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MINARA Community (Model)

Watershed Plan

Prepared by

Chalachew Bale Agronomist

Kinfe Kassahun Soil conservation


Expert

Letebirhan Woldu Livestock Expert

Moges Wubetu Socio economist

(East Belesa Woreda Office of Agriculture and


Rural Development)

Edited by

Tantigegn Kebede
Watershed management expert (SWHISA)

August 2009 Guhala


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i. Acknowledgment
We would like to deeply thank our colleagues and friends in Goncha Siso
Enesie woreda office of Agriculture and Rural Development, for their
continuous support. Special thanks are due to our advisors from SWHISA,
for their advice and support during field assessment and plan preparation.
We would also like to sincerely thank the DAs and Minara watershed
committee for their kind support, interest and patience in giving different
data and exhaustive information about the watershed.

Table of contents Pages


3

i. Acknowledgment -2-
ii.Table of contents ................................................- 3 -
iii.Abbreviation Acronyms.........................................................................- 6 -
iv. Executive summary.............................................................................- 7 -
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................- 9 -
1.1 BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICTION......................................- 10 -
2. Objectives............................................................................................- 11 -
2.1 General objectives of the plan.......................................................- 11 -
2.2 specific objectives..........................................................................- 11 -
3.0 Significance of the planning............................................................- 11 -
4. Methodologies of the watershed study.............................................- 11 -
4.1. Material used................................................................................- 11 -
4.2 Approach........................................................................................- 12 -
5. The watershed area............................................................................- 12 -
5.1 Location and Extent......................................................................- 12 -
5.2. Economic activity.........................................................................- 13 -
5.3. Culture and religion.....................................................................- 14 -
5.4 Wealth status..................................................................................- 14 -
6. Physical environments......................................................................- 14 -
6.1 Land Forms...................................................................................- 14 -
6.2 Soil.................................................................................................- 15 -
6.3 Hydrology......................................................................................- 16 -
6.4 Climate...........................................................................................- 16 -
6.4.1 Rainfall....................................................................................- 16 -
6.4.2 Temperature.............................................................................- 17 -
6.4.3 Agro- climatic zone.................................................................- 17 -
7.0 Land use and land cover..................................................................- 17 -
7.1. Past land use history....................................................................- 17 -
7.2 Present land use and Land cover condition.................................- 17 -
8.0 Erosion condition.............................................................................- 19 -
8.1 Erosion status and extent..............................................................- 19 -
9.0 Socio economic condition.................................................................- 19 -
9.1. Population and administration....................................................- 19 -
9.2 Farm holding and production......................................................- 20 -
9.3 Marketing and prices....................................................................- 20 -
9.4 Institutions and social services.....................................................- 21 -
9.5 Problems and root causes.............................................................- 21 -
10.0 Agricultural production.................................................................- 23 -
10.1. Crop production.........................................................................- 23 -
10.2 Livestock production...................................................................- 23 -
10.3 Forest Production and wild life..................................................- 24 -
11.0 Land Evaluation.............................................................................- 25 -
11.1. Land capability classification....................................................- 26 -
11.2. Evaluation result........................................................................- 27 -
12. Proposed Development Plan............................................................- 28 -
12.1. Present situation and future trend.............................................- 28 -
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12.2 Scope of the plan.........................................................................- 30 -


12.3 Plan implementation...................................................................- 31 -
12.4 Development Options..................................................................- 31 -
12.5 Development Plan map...............................................................- 32 -
12.6 Management Recommendations................................................- 33 -
12.7 General recommendation............................................................- 49 -
13.0 Work Volume and Implementation plan......................................- 52 -
14.0 Monitoring and evaluation............................................................- 56 -
14.1 Objectives.....................................................................................- 56 -
14.2 Parameter to be monitored..........................................................- 56 -
14.3 Responsibility for M&E..............................................................- 56 -
14.4 Methodologies.............................................................................- 57 -
15.0 Benefit and Cost Analysis..............................................................- 57 -
16.0 Responsibilities of plan implementation......................................- 59 -
17.0 Issues...............................................................................................- 61 -
18.0 References.......................................................................................- 62 -

Annexes

Annex 1 Soil and conservation measures


Annex 2 Guideline for compost preparation
Annex 3 Step by step guide for the establishment of a new community
Nursery
Annex 4 Work norm and unit cost/prices
Annex 5 Quantity of work, required person days and schedule of
Implementation
Annex 6 Cost and benefit, schedule and disbursement
Annex 7 Cost and Benefit/Economic analysis
Annex 8 Association Statute, Byelaw and Natural Resource Use
Agreement (Model)
Annex 9 Project Implementation Quarterly Reporting Format

Annex 10 Yearly Quantity of Work, Required Person days and


Implementation Schedule
Annex 11 Drawings of some of the recommended forage species

Figures
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Figure 1 Soils on the rolling side slopes (Minara community


watershed)
Figure 2 Partial view of Minara watershed and the present
land use
Figure 5 A typical SS dam storing water for small scale irrigation
(Woybla watershed, Goncha)
Figure 6 Typical design of a semi-modern chicken house
Figure 7 Group of farmers and woreda experts from Belessas
Goncha on an experience sharing visit to E/Gojjam.

