sharply defined
Calculate the cutoff frequencies of RC and LC
rather than gradual.
filters. Passive filters can be made with resistors and capac-
Explain how crystal, ceramic, and SAW filters
itors (RC) or with inductors and capacitors (LC). These
operate. RC and LC filters come in five basic forms: low pass,
Describe how a DSP filter works.
high pass, bandpass, bandstop, and all pass. There are
many variations.

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Other types are active filters made with RC networks This chapter provides an overview of the most
and operational amplifiers (op amps). Crystal and ce- widely used passive filters and a brief look at some of
ramic filters are also available. A surface acoustic wave the more specialized crystal and SAW filters.
(SAW) filter is used at very high frequencies.

23.1 Ideal Responses High-Pass Filter


The frequency response of a filter is the graph of its volt- Figure 23-2 shows the ideal frequency response of a high-
age gain versus frequency. There are five types of filters: pass filter. A high-pass filter blocks all frequencies from
low pass, high pass, bandpass, bandstop, and all pass. This zero up to the cutoff frequency and passes all frequencies
section discusses the ideal frequency response of each. The above the cutoff frequency.
next section describes the approximations for these ideal With a high-pass filter, the frequencies between zero and
responses. the cutoff frequency are the stopband. The frequencies above
the cutoff frequency are the passband. An ideal high-pass fil-
Low-Pass Filter ter has infinite attenuation in the stopband, zero attenuation
Figure 23-1 shows the ideal frequency response of a low- in the passband, and a vertical transition.
pass filter. It is sometimes called a brick wall response
because the right edge of the rectangle looks like a brick Bandpass Filter
wall. A low-pass filter passes all frequencies from zero to A bandpass filter is useful when you want to tune in a radio
the cutoff frequency and blocks all frequencies above the or television signal. It is also useful in telephone communi-
cutoff frequency, cations equipment for separating the different phone conver-
With a low-pass filter, the frequencies between zero and sations that are being simultaneously transmitted over the
the cutoff frequency are called the passband. The frequen- same communication path.
cies above the cutoff frequency are called the stopband. Figure 23-3 shows the ideal frequency response of a
The roll-off region between the passband and the stopband bandpass filter. A brick wall response like this blocks all fre-
is called the transition. An ideal low-pass filter has zero at- quencies from zero up to the lower cutoff frequency. Then,
tenuation (signal loss) in the passband, infinite attenuation in
the stopband, and a vertical transition. Av

One more point: The ideal low-pass filter has zero phase
shift for all frequencies in the passband. Zero phase shift is
important when the input signal is nonsinusoidal. When a fil-
ter has zero phase shift, the shape of the nonsinusoidal signal
is preserved as it passes through the ideal filter. For instance,
if the input signal is a square wave, it has a fundamental fre-
quency and harmonics. If the fundamental frequency and all Stopband Passband
significant harmonics (approximately the first 10) are inside
f
the passband, the square wave will have approximately the fc
same shape at the output.
Figure 23-2 Ideal high-pass response.

Av Av

Passband Stopband BW

f f
fc f1 f2

Figure 23-1 Ideal low-pass response. Figure 23-3 Ideal bandpass response.

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it passes all the frequencies between the lower and upper Av

cutoff frequencies. Finally, it blocks all frequencies above


the upper cutoff frequency.
With a bandpass filter, the passband is all the frequen-
cies between the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. The
frequencies below the lower cutoff frequency and above the
upper cutoff frequency are the stopband. An ideal bandpass
filter has zero attenuation in the passband, infinite attenua-
tion in the stopband, and two vertical transitions.
f
The bandwidth (BW) of a bandpass filter is the difference f1 f2
between its upper and lower 3-dB cutoff frequencies:
Figure 23-4 Ideal bandstop response.
BW 5 f2 2 f1 (23-1)
For instance, if the cutoff frequencies are 450 and 460 kHz,
of 95 and 105 kHz has a bandwidth of 10 kHz. This is a nar-
the bandwidth is
rowband because Q is approximately 10. A filter with cutoff
BW 5 460 kHz 2 450 kHz 5 10 kHz frequencies of 300 and 3300 Hz has a center frequency of
approximately 1000 Hz and a bandwidth of 3000 Hz. This is
As another example, if the cutoff frequencies are 300 and
wideband because Q is approximately 0.333.
3300 Hz, the bandwidth is
BW 5 3300 Hz 2 300 Hz 5 3000 Hz Bandstop Filter
Figure 23-4 shows the ideal frequency response of a band-
The center frequency is symbolized by f0 and is given by
stop filter. This type of filter passes all frequencies from
the geometric average of the two cutoff frequencies:
____ zero up to the lower cutoff frequency. Then, it blocks all the
f 0 5 f1 f 2 (23-2) frequencies between the lower and upper cutoff frequen-
cies. Finally, it passes all frequencies above the upper cutoff
For instance, telephone companies use a bandpass filter with
frequency.
cutoff frequencies of 300 and 3300 Hz to separate phone
With a bandstop filter, the stopband is all the frequen-
conversations. The center frequency of these filters is
cies between the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. The
________________
f0 5 (300 Hz)(3300 Hz) 5 995 Hz frequencies below the lower cutoff frequency and above the
upper cutoff frequency are the passband. An ideal bandstop
To avoid interference between different phone conversations, filter has infinite attenuation in the stopband, no attenuation
the bandpass filters have responses that approach the brick in the passband, and two vertical transitions.
wall response shown in Fig. 23-3. The definitions for bandwidth, narrowband, and cen-
The Q of a bandpass filter is defined as the center fre- ter frequency are the same as before. In other words, with
quency divided by the bandwidth: a bandstop filter, we use Formulas (23-l) through (23-3) to
f0 calculate BW, f0, and Q. Incidentally, the bandstop filter is
Q 5 ____ (23-3)
BW sometimes called a notch filter because it notches out or re-
For instance, if f0 5 200 kHz and BW 5 40 kHz, then Q 5 5. moves all frequencies in the stopband.
When the Q is greater than 10, the center frequency can
All-Pass Filter
be approximated by the arithmetic average of the cutoff
frequencies: Figure 23-5 shows the frequency response of an ideal all-
f1 1 f 2 pass filter. It has a pass-band and no stopband. Because of
f0 ______ this, it passes all frequencies between zero and infinite fre-
2
quency. It may seem rather unusual to call it a filter since
For instance, in a radio receiver the cutoff frequencies of the
it has zero attenuation for all frequencies. The reason it is
bandpass filter (IF stage) are 450 and 460 kHz. The center
called a filter is because of the effect it has on the phase of
frequency is approximately
signals passing through it. The all-pass filter is useful when
f0 450 kHz 1 460 kHz 5 455 kHz
_________________ we want to produce a certain amount of phase shift for the
2 signal being filtered without changing its amplitude.
If Q is less than 1, the bandpass filter is called a wide- The phase response of a filter is defined as the graph of
band filter. If Q is greater than 1, the filter is called a nar- phase shift versus frequency. As mentioned earlier, the ideal
rowband filter. For example, a filter with cutoff frequencies low-pass filter has a phase response of 0 at all frequencies.

