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DATA ALCOTT SYSTEMS Ph: (0)9600095047

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S.No Title Domain Technology

A TABU SEARCH ALGORITHM FOR CLUSTER BUILDING IN


1 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

ROUTE STABILITY IN MANETS UNDER THE RANDOM


2 DIRECTION MOBILITY MODEL
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

GREEDY ROUTING WITH ANTI-VOID TRAVERSAL FOR


3 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

CELL BREATHING TECHNIQUES FOR LOAD BALANCING IN


4 WIRELESS LANS
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET
RESEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF STOP-AND-WAIT ARQ FOR
5 PARALLEL MULTICHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS
NETWORKING DOT NET

RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN OFDMA WIRELESS


6 COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS SUPPORTING MULTIMEDIA NETWORKING DOT NET
SERVICES

INFORMATION
ENHANCING PRIVACY AND AUTHORIZATION CONTROL
7 SCALABILITY IN THE GRID THROUGH ONTOLOGIES
TECHNOLOGY IN JAVA
BIOMEDICINE

COMBINATORIAL APPROACH FOR PREVENTING SQL ADVANCE COMPUTING


8 INJECTION ATTACKS CONFERENCE
J2EE
DYNAMIC SEARCH ALGORITHM IN UNSTRUCTURED PEER-TO- PARALLEL AND
9 PEER NETWORKS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

ANALYSIS OF SHORTEST PATH ROUTING FOR LARGE MULTI-


10 HOP WIRELESS NETWORKS
NETWORKING DOT NET

11 SECURE AND POLICY-COMPLIANT SOURCE ROUTING NETWORKING DOT NET

FLEXIBLE DETERMINISTIC PACKET MARKING: AN IP PARALLEL AND


12 TRACEBACK SYSTEM TO FIND THE REAL SOURCE OF ATTACKS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA
NODE ISOLATION MODEL AND AGE-BASED NEIGHBOR
13 SELECTION IN UNSTRUCTURED P2P NETWORKS
NETWORKING JAVA

DISTRIBUTED ALGORITHMS FOR CONSTRUCTING


PARALLEL AND
14 APPROXIMATE MINIMUM SPANNING TREES IN WIRELESS
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA
SENSOR NETWORKS

MOBILITY MANAGEMENT APPROACHES FOR MOBILE IP


15 NETWORKS: PERFORMANCE COMPARISON AND USE NETWORKING JAVA
RECOMMENDATIONS

SINGLE-LINK FAILURE DETECTION IN ALL-OPTICAL


16 NETWORKS USING MONITORING CYCLES AND PATHS
NETWORKING DOT NET
A FAITHFUL DISTRIBUTED MECHANISM FOR SHARING THE PARALLEL AND
17 COST OF MULTICAST TRANSMISSIONS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
J2EE

ATOMICITY ANALYSIS OF SERVICE COMPOSITION ACROSS


18 ORGANIZATIONS
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING J2EE

PARALLEL AND
19 DYNAMIC ROUTING WITH SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

CAR: CONTEXT-AWARE ADAPTIVE ROUTING FOR DELAY-


20 TOLERANT MOBILE NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA
COLLUSIVE PIRACY PREVENTION IN P2P CONTENT DELIVERY
21 NETWORKS
COMPUTERS J2EE

INFORMATION FORENSICS
22 SPREAD SPECTRUM WATERMARKING SECURITY
AND SECURITY
DOT NET

LOCAL CONSTRUCTION OF NEAR-OPTIMAL POWER SPANNERS


23 FOR WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

MULTIPLE ROUTING CONFIGURATIONS FOR FAST IP


24 NETWORK RECOVERY
NETWORKING JAVA
COMPACTION OF SCHEDULES AND A TWO-STAGE APPROACH PARALLEL AND
25 FOR DUPLICATION-BASED DAG SCHEDULING DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
DOT NET

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHECKSUMS FOR EMBEDDED DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


26 NETWORKS COMPUTING
DOT NET

PARALLEL AND
27 DETECTING MALICIOUS PACKET LOSSES
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

28 VIRUS SPREAD IN NETWORKS NETWORKING DOT NET


29 BIASED RANDOM WALKS IN UNIFORM WIRELESS NETWORKS MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

INFORMATION CONTENT-BASED SENSOR SELECTION AND


30 TRANSMISSION POWER ADJUSTMENT FOR COLLABORATIVE MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET
TARGET TRACKING

PRESTO: FEEDBACKDRIVEN DATA MANAGEMENT IN SENSOR


31 NETWORKS
NETWORKING DOT NET

EXPLICIT LOAD BALANCING TECHNIQUE FOR NGEO SATELLITE


32 IP NETWORKS WITH ON-BOARD PROCESSING CAPABILITIES
NETWORKING DOT NET
DELAY ANALYSIS FOR MAXIMAL SCHEDULING WITH FLOW
33 CONTROL IN WIRELESS NETWORKS WITH BURSTY TRAFFIC
NETWORKING DOT NET

OPTIMIZED RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR SOFTWARE RELEASE


34 PLANNING
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING DOT NET

AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION OF HEAP REFERENCE PROPERTIES


35 IN OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMS
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING DOT NET

ENERGY MAPS FOR MOBILE WIRELESS


36 NETWORKS:COHERENCE TIME VERSUS SPREADING PERIOD
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET
RANDOMCAST: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION
37 SCHEME FOR MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

EFFICIENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR WIRELESS


38 MULTICAST
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

MINING FILE DOWNLOADING TIME IN STOCHASTIC PEER TO


39 PEER NETWORKS
NETWORKING DOT NET

ENHANCING SEARCH PERFORMANCE IN UNSTRUCTURED P2P


40 NETWORKS BASED ON USERS' COMMON INTEREST
NETWORKING JAVA
PARALLEL AND
41 QUIVER: CONSISTENT OBJECT SHARING FOR EDGE SERVICES
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

BRA: A BIDIRECTIONAL ROUTING ABSTRACTION FOR


42 ASYMMETRIC MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS
NETWORKING JAVA

AN EFFICIENT CLUSTERING SCHEME TO EXPLOIT KNOWLEDGE AND DATA


43 HIERARCHICAL DATA IN NETWORK TRAFFIC ANALYSIS ENGINEERING
JAVA

RATE & DELAY GUARANTEES PROVIDED BY CLOSE PACKET


44 SWITCHES WITH LOAD BALANCING
NETWORKING JAVA

GEOMETRIC APPROACH TO IMPROVING ACTIVE PACKET LOSS


45 MEASUREMENT
NETWORKING JAVA
A PRECISE TERMINATION CONDITION OF THE PROBALASTIC DEPENDABLE AND SECURE
46 PACKET MARKING ALGORITHM COMPUTING
JAVA

INTRUSION DETECTION IN HOMOGENEOUS &


47 HETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

A DISTRIBUTED AND SCALABLE ROUTING TABLE MANAGER


48 FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF IP ROUTERS
DOT NET

PERFORMANCE OF A SPECULATIVE TRANSMISSION SCHEME


49 FOR SCHEDULING LATENCY REDUCTION
NETWORKING JAVA

EFFICIENT 2-D GRAY SCALE MORPHOLOGICAL


50 TRANSFORMATIONS WITH ARBITRALY FLAT STRUCTURING IMAGE PROCESSING DOT NET
ELEMENTS
RATE ALLOCATION & NETWORK LIFETIME PROBLEM FOR
51 WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
NETWORKING DOT NET

VISION BASED PROCESSING FOR REAL TIME 3-D DATA


52 ACQUISITION BASED CODE STRUCTURED LIGHT
IMAGE PROCESSING DOT NET

USING THE CONCEPTUAL COHESION OF CLASSES FOR FAULT


53 PREDICTION IN OBJECT ORIENTED SYSTEMS
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING JAVA

LOCATION BASED SPATIAL QUERY PROCESSING IN WIRELESS


54 BROADCAST ENVIRONMENTS
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA
BANDWIDTH ESTIMATION FOR IEEE 802.11 BASED ADHOC
55 NETWORK
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


56 MODELING & AUTOMATED CONTAINMENT OF WORMS
COMPUTING
JAVA

TRUST WORTHY COMUTING UNDER RESOURCE CONSTRAINTS DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


57 WITH THE DOWN POLICY COMPUTING
DOT NET

58 BENEFIT-BASED DATA CACHING IN AD HOC NETWORKS MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TRAFFIC


59 ANOMALIES THROUGH PACKET HEADER DATA
NETWORKING DOT NET
HBA DISTRIBUTED METADATA MANAGEMENT FOR LARGE PARALLEL AND
60 SCALE CLUSTER BASED STORAGE SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
DOT NET

TEMPORAL PORTIONING OF COMMUNICATION RESOURCES IN DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


61 AN INTEGRATED ARCHITECTURE COMPUTING
DOT NET

62 THE EFFECT OF PAIRS IN PROGRAM DESIGN TASKS SOFTWARE ENGINEERING DOT NET

CONSTRUCTING INTER-DOMAIN PACKET FILTERS TO DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


63 CONTROL IP SPOOFING BASED ON BGP UPDATES COMPUTING
JAVA
ORTHOGONAL DATA EMBEDDING FOR BINARY IMAGES IN
64 MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORM DOMAIN- A HIGH-CAPACITY MULTIMEDIA DOT NET
APPROACH

PROTECTION OF DATABASE SECURITY VIA COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE AND DATA


65 INFERENCE DETECTION ENGINEERING
J2EE

ESTIMATION OF DEFECTS BASED ON EFECT DECAY MODEL:


66 ED3M
SOFTWARE ENGINEERING DOT NET

ACTIVE LEARNING METHODS FOR INTERACTIVE IMAGE


67 RETRIEVAL
IMAGE PROCESSING DOT NET
LOCALIZED SENSOR AREA COVERAGE WITH LOW
68 COMMUNICATION OVERHEAD
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

HARDWARE ENHANCED ASSOCIATION RULE MINING WITH KNOWLEDGE AND DATA


69 HASHING AND PIPELINING ENGINEERING
DOT NET

EFFICIENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION FOR WIRELESS


70 MULTICAST
MOBILE COMPUTING DOT NET

EFFICIENT ROUTING IN INTERMITTENTLY CONNECTED MOBILE


71 NETWORKS: THE MULTIPLE COPY CASE
NETWORKING DOT NET
A NOVEL FRAMEWORK FOR SEMANTIC ANNOTATION AND
72 PERSONALIZED RETRIEVAL OF SPORTS VIDEO
MULTIMEDIA DOT NET

TWO TECHNIQUES FOR FAST COMPUTATION OF


73 CONSTRAINED SHORTEST PATHS
NETWORKING JAVA

WATERMARKING RELATIONAL DATABASES USING KNOWLEDGE AND DATA


74 OPTIMIZATION-BASED TECHNIQUES ENGINEERING
DOT NET

PROBABILISTIC PACKET MARKING FOR LARGE-SCALE IP


75 TRACE BACK
NETWORKING DOT NET

DUAL-LINK FAILURE RESILIENCY THROUGH BACKUP LINK


76 MUTUAL EXCLUSION
NETWORKING JAVA
TRUTH DISCOVERY WITH MULTIPLE CONFLICTING KNOWLEDGE AND DATA
77 INFORMATION PROVIDERS ON THE WEB ENGINEERING
J2EE

DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS IN THE PARALLEL AND


78 PRESENCE OF DELAYS: A REGENERATION-THEORY APPROACH DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

A SEMI FRAGILE CONTENT BASED IMAGE WATERMARKING


79 FOR AUTHENTICATION IN SPATIAL DOMAIN USING DISCRETE JOURNAL JAVA
COSINE TRANSFORM

OCGRR: A NEW SCHEDULING ALGORITHM FOR PARALLEL AND


80 DIFFERENTIATED SERVICES NETWORKS DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
JAVA

AN ADAPTIVE PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR FAULT-TOLERANT DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


81 DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING COMPUTING
JAVA
AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT-BASED APPROACH FOR THE
82 DETECTION OF ROUTING MISBEHAVIOR IN MANETS
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