Maps

Map 1 Location map of Minara community watershed


(MWCWS)
Map 2 Base/present land use/ map of MWCWS
Map 3 Land capability map of MWCWS
Map 4 Proposed land use /development/plan map of MWCWS

Abbreviation and Acronyms


6

BOARD Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development


BOWRD Bureau of Water Resource Development
Br. Birr (Ethiopian Currency presently equivalent to USD 0.08)
C - Degree Celsius, a unit of temperature
CFSCDD Community Forestry and Soil Conservation Development
Department
(MoA)
Cm - Centimeter, 1/100th of a metre
CoSAERAR Commission for Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental
Rehabilitation in Amhara
CWPT - Community Watershed Planning Team
DA - Development Agent
DF - Discount Factor
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
FTC - Farmers Training Centre
GPS - Geographic Positioning System
GTZ-SUN- German Technical Cooperation-
Ha - hectare (10,000m2 area)
HDW - Hand-Dug Well
HH - Household
IRR - Internal Rate of Return
Km - Kilo metre ( 1000 metres)
M3 - Cubic metre
Masl - Metres above sea level
mm - millimmetre (1/1000 of a metre)
MoA - Ministry of Agriculture
MoARD - Ministry of agriculture and Rural Development
NGO - Non-Governmental Organiza
N/K - Net benefit-Investment ratio
NPV - Net Present Value
PD - Person days
PSNP - Productive Safety Net Program
Q - Quintal
r. Discount rate (%)
RELMA - Regional Land Management Unit
SCRP - Soil Conservation Research Project (Ethiopia)
SHDI - Self Help Development InternationalSWHISA - Sustainable
Water harvesting and Institutional Strengthening
in Amhara
TDM - Total Dry Matter
USBR - United States Bureau of Reclamation
USDA - United States Department of Agriculture
UNESCO - United Nations Education Science and Culture Organization
USLE - Universal Soil Loss Equation
WFP - World Food Program
WoARD - Woreda office of Agriculture
WoAWRD Woreda office of Water resources Development

iv. Executive summary


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1. Soil erosion in Ethiopia in general and in East Belesa woreda in


particular is a major problem responsible for the rapid degradation of
the highlands
2. It is now found important to reverse the situation through integrated
watershed management based on a carefully prepared plan with the
participation of the community. The purpose of this plan is therefore
to fulfill this objective.
3. The watershed area is located in East Belesa woreda of North
Gondar in Amhara region at about 180km north east of Bahr Dar
town. The extent is estimated at 540ha. The livelihood of the
community in Minara watershed is predominantly based on
agriculture.
4. The land in the watershed can be classified as almost flat to
undulating valley bottom, gently to rolling slope, steep hillsides, and
mountains
5. Soils may be described as alluvium deposits in the valley bottom
reaching to >150cm, and deep to very shallow at the rolling slopes
and steep hillsides
6. Rain fall is low with average annual rainfall between 700 to 900mm.
Temperature is high as it is in the lower mid altitude region (1700-
1900masl) ranging between 20 and 30C.
7. The present land use is mainly cultivated 245ha (%) followed by
shrub and bush land 185ha (%) and settlement 110 ha (%). The farm
holding by an average household is about 1.5-2 ha, ranging between
0.25ha to 2 ha. Major crops grown are wheat, teff, sorghum, faba
bean, field pea, chick pea, and maize.
8. Major problems identified by the community in Minara watershed
are erosion and low fertility of the soil, low crop yield, shortage of
rainfall, health problem, high price and unavailability of chemical
fertilizers, shortage of feed, water shortage for domestic use,
shortage of agricultural land, and crop pest and diseases etc.
9. Land evaluation was made using land capability classification (LCC)
methods. Other methods require very detail data which is difficult to
obtain here. According to the LCC methods, 14% is in class III, 34%
in IV, 24% in class VII, and 27% in class VIII. As a result, class III
and IV are capable for agricultural production, and class VII are
capable for grass and/or forest production, and class VIII for area
closure or nature reserve.
10. The present situation in the area is that crop production is not
sufficient enough to feed the population. It is estimated that the
present production would cover food requirement only for six and a
half months indicating that there is a food gap of about five and a
half months. Major development options therefore focus on
reversing this situation i.e. crop productivity through small irrigation,
soil conservation, natural fertilizers; forage improvement through
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area closure and under-sowing improved varieties; wood lot


production, homestead development etc.
11. Major development options focus on grassland improvement; crop
productivity through soil conservation, natural fertilizers; wood lot
production, homestead development etc.
12. Major recommendations on the development options are:

Introducing high value forage species with urea top dressing


on grasslands
Water for livestock
Irrigation development
Soil conservation on farm lands and forest production areas
Introduction of high yielding crop varieties on cultivated
lands
Introduction of natural fertilizers on cultivated lands
Water development spring development, hand dug wells,
earth dam construction
Wood lot production on homestead boundaries and on the
hillsides
Back yard development forage, fruit trees, vegetables,
compost, poultry and honey production etc., toilet and
shower construction
Area closure
Family planning and more others.

13. The total cost of the project is estimated at about Br. 7,374,690
which is distributed over 5 years. The major costs include the
purchased of materials, labour cost, and other running cost. The
benefit, on the other hand, is about Br. 15,193,500 over 5 years
(forest production in year 10). Expected sources of income are
forage yield, irrigated agriculture, compost utilization, backyard
development, wood lot production, poultry and honey production.

