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THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Number System

N : 1,2,3,.

Z: ,-2,-1,0,1,2,..

a
N : Natural Q : q , a, b Z , b 0
Numbers b

Z : Integers
R Q Irrational
Q : Rational Numbers

R : Real Numbers

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


The Real Numbers
The real numbers are all numbers (rational and irrational) that
can measure lengths together with their negatives and zero
Rational numbers are numbers that can be written in the
form m/n, where m and n are integers with n 0
Examples: , -7/8, 21/5, 19/-2, 16/2, and 17/2
Irrational numbers are numbers that cannot be written
as a quotient of two integers.
Examples: 2 , 3 ,

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Real Line
The real numbers may be viewed as labels for points along a horizontal
line. There they measure the distance to the right or left (the directed
distance) from a fixed point called the origin and labeled 0. Each point
does have a unique real number label. This number is called the coordinate
of the point. And the resulting coordinate line is referred to as the real line
1 2
-3 0

Interval
A sub set of real line is called interval

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


The Field Properties
Given two real numbers x and y, we may add them and multiply them to
obtain two new real numbers x y and x y (also written simply
as xy ). Additional and multiplication have the following familiar
properties that called field properties.
1. Commutative laws. x y y x and xy yx
2. Associative laws. x ( y z ) ( x y ) z and x( yz ) ( xy) z
3. Distributive law. x( y z ) xy xz
4. Identity elements. The are two distinct numbers 0 and 1
satisfying x 0 x and x 1 x for every real number x.
5. Inverses. Each number x has an additive inverse (also called the
opposite), x , satisfying x ( x) 0 .
Also, each number x except 0 has a multiplicative inverse (also
1
called the reciprocal), x , satisfying x x 1
1

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


The Order Properties
1. Trichotomy. If x and y are numbers, exactly one of the
following holds:
x < y or x = y or x > y
2. Transitivity x < y and y < z x < z
3. Addition x<y x+z<y+z
4. Multiplication. When z is positive, x < y xz < yz.
When z is negative, x < y xz > yz.

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Intervals
Open Interval : a < x < b denoted by (a, b)
Closed interval : a x b denoted by [a, b]
Variety of Intervals
Set Notation Interval Notation Graph
{x x < a} ( , a )
a
{x x a} ( , a ]
a
{x a < x < b} (a, b )
a b
{x a x b} [a, b ]
a b
{x x > b} (b, )
b
{x x b} [b, )
b
{x x } (, )
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Solving Inequalities
As with equations, the procedure for solving an inequality
consists in transforming the inequality a step at a time until
the solution set is obvious. The chief tools are the order
properties. The imply that we may perform certain
operations on both sides of an inequality without changing
its solution set. In particular:
1. We may add the same number to both sides of
an inequality.
2. We may multiply both sides of an inequality by
a positive number.
3. We may multiply both sides by a negative number, but
then we must reverse the direction of the inequality sign.

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 1:
Solve the inequality 1 3x 2 < 10
and show the graph of its solution set
1 3x 2 < 10
1 2 3x < 10 2 (adding 2)

3 3x < 12
1 x < 4 (multiplying by 1
3
)

1 4
The Solution Set is [1,4)
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 2:
Solve the inequality 9 1 5x < 16
and show the graph of its solution set
9 1 5x < 16
9 1 5x < 16 1 (adding -1)
10 5x < 15
10 5x > 15 (multiplying by -1)
2 x > 3 1
(multiplying by 5 )
3 < x 2

-3 2
The Solution Set is (-3,2]
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 3:
Solve the inequality 3x 2 x < 8
2

and show the graph of its solution set


3x 2 x < 8
2

3x 2 x 8 < 0 2
(adding -8)
(3x 4)( x 2) < 0 (factoring)