HYBRID INTRUSION DETECTION WITH WEIGHTED SIGNATURE DEPENDABLE AND SECURE


83 GENERATION OVER ANOMALOUS INTERNET EPISODES(HIDS) COMPUTING
J2EE

PFUSION: A P2P ARCHITECTURE FOR INTERNET-SCALE PARALLEL AND


84 CONTENT-BASED SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
DOT NET

85 ROUTE RESERVATION IN AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA

DISTRIBUTED CACHE UPDATING FOR THE DYNAMIC SOURCE


86 ROUTING PROTOCOL
MOBILE COMPUTING JAVA
DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR THE
87 DETECTION AND REMOVAL OF CRACKS IN DIGITIZED IMAGE PROCESSING DOT NET
PAINTINGS

88 NOISE REDUCTION BY FUZZY IMAGE FILTERING FUZZY SYSTEMS JAVA

A NOVEL SECURE COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL FOR AD HOC


89 NETWORKS [SCP]
JAVA

PATTERN ANALYSIS AND


90 FACE RECOGNITION USING LAPLACIAN FACES
MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
JAVA

INTERNATIONAL
PREDICTIVE JOB SCHEDULING IN A CONNECTION LIMITED CONFERENCE ON
91 SYSTEM USING PARALLEL GENETIC ALGORITHM INTELLIGENT AND
JAVA
ADVANCED SYSTEMS
INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE ON E-
92 PERSONALIZED WEB SEARCH WITH SELF-ORGANIZING MAP
TECHNOLOGY, E-
J2EE
COMMERCE AND E-SERVICE

A DISTRIBUTED DATABASE ARCHITECTURE FOR GLOBAL


93 ROAMING IN NEXT-GENERATION MOBILE NETWORKS
NETWORKING JAVA

STRUCTURE AND TEXTURE FILLING-IN OF MISSING IMAGE


94 BLOCKS IN WIRELESS TRANSMISSION AND COMPRESSION IMAGE PROCESSING JAVA
APPLICATIONS

NETWORK BORDER PATROL: PREVENTING CONGESTION


95 COLLAPSE AND PROMOTING FAIRNESS IN THE INTERNET
NETWORKING JAVA

APPLICATION OF BPCS STEGANOGRAPHY TO WAVELET


96 COMPRESSED VIDEO
IMAGE PROCESSING JAVA
97 IMAGE PROCESSING FOR EDGE DETECTION DOT NET

DOUBLE-COVERED BROADCAST (DCB): A SIMPLE RELIABLE CONFERENCE-IEEE


98 BROADCAST ALGORITHM IN MANETS INFOCOM
JAVA
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Abstract

The main challenge in wireless sensor network deployment pertains to optimizing energy consumption when collecting
data from sensor nodes. This paper proposes a new centralized clustering method for a data collection mechanism in
wireless sensor networks, which is based on network energy maps and Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. The
clustering problem is modeled as a hypergraph partitioning and its resolution is based on a tabu search heuristic. Our
approach defines moves using largest size cliques in a feasibility cluster graph. Compared to other methods (CPLEX-
based method, distributed method, simulated annealing-based method), the results show that our tabu search-based
approach returns high-quality solutions in terms of cluster cost and execution time. As a result, this approach is
suitable for handling network extensibility in a satisfactory manner.

A fundamental issue arising in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is the selection of the optimal path between any two
nodes. A method that has been advocated to improve routing efficiency is to select the most stable path so as to
reduce the latency and the overhead due to route reconstruction. In this work, we study both the availability and the
duration probability of a routing path that is subject to link failures caused by node mobility. In particular, we focus on
the case where the network nodes move according to the Random Direction model, and we derive both exact and
approximate (but simple) expressions of these probabilities. Through our results, we study the problem of selecting an
optimal route in terms of path availability. Finally, we propose an approach to improve the efficiency of reactive
routing protocols.

The unreachability problem (i.e., the so-called void problem) that exists in the greedy routing algorithms has been
studied for the wireless sensor networks. Some of the current research work cannot fully resolve the void problem,
while there exist other schemes that can guarantee the delivery of packets with the excessive consumption of control
overheads. In this paper, a greedy antivoid routing (GAR) protocol is proposed to solve the void problem with increased
routing efficiency by exploiting the boundary finding technique for the unit disk graph (UDG). The proposed rolling-ball
UDG boundary traversal (RUT) is employed to completely guarantee the delivery of packets from the source to the
destination node under the UDG network. The boundary map (BM) and the indirect map searching (IMS) scheme are
proposed as efficient algorithms for the realization of the RUT technique. Moreover, the hop count reduction (HCR)
scheme is utilized as a short-cutting technique to reduce the routing hops by listening to the neighbor’s traffic, while
the intersection navigation (IN) mechanism is proposed to obtain the best rolling direction for boundary traversal with
the adoption of shortest path criterion. In order to maintain the network requirement of the proposed RUT scheme
under the non-UDG networks, the partial UDG construction (PUC) mechanism is proposed to transform the non-UDG
into UDG setting for a portion of nodes that facilitate boundary traversal. These three schemes are incorporated within
the GAR protocol to further enhance the routing performance with reduced communication overhead. The proofs of
correctness for the GAR scheme are also given in this paper. Comparing with the existing localized routing algorithms,
the simulation results show that the proposed GAR-based protocols can provide better routing efficiency.

Maximizing network throughput while providing fairness is one of the key challenges in wireless LANs (WLANs). This
goal is typically achieved when the load of access points (APs) is balanced. Recent studies on operational WLANs,
however, have shown that AP load is often substantially uneven. To alleviate such imbalance of load, several load
balancing schemes have been proposed. These schemes commonly require proprietary software or hardware at the
user side for controlling the user-AP association. In this paper we present a new load balancing technique by
controlling the size of WLAN cells (i.e., AP’s coverage range), which is conceptually similar to cell breathing in cellular
networks. The proposed scheme does not require any modification to the users neither the IEEE 802.11 standard. It
only requires the ability of dynamically changing the transmission power of the AP beacon messages. We develop a set
of polynomial time algorithms that find the optimal beacon power settings which minimize the load of the most
congested AP. We also consider the problem of network-wide min-max load balancing. Simulation results show that the
performance of the proposed method is comparable with or superior to the best existing association-based methods.
In this paper, we consider a multichannel data communication system in which the stop-and-wait automatic-repeat
request protocol for parallel channels with an in-sequence delivery guarantee (MSW-ARQ-inS) is used for error control.
We evaluate the resequencing delay and the resequencing buffer occupancy, respectively. Under the assumption that
all channels have the same transmission rate but possibly different time-invariant error rates, we derive the probability
generating function of the resequencing buffer occupancy and the probability mass function of the resequencing
delay. Then, by assuming the Gilbert–Elliott model for each channel, we extend our analysis to time-varying channels.
Through examples, we compute the probability mass functions of the resequencing buffer occupancy and the
resequencing delay for time-invariant channels. From numerical and simulation results, we analyze trends in the mean
resequencing buffer occupancy and the mean resequencing delay as functions of system parameters. We expect that
the modeling technique and analytical approach used in this paper can be applied to the performance evaluation of
other ARQ protocols (e.g., the selective-repeat ARQ) over multiple time-varying channels. Index Terms—In-sequence
delivery, modeling and performance, multichannel data communications, resequencing buffer occupancy,
resequencing delay, SW-ARQ.

We design a resource allocation algorithm for down-link of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)
systems supporting real-time (RT) and best-effort (BE) services simultaneously over a time-varying wireless channel.
The proposed algorithm aims at maximizing system throughput while satisfying quality of service (QoS) requirements
of the RT and BE services. We take two kinds of QoS requirements into account. One is the required average
transmission rate for both RT and BE services. The other is the tolerable average absolute deviation of transmission
rate (AADTR) just for the RT services, which is used to control the fluctuation in transmission rates and to limit the RT
packet delay to a moderate level. We formulate the optimization problem representing the resource allocation under
consideration and solve it by using the dual optimization technique and the projection stochastic subgradient method.
Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm well meets the QoS requirements with the high throughput and
outperforms the modified largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) algorithm that supports similar QoS requirements.

The use of data Grids for sharing relevant data has proven to be successful in many research disciplines. However, the
use of these environments when personal data are involved (such as in health) is reduced due to its lack of trust. There
are many approaches that provide encrypted storages and key shares to prevent the access from unauthorized users.
However, these approaches are additional layers that should be managed along with the authorization policies. We
present in this paper a privacy-enhancing technique that uses encryption and relates to the structure of the data and
their organizations, providing a natural way to propagate authorization and also a framework that fits with many use
cases. The paper describes the architecture and processes, and also shows results obtained in a medical imaging
platform.

A combinatorial approach for protecting Web applications against SQL injection is discussed in this paper, which is a
novel idea of incorporating the uniqueness of Signature based method and auditing method. The major issue of web
application security is the SQL Injection, which can give the attackers unrestricted access to the database that underlie
Web applications and has become increasingly frequent and serious. From signature based method standpoint of view,
it presents a detection mode for SQL injection using pair wise sequence alignment of amino acid code formulated from
web application form parameter sent via web server. On the other hand from the Auditing based method standpoint of
view, it analyzes the transaction to find out the malicious access. In signature based method It uses an approach called
Hirschberg algorithm, it is a divide and conquer approach to reduce the time and space complexity. This system was
able to stop all of the successful attacks and did not generate any false positives.
Designing efficient search algorithms is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer networks. Flooding and random
walk (RW) are two typical search algorithms. Flooding searches aggressively and covers the most nodes. However, it
generates a large amount of query messages and, thus, does not scale. On the contrary, RW searches conservatively.
It only generates a fixed amount of query messages at each hop but would take longer search time. We propose the
dynamic search (DS) algorithm, which is a generalization of flooding and RW. DS takes advantage of various contexts
under which each previous search algorithm performs well. It resembles flooding for short-term search and RW for
long-term search. Moreover, DS could be further combined with knowledge-based search mechanisms to improve the
search performance. We analyze the performance of DS based on some performance metrics including the success
rate, search time, query hits, query messages, query efficiency, and search efficiency. Numerical results show that DS
provides a good tradeoff between search performance and cost. On average, DS performs about 25 times better than
flooding and 58 times better than RW in power-law graphs, and about 186 times better than flooding and 120 times
better than RW in bimodal topologies.

In this paper, we analyze the impact of straight line routing in large homogeneous multi-hop wireless networks. We
estimate the nodal load, which is defined as the number of packets served at a node, induced by straight line routing.
For a given total offered load on the network, our analysis shows that the nodal load at each node is a function of the
node’s Voronoi cell, the node’s location in the network, and the traffic pattern specified by the source and destination
randomness and straight line routing. In the asymptotic regime, we show that each node’s probability that the node
serves a packet arriving to the network approaches the products of half the length of the Voronoi cell perimeter and
the load density function that a packet goes through the node’s location. The density function depends on the traffic
pattern generated by straight line routing, and determines where the hot spot is created in the network. Hence,
contrary to conventional wisdom, straight line routing can balance the load over the network, depending on the traffic
patterns.

In today’s Internet, inter-domain route control remains elusive; nevertheless, such control could improve the
performance, reliability, and utility of the network for end users and ISPs alike. While researchers have proposed a
number of source routing techniques to combat this limitation, there has thus far been no way for independent ASes to
ensure that such traffic does not circumvent local traffic policies, nor to accurately determine the correct party to
charge for forwarding the traffic. We present Platypus, an authenticated source routing system built around the
concept of network capabilities, which allow for accountable, fine-grained path selection by cryptographically attesting
to policy compliance at each hop along a source route. Capabilities can be composed to construct routes through
multiple ASes and can be delegated to third parties. Platypus caters to the needs of both end users and ISPs: users
gain the ability to pool their resources and select routes other than the default, while ISPs maintain control over where,
when, and whose packets traverse their networks. We describe the design and implementation of an extensive
Platypus policy framework that can be used to address several issues in wide-area routing at both the edge and the
core, and evaluate its performance and security. Our results show that incremental deployment of Platypus can
achieve immediate gains.