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Av The reactance XL of either low-pass or high-pass filters
with L and C increases with higher frequencies, while XC
decreases. The frequency characteristics of XL and XC cannot
be changed. However, the circuit connections are opposite to
reverse the filtering action.
The ability of any filter to reduce the amplitude of unde-
sired frequencies is called the attenuation of the filter. The
frequency at which the attenuation reduces the output to
70.7% is the cutoff frequency, usually designated fc.
f
23.3 Low-Pass Filters
Figure 23-5 Ideal all-pass response.
Figure 23-6 illustrates low-pass circuits from a single fil-
ter element with a shunt bypass capacitor in Fig. 23-6a or
Because of this, a nonsinusoidal input signal has the same
shape after passing through an ideal low-pass filter, provided
its fundamental frequency and all significant harmonics are Output = low L
R frequencies
in the passband. Input = low
and high C RL RL
The phase response of an all-pass filter is different from frequencies
that of the ideal low-pass filter. With the all-pass filter, each
distinct frequency can be shifted by a certain amount as it
passes through the filter. (a) (b)

23.2 Filter Circuits


L L1 L2
The most widely used types of filters are the low pass or high
pass. A low-pass filter allows the lower-frequency compo- C RL RL
C
nents of the applied voltage to develop output voltage across
the load resistance, whereas the higher-frequency compo-
nents are attenuated, or reduced, in the output. A high-pass
(c) (d )
filter does the opposite, allowing the higher-frequency com-
ponents of the applied voltage to develop voltage across the
output load resistance.
An RC coupling circuit is an example of a high-pass L

filter because the ac component of the input voltage is de-


C1 C2 RL
veloped across R while the dc voltage is blocked by the
series capacitor. Furthermore, with higher frequencies in
the ac component, more ac voltage is coupled. For the op-
posite case, a bypass capacitor is an example of a low-pass (e)
filter. The higher frequencies are bypassed, but the lower
the frequency, the less the bypassing action. Then lower
frequencies can develop output voltage across the shunt
R
bypass capacitor.
To make the filtering more selective in terms of which C1 C2 RL

frequencies are passed to produce output voltage across the


load, filter circuits generally combine inductance and ca-
pacitance. Since inductive reactance increases with higher (f )
frequencies and capacitive reactance decreases, the two op-
posite effects improve the filtering action. Figure 23-6 Low-pass filter circuits. (a) Bypass
capacitor C in parallel with R L . (b) Choke L in series with R L .
With combinations of L and C, filters are named to cor-
(c) Inverted-L type with choke and bypass capacitor. (d ) The
respond to the circuit configuration. Most common types of T type with two chokes and one bypass capacitor. (e) The 
filters are the L, T, and . Any one of the three can function type with one choke and bypass capacitors at both ends.
as either a low-pass filter or a high-pass filter. (f ) The  type with a series resistor instead of a choke.

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a series choke in b, to the more elaborate combinations of The response curve in Fig. 23-7 is illustrated for the ap-
an inverted-L type filter in c, a T type in d, and a  type plication of a low-pass filter attenuating RF voltages while
in e and f. With an applied input voltage having different passing audio frequencies to the load. This is necessary
frequency components, the low-pass filter action results in when the input voltage has RF and AF components but
maximum low-frequency voltage across RL , while most of only the audio voltage is desired for the AF circuits that
the high-frequency voltage is developed across the series follow the filter.
choke or resistance.
In Fig. 23-6a, the shunt capacitor C bypasses RL at high Circuit Variations
frequencies. In Fig. 23-6b, the choke L acts as a voltage di- The choice between the T-type filter with a series input
vider in series with RL. Since L has maximum reactance for choke and the  type with a shunt input capacitor depends on
the highest frequencies, this component of the input voltage the internal resistance of the generator supplying input volt-
is developed across L with little across RL. At lower frequen- age to the filter. A low-resistance generator needs the T filter
cies, L has low reactance, and most of the input voltage can so that the choke can provide high series impedance for the
be developed across RL. bypass capacitor. Otherwise, the bypass capacitor must have
In Fig. 23-6c, the use of both the series choke and the by- extremely large values to short-circuit the low-resistance
pass capacitor improves the filtering by providing a sharper generator at high frequencies.
cutoff between the low frequencies that can develop volt- The  filter is more suitable with a high-resistance gen-
age across RL and the higher frequencies stopped from the erator when the input capacitor can be effective as a bypass.
load by producing maximum voltage across L. Similarly, For the same reasons, the L filter can have the shunt bypass
the T-type circuit in Fig. 23-6d and the -type circuits in e either in the input for a high-resistance generator or across
and f improve filtering. the output for a low-resistance generator.
Using the series resistance in Fig. 23-6f instead of a choke In all filter circuits, the series choke can be connected
provides an economical  filter in less space. either in the high side of the line, as in Fig. 23-6, or in
series in the opposite side of the line, without having any
effect on the filtering action. Also, the series components
Passband and Stopband
can be connected in both sides of the line for a balanced
As illustrated in Fig. 23-7, a low-pass filter attenuates filter circuit.
frequencies above the cutoff frequency fc of 15 kHz in
this example. Any component of the input voltage hav- 23.4 High-Pass Filters
ing a frequency lower than 15 kHz can produce out-
As illustrated in Fig. 23-8, the high-pass filter passes to
put voltage across the load. These frequencies are in
the load all frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency fc,
the passband. Frequencies of 15 kHz or more are in
whereas lower frequencies cannot develop appreciable volt-
the stopband. The sharpness of filtering between the
age across the load. The graph in Fig. 23-8a shows the re-
passband and the stopband depends on the type of cir-
sponse of a high-pass filter with a stopband of 0 to 50 Hz.
cuit. In general, the more L and C components, the
Above the cutoff frequency of 50 Hz, the higher audio fre-
sharper the response of the filter. Therefore,  and
quencies in the passband can produce AF voltage across the
T types are better filters than the L type and the bypass
output load resistance.
or chokealone.
The high-pass filtering action results from using C C
as a coupling capacitor in series with the load, as in
15-kHz cutoff frequency, fc Fig. 23-8b. The L, T, and  types use the inductance for
a high-reactance choke across the line. In this way, the
Voltage across load

higher-frequency components of the input voltage can


develop very little voltage across the series capacitance,
Stopband
radio frequencies allowing most of this voltage to be produced across R L .
The inductance across the line has higher reactance with
Passband
audio increasing frequencies, allowing the shunt impedance to
frequencies
be no lower than the value of R L .
For low frequencies, however, RL is effectively short-
Frequency circuited by the low inductive reactance across the line.
Figure 23-7 The response of a low-pass filter with Also, CC has high reactance and develops most of the voltage
cutoff at 15 kHz. The filter passes the audio signal but at low frequencies, stopping these frequencies from develop-
attenuates radio frequencies. ing voltage across the load.