++ -- ++

-2 4
3
4
The solution set is 2,
3
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 4:
Solve the inequality 2 < x x 6
2

and show the graph of its solution set


2< x x6 2

2 < x x and
2
x 2
x6
x x 2 > 0 and x x 6 0
2 2

( x 1)( x 2) > 0 and ( x 2)( x 3) 0


++ -- ++ ++ -- ++
-2 1 -3 2
(,2) (1,) [3,2]
The solution Set is [ 3,2) (1,2]
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Absolute Value
The concept of absolute value is extremely useful in
calculus, and the reader should acquire skill in
working with it. The absolute value of a real number
x, denoted by x , is defined by

x ,x 0
x
x , x < 0

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Properties of Absolute Value
1 x x2
2 x a, a 0 a x a
3 x a, a 0 x a or x a
4 x y x2 y 2
x x
5
y y
6 xy x y
7. Triangle Inequality
x y x y x y x y
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Inequalities Involving
Absolute Values
If x < 5 then the distance between x and the origin must be
less than 5. In other words, x must be simultaneously less than
5 and greater than -5 ; that is, -5 < x < 5.
On the other hand, if x > 5 , then the distance between x and
the origin must be at least 5. This can happen when x >5
or x<-5.These are special cases of the following general
statement.
x < a a < x < a
x > a x < a or x > a
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 5:

Solve the inequality x 3 <5

Solution:

x 3 < 5 5 < x 3< 5


5 3< x < 5 3
8 < x < 2

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 6:

Solve the inequality 2x 5 < 3

Solution:
3 < 2x 5 < 3
5 3 < 2x < 3 5
2 < 2x < 8
1< x < 4

1 4
The solution Set is (1, 4)
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 7:

Solve the inequality 2 x 5 < 3

Solution:
(2 x 5) < 9
2

4 x 2 20 x 16 < 0
4 x 2 20 x 25 < 9 ++ -- ++
2 x 10 x 8 < 0
2 1 4
(2x 2)(x 4) < 0

The solution Set is (1, 4)


Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 8:
Solve the inequality 2x 3 4x 5
Solution:
(2 x 3) (4 x 5)
2 2

4 x 2 12 x 9 16 x 2 40 x 25
12 x 2 28 x 16 0
++ -- ++
3x 7 x 4 0
2
4 -1
3
4
The Solution Set is , [ 1, )
3
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 9:
x
7 2
2
x x
7 2 or 7 2
2 2
x
5 or x
9
2 2
x 10 or x 18
SS = [10, ) ( ,18]

-18 -10
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 10:
3 x 2 x 1 2

We define first:
x 2 x2 x 1 x 1
x2 x 1
2 x x<2 x 1 x < 1

Thus, there are 3 intervals :


I II III
( ,1) [ 1,2) [2, )

-1 2

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):
Interval I: x < 1 or ( ,1)
3 x 2 x 1 2
3(2 x) ( x 1) 2
6 3x x 1 2
7 2x 2
2x 9
2x 9
9 9
x or ,
2 2

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):

Thus, SS 1 = , ( ,1)
9
2

-1 9
2
So, The Solution Set-1 = ( ,1)

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):

Interval II: 1 x < 2 or [ 1,2)


3 x 2 x 1 2
3(2 x) (x 1) 2
6 3x x 1 2
5 4x 2
4x 7
4x 7
x
7 7
or ,
4 4
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Example 10 (continued):

7
SS-2 = , [ 1,2)
4

-1 7 2
4

7
So, The Solution Set-2 = 1,
4

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):

Interval III : x2 or [2, )


3 x 2 x 1 2
3(x 2) (x 1) 2
3x 6 x 1 2
2x 7 2
2x 5
5 5
x
2
or 2 ,

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):

5
2 , [2, )
SS-3 =

2 5
2

5
2 ,
so The Solution Set - 3 =

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Example 10 (continued):

SS SS1 SS2 SS3


7 5
-1 4 2

-1 7 5
4 2

-1 7 5
4 2
7 5
The Solution Set is , ,
4 2
Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung
Problems and Solution:
1. 13 2x 3 5 SS: [4,8]
1
2. 2 < 6 4x 8
SS: 2 x < 2
1
3. 2 x 2 5x 3 < 0 SS: 2 ,3
4. 2x 4 6 7 x 3x 6 SS: 0, 10
9

1
SS: ( ,1) ,3
1 2
5. <
x 1 3x 1 3
x 1
6.
x
SS: (,3) (2, )
2 x 3 x

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung


Problems
Find the solution sets of the given inequalities
x2
1 1 x
4 2x
x 2 x 1
2
x 2
x3
3 2 x 3 2x 3

x 1 2 x 2 2
2
4

5 2x 3 4x 5
6 x 3x 2

Calculus I (MA1313) Faculty of Science IT Telkom Bandung