Internet Protocol (IP) traceback is the enabling technology to control Internet crime. In this paper, we present a novel
and practical IP traceback system called Flexible Deterministic Packet Marking (FDPM) which provides a defense
system with the ability to find out the real sources of attacking packets that traverse through the network. While a
number of other traceback schemes exist, FDPM provides innovative features to trace the source of IP packets and can
obtain better tracing capability than others. In particular, FDPM adopts a flexible mark length strategy to make it
compatible to different network environments; it also adaptively changes its marking rate according to the load of the
participating router by a flexible flow-based marking scheme. Evaluations on both simulation and real system
implementation demonstrate that FDPM requires a moderately small number of packets to complete the traceback
process; add little additional load to routers and can trace a large number of sources in one traceback process with low
false positive rates. The built-in overload prevention mechanism makes this system capable of achieving a satisfactory
traceback result even when the router is heavily loaded. The motivation of this traceback system is from DDoS
defense. It has been used to not only trace DDoS attacking packets but also enhance filtering attacking traffic. It has a
wide array of applications for other security systems.
Previous analytical studies of unstructured P2P resilience have assumed exponential user lifetimes and only con-
sidered age-independent neighbor replacement. In this paper, we overcome these limitations by introducing a general
node-isolation model for heavy-tailed user lifetimes and arbitrary neighbor-se-lection algorithms. Using this model, we
analyze two age-biased neighbor-selection strategies and show that they significantly improve the residual lifetimes of
chosen users, which dramatically reduces the probability of user isolation and graph partitioning compared with
uniform selection of neighbors. In fact, the second strategy based on random walks on age-proportional graphs
demonstrates that, for lifetimes with infinite variance, the system monotonically increases its resilience as its age and
size grow. Specifically, we show that the probability of isolation converges to zero as these two metrics tend to infinity.
We finish the paper with simulations in finite-size graphs that demonstrate the effect of this result in practice.

While there are distributed algorithms for the minimum spanning tree (MST) problem, these algorithms require
relatively large number of messages and time, and are fairly involved, making them impractical for resource-
constrained networks such as wireless sensor networks. In such networks, a sensor has very limited power, and any
algorithm needs to be simple, local, and energy efficient. Motivated by these considerations, we design and analyze a
class of simple and local distributed algorithms called Nearest Neighbor Tree (NNT) algorithms for energy-efficient
construction of an approximate MST in wireless networks. Assuming that the nodes are uniformly distributed, we show
provable bounds on both the quality of the spanning tree produced and the energy needed to construct them. We
show that while NNT produces a close approximation to the MST, it consumes asymptotically less energy than the
classical message-optimal distributed MST algorithm due to Gallagery, Humblet, and Spira. Further, the NNTs can be
maintained dynamically with polylogarithmic rearrangements under node insertions/deletions. We also perform
extensive simulations, which show that the bounds are much better in practice. Our results, to the best of our
knowledge, demonstrate the first tradeoff between the quality of approximation and the energy required for building
spanning trees on wireless networks, and motivate similar considerations for other important problems.

In wireless networks, efficient management of mobility is a crucial issue to support mobile users. The Mobile Internet
Protocol (MIP) has been proposed to support global mobility in IP networks. Several mobility management strategies
have been proposed which aim reducing the signaling traffic related to the Mobile Terminals (MTs) registration with the
Home Agents (HAs) whenever their Care-of-Addresses (CoAs) change. They use different Foreign Agents (FAs) and
Gateway FAs (GFAs) hierarchies to concentrate the registration processes. For high-mobility MTs, the Hierarchical MIP
(HMIP) and Dynamic HMIP (DHMIP) strategies localize the registration in FAs and GFAs, yielding to high-mobility
signaling. The Multicast HMIP strategy limits the registration processes in the GFAs. For high-mobility MTs, it provides
lowest mobility signaling delay compared to the HMIP and DHMIP approaches. However, it is resource consuming
strategy unless for frequent MT mobility. Hence, we propose an analytic model to evaluate the mean signaling delay
and the mean bandwidth per call according to the type of MT mobility. In our analysis, the MHMIP outperforms the
DHMIP and MIP strategies in almost all the studied cases. The main contribution of this paper is the analytic model that
allows the mobility management approaches performance evaluation.

In this paper, we consider the problem of fault localization in all-optical networks. We introduce the concept of
monitoring cycles (MCs) and monitoring paths (MPs) for unique identification of single-link failures. MCs and MPs are
required to pass through one or more monitoring locations. They are constructed such that any single-link failure
results in the failure of a unique combination of MCs and MPs that pass through the monitoring location(s). For a
network with only one monitoring location, we prove that three-edge connectivity is a necessary and sufficient
condition for constructing MCs that uniquely identify any single-link failure in the network. For this case, we formulate
the problem of constructing MCs as an integer linear program (ILP). We also develop heuristic approaches for
constructing MCs in the presence of one or more monitoring locations. For an arbitrary network (not necessarily three-
edge connected), we describe a fault localization technique that uses both MPs and MCs and that employs multiple
monitoring locations. We also provide a linear-time algorithm to compute the minimum number of required monitoring
locations. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring technique.
The problem of sharing the cost of multicast transmissions was studied in the past, and two mechanisms, Marginal
Cost (MC) and Shapley Value (SH), were proposed to solve it. Although both of them are strategy proof mechanisms,
the distributed protocols implementing them are susceptible to manipulation by autonomous nodes. We propose a
distributed Shapley Value mechanism in which the participating nodes do not have incentives to deviate from the
mechanism specifications. We show that the proposed mechanism is a faithful implementation of the Shapley Value
mechanism. We experimentally investigate the performance of the existing and the proposed cost-sharing
mechanisms by implementing and deploying them on PlanetLab. We compare the execution time of MC and SH
mechanisms for the Tamper-Proof and Autonomous Node models. We also study the convergence and scalability of the
mechanisms by varying the number of nodes and the number of users per node. We show that the MC mechanisms
generate a smaller revenue compared to the SH mechanisms, and thus, they are not attractive to the content provider.
We also show that increasing the number of users per node is beneficial for the systems implementing the SH
mechanisms from both computational and economic perspectives.

Atomicity is a highly desirable property for achieving application consistency in service compositions. To achieve
atomicity, a service composition should satisfy the atomicity sphere, a structural criterion for the backend processes of
involved services. Existing analysis techniques for the atomicity sphere generally assume complete knowledge of all
involved backend processes. Such an assumption is invalid when some service providers do not release all details of
their backend processes to service consumers outside the organizations. To address this problem, we propose a
process algebraic framework to publish atomicity-equivalent public views from the backend processes. These public
views extract relevant task properties and reveal only partial process details that service providers need to expose.
Our framework enables the analysis of the atomicity sphere for service compositions using these public views instead
of their backend processes. This allows service consumers to choose suitable services such that their composition
satisfies the atomicity sphere without disclosing the details of their backend processes. Based on the theoretical result,
we present algorithms to construct atomicity-equivalent public views and to analyze the atomicity sphere for a service
composition. Two case studies from the supply chain and insurance domains are given to evaluate our proposal and
demonstrate the applicability of our approach.

Security has become one of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks. Different from
the past work on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures, we will propose a dynamic
routing algorithm that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and
compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol in wired networks and Destination-
Sequenced Distance Vector protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. An analytic
study on the proposed algorithm is presented, and a series of simulation experiments are conducted to verify the
analytic results and to show the capability of the proposed algorithm

Most of the existing research work in mobile ad hoc networking is based on the assumption that a path exists between
the sender and the receiver. On the other hand, applications of decentralised mobile systems are often characterised
by network partitions. As a consequence delay tolerant networking research has received considerable attention in the
recent years as a means to obviate to the gap between ad hoc network research and real applications. In this paper we
present the design, implementation and evaluation of the context-aware adaptive routing (CAR) protocol for delay
tolerant unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is based on the idea
of exploiting nodes as carriers of messages among network partitions to achieve delivery. The choice of the best
carrier is made using Kalman filter based prediction techniques and utility theory. We discuss the implementation of
CAR over an opportunistic networking framework, outlining possible applications of the general principles at the basis
of the proposed approach. The large scale performance of the CAR protocol are evaluated using simulations based on
a social network founded mobility model, a purely random one and real traces from Dartmouth College.
Collusive piracy is the main source of intellectual property violations within the boundary of a P2P network. Paid clients
(colluders) may illegally share copyrighted content files with unpaid clients (pirates). Such online piracy has hindered
the use of open P2P networks for commercial content delivery. We propose a proactive content poisoning scheme to
stop colluders and pirates from alleged copyright infringements in P2P file sharing. The basic idea is to detect pirates
timely with identity-based signatures and time stamped tokens. The scheme stops collusive piracy without hurting
legitimate P2P clients by targeting poisoning on detected violators, exclusively. We developed a new peer
authorization protocol (PAP) to distinguish pirates from legitimate clients. Detected pirates will receive poisoned
chunks in their repeated attempts. Pirates are thus severely penalized with no chance to download successfully in
tolerable time. Based on simulation results, we find 99.9 percent prevention rate in Gnutella, KaZaA, and Freenet. We
achieved 85-98 percent prevention rate on eMule, eDonkey, Morpheus, etc. The scheme is shown less effective in
protecting some poison-resilient networks like BitTorrent and Azureus. Our work opens up the low-cost P2P technology
for copyrighted content delivery. The advantage lies mainly in minimum delivery cost, higher content availability, and
copyright compliance in exploring P2P network resources.

This paper presents both theoretical and practical analyses of the security offered by watermarking and data hiding
methods based on spread spectrum. In this context, security is understood as the difficulty of estimating the secret
parameters of the embedding function based on the observation of watermarked signals. On the theoretical side, the
security is quantified from an information-theoretic point of view by means of the equivocation about the secret
parameters. The main results reveal fundamental limits and bounds on security and provide insight into other
properties, such as the impact of the embedding parameters, and the tradeoff between robustness and security. On
the practical side, workable estimators of the secret parameters are proposed and theoretically analyzed for a variety
of scenarios, providing a comparison with previous approaches, and showing that the security of many schemes used
in practice can be fairly low.

We present a local distributed algorithm that, given a wireless ad hoc network modeled as a unit disk graph U in the
plane, constructs a planar power spanner of U whose degree is bounded by k and whose stretch factor is bounded by 1
+ (2sin pi/k)p, where k ges 10 is an integer parameter and p isin [2, 5] is the power exponent constant. For the same
degree bound k, the stretch factor of our algorithm significantly improves the previous best bounds by Song et al. We
show that this bound is near-optimal by proving that the slightly smaller stretch factor of 1 + (2sin pi/k+1)p is
unattainable for the same degree bound k. In contrast to previous algorithms for the problem, the presented algorithm
is local. As a consequence, the algorithm is highly scalable and robust. Finally, while the algorithm is efficient and easy
to implement in practice, it relies on deep insights on the geometry of unit disk graphs and novel techniques that are
of independent interest.

As the Internet takes an increasingly central role in our communications infrastructure, the slow convergence of
routing protocols after a network failure becomes a growing problem. To assure fast recovery from link and node
failures in IP networks, we present a new recovery scheme called Multiple Routing Configurations (MRC). Our proposed
scheme guarantees recovery in all single failure scenarios, using a single mechanism to handle both link and node
failures, and without knowing the root cause of the failure. MRC is strictly connectionless, and assumes only
destination based hop-by-hop forwarding. MRC is based on keeping additional routing information in the routers, and
allows packet forwarding to continue on an alternative output link immediately after the detection of a failure. It can be
implemented with only minor changes to existing solutions. In this paper we present MRC, and analyze its performance
with respect to scalability, backup path lengths, and load distribution after a failure. We also show how an estimate of
the traffic demands in the network can be used to improve the distribution of the recovered traffic, and thus reduce
the chances of congestion when MRC is used.
Many DAG scheduling algorithms generate schedules that require prohibitively large number of processors. To address
this problem, we propose a generic algorithm, SC, to minimize the processor requirement of any given valid schedule.
SC preserves the schedule length of the original schedule and reduces processor count by merging processor
schedules and removing redundant duplicate tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first algorithm to address
this highly unexplored aspect of DAG scheduling. On the average, SC reduced the processor requirement 91%, 82%
and 72% for schedules generated by PLW, TCSD and CPFD algorithms, respectively. SC algorithm has a low complexity
(O(|N |3) ) compared to most duplication based algorithms. Moreover, it decouples processor economization from
schedule length minimization problem. To take advantage of these features of SC, we also propose a scheduling
algorithm SDS, having the same time complexity as SC. Our experiments demonstrate that, schedules generated by
SDS are only 3% longer than CPFD (O(|N |4) ), one of the best algorithms in that respect. SDS and SC together form a
two-stage scheduling algorithm that produces schedules with high quality and low processor requirement, and has
lower complexity than the comparable algorithms that produce similar high quality results.