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Cutoff frequency, fc R 5 10 kV
50 Hz

Stopband
0 50 Hz Output 5 high
Voltage across load

CC
frequencies C5
Input voltage, Vin Output voltage, Vout
0.01 mF
Passband Input 5 RL
audio high and low
frequencies frequencies

(a)

Frequency

(a) (b) Vout 5 Vin

0.707 Vin

C C1 C2
Output voltage, Vout
fc
RL RL
Frequency
L L
(b)

Figure 23-9 RC low-pass filter. (a) Circuit. (b) Graph of


Vout versus frequency.

(c) (d)
when f 5 0 Hz (dc) and f 5 ` Hz. At f 5 0 Hz, the capacitor
C has infinite capacitive reactance XC, calculated as

C 1
XC  _____
2fC
RL 1
 _____________________
L1 L2 2    0 Hz  0.01 F
`V
Figure 23-10a shows the equivalent circuit for this condi-
tion. Notice that C appears as an open. Since all of the input
(e) voltage appears across the open in a series circuit, Vout must
equal Vin when f  0 Hz.
Figure 23-8 High-pass filters. (a) The response curve for
an audio frequency filter cutting off at 50 Hz. (b) An RC coupling At the other extreme, consider the circuit when the fre-
circuit. (c) Inverted-L type. (d ) The T type. (e) The  type. quency f is very high or infinitely high. Then XC  0 V,
calculated as
1
XC  _____
23.5 Analyzing Filter Circuits 2fC
1
 ______________________
Any low-pass or high-pass filter can be thought of as a 2    ` Hz  0.01 F
frequency-dependent voltage divider, since the amount of
output voltage is a function of frequency. Special formulas 0V
can be used to calculate the output voltage for any frequency Figure 23-10b shows the equivalent circuit for this con-
of the applied voltage. What follows is a more mathematical dition. Notice that C appears as a short. Since the voltage
approach in analyzing the operation of the most basic low- across a short is zero, the output voltage for very high fre-
pass and high-pass filter circuits. quencies must be zero.
When the frequency of the input voltage is somewhere
RC Low-Pass Filter between zero and infinity, the output voltage can be deter-
Figure 23-9a shows a simple RC low-pass filter, and mined by using Formula (23-4):
Fig. 23-9b shows how its output voltage Vout varies with fre- X
Vout  ___C  Vin (23-4)
quency. Lets examine how the RC low-pass filter responds ZT

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R 5 10 kV
EXAMPLE 23-1

In Fig. 23-9a, calculate (a) the cutoff frequency fc; (b) Vout at f c; (c)
at f c. (Assume Vin  10 Vp-p for all frequencies.)
Vin XC 5 ` V Vout 5 Vin when f 5 0 Hz
Answer:
a. To calculate f c, use Formula (23-6):

1
fc  ______
(a) 2RC
1
 _______________________
R 5 10 kV
2    10 kV  0.01 F
 1.592 kHz
b. To calculate Vout at f c, use Formula (23-4). First, however, cal-
Vin XC 5 0 V Vout 5 0 Vp-p when f 5 ` Hz culate XC and ZT at f c:
1
XC  _____
2fcC
1
 __________________________
(b) 2    1.592 kHz  0.01 F
Figure 23-10 RC low-pass equivalent circuits.  10 kV
(a) Equivalent circuit for f  0 Hz. (b) Equivalent circuit for _______
very high frequencies, or f   Hz. ZT  R2  XC2
_______________
 102 kV  102 kV
where  14.14 kV
_______
ZT  R2  XC2 Next,

At very low frequencies, where XC approaches infinity, X


Vout  ___C  Vin
Vout is approximately equal to Vin. This is true because the ZT
ratio XCyZT approaches one as XC and ZT become approxi- 10 kV  10 V
 ________ p-p
mately the same value. At very high frequencies, where XC 14.14 kV
approaches zero, the ratio XCyZT becomes very small, and  7.07 Vp-p
Vout is approximately zero.
c. To calculate , use Formula (23-5):
With respect to the input voltage Vin, the phase angle  of
R
the output voltage Vout can be calculated as   arctan 2 ___
X C
R
  arctan  ___
XC (23-5) 10 kV
 arctan 2 ______
At very low frequencies, XC is very large and  is approxi- 10 kV
mately 08. At very high frequencies, however, XC is nearly  arctan 2 1
zero and  approaches 2908.  2458
The frequency where XC  R is the cutoff frequency,
The phase angle of 458 tells us that Vout lags Vin by 458 at the
designated fc. At fc, the series current I is at 70.7% of its cutoff frequency fc.
maximum value because the total impedance ZT is 1.41
times larger than the resistance of R. The formula for the
cutoff frequency fc of an RC low-pass filter is derived as RL Low-Pass Filter
follows. Because XC  R at fc, Figure 23-11a shows a simple RL low-pass filter, and
1 R
_____ Fig. 23-11b shows how its output voltage Vout varies with fre-
2fcC quency. The performance of an RL filter is similar to that of
Solving for fc gives an RC low-pass filter. The RL version is not used as much
1 because an inductor is larger, more expensive, and has higher
fc  ______ (23-6)
2RC resistive losses. Most low-pass filters are of the RC type.
The response curve in Fig. 23-9b shows that Vout  The frequency at which XL  R is the cutoff frequency fc.
0.707Vin at the cutoff frequency fc. At fc, the series current I is at 70.7% of its maximum value,

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L 5 50 mH C 5 0.01 mF

R5 R5
Input voltage, Vin Output voltage, Vout Input voltage, Vin 0utput voltage, Vout
1 kV 1.5 kV

(a) (a)

Vout 5 Vin Vout 5 Vin

0.707 Vin 0.707 Vin

Output voltage, Vout Output voltage, Vout


fc fc
Frequency Frequency

(b) (b)