14. Benefit and cost analysis was made over 10 years period at 5, 10, 15,
and 20% discount rates. The result was that NPV is Br. 5.2, 3.5,
2, 54, and Br.1.9 million respectively at the different discount rates.
IRR was not possible to calculate due to the nature that IRR can not
be calculated if there are no negative figures in the cash flow.

On the other hand, Net benefit-investment ratio (N/K), which is


similar to Benefit/ Cost ratio, is calculated and the result is 1.9, 1.8,
1.7, and 1.64 respective to the above discount rates.
Generally the project is robust and feasible to undertake.

15. Responsibilities of plan implementation is proposed as follows:


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Any labour required for the development work (except skilled


labour) comes from the community
Coordination of plan implementation would rest on the
community watershed committee, DAs, and WoARD.
Supply of any material, that is not available locally, should be
through WoARD.
Potential donors would take responsibility in:

- Supplying crop seeds, and fruit seedlings at


demonstration scale
- Supplying forage, tree and vegetable seeds
- Cost of construction materials for backyard HDW,
nursery tools etc.
- Training and experience sharing tour, and technical
support

Labour cost would be covered by PSNP and other potential


donor agencies
Other major costs would also be covered by PSNP and/or other
donors
Monitoring and evaluation would be the responsibility of the
community, the WoARD, and the donors.

16. Issues
Though this is a community plan support is expected from
donors, and this should be made reliable through negotiations
Supply of materials should be timely and according to plan
Strong commitment of the community should be developed prior
to commencement of development activities.
Training should be given to the implementers ahead of the
implementation is launched
Supportive policies are required to secure family farming
Credit and market access to the community should be arranged

1. INTRODUCTION
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1.1 BACKGROUND AND JUSTIFICTION

Soil erosion in Ethiopia is a major problem, responsible for


the rapid degradation of large portion of the highlands. Most
erosion occurs on the cultivated land in the form of sheet, rill
and gully erosion. It also occurs on grazing, marginal lands
and forest areas not properly managed and following the
progressive removal of the vegetation cover. This resulted in
land degradation, low productivity, food shortage and
famine.

The Amhara Nation Regional State is one of the most


affected regions by deforestation, soil erosion, and, in
general, natural resource degradation. There has been a
very high rate of deforestation every year that, eventually,
resulted in reduced agricultural productivity in the region.
Settlement around forest areas, expansion of agricultural
lands, weak natural resource administration systems, and
poor community participation in natural resource
conservation are some of the major reasons for the
depletion of natural resource in the region. Efforts to
rehabilitate degraded areas and to create conducive
environment made in the past years were not that
successful.

East Belessa woreda is one of the affected woredas by


deforestation in Amhara Region. The demand of the
community for different natural resources is increased from
time to time in the Woreda. But the management practices
by farmers to satisfy this huge requirement were, so far,
very weak. Farmers were reluctant to participate in
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integrated natural resources development in different


kebeles. Now a day, however, efforts made by governmental
and non-governmental organizations to enable farmers to
participate in integrated watershed development has
brought a positive impact on natural resource in different
watersheds in the woreda.
This time it is found important that an integrated watershed
development should be implemented as required with a plan
prepared carefully with the full participation of the
watershed community. The main objective of this paper is to
present such kind of watershed plan for Minara catchment.

2. Objectives

2.1 General objectives of the plan

To contribute to the improvement of the livelihood of


the community through participatory and integrated
watershed development and management

2.2 specific objectives

To prepare watershed plan that is more advanced


from the conventional planning in terms of
integration of measures taken and recommendation
which are value adding to the community and to the
development of the watersheds. So far, watershed
plans prepared in the woredas are not that
comprehensive and holistic in nature.
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To study, plan and implement one model watershed


so that, in due course, its success would be
replicated to other watersheds in the woreda

3.0 Significance of the planning

The planning results can be helpful to the woreda integrated


watershed planners and kebele extension agents to modify
and improve their watershed planning and extension
approach presently exercised in the kebeles.
It is also expected to serve as model in the woreda so that
the development agents and natural resource management
experts assigned in the area perform further study on
different kebele which have similar land and environmental
conditions in the woreda.

4. Methodologies of the watershed


study

4.1. Material used

During PRA and field data collection different materials were


used including the following:
1. G.P.S.
2. Watershed planning survey questionnaire
3. Topographic map
4. Binoculars
5. Altimeter
6. Clinometers
13

7. Computer

4.2 Approach

In the beginning, the woreda planning team, composed of a


forester, soil and water conservation expert, livestock
expert, extension and communication expert, and
agronomist was formed with seven members and moved to
the site with a base map delineated from a topographic
sheet prepared by the Ethiopian Mapping Authority in 1984.
In the following day, the team calls for the watershed
communities to discuss about the objective of the project
and future development activities. The communities were
asked for their agreement to continue the planning process.
After the agreement was reached, the community selected
the watershed planning team. The team has 13 members of
which 4 members (30%) are females. The selection was
based on age, sex, wealth status and their sufficient
knowledge about the selected watershed. In the third day,
the planning team was divided in to 2 groups: one group
carried the transect walk while the other, the semi
structured interview.