Embedded control networks commonly use checksums to detect data transmission errors. However, design decisions
about which checksum to use are difficult because of a lack of information about the relative effectiveness of available
options. We study the error detection effectiveness of the following commonly used checksum computations for
embedded networks: exclusive or (XOR), two’s complement addition, one’s complement addition, Fletcher checksum,
Adler checksum, and cyclic redundancy codes (CRC). A study of error detection capabilities for random independent bit
errors and burst errors reveals that XOR, two’s complement addition, and Adler checksums are suboptimal for typical
application use. Instead, one’s complement addition should be used for applications willing to sacrifice error detection
effectiveness to reduce compute cost, Fletcher checksum for applications looking for a balance of error detection and
compute cost, and CRCs for applications willing to pay a higher compute cost for further improved error detection

In this paper, we consider the problem of detecting whether a compromised router is maliciously manipulating its
stream of packets. In particular, we are concerned with a simple yet effective attack in which a router selectively drops
packets destined for some victim. Unfortunately, it is quite challenging to attribute a missing packet to a malicious
action because normal network congestion can produce the same effect. Modern networks routinely drop packets
when the load temporarily exceeds their buffering capacities. Previous detection protocols have tried to address this
problem with a user-defined threshold: too many dropped packets imply malicious intent. However, this heuristic is
fundamentally unsound; setting this threshold is, at best, an art and will certainly create unnecessary false positives or
mask highly focused attacks. We have designed, developed, and implemented a compromised router detection
protocol that dynamically infers, based on measured traffic rates and buffer sizes, the number of congestive packet
losses that will occur. Once the ambiguity from congestion is removed, subsequent packet losses can be attributed to
malicious actions. We have tested our protocol in Emulab and have studied its effectiveness in differentiating attacks
from legitimate network behavior.

We study how the spread of computer viruses, worms, and other self-replicating malware is affected by the logical
topology of the network over which they propagate. We consider a model in which each host can be in one of 3
possible states - susceptible, infected or removed (cured and no longer susceptible to infection). We characterize how
the size of the population that eventually becomes infected depends on the network topology. Specially, we show that
if the ratio of cure to infection rates is larger than the spectral radius of the graph, and the initial infected population is
small, then the final infected population is also small in a sense that can be made precise. Conversely, if this ratio is
smaller than the spectral radius, then we show in some graph models of practical interest (including power law random
graphs) that the final infected population is large. These results yield insights into what the critical parameters are in
determining virus spread in networks.
A recurrent problem when designing distributed applications is to search for a node with known property. File
searching in peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, resource discovery in service-oriented architectures (SOAs), and path
discovery in routing can all be cast as a search problem. Random walk-based search algorithms are often suggested
for tackling the search problem, especially in very dynamic systems-like mobile wireless networks. The cost and the
effectiveness of a random walk-based search algorithm are measured by the excepted number of transmissions
required before hitting the target. Hence, to have a low hitting time is a critical goal. This paper studies the effect of
biasing random walk toward the target on the hitting time. For a walk running over a network with uniform node
distribution, a simple upper bound that connects the hitting time to the bias level is obtained. The key result is that
even a modest bias level is able to reduce the hitting time significantly. This paper also proposes a search protocol for
mobile wireless networks, whose results are interpreted in the light of the theoretical study. The proposed solution is
for unstructured wireless mobile networks.

For target tracking applications, wireless sensor nodes provide accurate information since they can be deployed and
operated near the phenomenon. These sensing devices have the opportunity of collaboration among themselves to
improve the target localization and tracking accuracies. An energy-efficient collaborative target tracking paradigm is
developed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A mutual-information-based sensor selection (MISS) algorithm is
adopted for participation in the fusion process. MISS allows the sensor nodes with the highest mutual information
about the target state to transmit data so that the energy consumption is reduced while the desired target position
estimation accuracy is met. In addition, a novel approach to energy savings in WSNs is devised in the information-
controlled transmission power (ICTP) adjustment, where nodes with more information use higher transmission powers
than those that are less informative to share their target state information with the neighboring nodes. Simulations
demonstrate the performance gains offered by MISS and ICTP in terms of power consumption and target localization
accuracy.

This paper presents PRESTO, a novel two-tier sensor data management architecture comprising proxies and sensors
that cooperate with one another for acquiring data and processing queries. PRESTO proxies construct time-series
models of observed trends in the sensor data and transmit the parameters of the model to sensors. Sensors check
sensed data with model-predicted values and transmit only deviations from the predictions back to the proxy. Such a
model-driven push approach is energyefficient, while ensuring that anomalous data trends are never missed. In
addition to supporting queries on current data, PRESTO also supports queries on historical data using interpolation and
local archival at sensors. PRESTO can adapt model and system parameters to data and query dynamics to further
extract energy savings. We have implemented PRESTO on a sensor testbed comprising Intel Stargates and Telos
Motes. Our experiments show that in a temperature monitoring application, PRESTO yields one to two orders of
magnitude reduction in energy requirements over on-demand, proactive or model-driven pull approaches. PRESTO
also results in an order of magnitude reduction in query latency in a 1% duty-cycled five hop sensor network over a
system that forwards all queries to remote sensor nodes.

Given the non-uniform distribution of users in satellite footprints, due to several geographical and/or climatic
constraints, some Inter-Satellite Links (ISLs) are expected to be heavily loaded with data packets while others remain
underutilized. Such scenario obviously leads to congestion of the heavily loaded links. It ultimately results in buffer
overflows, higher queuing delays, and significant packet drops. To guarantee a better distribution of traffic among
satellites, this paper proposes an explicit exchange of information on congestion status among neighboring satellites.
Indeed, a satellite notifies its congestion status to its neighboring satellites. When it is about to get congested, it
requests its neighboring satellites to decrease their data forwarding rates by sending them a self status notification
signaling message. In response, the neighboring satellites search for less congested paths that do not include the
satellite in question and communicate a portion of data, primarily destined to the satellite, via the retrieved paths. This
operation avoids both congestion and packet drops at the satellite. It also ensures a better distribution of traffic over
the entire satellite constellation. The proposed scheme is dubbed “Explicit Load Balancing” (ELB) scheme. While the
multi-path routing concept of ELB has many advantages, it may lead to persistent packet reordering. In case of
connection- oriented protocols, this phenomenon results in unnecessary shrinkage of the data transmission rate. A
solution to this issue is also incorporated in the design of ELB. The interactions of ELB with mechanisms that provide
different QoS by differentiating traffic (e.g., Differentiated Services) are also discussed. The good performance of ELB,
We consider the delay properties of one-hop networks with general interference constraints and multiple traffic
streams with time-correlated arrivals. We first treat the case when arrivals are modulated by independent finite state
Markov chains. We show that the well known maximal scheduling algorithm achieves average delay that grows at most
logarithmically in the largest number of interferers at any link. Further, in the important special case when each
Markov process has at most two states (such as bursty ON/OFF sources), we prove that average delay is independent
of the number of nodes and links in the network, and hence is order-optimal. We provide tight delay bounds in terms of
the individual auto-correlation parameters of the traffic sources. These are perhaps the first order-optimal delay results
for controlled queueing networks that explicitly account for such statistical information. Our analysis treats cases both
with and without flow control.

Release planning for incremental software development assigns features to releases such that technical, resource,
risk, and budget constraints are met. A feature can be offered as part of a release only if all of its necessary tasks are
done before the given release date. We assume a given pool of human resources with different degrees of productivity
to perform different types of tasks. In the context of release planning, the question studied in this paper is how to
allocate these resources to the tasks of implementing the features such that the value gained from the released
features is maximized. Planning of software releases and allocation of resources cannot be handled in isolation. To
address the inherent difficulty of this process, we propose a two-phase optimization approach called OPTIMIZERASORP
that combines the strength of two existing solution methods. Phase 1 applies integer linear programming to a relaxed
version of the full problem. Phase 2 uses genetic programming in a reduced search space to generate operational
resource allocation plans. The method is evaluated for a series of 600 randomly generated problems with varying
problem parameters. The results are compared with a heuristic that locally allocates resources based on a greedy
search

We present a new technique for helping developers understand heap referencing properties of object-oriented
programs and how the actions of the program affect these properties. Our dynamic analysis uses the aliasing
properties of objects to synthesize a set of roles; each role represents an abstract object state intended to be of
interest to the developer. We allow the developer to customize the analysis to explore the object states and behavior
of the program at multiple different and potentially complementary levels of abstraction. The analysis uses roles as the
basis for three abstractions: role transition diagrams, which present the observed transitions between roles and the
methods responsible for the transitions; role relationship diagrams, which present the observed referencing
relationships between objects playing different roles; and enhanced method interfaces, which present the observed
roles of method parameters. Together, these abstractions provide useful information about important object and data
structure properties and how the actions of the program affect these properties. We have implemented the role
analysis and have used this implementation to explore the behavior of several Java programs. Our experience
indicates that, when combined with a powerful graphical user interface, roles are a useful abstraction for helping
developers explore and understand the behavior of object-oriented programs.

We show that even though mobile networks are highly unpredictable when viewed at the individual node scale, the
end-toend quality-of-service (QoS) metrics can be stationary when the mobile network is viewed in the aggregate. We
define the coherence time as the maximum duration for which the end-to-end QoS metric remains roughly constant,
and the spreading period as the minimum duration required to spread QoS information to all the nodes. We show that
if the coherence time is greater than the spreading period, the end-to-end QoS metric can be tracked. We focus on the
energy consumption as the end-to-end QoS metric, and describe a novel method by which an energy map can be
constructed and refined in the joint memory of the mobile nodes. Finally, we show how energy maps can be utilized by
an application that aims to minimize a node’s total energy consumption over its near-future trajectory.
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), every node overhears every data transmission occurring in its vicinity and thus,
consumes energy unnecessarily. In IEEE 802.11 Power Saving Mechanism (PSM), a packet must be advertised before it
is actually transmitted. When a node receives an advertised packet that is not destined to itself, it switches to a
lowpower sleep state during the data transmission period, and thus, avoids overhearing and conserves energy.
However, since some MANET routing protocols such as Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) collect route information via
overhearing, they would suffer if they are used in combination with 802.11 PSM. Allowing no overhearing may critically
deteriorate the performance of the underlying routing protocol, while unconditional overhearing may offset the
advantage of using PSM. This paper proposes a new communication mechanism, called RandomCast, via which a
sender can specify the desired level of overhearing, making a prudent balance between energy and routing
performance. In addition, it reduces redundant rebroadcasts for a broadcast packet and thus saves more energy.
Extensive simulation using ns-2 shows that RandomCast is highly energy-efficient compared to conventional 802.11 as
well as 802.11 PSM-based schemes, in terms of total energy consumption, energy goodput and energy balance.

In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-efficient multicast mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks. We reduce
the bandwidth cost of an Internet Protocol (IP) multicast tree by adaptively selecting the cell and the wireless
technology for each mobile host to join the multicast group. Our mechanism enables more mobile hosts to cluster
together and leads to the use of fewer cells to save the scarce wireless bandwidth. Besides, the paths in the multicast
tree connecting to the selected cells share more common links to save the wireline bandwidth. Our mechanism
supports the dynamic group membership and offers mobility of group members. Moreover, our mechanism requires no
modification to the current IP multicast routing protocols. We formulate the selection of the cell and the wireless
technology for each mobile host in the heterogeneous wireless networks as an optimization problem. We use Integer
Linear Programming to model the problem and show that the problem is NP-hard. To solve the problem, we propose a
distributed algorithm based on Lagrangean relaxation and a network protocol based on the algorithm. The simulation
results show that our mechanism can effectively save the wireless and wireline bandwidth as compared to the
traditional IP multicast.

On-demand routing protocols use route caches to make routing decisions. Due to mobility, cached routes easily
become stale. To address the cache staleness issue, prior work in DSR used heuristics with ad hoc parameters to
predict the lifetime of a link or a route. However, heuristics cannot accurately estimate timeouts because topology
changes are unpredictable. In this paper, we propose proactively disseminating the broken link information to the
nodes that have that link in their caches. We define a new cache structure called a cache table and present a
distributed cache update algorithm. Each node maintains in its cache table the information necessary for cache
updates. When a link failure is detected, the algorithm notifies all reachable nodes that have cached the link in a
distributed manner. The algorithm does not use any ad hoc parameters, thus making route caches fully adaptive to
topology changes. We show that the algorithm outperforms DSR with path caches and with Link-Max Life, an adaptive
timeout mechanism for link caches. We conclude that proactive cache updating is key to the adaptation of on-demand
routing protocols to mobility.

Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks establish loosely coupled application-level overlays on top of the Internet to facilitate
efficient sharing of resources. They can be roughly classified as either structured or unstructured networks. Without
stringent constraints over the network topology, unstructured P2P networks can be constructed very efficiently and are
therefore considered suitable to the Internet environment. However, the random search strategies adopted by these
networks usually perform poorly with a large network size. In this paper, we seek to enhance the search performance
in unstructured P2P networks through exploiting users' common interest patterns captured within a probability-
theoretic framework termed the user interest model (UIM). A search protocol and a routing table updating protocol are
further proposed in order to expedite the search process through self organizing the P2P network into a small world.
Both theoretical and experimental analyses are conducted and demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of our
approach
We present Quiver, a system that coordinates service proxies placed at the “edge” of the Internet to serve distributed
clients accessing a service involving mutable objects. Quiver enables these proxies to perform consistent accesses to
shared objects by migrating the objects to proxies performing operations on those objects. These migrations
dramatically improve performance when operations involving an object exhibit geographic locality, since migrating this
object into the vicinity of proxies hosting these operations will benefit all such operations. This system reduces the
workload in the server. It performs the all operations in the proxies itself. In this system the operations performed in
First-In-First-Out process. This system handles two process serializability and strict serializabilty for durability in the
consistent object sharing . Other workloads benefit from Quiver, dispersing the computation load across the proxies
and saving the costs of sending operation parameters over the wide area when these are large. Quiver also supports
optimizations for single-object reads that do not involve migrating the object. We detail the protocols for implementing
object operations and for accommodating the addition, involuntary disconnection, and voluntary departure of proxies.
Finally, we discuss the use of Quiver to build an e-commerce application and a distributed network traffic modeling
service.
Wireless links are often asymmetric due to heterogeneity in the transmission power of devices, non-uniform
environmental noise, and other signal propagation phenomenons. Unfortunately, routing protocols for mobile ad hoc
networks typically work well only in bidirectional networks. This paper first presents a simulation study quantifying the
impact of asymmetric links on network connectivity and routing performance. It then presents a framework called BRA
that provides a bidirectional abstraction of the asymmetric network to routing protocols. BRA works by maintaining
multi-hop reverse routes for unidirectional links and provides three new abilities: improved connectivity by taking
advantage of the unidirectional links, reverse route forwarding of control packets to enable off-the-shelf routing
protocols, and detection packet loss on unidirectional links. Extensive simulations of AODV layered on BRA show that
packet delivery increases substantially (two-fold in some instances) in asymmetric networks compared to regular
AODV, which only routes on bidirectional links.

There is significant interest in the data mining and network management communities about the need to improve
existing techniques for clustering multivariate network traffic flow records so that we can quickly infer underlying
traffic patterns. In this paper, we investigate the use of clustering techniques to identify interesting traffic patterns
from network traffic data in an efficient manner. We develop a framework to deal with mixed type attributes including
numerical, categorical, and hierarchical attributes for a one-pass hierarchical clustering algorithm. We demonstrate the
improved accuracy and efficiency of our approach in comparison to previous work on clustering network traffic.

In this paper, we consider an overarching problem that encompasses both performance metrics. In particular, we study
the network capacity problem under a given network lifetime requirement. Specifically, for a wireless sensor network
where each node is provisioned with an initial energy, if all nodes are required to live up to a certain lifetime criterion,
Since the objective of maximizing the sum of rates of all the nodes in the network can lead to a severe bias in rate
allocation among the nodes, we advocate the use of lexicographical max-min (LMM) rate allocation. To calculate the
LMM rate allocation vector, we develop a polynomial-time algorithm by exploiting the parametric analysis (PA)
technique from linear program (LP), which we call serial LP with Parametric Analysis (SLP-PA). We show that the SLP-PA
can be also employed to address the LMM node lifetime problem much more efficiently than a state-of-the-art
algorithm proposed in the literature. More important, we show that there exists an elegant duality relationship
between the LMM rate allocation problem and the LMM node lifetime problem. Therefore, it is sufficient to solve only
one of the two problems. Important insights can be obtained by inferring duality results for the other problem.

Measurement and estimation of packet loss characteristics are challenging due to the relatively rare occurrence and
typically short duration of packet loss episodes. While active probe tools are commonly used to measure packet loss
on end-to-end paths, there has been little analysis of the accuracy of these tools or their impact on the network. The
objective of our study is to understand how to measure packet loss episodes accurately with end-to-end probes. We
begin by testing the capability of standard Poisson- modulated end-to-end measurements of loss in a controlled
laboratory environment using IP routers and commodity end hosts. Our tests show that loss characteristics reported
from such Poisson-modulated probe tools can be quite inaccurate over a range of traffic conditions. Motivated by these
observations, we introduce a new algorithm for packet loss measurement that is designed to overcome the
deficiencies in standard Poisson-based tools. Specifically, our method entails probe experiments that follow a
geometric distribution to 1) enable an explicit trade-off between accuracy and impact on the network, and 2) enable
more accurate measurements than standard Poisson probing at the same rate. We evaluate the capabilities of our
methodology experimentally by developing and implementing a prototype tool, called BADABING. The experiments
demonstrate the trade-offs between impact on the network and measurement accuracy. We show that BADABING
reports loss characteristics far more accurately than traditional loss measurement tools.
The probabilistic packet marking (PPM) algorithm is a promising way to discover the Internet map or an attack graph
that the attack packets traversed during a distributed denial-of-service attack. However, the PPM algorithm is not
perfect, as its termination condition is not well defined in the literature. More importantly, without a proper termination
condition, the attack graph constructed by the PPM algorithm would be wrong. In this work, we provide a precise
termination condition for the PPM algorithm and name the new algorithm the Rectified PPM (RPPM) algorithm. The
most significant merit of the RPPM algorithm is that when the algorithm terminates, the algorithm guarantees that the
constructed attack graph is correct, with a specified level of confidence. We carry out simulations on the RPPM
algorithm and show that the RPPM algorithm can guarantee the correctness of the constructed attack graph under 1)
different probabilities that a router marks the attack packets and 2) different structures of the network graph. The
RPPM algorithm provides an autonomous way for the original PPM algorithm to determine its termination, and it is a
promising means of enhancing the reliability of the PPM algorithm.

Intrusion detection in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is of practical interest in many applications such as detecting an
intruder in a battlefield. The intrusion detection is defined as a mechanism for a WSN to detect the existence of
inappropriate, incorrect, or anomalous moving attackers. In this paper, we consider this issue according to
heterogeneous WSN models. Furthermore, we consider two sensing detection models: single-sensing detection and
multiple-sensing detection... Our simulation results show the advantage of multiple sensor heterogeneous WSNs.

In recent years, the exponential growth of Internet users with increased bandwidth requirements has led to the
emergence of the next generation of IP routers. Distributed architecture is one of the promising trends providing
petabit routers with a large switching capacity and high-speed interfaces. Distributed routers are designed with an
optical switch fabric interconnecting line and control cards. Computing and memory resources are available on both
control and line cards to perform routing and forwarding tasks. This new hardware architecture is not efficiently
utilized by the traditional software models where a single control card is responsible for all routing and management
operations. The routing table manager plays an extremely critical role by managing routing information and in
particular, a forwarding information table. This article presents a distributed architecture set up around a distributed
and scalable routing table manager. This architecture also comes provides improvements in robustness and resiliency.
The proposed architecture

This work was motivated by the need to achieve low latency in an input centrally-scheduled cell switch for high-
performance computing applications; specifically, the aim is to reduce the latency incurred between issuance of a
request and arrival of the corresponding grant. We introduce a speculative transmission scheme to significantly reduce
the average latency by allowing cells to proceed without waiting for a grant. It operates in conjunction with any
centralized matching algorithm to achieve a high maximum utilization. An analytical model is presented to investigate
the efficiency of the speculative transmission scheme employed in a non-blocking N*NR input-queued crossbar switch
with receivers R per output. The results demonstrate that the can be almost entirely eliminated for loads up to 50%.
Our simulations confirm the analytical results.

An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of grayscale morphological operations with arbitrary 2-D flat
structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of
gray levels used. It always outperforms the only existing comparable method, which was proposed in the work by Van
Droogen broeck and Talbot, by a factor between 3.5 and 35.1, depending on the image type and shape of S.E. So far,
filtering using multiple S.E.s is always done by performing the operator for each size and shape of the S.E. separately.
With our method, filtering with multiple S.E.s can be performed by was proposed in the work by Van Droogen broeck
and Talbot, by a factor between 3.5 and 35.1, depending on the image type and shape of S.E. So far, filtering using
multiple S.E.s is always done by performing the operator for each size and shape of the S.E. separately. With our
method, filtering with multiple S.E.s can be performed by a single operator for a slightly reduced computational cost
per size or shape, which makes this method more suitable for use in granulometries, dilation-erosion scale spaces, and
template matching using the hit-or-miss transform. The discussion focuses on erosions and dilations, from which other
transformations can be derived. a single operator for a slightly reduced computational cost per size or shape, which
makes this method more suitable for use in granulometries, dilation-erosion scale spaces, and template matching
using the hit-or-miss transform. The discussion focuses on erosions and dilations, from which other transformations
can be derived.
In this paper, we consider an overarching problem that encompasses both performance metrics. In particular, we study
the network capacity problem under a given network lifetime requirement. Specifically, for a wireless sensor network
where each node is provisioned with an initial energy, if all nodes are required to live up to a certain lifetime criterion,
Since the objective of maximizing the sum of rates of all the nodes in the network can lead to a severe bias in rate
allocation among the nodes, we advocate the use of lexicographical max-min (LMM) rate allocation. To calculate the
LMM rate allocation vector, we develop a polynomial-time algorithm by exploiting the parametric analysis (PA)
technique from linear program (LP), which we call serial LP with Parametric Analysis (SLP-PA). We show that the SLP-PA
can be also employed to address the LMM node lifetime problem much more efficiently than a state-of-the-art
algorithm proposed in the literature. More important, we show that there exists an elegant duality relationship
between the LMM rate allocation problem and the LMM node lifetime problem. Therefore, it is sufficient to solve only
one of the two problems. Important insights can be obtained by inferring duality results for the other problem.

The structured light vision system is a successfully used for the measurement of 3D surface in vision. There is some
limitation in the above scheme, that is tens of picture are captured to recover a 3D sense. This paper presents an idea
for real-time Acquisition of 3-D surface data by a specially coded vision system. To achieve 3-D measurement for a
dynamic scene, the data acquisition must be performed with only a single image. A principle of uniquely color-encoded
pattern projection is proposed to design a color matrix for improving the reconstruction efficiency. The matrix is
produced by a special code sequence and a number of state transitions. A color projector is controlled by a computer
to generate the desired color patterns in the scene. The unique indexing of the light codes is crucial here for color
projection since it is essential that each light grid be uniquely identified by incorporating local neighborhoods so that 3-
D reconstruction can be performed with only local analysis of a single image. A scheme is presented to describe such a
vision processing method for fast 3-D data acquisition. Practical experimental performance is provided to analyze the
efficiency of the proposed methods

High cohesion is desirable property in software systems to achieve reusability and maintainability. In this project we
are measures for cohesion in Object-Oriented (OO) software reflect particular interpretations of cohesion and capture
different aspects of it. In existing approaches the cohesion is calculate from the structural information for example
method attributes and references. In conceptual cohesion of classes, i.e. in our project we are calculating the
unstructured information from the source code such as comments and identifiers. Unstructured information is
embedded in the source code. To retrieve the unstructured information from the source code Latent Semantic
Indexing is used. A large case study on three open source software systems is presented which compares the new
measure with an extensive set of existing metrics and uses them to construct models that predict software faults. In
our project we are achieving the high cohesion and we are predicting the fault in Object –Oriented Systems

Location-based spatial queries (LBSQ s) refer to spatial queries whose answers rely on the location of the inquirer.
Efficient processing of LBSQ s is of critical importance with the ever-increasing deployment and use of mobile
technologies. We show that LBSQ s has certain unique characteristics that the traditional spatial query processing in
centralized databases does not address. For example, a significant challenge is presented by wireless broadcasting
environments, which have excellent scalability but often exhibit high-latency database access. In this paper, we
present a novel query processing technique that, though maintaining high scalability and accuracy, manages to
reduce the latency considerably in answering LBSQ s. Our approach is based on peer-to-peer sharing, which enables us
to process queries without delay at a mobile host by using query results cached in its neighboring mobile peers. We
demonstrate the feasibility of our approach through a probabilistic analysis, and we illustrate the appeal of our
technique through extensive simulation results.
Since 2005, IEEE 802.11-based networks have been able to provide a certain level of quality of service (QoS) by the
means of service differentiation, due to the IEEE 802.11e amendment. However, no mechanism or method has been
standardized to accurately evaluate the amount of resources remaining on a given channel. Such an evaluation would,
however, be a good asset for bandwidth-constrained applications. In multihop ad hoc networks, such evaluation
becomes even more difficult. Consequently, despite the various contributions around this research topic, the
estimation of the available bandwidth still represents one of the main issues in this field. In this paper, we propose an
improved mechanism to estimate the available bandwidth in IEEE 802.11-based ad hoc networks. Through simulations,
we compare the accuracy of the estimation we propose to the estimation performed by other state-of-the-art QoS
protocols, BRuIT, AAC, and QoS-AODV.