Figure 23-11 RL low-pass filter. (a) Circuit. (b) Graph of Figure 23-12 RC high-pass filter. (a) Circuit. (b) Graph of
Vout versus frequency. Vout versus frequency.

since Z T  1.41R when XL  R. The formula for the cutoff At very low frequencies where XC is very large,  is approxi-
frequency of an RL low-pass filter is mately 908. At very high frequencies where XC approaches
zero,  is approximately 08.
R
fc  ____ (23-7)
2L To calculate the cutoff frequency fc for an RC high-pass
filter, use Formula (23-6). Although this formula is used to
The response curve in Fig. 23-11b shows that Vout 5 0.707Vin calculate fc for an RC low-pass filter, it can also be used to
at the cutoff frequency fc. calculate fc for an RC high-pass filter. The reason is that, in
both circuits, XC  R at the cutoff frequency. In Fig. 23-12b,
RC High-Pass Filter
notice that Vout  0.707Vin at fc.
Figure 23-12a shows an RC high-pass filter. Notice that the
output is taken across the resistor R rather than across the RL High-Pass Filter
capacitor C. Figure 23-12b shows how the output voltage An RL high-pass filter is shown in Fig. 23-13a, and its re-
varies with frequency. To calculate the output voltage Vout at sponse curve is shown in Fig. 23-13b. In Fig. 23-13a, no-
any frequency, use Formula (23-8): tice that the output is taken across the inductor L rather than
across the resistance R. Like an RL low-pass filter, an RL
R V
Vout  ___ (23-8)
ZT in high-pass filter is not widely used because of the inductor
disadvantages mentioned earlier.
where
_______
ZT  R2  XC2 EXAMPLE 23-2

At very low frequencies, the output voltage approaches Calculate the cutoff frequency for the RC high-pass filter in
zero because the ratio RyZT becomes very small as XC Fig.23-12a.
and thus ZT approach infinity. At very high frequencies, Answer:
Vout is approximately equal to Vin, because the ratio RyZT Use Formula (23-6):
approaches one as ZT and R become approximately the 1
same value. fc  _____
2RC
The phase angle of Vout with respect to Vin for an RC high- 1
 _______________________
pass filter can be calculated using Formula (23-9): 2    1.5 kV  0.01 F
X  10.61 kHz
  arctan ___C (23-9)
R

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R 5 1.5 kV section. Notice that the individual filters are in parallel.
The frequency of maximum attenuation is called the notch
frequency, identified as f N in Fig. 23-14b. Notice that the
L5
Input voltage, Vin 100 mH Output voltage, Vout maximum value of Vout below f N is less than the maximum
value of Vout above f N. The reason for this is that the series
resistances (2R1) in the low-pass filter provide greater circuit
losses than the series capacitors (C1) in the high-pass filter.
(a )
To calculate the notch frequency f N in Fig. 23-14a, use
Vout 5 Vin Formula (23-10):
1
f N 5 _______ (23-10)
0.707 Vin
4R1C1
Output voltage, Vout
fc
EX A M P L E 2 3 -3
Frequency
Calculate the notch frequency f N in Fig. 23-14a if R 1  1 kV and
(b) C1 0.01 F. Also, calculate the required values for 2R 1 and 2C1
in the low-pass filter.
Figure 23-13 RL high-pass filter. (a) Circuit. (b) Graph of
Vout versus frequency. Answer:
Use Formula (23-10):

RC Bandstop Filter 1
f N  _______
4R1C1
A high-pass filter can also be combined with a low-pass fil-
ter when it is desired to block or severely attenuate a cer- 1
 ______________________
tain band of frequencies. Such a filter is called a bandstop 4    1 kV  0.01 F
or notch filter. Figure 23-14a shows an RC bandstop filter,  7.96 kHz
and Fig. 23-14b shows how its output voltage varies with
2R1  2  1 kV
frequency. In Fig. 23-14a, the components identified as 2R1
and 2C1 constitute the low-pass filter section, and the com-  2 kV
ponents identified as R1 and C1 constitute the high-pass filter 2C1  2  0.01 F
 0.02 F
2R1 2R1

2C1 23.6 Decibels and Frequency


Response Curves
C1 C1 Vout
Vin RL In analyzing filters, the decibel (dB) unit is often used to de-
scribe the amount of attenuation offered by the filter. In basic
terms, the decibel is a logarithmic expression that compares
R1
two power levels. Expressed mathematically,
Pout
NdB  10 log ___ (23-11)
Pin
(a )
where
Vout 5 Vin NdB  gain or loss in decibels
Pin  input power
Pout  output power
Output voltage, Vout
fN If the ratio PoutyPin is greater than one, the NdB value is
Frequency
positive, indicating an increase in power from input to out-
put. If the ratio PoutyPin is less than one, the NdB value is nega-
(b)
tive, indicating a loss or reduction in power from input to
Figure 23-14 Notch filter. (a) Circuit. (b) Graph of Vout output. A reduction in power, corresponding to a negative
versus frequency. NdB value, is referred to as attenuation.

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Dividing both sides of the equation by Vin gives
EXAMPLE 23-4
X
Vout ___
___
A certain amplifier has an input power of 1 W and an output power  C
Vin ZT
of 100 W. Calculate the dB power gain of the amplifier.
Answer: Substituting XCyZ T for VoutyVin in Formula (23-11) gives
Use Formula (23-11): X
Pout NdB  20 log ___C
ZT
NdB  10 log ___
Pin
100 W
 10 log ______ EXAMPLE 23-6
1W
 10  2 In Fig. 23-15, calculate the attenuation, in decibels, at the following
 20 dB frequencies: (a) 0 Hz; (b) 1.592 kHz; (c) 15.92 kHz. (Assume that Vin 
10 Vp-p at all frequencies.)