The data collection was made using PRA both from


discussions and field observation. After collecting the
necessary data through the above method, presentation
was made on the findings to the community for comment to
endorse the continuation of the planning process.
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5. The watershed area

5.1 Location and Extent

Minara watershed was first selected using selection criteria


prepared by SWHISA experts in close consultation with
partner institutions. About three candidate watersheds
are first selected by the woredas, and each are given
scores against every criterion. This was done by the
experts together with the kebele administrations at the
spot. The woredas finally select the watershed with the
highest score to be a model community watershed.

Minara watershed is found in East Belessa Woreda of North


Gondar Zone in Amhara National Regional State. Guhala, the
woreda town, is located at some 180km to the North east
from Bahr Dar. Geographically, it is located at 1367/1371N
and 396/401E grid reference. The distance from the woreda
town is about 5 km to the South west. It is accessed by an all
weather road passing to Addis Zemen (located at 80 km
from Bahr Dar at the tarmac road to Gondar). This
watershed is a sub watershed within the Tekeze basin, and
bounded by three kebeles namely, Bursa, Dengora, and Zoz
Amba. The watershed area is estimated at 540 ha.

Map 1:- Location of Minara Community watershed

5.2. Economic activity


15

The livelihood of the community in Minara watershed is


predominantly based on agriculture. Most of the community
practices mixed farming. The main crops grown in the
watershed are Teff, sorghum, field peas, and chick pea.
Additionally, maize and bean are also grown in small
quantity. Stock breeding is one major practice which includes
rearing of cattle, equine, sheep and goats.
Generally, the farmers in the watershed lead subsistence
farming system due to

1. Low farming technologies


2. Low productivity of the land
3. High population growth
4. High cost of fertilizer
5. Seed shortage
6. Occurrence of different types of weeds, and
pests.

5.4 Wealth status

According to the methods of assessment indicated in the Community Based


Participatory Watershed Development manual, the Minara watershed
communities are found in different wealth ranges i.e. poor, medium, and rich
farmers. From field observation and planning team interview response rich
farmers are those who have 2 oxen, 2 cows, 1equine, and 10 sheep. Medium
farmers are those who have 1 ox, 1 cow, 2 goats and 1 sheep. Poor farmers
are categorized as having a piece of land. Very poor farmers are those who
are unable to work, no land, or working as a daily labouror.

As a result of this categorization, 8 households are rich, 64 are medium, 202


are poor, and 28 are very poor households.

6. Physical environment
16

6.1 Land Forms

The landform in the project watershed can be classified into four major
features:

Almost flat to undulating valley bottom

Rolling foot slopes

Steep hillsides

Mountain relief

The first landform covers an area of 110 ha or % of the total watershed area.
The topography is almost flat to undulating with slopes ranging between 2
and 8 % gradient. In this land unit soils are very deep to up to 1.5m,
imperfectly to moderately well-drained. There are no trees except few
shrubs of Ziziphus mauritiana and maytenus species at places but generally
it is used for crop cultivation.

The second one covers about 135ha (%) with a topography of rolling foot
slopes and slope range is between 8-15%. The soils are formed mainly from
colluvial deposits of upper lying steep land, well drained, but shallow depth
of up to 1.0m.

The landform in the third category is steep hillside located at the foot of the
mountains, with an area of 110 ha (%). The slope ranges from15-30%.
Species of the natural vegetation in this land unit are composed of Abalo,
Acacia tortolis, Ziziphus mauriatiana, Cordia Africana, Eucalyptus
camaldulensis, Euphorbia tirucalli etc. Soils are shallow to medium depth
from 50 to 100cm, well-drained with stone cover of up to 40%. The land use
here is mostly homestead with a substantial area for backyard cultivation.

The fourth landform is categorized as mountain relief with slopes ranging


between 30-50%. The area in this unit is about 185 ha or % of the
watershed. The soils are very shallow with depth not exceeding 25cm. It is
excessively drained with rock out crops at places. The natural vegetation
found here are Dodonia viscose, Tinjut, Euphorbia abyssinica, Abalo,
Dedeho etc. The land uses in this unit are mainly for animal browsing, and
little cult ivation at pocket areas.

6.2 Soil
17

Soils in the watershed may be described based on the different


landforms. The soils in the valley bottom are alluvial deposit,
transported from the hillsides. The depth is >150cm, colour dark-
brown, sandy clay loam texture, slope 2-8%, and stone free. Generally,
these soils may be classified as Fluvisols (FAO, 1974).

Soils on the rolling side slopes are very deep reaching up to 1.5m. Soil
colour is yellow reddish brown with a texture of sandy clay to sandy
clay loam, stone free, well drained with slopes ranging from 8-15%.

On the hillsides of 15 to 30 % slopes, the soil is relatively shallower


ranging between 50 and 100cm, and the texture, sandy clay. It is
covered with about 40% stone, and the soil colour is reddish brown.

The mountainous landform with slopes ranging from 30-50% has a soil
with shallow depth up to 25cm. Soil colour is purplish grey with
texture of loamy sand, and r

Fig.1.Soils on the rolling side slopes. Note the depth of the soil at lower
western side of the catchment

6.3 Hydrology

Minara stream is the main sources of water in the catchment. The source of
Minara stream is from the mountainous part of the watershed. The stream is
used both for human and livestock consumption. Owing to the low
discharge of the stream and drying up in due course during the dry season
(after January), irrigation is hardly used.