Self-propagating codes, called worms, such as Code Red, Nimda, and Slammer, have drawn significant attention due to
their enormously adverse impact on the Internet. Thus, there is great interest in the research community in modeling
the spread of worms and in providing adequate defense mechanisms against them. In this paper, we present a
(stochastic) branching process model for characterizing the propagation of Internet worms. The model is developed for
uniform scanning worms and then extended to preference scanning worms. This model leads to the development of an
automatic worm containment strategy that prevents the spread of a worm beyond its early stage. Specifically, for
uniform scanning worms, we are able to determine whether the worm spread will eventually stop. We then extend our
results to contain uniform scanning worms. Our automatic worm containment schemes effectively contain both
uniform scanning worms and local preference scanning worms, and it is validated through simulations and real trace
data to be non intrusive.

In this project we present a simple way to resolve a complicated network security. This is done by the following two
ways. They are as follows, first is the decrypt only when necessary (DOWN) policy, which can substantially improve the
ability of low-cost to protect the secrets. The DOWN policy relies on the ability to operate with fractional parts of
secrets. We discuss the feasibility of extending the DOWN policy to various asymmetric and symmetric cryptographic
primitives. The second is cryptographic authentication strategies which employ only symmetric cryptographic
primitives, based on novel ID-based key pre-distribution schemes that demand very low complexity of operations to be
performed by the secure coprocessors (ScP) and can take good advantage of the DOWN policy.

Data caching can significantly improve the efficiency of information access in a wireless ad hoc network by reducing
the access latency and bandwidth usage. However, designing efficient distributed caching algorithms is non-trivial
when network nodes have limited memory. In this article, we consider the cache placement problem of minimizing
total data access cost in ad hoc networks with multiple data items and nodes with limited memory capacity. The above
optimization problem is known to be NP-hard. Defining benefit as the reduction in total access cost, we present a
polynomial-time centralized approximation algorithm that provably delivers a solution whose benefit is at least one-
fourth (one-half for uniform-size data items) of the optimal benefit. The approximation algorithm is amenable to
localized distributed implementation, which is shown via simulations to perform close to the approximation algorithm.
Our distributed algorithm naturally extends to networks with mobile nodes. We simulate our distributed algorithm
using a network simulator (ns2), and demonstrate that it significantly outperforms another existing caching technique
(by Yin and Cao [30]) in all important performance metrics. The performance differential is particularly large in more
challenging scenarios, such as higher access frequency and smaller memory.

before they have had much time to propagate across the network. In this paper, we study the possibilities of traffic-
analysis based mechanisms for attack and anomaly detection. The motivation for this work came from a need to
reduce the likelihood that an attacker may hijack the campus machines to stage an attack on a third party. A campus
may want to prevent or limit misuse of its machines in staging attacks, and possibly limit the liability from such
attacks. In particular, we study the utility of observing packet header data of outgoing traffic, such as destination
addresses, port numbers and the number of flows, in order to detect attacks/anomalies originating from the campus at
the edge of a campus. Detecting anomalies/attacks close to the source allows us to limit the potential damage close to
the attacking machines. Traffic monitoring close to the source may enable the network operator quicker identification
of potential anomalies and allow better control of administrative domain’s resources. Attack propagation could be
slowed through early detection. Our approach passively monitors network traffic at regular intervals and analyzes it to
find any abnormalities in the aggregated traffic. By observing the traffic and correlating it to previous states of traffic,
it may be possible to see whether the current traffic is behaving in a similar (i.e., correlated) manner. The network
traffic could look different because of flash crowds, changing access patterns, infrastructure problems such as router
failures, and DoS attacks. In the case of bandwidth attacks, the usage of network may be increased and abnormalities
may show up in traffic volume. Flash crowds could be observed through sudden increase in traffic volume to a single
destination. Sudden increase of traffic on a certain port could signify the onset of an anomaly such as worm
An efficient and distributed scheme for file mapping or file lookup is critical in decentralizing metadata management
within a group of metadata servers, here the technique used called HIERARCHICAL BLOOM FILTER ARRAYS (HBA) to
map filenames to the metadata servers holding their metadata. The Bloom filter arrays with different levels of
accuracies are used on each metadata server. The first one with low accuracy and used to capture the destination
metadata server information of frequently accessed files. The other array is used to maintain the destination metadata
information of all files. Simulation results show our HBA design to be highly effective and efficient in improving the
performance and scalability of file systems in clusters with 1,000 to 10,000 nodes (or super clusters) and with the
amount of data in the petabyte scale or higher. HBA is reducing metadata operation by using the single metadata
architecture instead of 16 metadata server.

Integrated architectures in the automotive and avionic domain promise improved resource utilization and enable a
better coordination of application subsystems compared to federated systems. An integrated architecture shares the
system’s communication resources by using a single physical network for exchanging messages of multiple application
subsystems. Similarly, the computational resources (for example, memory and CPU time) of each node computer are
available to multiple software components. In order to support a seamless system integration without unintended side
effects in such an integrated architecture, it is important to ensure that the software components do not interfere
through the use of these shared resources. For this reason, the DECOS integrated architecture encapsulates
application subsystems and their constituting software components. At the level of the communication system, virtual
networks on top of an underlying time-triggered physical network exhibit predefined temporal properties (that is,
bandwidth, latency, and latency jitter). Due to encapsulation, the temporal properties of messages sent by a software
component are independent from the behavior of other software components, in particular from those within other
application subsystems

In this project efficiency of pairs in program design tasks is identified by using pair programming concept. Pair
programming involves two developers simultaneously collaborating with each other on the same programming task to
design and code a solution. Algorithm design and its implementation are normally merged and it provides feedback to
enhance the design. Previous controlled pair programming experiments did not explore the efficacy of pairs against
individuals in program design-related tasks. Variations in programmer skills in a particular language or an integrated
development environment and the understanding of programming instructions can cover the skill of subjects in
program design-related tasks. Programming aptitude tests (PATs) have been shown to correlate with programming
performance. PATs do not require understanding of programming instructions and do not require a skill in any specific
computer language. By conducting two controlled experiments, with full-time professional programmers being the
subjects who worked on increasingly complex programming aptitude tasks related to problem solving and algorithmic
design. In both experiments, pairs significantly outperformed individuals, providing evidence of the value of pairs in
program design-related tasks.

The Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a serious threat to the legitimate use of the Internet. Prevention
mechanisms are thwarted by the ability of attackers to forge or spoof the source addresses in IP packets. By employing
IP spoofing, attackers can evade detection and put a substantial burden on the destination network for policing attack
packets. In this paper, we propose an inter-domain packet filter (IDPF) architecture that can mitigate the level of IP
spoofing on the Internet. A key feature of our scheme is that it does not require global routing information. IDPFs are
constructed from the information implicit in Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) route updates and are deployed in network
border routers. We establish the conditions under which the IDPF framework correctly works in that it does not discard
packets with valid source addresses. Based on extensive simulation studies, we show that, even with partial
deployment on the Internet, IDPFs can proactively limit the spoofing capability of attackers. In addition, they can help
localize the origin of an attack packet to a small number of candidate networks.
This paper proposes a data-hiding technique for binary images in morphological transform domain for authentication
purpose. To achieve blind watermark extraction, it is difficult to use the detail coefficients directly as a location map to
determine the data-hiding locations. Hence, we view flipping an edge pixel in binary images as shifting the edge
location one pixel horizontally and vertically. Based on this observation, we propose an interlaced morphological binary
wavelet transform to track the shifted edges, which thus facilitates blind watermark extraction and incorporation of
cryptographic signature. Unlike existing block-based approach, in which the block size is constrained by 3times3 pixels
or larger, we process an image in 2times2 pixel blocks. This allows flexibility in tracking the edges and also achieves
low computational complexity. The two processing cases that flipping the candidates of one does not affect the
flippability conditions of another are employed for orthogonal embedding, which renders more suitable candidates can
be identified such that a larger capacity can be achieved. A novel effective Backward-Forward Minimization method is
proposed, which considers both backwardly those neighboring processed embeddable candidates and forwardly those
unprocessed flippable candidates that may be affected by flipping the current pixel. In this way, the total visual
distortion can be minimized. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of our arguments.

Malicious users can exploit the correlation among data to infer sensitive information from a series of seemingly
innocuous data accesses. Thus, we develop an inference violation detection system to protect sensitive data content.
Based on data dependency, database schema and semantic knowledge. we constructed a semantic inference model
(SIM) that represents the possible inference channels from any attribute to the pre-assigned sensitive attributes. The
SIM is then instantiated to a semantic inference graph (SIG) for query-time inference violation detection. For a single
user case, when a user poses a query, the detection system will examine his/her past query log and calculate the
probability of inferring sensitive information. The query request will be denied if the inference probability exceeds the
pre specified threshold. For multi-user cases, the users may share their query answers to increase the inference
probability. Therefore, we develop a model to evaluate collaborative inference based on the query sequences of
collaborators and their task-sensitive collaboration levels. Experimental studies reveal that information
authoritativeness, communication fidelity and honesty in collaboration are three key factors that affect the level of
achievable collaboration. An example is given to illustrate the use of the proposed technique to prevent multiple
collaborative users from deriving sensitive information via inference.

An accurate prediction of the number of defects in a software product during system testing contributes not only to the
management of the system testing process but also to the estimation of the product’s required maintenance. Here, a
new approach, called Estimation of Defects based on Defect Decay Model (ED3M) is presented that computes an
estimate the defects in an ongoing testing process. ED3M is based on estimation theory. Unlike many existing
approaches, the technique presented here does not depend on historical data from previous projects or any
assumptions about the requirements and/or testers’ productivity. It is a completely automated approach that relies
only on the data collected during an ongoing testing process. This is a key advantage of the ED3M approach as it
makes it widely applicable in different testing environments. Here, the ED3M approach has been evaluated using five
data sets from large industrial projects and two data sets from the literature. In addition, a performance analysis has
been conducted using simulated data sets to explore its behavior using different models for the input data. The results
are very promising; they indicate the ED3M approach provides accurate estimates with as fast or better convergence
time in comparison to well-known alternative techniques, while only using defect data as the input.

Active learning methods have been considered with increased interest in the statistical learning community. Initially
developed within a classification framework, a lot of extensions are now being proposed to handle multimedia
applications. This paper provides algorithms within a statistical framework to extend active learning for online content-
based image retrieval (CBIR). The classification framework is presented with experiments to compare several powerful
classification techniques in this information retrieval context. Focusing on interactive methods, active learning strategy
is then described. The limitations of this approach for CBIR are emphasized before presenting our new active selection
process RETIN. First, as any active method is sensitive to the boundary estimation between classes, the RETIN strategy
carries out a boundary correction to make the retrieval process more robust. Second, the criterion of generalization
error to optimize the active learning selection is modified to better represent the CBIR objective of database ranking.
Third, a batch processing of images is proposed. Our strategy leads to a fast and efficient active learning scheme to
retrieve sets of online images (query concept). Experiments on large databases show that the RETIN method performs
well in comparison to several other active strategies.
We propose several localized sensor area coverage protocols for heterogeneous sensors, each with arbitrary sensing
and transmission radii. Each sensor has a time out period and listens to messages sent by respective nodes before the
time out expires. Sensor nodes whose sensing area is not fully covered (or fully covered but with a disconnected set of
active sensors) when the deadline expires decide to remain active for the considered round and transmit an activity
message announcing it. In our approach, sensor decides to sleep only if neighbor sensor is active or not covered.
Covered nodes decide to sleep, with or without transmitting a withdrawal message to inform neighbors about the
status. After hearing from more neighbors, inactive sensors may observe that they became covered and may decide to
alter their original decision and transmit a retreat message.