Answer:
EXAMPLE 23-5 a. At 0 Hz, Vout  Vin  10 Vp-p, since the capacitor C appears as
an open. Therefore,
The input power to a filter is 100 mW, and the output power is
Vout
5mW. Calculate the attenuation, in decibels, offered by the filter. NdB  20 log ___
Vin
Answer:
Pout 10 Vp-p
NdB  10 log ___  20 log ______
Pin 10 Vp-p
5 mW
 10 log ________  20 log 1
100 mW
 20  0
 10  (21.3)
 213 dB  0 dB
b. Since 1.592 kHz is the cutoff frequency f c, Vout will be 0.707 
V in or 7.07 Vp-p. Therefore,
The power gain or loss in decibels can also be computed
from a voltage ratio if the measurements are made across Vout
equal resistances. NdB  20 log ___
Vin
Vout
NdB  20 log ___ (23-12) 7.07 Vp-p
Vin
 20 log ________
where 10 Vp-p
NdB  gain or loss in decibels  20 log 0.707
Vin  input voltage
Vout  output voltage  20  (20.15)
The NdB values of the passive filters discussed in this chapter  23 dB
can never be positive because Vout can never be greater than Vin. c. To calculate N dB at 15.92 kHz, XC and Z T must first be determined.
Consider the RC low-pass filter in Fig. 23-15. The cutoff fre-
quency fc for this circuit is 1.592 kHz, as determined by For- 1
XC  _____
mula (23-6). Recall that the formula for Vout at any frequency is 2fC
X 1
Vout  ___C  Vin  __________________________
ZT 2    15.92 kHz  0.01 F
R 5 10 kV  1 kV
_______
Z T  R2  XC2
Vin 5 10 VP-P C 5 0.01 m F Vout ______________
 102 k  12 k
fC 5 1.592 kHz

 10.05 k
Figure 23-15 RC low-pass filter.

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if the frequency response extends from 25 Hz to 40 kHz,
Next,
4 cycles are necessary to plot the frequencies correspond-
X ing to the decades 10 Hz to 100 Hz, 100 Hz to 1 kHz, 1
NdB  20 log ___C
ZT kHz to 10 kHz, and 10 kHz to 100 kHz. A typical sheet of
log-log graph paper is shown in Fig. 23-16. Because there
1 kV
 20 log ________
10.05 kV are three decades on the horizontal axis and five decades
on the vertical axis, this graph paper is called 3-cycle by
 20 log 0.0995 5-cycle log-log paper. Notice that each octave corresponds
 20(21) to a 2-to-1 range in values and each decade corresponds to
a 10-to-1 range in values. For clarity, several octaves and
 220 dB
decades are shown in Fig. 23-16.
When semilog graph paper is used to plot a frequency
response, the observed or calculated values of gain (or loss)
In Example 23-6, notice that NdB is 0 dB at a frequency must first be converted to decibels before plotting. On the
of 0 Hz, which is in the filters passband. This may seem other hand, since decibel voltage gain is a logarithmic func-
unusual, but the 0-dB value simply indicates that there is tion, the gain or loss values can be plotted on log-log paper
no attenuation at this frequency. For an ideal passive filter, without first converting to decibels.
NdB 5 0 dB in the passband. As another point of interest
from Example 23-6, NdB is 23 dB at the cutoff frequency
of 1.592 kHz. Since Vout 5 0.707 Vin at fc for any passive RC Low-Pass Frequency Response Curve
filter, NdB is always 23 dB at the cutoff frequency of a pas- Figure 23-17a shows an RC low-pass filter whose cut-
sive filter. off frequency fc is 1.592 kHz as determined by Formula
(23-6). Figure 23-17b shows its frequency response curve
Frequency Response Curves plotted on semilog graph paper. Notice there are 6 cycles
on the horizontal axis, which spans a frequency range
The frequency response of a filter is typically shown by plot-
from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Notice that the vertical axis specifies
ting its gain (or loss) versus frequency on logarithmic graph
the NdB loss, which is the amount of attenuation offered by
paper. The two types of logarithmic graph paper are log-log
the filter in decibels. Notice that NdB  3 dB at the cutoff
and semilog. On semilog graph paper, the divisions along
frequency of 1.592 kHz. Above fc, NdB decreases at the rate
one axis are spaced logarithmically, and the other axis has
of approximately 6 dB/octave, which is equivalent to a rate
conventional linear spacing between divisions. On log-log
of 20 dB/decade.
graph paper, both axes have logarithmic spacing between
divisions. Logarithmic spacing results in a scale that ex-
pands the display of smaller values and compresses the dis- E X A M P L E 2 3 -7
play of larger values. On logarithmic graph paper, a 2-to-1
range of frequencies is called an octave, and a 10-to-1 range From the graph in Fig. 23-17b, what is the attenuation in decibels
of values is called a decade. at (a) 100 Hz; (b) 10 kHz; (c) 50 kHz?
One advantage of logarithmic spacing is that a larger
Answer:
range of values can be shown in one plot without los-
a. At f 100 Hz, N dB  0 dB, as indicated by point A on the
ing resolution in the smaller values. For example, if fre- graph.
quencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz were plotted on b. At f  10 kHz, N dB  16 dB, as indicated by point B on the
100 divisions of linear graph paper, each division would graph.
represent approximately 1000 Hz and it would be im- c. At f  50 kHz, N dB  30 dB, as indicated by point C.
possible to plot values in the decade between 10 Hz and
100 Hz. On the other hand, by using logarithmic graph
paper, the decade between 10 Hz and 100 Hz would oc- For filters such as the inverted-L, T, or  type, the re-
cupy the same space on the graph as the decade between sponse curve rolloff is much steeper beyond the cutoff
10 kHz and 100 kHz. frequency fc. For example, a low-pass filter with a series
Log-log or semilog graph paper is specified by the num- inductor and a shunt capacitor has a rolloff rate of 12 dB/
ber of decades it contains. Each decade is a graph cycle. For octave or 40 dB/decade above the cutoff frequency fc. To
example, 2-cycle by 4-cycle log-log paper has two decades increase the rate of rolloff, more inductors and capacitors
on one axis and four on the other. The number of cycles must be used in the filter design. Filters are available whose
must be adequate for the range of data plotted. For example, rolloff rates exceed 36 dB/octave.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
1 100
9
8
7
6
5

One octave
816 1 10
9
8
7
6
5

2
One octave One octave

2040 5,00010,000
1 1.0
9
8
7
6
5

One decade
3
0.11.0

One octave
0.10.2
1 0.1
9
8
7
6
5

2
One decade One decade

10100 1,00010,000
1 0.01
9
8
7
6
5

3
One decade

3003,000 2

1 0.001
10 100 1,000 10,000

Figure 23-16 Log-log graph paper. Notice that each octave corresponds to a 2-to-1
range of values and each decade corresponds to a 10-to-1 range of values.

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R  10 k

Vin  10 Vp-p C Vout


0.01 F
fc  1.592 kHz

(a )

5 6 7 891

1,000,000
4
3
One decade

100,000
5 6 7 891
C

4
3
2
20 dB
octave
One
23 dB

10,000
B

5 6 7 891
6 dB

4
3
2

Frequency (Hz)
1,000

(b)
5 6 7 891
fc

4
3
2

100
A

5 6 7 891
4
3
2

10
5 6 7 891
4
3
2

1
1
210

220

230

240

250

260
0
NdB

Figure 23-17 RC low-pass filter frequency response curve. (a) Circuit. (b) Frequency response curve.