6.4 Climate

6.4.1 Rainfall

The type of rainfall in Minara watershed is uni-modal with an average


annual rainfall of 880 mm. The distribution is over about four months from
June to September peaking in July.

6.4.2 Temperature

The annual temperature of Minara watershed varies from 12-31C. It is


estimated that the average annual temperature to be C in June and 12C in
January.
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6.4.3 Agro- climatic zone

The altitude of the watershed ranges between 1800 and 1920 masl. The
rainfall, on the average, is 880 mm per year. Based on this data and
according to Hurni, 1986, the agro-climatic classification of Minara
watershed, thus, lies under the dry Woyna Dega (dry medium altitude) agro-
climatic zone.

7.0 Land use and land cover


7.1. Past land use history

As the community watershed planning team indicated, about 4 to 5 decades


ago,Minara watershed was covered with few land use types. All
mountainous areas of the watershed were covered by different indigenous
tree species, bushes, and shrubs. Various wild life species inhibited the
densely vegetated mountain terrain. The cultivated and the grazing lands
were fertile and productive. The human and livestock population at that time
was very low, so there was no excessive damage on the land and water
resources.

7.2 Present land use and Land cover condition

The land use of Minara watershed is broadly divided into four namely,
cultivated land, grazing, scrub or bush land, settlement and other land uses.
The largest area is covered by scrub or bush land with an area of about 185
ha or 34%. Grazing land covers some 10 ha or 2% of the watershed while
cultivated land takes about 235 ha (43.5 %) and other land uses such as
settlement and service areas cover 110 ha or 20.5%.

Map 2: Present Land Use(base) Map of Minara watershed

Fig. 2. Partial view of Minara watershed and the present land use
19

8.0 Erosion condition


8.1 Erosion status and extent

In Minara watershed, there is severe soil erosion by water. The severity


of the condition is exhibited by the presence of frequent rills and gullies all
over the farm lands. This is mainly attributed to deforestation, up and down
the slope cultivation, and over-grazing. The average soil loss from cultivated
lands within the watershed is calculated using the Universal Soil Loss
Equation (USLE) and estimated to be between 15 at the flat land and 80
tons/ha/yr.

9.0 Socio economic condition


9.1. Population and administration

The watershed is found in Guhala administrative kebele,. The total


household is 302 from which 6 are female-headed households. The current
human population within the watershed is about 1269, males being 724 and
females are 545.

In Minara watershed there is gender division of labor. The following table


shows labor division among family members:

Table 1: Gender division of labour


No Activities under taken by Women Girls Men Boys
1 Looking after livestock X
2 Watering XX X
3 Tending sick animal X
4 Cleaning pen XX X
5 Milking X
6 Land preparation X
9 Marketing products X
10 Selling cattle X

9.2 Farm holding and productivity

From the total area of the watershed 235 ha is farmland. The average land
size of a household is 0.8 ha but ranging between 1.5 and 2ha. The
community in the watershed produces different crops on their farm land.
The productivity of the different crops is shown in the following table:
20

Table 2. Crop type and productivity

No Crop type Current Productivity Average Total


land per ha production production
coverage per house (Qt)
in ha hold in Qt
1 Teff 141 4
2 Sorghum 35 2
3 Field pea 23 1 5 1175
4 Faba bean 23 1
5 Chick pea 8 0.5
6 Maize 5 0.5
Total 235

9.3 Marketing and prices

There is no market place in the watershed. The farmers of the watershed


sale and/or buy different goods and items at Arbaya and the near by market
place at Worahla. The farmer brings about 20% of the total product to the
market for sale.

Table 3. Crop types and their current prices


No Crop type Current price per Remark
Qt
1 Teff 800 Birr
2 Sorghum 500 Birr
3 Field peas 500 Birr
4 Chick pea 400 Birr

9.4 Institutions and social services

In the watershed there are different institutions. These are Orthodox Church,
Edirs, Mahiber, Equb, and the like. FTC, health center, School, Kebele
administration office, and DAs Office are also found.

9.5 Problems and root causes

In Minara watershed there are different socio- economic problems. During


the problem identification and prioritization process the community
planning team together with the DAs and woreda experts has identified the
major problems and prioritizes them according to their severity based on
21

the methods indicated in the community participatory watershed


development manual.

These are :-
Shortage of water for human and livestock
consumption, and for irrigation purpose
Erosion
Deforestation
Low fertility of land and Yield reduction
Erratic rain fall
Occurrence of different human and animal
diseases
Shortage of livestock feed
Problem of crop pest and diseases
High cost of fertilizer and shortage of
improved seed
High population growth and, as a result,
Shortage of agricultural land etc.

(See also the problem tree below for the cause and effect of the problems)

Problem tree

Food shortage

Low crop yield

High cost of fertilizers Low animal yield


22

Low fertility of the land ----------------shortage of animal feed

Erosion

Deforestation

High demand for agricultural land

High population growth

10.0 Agricultural production


10.1. Crop production

The dominant crop types produced in Minara watershed are Teff and
sorghum. The farmers in Maywuha watershed, including female headed
households, depend on rain fed farming system and produce mainly the
indicated crop types. Most of the farmers produce once in a year. Female
headed households usually produce on a 50-50 share-cropping basis as
almost all of them do not own oxen for ploughing i.e. they rent there
cultivated land to other farmer who will pay 50% of the total produce from
that land. Some farmers cultivate very little irrigated crops following the
stream. Almost all cultivated land of 235 ha is covered with rain-fed and
only negligible area is under irrigation.