Data mining techniques have been widely used in various applications. One of the most important data mining
applications is association rule mining. Apriori-based association rule mining in hardware, one has to load candidate
item sets and a database into the hardware. Since the capacity of the hardware architecture is fixed, if the number of
candidate item sets or the number of items in the database is larger than the hardware capacity, the items are loaded
into the hardware separately. The time complexity of those steps that need to load candidate item sets or database
items into the hardware is in proportion to the number of candidate item sets multiplied by the number of items in the
database. Too many candidate item sets and a large database would create a performance bottleneck. In this paper,
we propose a HAsh-based and PiPelIned (abbreviated as HAPPI) architecture for hardware enhanced association rule
mining. Therefore, we can effectively reduce the frequency of loading the database into the hardware. HAPPI solves
the bottleneck problem in a priori-based hardware schemes.

In this paper, we propose a bandwidth-efficient multicast mechanism for heterogeneous wireless networks. We reduce
the bandwidth cost of a IP multicast tree by adaptively selecting the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile
host to join the multicast group. Our mechanism enables more mobile hosts to cluster together and lead to the use of
fewer cells to save the scarce wireless bandwidth. Besides, the paths in the multicast tree connecting to the selected
cells share more common links to save the wireline bandwidth. Our mechanism supports the dynamic group
membership and offers mobility of group members. Moreover, our mechanism requires no modification on the current
IP multicast routing protocols. We formulate the selection of the cell and the wireless technology for each mobile host
in the heterogeneous wireless networks as an optimization problem. We use Integer Linear Programming to model the
problem and show that the problem is NP-hard. To solve the problem, we propose an distributed algorithm based on
Lagrangean relaxation and a network protocol based on the algorithm. The simulation results show that our
mechanism can effectively save the wireless and wireline bandwidth as compared to the traditional IP multicast.

Intermittently connected mobile networks are wireless networks where most of the time there does not exist a
complete path from the source to the destination. There are many real networks that follow this model, for example,
wildlife tracking sensor networks, military networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, etc. In this context, conventional
routing schemes fail, because they try to establish complete end-to-end paths, before any data is sent. To deal with
such networks researchers have suggested to use flooding-based routing schemes. While flooding-based schemes
have a high probability of delivery, they waste a lot of energy and suffer from severe contention which can significantly
degrade their performance. Furthermore, proposed efforts to reduce the overhead of flooding-based schemes have
often been plagued by large delays. With this in mind, we introduce a new family of routing schemes that “spray” a
few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination. We show that,
if carefully designed, spray routing
Sports video annotation is important for sports video semantic analysis such as event detection and personalization.
We propose a novel approach for sports video semantic annotation and personalized retrieval. Different from the state
of the art sports video analysis methods which heavily rely on audio/visual features, the proposed approach
incorporates web-casting text into sports video analysis. Compared with previous approaches, the contributions of our
approach include the following. 1) The event detection accuracy is significantly improved due to the incorporation of
web-casting text analysis. 2) The proposed approach is able to detect exact event boundary and extract event
semantics that are very difficult or impossible to be handled by previous approaches. 3) The proposed method is able
to create personalized summary from both general and specific point of view related to particular game, event, player
or team according to user’s preference. We present the framework of our approach and details of text analysis, video
analysis, text/video alignment, and personalized retrieval. The experimental results on event boundary detection in
sports video are encouraging and comparable to the manually selected events. The evaluation on personalized
retrieval is effective in helping meet users’ expectations.

Computing constrained shortest paths is fundamental to some important network functions such as QoS routing, MPLS
path selection, ATM circuit routing, and traffic engineering. The problem is to find the cheapest path that satisfies
certain constraints. In particular, finding the cheapest delay-constrained path is critical for real-time data flows such as
voice/video calls. Because it is NP-complete, much research has been designing heuristic algorithms that solve the
-approximation of the problem with an adjustable accuracy. A common approach is to discretize (i.e., scale and round)
the link delay or link cost, which transforms the original problem to a simpler one solvable in polynomial time. The
efficiency of the algorithms directly relates to the magnitude of the errors introduced during discretization. In this
paper, we propose two techniques that reduce the discretization errors, which allow faster algorithms to be designed.
Reducing the overhead of computing constrained shortest paths is practically important for the successful design of a
high-throughput QoS router, which is limited at both processing power and memory space. Our simulations show that
the new algorithms reduce the execution time by an order of magnitude on power-law topologies with 1000 nodes.

Proving ownerships rights on outsourced relational database is a crucial issue in today's internet based application
environments and in many content distribution applications. In this paper, we present a mechanism for proof of
ownership based on the secure embedding of a robust imperceptible watermark in relational data. We formulate the
watermarking of relational databases as a constrained optimization problem and discus efficient techniques to solve
the optimization problem and to handle the onstraints. Our watermarking technique is resilient to watermark
synchronization errors because it uses a partioning approach that does not require marker tuple. Our approach
overcomes a major weakness in previously proposed watermarking techniques. Watermark decoding is based on a
threshold-based technique characterized by an optimal threshold that minimizes the probability of decoding errors. We
implemented a proof of concept implementation of our watermarking technique and showed by experimental results
that our technique is resilient to tuple deletion, alteration and insertion attacks

An approach to IP traces back based on the probabilistic packet marking paradigm. Our approach, which we call
randomize-and-link, uses large checksum cords to “link” message fragments in a way that is highly scalable, for the
checksums serve both as associative addresses and data integrity verifiers. The main advantage of these checksum
cords is that they spread the addresses of possible router messages across a spectrum that is too large for the
attacker to easily create messages that collide with legitimate messages.

Networks employ link protection to achieve fast recovery from link failures. While the first link failure can be protected
using link protection, there are several alternatives for protecting against the second failure. This paper formally
classifies the approaches to dual-link failure resiliency. One of the strategies to recover from dual-link failures is to
employ link protection for the two failed links independently, which requires that two links may not use each other in
their backup paths if they may fail simultaneously. Such a requirement is referred to as backup link mutual exclusion
(BLME) constraint and the problem of identifying a backup path for every link that satisfies the above requirement is
referred to as the BLME problem. This paper develops the necessary theory to establish the sufficient conditions for
existence of a solution to the BLME problem. Solution methodologies for the BLME problem is developed using two
approaches by: 1) formulating the backup path selection as an integer linear program; 2) developing a polynomial time
heuristic based on minimum cost path routing. The ILP formulation and heuristic are applied to six networks and their
performance is compared with approaches that assume precise knowledge of dual-link failure. It is observed that a
solution exists for all of the six networks considered. The heuristic approach is shown to obtain feasible solutions that
are resilient to most dual-link failures, although the backup path lengths may be significantly higher than optimal. In
addition, the paper illustrates the significance of the knowledge of failure location by illustrating that network with
higher connectivity may require lesser capacity than one with a lower connectivity to recover from dual-link failures.
The World Wide Web has become the most important information source for most of us. Unfortunately, there is no
guarantee for the correctness of information on the Web. Moreover, different websites often provide conflicting
information on a subject, such as different specifications for the same product. In this paper, we propose a new
problem, called Veracity, i.e., conformity to truth, which studies how to find true facts from a large amount of
conflicting information on many subjects that is provided by various websites. We design a general framework for the
Veracity problem and invent an algorithm, called TRUTHFINDER, which utilizes the relationships between websites and
their information, i.e., a website is trustworthy if it provides many pieces of true information, and a piece of information
is likely to be true if it is provided by many trustworthy websites. An iterative method is used to infer the
trustworthiness of websites and the correctness of information from each other. Our experiments show that
TRUTHFINDER successfully finds true facts among conflicting information and identifies trustworthy websites better
than the popular search engines.

A regeneration-theory approach is undertaken to analytically characterize the average overall completion time in a
distributed system. The approach considers the heterogeneity in the processing rates of the nodes as well as the
randomness in the delays imposed by the communication medium. The optimal one-shot load balancing policy is
developed and subsequently extended to develop an autonomous and distributed load-balancing policy that can
dynamically reallocate incoming external loads at each node. This adaptive and dynamic load balancing policy is
implemented and evaluated in a two-node distributed system. The performance of the proposed dynamic load-
balancing policy is compared to that of static policies as well as existing dynamic load-balancing policies by
considering the average completion time per task and the system processing rate in the presence of random arrivals
of the external loads

A new semi fragile method for embedding watermark data into gray scale images has been proposed. In the proposed
scheme, the cover image is partitioned into non-overlapping blocks of size 8 x 8 pixels. The discrete cosine transform
of each block is computed. Each block is scaled and a quantization function is used to construct the watermark bit from
each block. The image is reconstructed by computing the inverse cosine transform. The gray threshold value of the
image in spatial domain is computed. The watermark is embedded to all pixels whose pixel intensity is less than the
gray threshold. The proposed scheme has been designed as public watermarking; it does not require the original
image to verify its integrity. Experimental results prove the efficiency of the scheme. The proposed scheme can be
used to authenticate digital documents of high significance.

Abstract—We propose a new fair scheduling technique, called OCGRR (Output Controlled Grant-based Round Robin),
for the support of DiffServ traffic in a core router. We define a stream to be the same-class packets from a given
immediate upstream router destined to an output port of the core router. At each output port, streams may be isolated
in separate buffers before being scheduled in a frame. The sequence of traffic transmission in a frame starts from
higher-priority traffic and goes down to lower-priority traffic. A frame may have a number of small rounds for each
class. Each stream within a class can transmit a number of packets in the frame based on its available grant, but only
one packet per small round, thus reducing the intertransmission time from the same stream and achieving a smaller
jitter and startup latency. The grant can be adjusted in a way to prevent the starvation of lower priority classes. We
also verify and demonstrate the good performance of our scheduler by simulation and comparison with other
algorithms in terms of queuing delay, jitter, and start-up latency.
The capability of dynamically adapting to distinct runtime conditions is an important issue when designing distributed
systems where negotiated quality of service (QOS) cannot always be delivered between processes. Providing fault
tolerance for such dynamic environments is a challenging task. Considering such a context, this paper proposes an
adaptive programming model for fault-tolerant distributed computing, which provides upper-layer applications with
process state information according to the current system synchrony (or QOS). The underlying system model is hybrid,
composed by a synchronous part (where there are time bounds on processing speed and message delay) and an
asynchronous part (where there is no time bound). However, such a composition can vary over time, and, in particular,
the system may become totally asynchronous (e.g., when the underlying system QOS degrade) or totally synchronous.
Moreover, processes are not required to share the same view of the system synchrony at a given time. To illustrate
what can be done in this programming model and how to use it, the consensus problem is taken as a benchmark
problem. This paper also presents an implementation of the model that relies on a negotiated quality of service (QOS)
for communication channels.
We study routing misbehavior in MANETs (Mobile Ad Hoc Networks) in this paper. In general, routing protocols for
MANETs are designed based on the assumption that all participating nodes are fully cooperative. However, due to the
open structure and scarcely available battery-based energy, node misbehaviors may exist. One such routing
misbehavior is that some selsh nodes will participate in the route discovery and maintenance processes but refuse to
forward data packets. In this paper, we propose the 2ACK scheme that serves as an add-on technique for routing
schemes to detect routing misbehavior and to mitigate their adverse effect. The main idea of the 2ACK scheme is to
send two-hop acknowledgment packets in the opposite direction of the routing path. In order to reduce additional
routing overhead, only a fraction of the received data packets are acknowledged in the 2ACK scheme. Analytical and
simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.

This paper reports the design principles and evaluation results of a new experimental hybrid intrusion detection
system (HIDS). This hybrid system combines the advantages of low false-positive rate of signature-based intrusion
detection system (IDS) and the ability of anomaly detection system (ADS) to detect novel unknown attacks. By mining
anomalous traffic episodes from Internet connections, we build an ADS that detects anomalies beyond the capabilities
of signature-based SNORT or Bro systems. A weighted signature generation scheme is developed to integrate ADS with
SNORT by extracting signatures from anomalies detected. HIDS extracts signatures from the output of ADS and adds
them into the SNORT signature database for fast and accurate intrusion detection. By testing our HIDS scheme over
real-life Internet trace data mixed with 10 days of Massachusetts Institute of Technology/ Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL)
attack data set, our experimental results show a 60 percent detection rate of the HIDS, compared with 30 percent and
22 percent in using the SNORT and Bro systems, respectively. This sharp increase in detection rate is obtained with
less than 3 percent false alarms. The signatures generated by ADS upgrade the SNORT performance by 33 percent.
The HIDS approach proves the vitality of detecting intrusions and anomalies, simultaneously, by automated data
mining and signature generation over Internet connection episodes.