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23.7 Resonant Filters The series resistor RS in Fig. 23-18b is used to isolate the
low resistance of the LC filter from the input source. At the
Tuned circuits provide a convenient method of filtering a
resonant frequency, practically all of the input voltage is
band of radio frequencies because relatively small values of
across RS with little across RL because the LC tuned circuit
L and C are necessary for resonance. A tuned circuit pro-
then has very low resistance due to series resonance.
vides filtering action by means of its maximum response at
the resonant frequency. Parallel Resonance Filters
The width of the band of frequencies affected by reso- A parallel resonant circuit has maximum impedance at
nance depends on the Q of the tuned circuit; a higher Q pro- the resonant frequency. Connected in series with RL , as in
vides a narrower bandwidth. Because resonance is effective Fig. 23-19a, the parallel-tuned LC circuit provides maxi-
for a band of frequencies below and above fr, resonant filters mum impedance in series with RL at and near the resonant
are called bandstop or bandpass filters. Series or parallel frequency. Then these frequencies produce maximum volt-
LC circuits can be used for either function, depending on the age across the LC circuit but minimum output voltage across
connections with respect to RL. In the application of a band- RL. This is a bandstop filter, therefore, for the bandwidth of
stop filter to suppress certain frequencies, the LC circuit is the tuned circuit.
often called a wavetrap. The parallel LC circuit connected across RL , however,
Series Resonance Filters as in Fig. 23-19b, provides a bandpass filter. At resonance,
the high impedance of the parallel LC circuit allows RL to
A series resonant circuit has maximum current and mini-
develop its output voltage. Below resonance, RL is short-
mum impedance at the resonant frequency. Connected in
circuited by the low reactance of L; above resonance, RL is
series with RL , as in Fig. 23-18a, the series-tuned LC circuit
short-circuited by the low reactance of C. For frequencies at
allows frequencies at and near resonance to produce maxi-
or near resonance, though, RL is shunted by high impedance,
mum output across RL. Therefore, this is bandpass filtering.
resulting in maximum output voltage.
When the series LC circuit is connected across RL as in
The series resistor RS in Fig. 23-19b is used to improve
Fig. 23-18b, however, the resonant circuit provides a low-
the filtering effect. Note that the parallel LC combination
impedance shunt path that short-circuits RL. Then there is
and RS divide the input voltage. At the resonant frequency,
minimum output. This action corresponds to a shunt bypass
capacitor, but the resonant circuit is more selective, short-
L
circuiting RL just for frequencies at and near resonance. For
the bandwidth of the tuned circuit, the series resonant circuit
in shunt with RL provides bandstop filtering. Parallel
resonant

L C

C
Input RL
Series resonant

Input RL

(a )

(a ) RS

RS

L Parallel
Input L C RL
Series resonant
Input RL
resonant

(b) (b )

Figure 23-18 The filtering action of a series resonant Figure 23-19 The filtering action of a parallel resonant
circuit. (a) Bandpass filter when L and C are in series with R L . circuit. (a) Bandstop filter when LC tank is in series with R L .
(b) Bandstop filter when LC circuit is in shunt with R L . (b) Bandpass filter when LC tank is in shunt with R L .

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L1 C2

R2 R1
vin +
C1 vout
L2
C1
Input RL

C2 (a)

(a) C R2

R1
L3 C3
vin
vout
C
+

Input L4 C4 RL
(b)

Figure 23-21 Active filters. (a) Second-order, low-pass


filter. (b) Bandpass active filter.
(b)

high frequencies. These disadvantages can be overcome


Figure 23-20 Inverted-L filter with resonant circuits.
(a) Bandstop filtering action. (b) Bandpass filtering action. with several special filters. These include active filters, crys-
tal and ceramic filters, and surface acoustic wave filters.

though, the LC circuit has very high resistance for parallel Active Filters
resonance. Then most of the input voltage is across the LC Active filters are those that combine RC networks with op-
circuit and RL with little across RS. erational amplifiers (op amps). The amplifiers provide gain
to offset the normal loss of RC networks, and the feedback
L-Type Resonant Filter techniques provide improved selectivity. Any of the five
Series and parallel resonant circuits can be combined in L, basic types of filters can be implemented with active filter
T, or  sections for sharper discrimination of the frequen- circuits.
cies to be filtered. Examples of an L-type filter are shown in Figure 23-21a shows a typical second-order, low-pass fil-
Fig.23-20. ter. Both R and C1 form one of the RC sections, while R
The circuit in Fig. 23-20a is a bandstop filter. The reason and C2 form the other. It provides a rolloff rate of 40 dB per
is that the parallel resonant L1C1 circuit is in series with the decade. The gain is usually set to one, but other op amps can
load, whereas the series resonant L2C2 circuit is in shunt with be added to boost that as required. Greater selectivity can
RL. There is a dual effect as a voltage divider across the input be achieved by cascading stages without the loss of gain. A
source voltage. The high resistance of L1C1 reduces voltage bandpass active filter is shown in Fig. 23-21b. High-pass and
output to the load. Also, the low resistance of L2C2 reduces notch filters can be formed in a similar way.
the output voltage. Most active filters are used at low frequencies to elimi-
For the opposite effect, the circuit in Fig. 23-20b is a nate the need for large expensive inductors. They are also
bandpass filter. Now the series resonant L3C3 circuit is in used at audio frequencies to set the frequency response of an
series with the load. Here the low resistance of L3C3 allows amplifier or other circuit. Active filters are not widely used at
more output for RL at resonance. Also, the high resistance of the higher frequencies but with wide-band op amps they can
L 4C4 allows maximum output voltage. function well into the 100-MHz RF range.

23.8 Special Filter Types Crystal Filters


RC and LC filters are widely used, but there are instances Crystal filters are thin slices of quartz that act as a reso-
where they are less desirable because of their excessive at- nant circuits. The crystal freely vibrates at a precise fre-
tenuation, poor selectivity, or inability to work well at very quency when voltage is applied to it. Maximum vibration

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L

Figure 23-23 Crystal filter as a bandpass filter.