Other crops grown under rain-fed conditions also include maize, faba bean,
Field peas and chick pea. The uses of chemical fertilizers mainly focus on
teff, and Sorghum. The productivity of the different crop species per hectare
for teff, sorghum, field pea, faba bean, chick pea and maize is 4, 2, 1, 1, 0.5,
and 0.5 respectively.

The estimated total crop production in the watershed is about 1175 Q per
year, out of which 235 Q is for market, 823 Q for consumption, and 117 Q
for seed reserve. The total population in the watershed is some 1269
persons. As per the estimated daily food requirement (WFP) for one person
23

is about 0.6kg, the total production is currently sufficient to feed the existing
population for only six months, and therefore, there is a food gap of six
months..

10.2 Livestock production

One of the main activities of the community in the watershed is animal


husbandry. This part of agricultural activities has high contribution for the
economic development of the local community. The common types of
livestock in the watershed are Cattle, Sheep, Goat, and Donkey. Female
headed household own mainly sheep and goats, and poultry.

The total livestock population is estimated to be 440 of which cattle are


160, equines 8, sheep 80, and goat 192 (See also table below). The main
fodder source is the natural grazing land supported by crop residues, and
browsing.

The estimated available feed from different feed sources is about 582tons
dry matter per year (TDM/yr) while annual feed requirement is estimated at
364 TDM/yr. This shows that presently there is an estimated surplus feed of
some 218 TDM. However, the quality of feed on one hand and the future
potential feed yield on the other is under risk due to low productivity of the
different land uses attributed to erosion and rain shortage. Therefore, the
surplus produce cant be taken sustainable and improvement for forage
quality and productivity should be sought.

Table 4: livestock population in Minara watershed

No Types of livestock Number of livestock


1 Oxen 90
2 Cow 70
3 Sheep 80
4 Goat 192
5 Donkey 8
TOTAL 440

10.3 Forest Production and wild life

There are several species of trees in the catchment. These are:


Acacia tortolis (Qirita)
Cordia Africana (Wanza)
Ziziphus mauritiana (Gaba)
(Abalo)
Dodonia viscosa (Kitkita)
(Dedeho)
24

etc.

Among the species mentioned above acacia is the dominant and useful to
the community mainly for construction purposes.

Fig. 4: Eucalyptus plantation around homesteads

Considering acacia tree as the main fuel and construction wood source for
the population, the present total production of this tree in the watershed is
estimated at about 925m3.
On the other hand, the fuel and construction wood requirement of the
watershed population is estimated to be 1269m3/yr (at the rate of
1m3/person/year).

There had been several wild life species such as hyena, fox, baboon, and
different birds but the population has presently decreased very rapidly.

11.0 Land Evaluation


Land evaluation is the process by which the potential of land for alternative
kinds of use can be estimated. There are several land evaluation methods,
but most widely used are:

The USDA land capability classification


The US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR)
The FAO Framework for land evaluation

Capability refers to the capability of the land for specified use such as
capable for arable agriculture or not. The USBR system, on the other hand,
is intended to show the payment capacity of an irrigated farming system.
The FAO system is a more complex one and goes into a detailed analysis on
land suitability for specified kinds of land utilization type and the crop under
consideration. It requires a detailed data specifically on soil characteristics
and climate so that matching is made against the land use requirement to
determine land suitability for specified crop and land utilization types.

Due to the limitation of required data for land suitability classification it was
found difficult to apply the system in this study. The data in hand is
sufficient to be used only for land capability assessment, and hence, applied
here.

11.1. Land capability classification


25

Land capability classification follows parameters such as slope, soil depth,


texture, stoniness, and past erosion status. Based on these parameters the
land capability for Minara was classified. Accordingly, the classification was
made and presented in the following table:

Table 5: Land capability classes


No. Slope % Top soil Stoniness Erosion Soil Land Total
texture Status depth class coverage
(ha)
1 2-8 Sandy None None >150cm III 77
clay loam
2 8-15 Sandy None Moderate 100- IV 186
Clay 150cm
3 15-30 Loamy 30-50% Severe 50 cm VII 128
sand
4 30-50 Sandy 70% Severe <25cm VIII 148
loam
Total 214.5

Map 3: Capability Class Map of May Wuha Community Watershed (not to


scale). Please see Table 5 for legend.

11.2. Evaluation result

From the above table it was found that areas capable for agriculture
production (III and IV) are 264ha, and the rest area (276ha) is not capable
for agricultural production. However, classes VI and VII are capable for
grass land and/or forest production. See also map 3 above.

12. Proposed Development Plan


12.1. Present situation and future trend

Annual production in the watershed area do not met the annual food
requirement. Presently, it is only sufficient to feed the watershed population
for six months, and there is a food gap for another six months. Future trends
of population growth and crop yield decline due to soil erosion and other
factors, with decreasing size of land holdings are likely to worsen the
situation within a very few years. Regarding soil erosion, for instance,
experiments and research work related crop yield decline to soil erosion. For
example in Nigeria, maize yield declined by 4% on slopes of 15% per 10
ton/ha of soil loss; in Thailand, 10% decline in maize yield per 6 ton/ha soil
loss (Stocking, 1984). Yohannes (1989) claims that barley yield increased in
26

one year by 26% due to soil conservation (fanya juu bund) on 24% slope
field. Soil Conservation Research Project (SCRP, 1987) showed that bean
increased by 30% on slope of 12% and wheat by 10% on 28% slope because
of fanya juu bund.