The emerging Peer-to-Peer (P2P) model has become a very powerful and attractive paradigm for developing Internet-
scale systems for sharing resources, including files and documents. The distributed nature of these systems, where
nodes are typically located across different networks and domains, inherently hinders the efficient retrieval of
information. In this paper, we consider the effects of topologically aware overlay construction techniques on efficient
P2P keyword search algorithms. We present the Peer Fusion (pFusion) architecture that aims to efficiently integrate
heterogeneous information that is geographically scattered on peers of different networks. Our approach builds on
work in unstructured P2P systems and uses only local knowledge. Our empirical results, using the pFusion middleware
architecture and data sets from Akamai’s Internet mapping infrastructure (AKAMAI), the Active Measurement Project
(NLANR), and the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) show that the architecture we propose is both efficient and
practical

This paper investigates whether and when route reservation-based (RB) communication can yield better delay
performance than non-reservation-based (NRB) communication in ad hoc wireless networks. In addition to posing this
fundamental question, the requirements (in terms of route discovery, medium access control (MAC) protocol, and
pipelining, etc.) for making RB switching superior to NRB switching are also identified. A novel analytical framework is
developed and the network performance under both RB and NRB schemes is quantified. It is shown that if the
aforementioned requirements are met, then RB schemes can indeed yield better delay performance than NRB
schemes. This advantage, however, comes at the expense of lower throughput and goodput compared to NRB
schemes.

On-demand routing protocols use route caches to make routing decisions. Due to mobility, cached routes easily
become stale. To address the cache staleness issue, prior work in DSR used heuristics with ad hoc parameters to
predict the lifetime of a link or a route. However, heuristics cannot accurately estimate timeouts because topology
changes are unpredictable. In this paper, we propose proactively disseminating the broken link information to the
nodes that have that link in their caches. We define a new cache structure called a cache table and present a
distributed cache update algorithm. Each node maintains in its cache table the information necessary for cache
updates. When a link failure is detected, the algorithm notifies all reachable nodes that have cached the link in a
distributed manner. The algorithm does not use any ad hoc parameters, thus making route caches fully adaptive to
topology changes. We show that the algorithm outperforms DSR with path caches and with Link-Max Life, an adaptive
timeout mechanism for link caches. We conclude that proactive cache updating is key to the adaptation of on-demand
routing protocols to mobility.
An integrated methodology for the detection and removal of cracks on digitized paintings is presented in this project.
The cracks are detected by threshold the output of the morphological top-hat transform. Afterward, the thin dark brush
strokes which have been misidentified as cracks are removed using either a median radial basis function neural
network on hue and saturation data or a semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack filling using
order statistics filters or controlled anisotropic diffusion is performed. The methodology has been shown to perform
very well on digitized paintings suffering from cracks.

A new fuzzy filter is presented for the noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of two
stages. The first stage computes a fuzzy derivative for eight different directions. The second stage uses these fuzzy
derivatives to perform fuzzy smoothing by weighting the contributions of neighboring pixel values. Both stages are
based on fuzzy rules which make use of membership functions. The filter can be applied iteratively to effectively
reduce heavy noise. In particular, the shape of the membership functions is adapted according to the remaining noise
level after each iteration, making use of the distribution of the homogeneity in the image. A statistical model for the
noise distribution can be incorporated to relate the homogeneity to the adaptation scheme of the membership
functions. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed approach. These results are also
compared to other filters by numerical measures and visual inspection.

An ad hoc network is a self organized entity with a number of mobile nodes without any centralized access point and
also there is a topology control problem which leads to high power consumption and no security, while routing the
packets between mobile hosts. Authentication is one of the important security requirements of a communication
network. The common authentication schemes are not applicable in Ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose a
secure communication protocol for communication between two nodes in ad hoc networks. This is achieved by using
clustering techniques. We present a novel secure communication framework for ad hoc networks (SCP); which
describes authentication and confidentiality when packets are distributed between hosts with in the cluster and
between the clusters. These cluster head nodes execute administrative functions and network key used for
certification. The cluster head nodes (CHs) perform the major operations to achieve our SCP framework with help of
Kerberos authentication application and symmetric key cryptography technique which will be secure reliable
transparent and scalable and will have less over head.

recognition. Another possible application would be to integrate this technology into an artificial intelligence system for
more realistic interaction with humans. We propose an appearance-based face recognition method called the
Laplacianface approach. By using Locality Preserving Projections (LPP), the face images are mapped into a face
subspace for analysis. Different from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) which
effectively see only the Euclidean structure of face space, LPP finds an embedding that preserves local information,
and obtains a face subspace that best detects the essential face manifold structure. The Laplacian faces are the
optimal linear approximations to the eigen functions of the Laplace Beltrami operator on the face manifold. In this way,
the unwanted variations resulting from changes in lighting, facial expression, and pose may be eliminated or reduced.
Theoretical analysis shows that PCA, LDA, and LPP can be obtained from different graph models. We compare the
proposed Laplacianface approach with Eigenface and Fisherface methods on three different face data sets.
Experimental results suggest that the proposed Laplacianface approach provides a better representation and achieves
lower error rates in face recognition. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a statistical method under the broad title of
factor analysis. The purpose of PCA is to reduce the large dimensionality of the data space (observed variables) to the
smaller intrinsic dimensionality of feature space (independent variables), which are needed to describe the data
economically. This is the case when there is a strong correlation between observed variables. The jobs which PCA can
do are prediction, redundancy removal, feature extraction, data compression, etc. Because PCA is a known powerful

Job scheduling is the key feature of any computing environment and the efficiency of computing depends largely on
the scheduling technique used. Intelligence is the key factor which is lacking in the job scheduling techniques of today.
Genetic algorithms are powerful search techniques based on the mechanisms of natural selection and natural
genetics. Multiple jobs are handled by the scheduler and the resource the job needs are in remote locations. Here we
assume that the resource a job needs are in a location and not split over nodes and each node that has a resource
runs a fixed number of jobs. The existing algorithms used are non predictive and employs greedy based algorithms or
a variant of it. The efficiency of the job scheduling process would increase if previous experience and the genetic
algorithms are used. In this paper, we propose a model of the scheduling algorithm where the scheduler can learn
from previous experiences and an effective job scheduling is achieved as time progresses.
The widely used web search engines give different users the same answer set, although the users may have different
preferences. Personalized web search carry out the search for each user with his preference. In order to reduce the
wastage of time on browsing unnecessary documents, this paper presents an intelligent Personal Agent forWeb Search
(PAWS). The PAWS intelligently utilizes the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) as the user’s profile and therefore, is capable of
providing high quality answer set to the user.

The next-generation mobile network will support terminal mobility, personal mobility, and service provider portability,
making global roaming seamless. A location-independent personal telecommunication number (PTN) scheme is
conducive to implementing such a global mobile system. However, the non-geographic PTNs coupled with the
anticipated large number of mobile users in future mobile networks may introduce very large centralized databases.
This necessitates research into the design and performance of high-throughput database technologies used in mobile
systems to ensure that future systems will be able to carry efficiently the anticipated loads. This paper proposes a
scalable, robust, efficient location database architecture based on the location-independent PTNs. The proposed multi
tree database architecture consists of a number of database subsystems, each of which is a three-level tree structure
and is connected to the others only through its root. By exploiting the localized nature of calling and mobility patterns,
the proposed architecture effectively reduces the database loads as well as the signaling traffic incurred by the
location registration and call delivery procedures. In addition, two memory-resident database indices, memory-resident
direct file and T-tree, are proposed for the location databases to further improve their throughput. Analysis model and
numerical results are presented to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed database architecture. Results have
revealed that the proposed database architecture for location management can effectively support the anticipated
high user density in the future mobile networks.

An approach for filling-in blocks of missing data in wireless image transmission is presented in this paper. When
compression algorithms such as JPEG are used as part of the wireless transmission process, images are first tiled into
blocks of 8 x 8 pixels. When such images are transmitted over fading channels, the effects of noise can destroy entire
blocks of the image. Instead of using common retransmission query protocols, we aim to reconstruct the lost data
using correlation between the lost block and its neighbors. If the lost block contained structure, it is reconstructed
using an image in painting algorithm, while texture synthesis is used for the textured blocks. The switch between the
two schemes is done in a fully automatic fashion based on the surrounding available blocks. The performance of this
method is tested for various images and combinations of lost blocks. The viability of this method for image
compression, in association with loss JPEG, is also discussed.

The Internet's excellent scalability and robustness result in part from the end-to-end nature of Internet congestion
control. End-to-end congestion control algorithms alone, however, are unable to prevent the congestion collapse and
unfairness created by applications that are unresponsive to network congestion. To address these maladies, we
propose and investigate a novel congestion-avoidance mechanism called network border patrol (NBP). NBP entails the
exchange of feedback between routers at the borders of a network in order to detect and restrict unresponsive traffic
flows before they enter the network, thereby preventing congestion within the network. Moreover, NBP is
complemented with the proposed enhanced core-stateless fair queueing (ECSFQ) mechanism, which provides fair
bandwidth allocations to competing flows. Both NBP and ECSFQ are compliant with the Internet philosophy of pushing
complexity toward the edges of the network whenever possible. Simulation results show that NBP effectively
eliminates congestion collapse and that, when combined with ECSFQ, approximately max-min fair bandwidth
allocations can be achieved for competing flows.

This paper presents a steganography method using lossy compressed video which provides a natural way to send a
large amount of secret data. The proposed method is based on wavelet compression for video data and bit-plane
complexity segmentation (BPCS) steganography. In wavelet-based video compression methods such as 3-D set
partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm and motion-JPEG2000, wavelet coefficients in discrete wavelet
transformed video are quantized into a bit-plane structure and therefore BPCS steganography can be applied in the
wavelet domain. 3-D SPIHT-BPCS steganography and motion-JPEG2000-BPCS steganography are presented and tested,
which are the integration of 3-D SPIHT video coding and BPCS steganography and that of motion-JPEG2000 and BPCS,
respectively. Experimental results show that 3-D SPIHT-BPCS is superior to motion-JPEG2000-BPCS with regard to
embedding performance.
Edge detection is a fundamental tool used in most image processing applications to obtain information from the
frames as a precursor step to feature extraction and object segmentation. This process detects outlines of an object
and boundaries between objects and the background in the image. An edge-detection filter can also be used to
improve the appearance of blurred or anti-aliased image streams. The basic edge-detection operator is a matrix area
gradient operation that determines the level of variance between different pixels. The edge-detection operator is
calculated by forming a matrix centered on a pixel chosen as the center of the matrix area. If the value of this matrix
area is above a given threshold, then the middle pixel is classified as an edge. Examples of gradient-based edge
detectors are Roberts, Prewitt, and Sobel operators. All the gradient-based algorithms have kernel operators that
calculate the strength of the slope in directions, which are orthogonal to each other, commonly vertical and horizontal.
Later, the contributions of the different components of the slopes are combined to give the total value of the edge
strength. The Prewitt operator measures two components.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) suffer from high transmission error rate because of the nature of radio
communications. The broadcast operation, as a fundamental service in MANETs, is prone to the broadcast storm
problem if forward nodes are not carefully designated. The objective of reducing the broadcast redundancy while still
providing high delivery ratio for each broadcast packet is a major challenge in a dynamic environment. In this paper,
we propose a simple, reliable broadcast algorithm, called double-covered broadcast (DCB), that takes advantage of
broadcast redundancy to improve the delivery ratio in the environment that has rather high transmission error rate.
Among 1-hop neighbors of the sender, only selected forward nodes retransmit the broadcast message. Forward nodes
are selected in such a way that (1) the sender’s 2-hop neighbors are covered and (2) the sender’s 1-hop neighbors are
either a forward node, or a non-forward node but covered by at least two forwarding neighbors. The retransmissions of
the forward nodes are received by the sender as confirmation of their receiving the packet. The non-forward 1-hop
neighbors of the sender do not acknowledge the reception of the broadcast. If the sender does not detect all its
forward nodes’ retransmissions, it will resend the packet until the maximum times of retry is reached. Simulation
results show that the algorithm provides good performance for a broadcast operation under high transmission error
rate environment