Cp Cs

Interdigital Interdigital
transducers transducers
R
Surface acoustic
waves

Input

(a) (b) Output

Piezoelectric ceramic
Figure 23-22 Equivalent circuit of a crystal filter and its
schematic symbol.
Figure 23-24 Basic construction of a surface acoustic
wave (SAW) filter.
occurs at this resonant frequency. The equivalent cir-
cuit of a crystal and its schematic symbol are shown in
Fig. 23-22. Depending on the frequency, the crystal may Surface Acoustic Wave Filters
operate as a parallel resonant circuit or as a series reso- A surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter is a special bandpass fil-
nant circuit. The Q of the crystal is very high, usually ter used primarily for radio-frequency selectivity. Figure23-24
over 10,000 or more. As a result, the crystal can be used shows the basic construction. The base is a piezoelectric ce-
to build very selective filters. ramic substrate such as lithium niobate. A pattern of interdigital
Most of these filters are bandpass filters. An example is fingers are made on the surface. The pattern on the left converts
shown in Fig. 23-23. The response curve has extremely steep the signals into acoustic waves that travel across the filter sur-
rolloffs, making the filter useful in separating closely spaced face. By controlling the shape, size, and spacing of the inter-
signals. Most crystal filters are used at radio frequencies digital fingers, the response can be tailored to any frequency or
from roughly 1 MHz to 100 MHz. desired shape. The interdigital pattern on the right in Fig. 23-24
Special ceramic materials, such as lead titanate, can also converts the acoustic waves back into an electronic signal.
be used like a crystal. Ceramic resonators are available to SAW filters are available with a frequency range of 10
make filters. Ceramic filters are smaller, with a lower Q, MHz 4 GHz. The attenuation is very high and in the 10- to
but still have better selectivity than larger LC or crystal 35-dB range. As a result they are used with appropriate am-
filters. Most are used at radio frequencies from 400 kHz plifiers. SAW filters are widely used in TV sets, cell phones,
to 50 MHz. and many types of wireless equipment.

CHAPTER 23 SYSTEM SIDEBAR

DSP Filters
As you have seen in this chapter, filters are made up of com- DSP refers to a way to process analog signals with digital
ponents like resistors, capacitors, inductors, or op amps. circuits. The analog signal to be processed, in this case, is first
Special filters are made of ceramic and crystal resonators converted to digital form. Then a special processor or digital
and unique components, like SAW filters. All these filters computer processes the equivalent digital data to perform the
are still widely in use. However, a newer and more com- filtering function. Almost any type of filter, as described ear-
plex filter has found many applications in modern electronic lier, can be implemented with software to perform the filtering
circuits and systems. This is the digital signal processing digitally. Once processed, the data are then converted back
(DSP) filter. into analog form. The result is the desired filtering effect.

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It may seem as though a DSP filter is overly complex and Memory

expensive. That was once true, but today, thanks to modern Analog Data Filtered
signal to be analog
semiconductor technology, the circuitry and processors can filtered signal
ADC DAC
be made small enough and cheap enough to make DSP filters
practical. And they are easily integrated onto larger chips to
create a complete system on a chip (SoC). Better still, the digi-
tal filters are usually more effective than equivalent analog
Program
filters. They are usually more selective with steeper rolloff and
less attenuation, and with proper tailoring of the program, the Filter
Algorithm
phase and other characteristics can be controlled as desired.
Figure S23-1 shows a simplified block diagram of a DSP
filter. The analog signal to be filtered is first digitized in a Digital signal
circuit called an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This processor
circuit produces a stream of binary numbers that represent
samples of the analog signal at closely spaced time intervals. Figure S23-1 The concept of digital signal processing (DSP).
The binary numbers are stored in a data memory.
The analog signal data are then processed by the digital signal. The output is similar to that obtained with an analog
signal processor (DSP). The processing may be done by a filter. Typically, the filtering action is superior in some way.
special microcontroller designed for DSP, or it can be any And the filter characteristics can be changed on the fly by
microprocessor or controller with DSP capability. using a new or modified processing algorithm.
Stored in the processors memory is the program that DSP filters are invisible, since they are implemented in-
does the processing. It is usually a special mathematical side a small processor or other chip. They are widely used in
algorithm that performs any one of the normal filter func- all forms of electronics, including TV sets, cell phones, MP3
tions like low pass, high pass, bandpass, or bandstop. The players, military radios, and many other types of equipment.
processed data are then stored back in data memory. Finally, The mathematics of DSP is well beyond the scope of this
the processed data are fed to a digital-to-analog converter text, but you should know of its existence because it is not
(DAC) that translates the digital data back into an analog experimental but very widely used in many applications.

CHAPTER 23 REVIEW QUESTIONS

1. A low-pass filter has a cutoff frequency of 20 kHz. c. Bandwidth.


Its bandwidth is d. Discrimination.
a. 4 kHz. 4. In an RC low-pass filter, the output is taken across the
b. 10 kHz. a. resistor.
c. 20 kHz. b. inductor.
d. 40 kHz. c. capacitor.
2. What kind of filter would you use to select one radio d. none of the above.
station from dozens or others around it in the same 5. On logarithmic graph paper, a 10-to-1 range of
spectrum? frequencies is called a(n)
a. High pass. a. octave.
b. Low pass. b. decibel (dB).
c. Bandpass. c. harmonic.
d. Bandstop. d. decade.
3. What term describes a filters ability to sharply 6. The cutoff frequency, fc, of a filter is the frequency at
discriminate one signal from another adjacent one? which the output voltage is
a. Selectivity. a. reduced to 50% of its maximum.
b. Sensitivity. b. reduced to 70.7% of its maximum.