From these evidences, it is reasonable to assume that soil erosion decreases


crop yield and conservation will at least maintain crop yield. Therefore,
erosion control or soil conservation should be considered in the plan on
rolling crop lands to enhance productivity and to maintain the growing
medium.

As indicated in section 10.1, the productivity of the different crop species is


about 4 quintals per hectare on the average. The estimated total annual
average production in the watershed is about 1175 Q. From this, 823 Q is
allocated for domestic consumption, 235 Q for market, and 117 Q for seed
reserve.

The total population in the watershed is 1269 persons from which >50% are
female. According to the estimated daily food requirement (WFP) for one
person, which is about 0.6kg, the total production, as indicated above, is
about half the annual requirement, and a food gap of six months. If the
present natural resources management and the farming practice continue,
crop yield is likely to become worse in short course of time. In addition, if
the population growth continues at the present growth rate (2.9%/annum)
then the food shortage is further aggravated and would be exhibited in the
form of famine in the long run. This has already happened within the last
few decades. In other words, the present natural resources management and
the poor farming practices is estimated to decrease crop yield by, at least,
5% per year, which is about 59 Q/yr. An increase in human population by
2.9% per year also requires additional food of about 34 Q grain equivalents.
The total food deficit is, therefore, estimated to be 93 Q per year with an
exponential increase in food deficit in the consecutive years to come.

The situation with fuel and construction wood requirement is also a big
issue worth considering in the plan, especially for ease of burden from rural
women who are mainly responsible for fetching fuel wood from far
distances. The fuel and construction wood requirement of the watershed
population is estimated to be 1269m3/yr (at the rate of 1m3/person/year).
On the other hand, Acacia tree and other bushes are the main fuel and
construction wood source for the population. The present total production of
these trees in the watershed are estimated at about 925 m3 or. Therefore, the
available wood is well below the required amount i.e. at least, equal amount
of the requirement should be produced every year to fill the present gap.

Stock breeding is a common practice in subsistence farming: oxen for


drawing farm implements; cows for milk; donkey and horses for
27

transportation, sheep and goats for sale or food sources; or in general, as


security in time of food shortages.

The forage requirement is estimated at 2.3, 1.5, 0.8, 0.2, and 0.18 tons of dry
matter per head per year (TDM/head/yr) for oxen, other cattle, donkeys,
sheep and goats respectively (Huisman, 1988).

As indicated in section 10.2 above, the total livestock population is


estimated to be 440 of which cattle are 160, equines 8, sheep 80, and goat
192. The main fodder source is the natural grazing land supported by crop
residues, and browsing.

The available forage from different land uses in high cereal potential areas is
estimated at 2.2; 1.5; and 2.25 TDM/ha/yr from grazing land and fallow;
wood and shrub lands; and crop residues and stubbles respectively (ibid,
p.5). Accordingly, the available feed from different sources is estimated to
be some 582 tons of dry matter per year (TDM/yr). and the annual feed
requirement is about 364 TDM/yr. This shows that presently there is an
estimated surplus feed of some 218 TDM. However, the quality of feed on
one hand and the future potential feed yield on the other is under risk due to
low productivity of the different land uses attributed to erosion and rain
shortage. Therefore, the surplus produce cant be taken sustainable and
improvement for forage quality and productivity should be sought.

Another issue that needs to be addressed is shortage of drinking water for


livestock, and domestic use. Minara stream flows intermittently during the
dry period of the year and has, generally, a fairly sufficient amount of water
for livestock consumption is available albeit not clean. But, the source of
drinking water is few hand dug wells. The water from this source is also not
sufficient for the existing population. Besides, women have to go to a far
distance to get water from alternative sources for the every day domestic
consumption. Therefore, there is a need for considering new plan for safe
and sufficient drinking water supply, from a nearby location with
consideration to avoid womens time consuming and tiresome job of
fetching water for human consumption.

The estimated minimum daily domestic water requirement in rural and drier
Ethiopia is about 15litres/head/day. The total human population in Minara
watershed is some 1269 persons. The daily total water requirement (at the
rate of 15 lts./head/day) is, therefore, 19035 lit. Daily production of this
amount of clean drinking water would, therefore, be considered in the
planning.

The problem of population growth and the subsequent agricultural land and
food shortage is an important issue to be discussed. The present growth
rate, on average, is 2.9% per annum. The current watershed population,
28

i.e.1269, would rise to 1305 in year one, 1343 in year two, 1382 in year
three, 1689 in year ten, and so on. Taking the marginal growth of 420
persons in year 10 as an example, the increased population would be about
84 household equivalents raising the present household number 302 to 386.
Currently, the average land holding per household is about 0.8 ha. This
would be decreased down to 0.6 ha/HH in year ten. This would be
equivalent to a food shortage of about 1 quintal grain/year/HH in the same
period. The continuation of this process would, therefore, result in a serious
food shortage and famine. So, the growth rate of the population would need
considering planning to minimize it as low as possible.