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c. practically zero. 15. In an RL high-pass filter, the output is taken across the
d. exactly equal to the input voltage. a. resistor.
7. The decibel attenuation of a passive filter at the cutoff b. inductor.
frequency is c. capacitor.
a. 23 dB. d. none of the above.
b. 0 dB. 16. An RL high-pass filter uses a 60-mH L and a 1-k R.
c. 220 dB. What is its cutoff frequency?
d. 26 dB. a. 2.65 kHz.
8. To increase the cutoff frequency of an RL high-pass b. 256 kHz.
filter, you can c. 600 kHz.
a. decrease the value of R. d. 32 kHz.
b. decrease the value of L. 17. A T-type low-pass filter consists of
c. increase the value of R. a. series capacitors and a parallel inductor.
d. both b and c. b. series inductors and a bypass capacitor.
9. An RC low-pass filter uses a 2.2-k R and a c. series capacitors and a parallel resistor.
0.01-F C. What is its cutoff frequency? d. none of the above.
a. 3.5 MHz. 18. A -type high-pass filter consists of
b. 72.3 Hz. a. series inductors and parallel capacitors.
c. 7.23 kHz. b. series inductors and a parallel resistor.
d. 1.59 kHz. c. a series capacitor and parallel inductors.
10. For either an RC low-pass or high-pass filter, d. none of the above.
a. Xc  0 V at the cutoff frequency. 19. When examining the frequency response curve of an
b. Xc  R at the cutoff frequency. RC low-pass filter, it can be seen that the rate of roll-
c. Xc is infinite at the cutoff frequency. off well above the cutoff frequency is
d. none of the above. a. 6 dB/octave.
11. What type of filter would you use to get rid of a b. 6 dB/decade.
156-kHz sine wave that is interfering with audio c. 20 dB/decade.
signals in the 20-Hz to 20-kHz range? d. both a and c.
a. Low pass. 20. For signal frequencies in the passband, an RC high-
b. High pass. pass filter has a phase angle of approximately
c. Bandpass. a. 458.
d. Bandstop. b. 08.
12. A power-line filter used to reduce RF interference is c. 1908.
an example of a d. 2908.
a. low-pass filter. 21. The main component in an active filter besides the RC
b. high-pass filter. networks is a(n)
c. notch filter. a. transistor.
d. bandpass filter. b. op amp.
13. On logarithmic graph paper, a 2-to-1 range of fre- c. inductor.
quencies is called a(n) d. transformer.
a. decade. 22. The equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal is a(n)
b. decibel (dB). a. RC network.
c. harmonic. b. mechanical vibrator.
d. octave. c. low-pass filter.
14. What is the decibel (dB) attenuation of a filter d. LC resonant circuit.
with a 100-mV input and a 1-mV output at a given 23. Why is a crystal filter so much more selective than an
frequency? LC or RC filter?
a. 240 dB. a. Its high Q.
b. 220 dB. b. Its small size.
c. 23 dB. c. Its lower losses.
d. 0 dB. d. Its power-handling capability.

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24. Which of the following best describes a SAW filter? 25. Cascading filter circuits produce a larger filter with
a. Low-frequency, low-pass filter. a. lower selectivity and higher attenuation.
b. High-frequency bandpass filter. b. improved selectivity with gain.
c. High-frequency, high-pass filter. c. improved selectivity with greater attenuation.
d. A microwave notch filter. d. lower selectivity but higher gain.

CHAPTER 23 PROBLEMS

SECTION 23.1 Ideal Responses c. Fig. 23-27.


23.1 A bandpass filter has an upper cutoff frequency of d. Fig. 23-28.
10.8 MHz and a lower cutoff frequency 10.6 MHz.
The bandwidth is R  2.2 k
a. 100 kHz.
b. 200 kHz.
Vin  50 mV C
c. 10.7 MHz. for all frequencies
Output
0.022 mF
d. 21.4 MHz.
23.2 An all-pass filter has
a. no lower cutoff frequency.
b. no upper cutoff frequency.
Figure 23-25
c. a constant phase shift.
d. all of the above.
C  0.047 F
SECTION 23.2 Filter Circuits
23.3 What type of filter, low pass or high pass, uses
a. series inductance and parallel capacitance? Vin  2 V R
Output
for all frequencies 10 k
b. series capacitance and parallel inductance?
23.4 Suppose that a low-pass filter has a cutoff frequency
of 1 kHz. If the input voltage for a signal at this fre-
quency is 30 mV, how much is the output voltage?
Figure 23-26
SECTION 23.3 Low-Pass Filters
23.5 For a low-pass filter, define what is meant by the terms L 5 30 mH
a. passband.
b. stopband.
23.6 Assume that both the RC low-pass filter in Vin 5 100 mV R5
Output
for all frequencies 1 kV
Fig. 23-6a and the -type filter in Fig. 23-6e have
the same cutoff frequency, fc. How do the filtering
characteristics of these two filters differ?
SECTION 23.4 High-Pass Filters Figure 23-27
23.7 Do the terms passband and stopband apply to high-
pass filters? R  1.8 k
23.8 In Fig. 23-8, does the T-type filter provide sharper
filtering than the RC filter? If so, why?
Vin  5 V L
SECTION 23.5 Analyzing Filter Circuits Output
for all frequencies 250 mH

23.9 Identify the filters in each of the following figures


as either low-pass or high-pass:
a. Fig. 23-25.
b. Fig. 23-26. Figure 23-28

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23.10 Calculate the cutoff frequency, fc, for the filters in SECTION 23.6 Decibels and Frequency
each of the following figures: Response Curves
a. Fig. 23-25. 23.17 Calculate the decibel (dB) power gain of an ampli-
b. Fig. 23-26. fier for the following values of Pin and Pout:
c. Fig. 23-27. a. Pin  1 W, Pout  2 W.
d. Fig. 23-28. b. Pin  1 W, Pout  10 W.
23.11 In Fig. 23-25, calculate the output voltage, Vout, and c. Pin  50 W, Pout  1 kW.
phase angle, , at the following frequencies: d. Pin  10 W, Pout  400 W.
a. 50 Hz. 23.18 Calculate the decibel (dB) attenuation of a filter for
b. 200 Hz. the following values of Pin and Pout:
c. 1 kHz. a. Pin  1 W, Pout  500 mW.
d. fc. b. Pin  100 mW, Pout  10 mW.
e. 10 kHz. c. Pin  5 W, Pout  5 W.
f. 20 kHz. d. Pin  10 W, Pout  100 mW.
g. 100 kHz.
23.19 What is the rolloff rate of an RC low-pass filter
23.12 In Fig. 23-26, calculate the output voltage, Vout, and for signal frequencies well beyond the cutoff
phase angle, , at the following frequencies: frequency?
a. 10 Hz.
b. 50 Hz. SECTION 23.7 Resonant Filters
c. 100 Hz. 23.20 What determines the width of the band of frequen-
d. fc. cies that are allowed to pass through a resonant
e. 1 kHz. bandpass filter?
f. 20 kHz. 23.21 Identify the following configurations as either
g. 500 kHz. bandpass or bandstop filters:
23.13 For the filters in Figs. 23-25 through 23-28, what is a. series LC circuit in series with RL.
the ratio of Vout/Vin at the cutoff frequency? b. parallel LC circuit in series with RL.
23.14 Without regard to sign, what is the phase angle, c. parallel LC circuit in parallel with RL.
, atthe cutoff frequency for each of the filters in d. series LC circuit in parallel with RL.
Figs.23-25 through 23-28?
23.15 For a low-pass filter, what is the approximate phase
angle, , for frequencies
a. well below the cutoff frequency?
b. well above the cutoff frequency?
23.16 Calculate the notch frequency, fN, in Fig. 23-29.

2R1 5 36 kV 2R1 5 36 kV

2C1 5
0.002 F

Vin C1 5 0.001 F C1 5 0.001 F RL 5


100 kV

R1 5 18 kV

Figure 23-29

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