12.2 Scope of the plan

The plan is limited to the improvement of the natural resource base of the
watershed for higher and sustainable productivity of the agricultural,
grazing, and forest lands so that the long run livelihood of the population is
improved and sustained. This would be achieved through the introduction
of such activities as improved variety of crops, natural fertilization, small
scale irrigation, soil and water conservation, forestry production, pasture
quality and quantity improvement and production, and cross-bred animal
introduction etc. In addition to this, water resource development for clean
water supply, and tree seedling production.

Several modern technologies that could improve the livelihood of the


community very much would have been introduced here. This would
include bore hole digging and force pumping for irrigation, electric power
generation for energy supply, all-weather road and bridge construction,
flour mill installation, establishment of cottage industries etc. However,
such development activities are beyond the scope of this plan.

12.3 Plan implementation

The major implementers of the plan are the benefiting communities. Any
activity to be implemented on the individual land holdings is assumed to be
the responsibility of the particular household. Activities on common lands
such as forest development areas and grazing lands should be performed by
the concerned members of the beneficiaries. In this regard, the kebele
administration and the watershed committee in particular would be
responsible for coordinating the community to accomplish the work. By-
laws will be established to enforce the plan implementation. The
community should be abiding by the law the whole member of the
community has already developed to be enforced.

The estimated work force in the watershed is about 604 persons (50%
women), which would be available for about 90 days each year. This is
equivalent to about 54360 person days (PD) per year. On the other hand, the
29

required total person days to implement the plan are estimated at about
105,500 PD. It is therefore assumed that, with the present work force, the
plan would be implemented within three years period.

Activities such as (those which need special skills) masonry work, pump
fitting on hand dug wells etc. are implemented by hired skilled labour.

An overall coordination and technical assistance is the main responsibility


of the woreda experts and development agents. Material and financial
support would be made by interested outside donor agencies.

12.4 Development Options

The options for development was first generated by the community with
their own priorities as afforestation, crop productivity improvement, feed
production, and sufficient drinking water supply. Based on these
requirements and the general problems identified and analyzed the
following are proposed:

Development options follow the recommended development measures on


the newly proposed land uses. The main developments are assumed to be
area closure and forest production, crop productivity improvement, and
homestead development.

On cultivated lands, the major actions are agronomic measures, soil


conservation measures to arrest soil removal by water, improvement of soil
fertility through the production and application of natural fertilizers for crop
productivity. Forest production for fuel, construction, and environmental
protection is also an option for degraded and steep lands.
Homestead development is one major option recommended for backyard
improvement.

Generally, the development options focus on the improvement of the


different land uses for a better production, and solving, as much as possible,
the identified community problems.

12.5 Development Plan map

Based on the capability of the different land uses and the problems
identified in the watershed new land uses are categorized into five land
units and development map produced accordingly. These land units are
described as follows:

a. CU1 This is located on either sides of the stream around


the mid to the outlet. The total area is 102 ha and proposed
to be mainly under intensive cultivation.
30

b. CU2 This is the second largest land unit located at the heart
of the watershed. It is also another major cultivation area in
the watershed with an extent of 140 ha and proposed to
continue as intensive cultivation area with recommended
development work to improve productivity and sustainability.

c. CU3 - This area is scattered at three sites in the watershed.


The total area is about 100 ha. It is located mainly between
CU2 and Fd, and few plots on the right side between
homestead areas. The area is proposed to continue as a
cultivated area but with moderate to limited intensity, and
with a substantial soil conservation intervention.

d. HS - This is located at four sites with an area of about 38 ha.


One is located at down stream right near the watershed
boundary and the other three along the main road alternately
with CU3 plots. It is composed of home steads and backyard
areas.

e. AC/GL This is a small area of up to 15ha


located at the north west tip of the watershed.

f. Fd This is the largest land unit in the watershed with an


area of 145 ha. It is located at the upper most watershed
boundary stretched from east, through south to western part.
(see also Map 4 for details).
31
32

12.6 Management Recommendations

Concept and definitions

Some technical terms and recommendations are found necessary to be


briefly defined before they are mentioned in the plan so that to enable the
readers to better understand what and for are the recommendations.

Grassland improvement The development of a grazing land to produce


high quality and high yield forage using technologies that improves the
productivity.

Over-sowing Sowing of seeds on top of the existing and disturbed natural


vegetation to improve the vegetative growth and coverage.

Top dressing Sowing of, usually Nitrogen, fertilizers to the plant in a field
after emergency to initiate faster and vigourous growth.

Intensive cultivation cultivation of the land with an aim at achieving


maximum production within a limited area.

Contour ploughing Tilling at right angle to the natural slope of the land

Contour strip cropping planting practice along the contours with alternate
strips of intensively cultivated crops and strips of sod-forming crops.

Inter-cropping growing two or more crops at the same time on the same
field per year.

Agro-forestry land use systems in which woody perennials are grown in


association with herbaceous plants and/or livestock in spatial arrangement,
rotation or both.

Hybrid seed crop seed obtained through cross breeding of two different
varieties that gives a vigourous growth and yield.

Compost A natural fertilizer prepared through a process of decomposition


of herbaceous plant materials and animal manure.

Grass strips- Series of a ribbonlike band of grass lay out on cultivated land
along the contour, primarily for soil conservation purposes.

Bund an embankment along the contour made of soil and/or stones, with a
basin at the upper side.

Fanya juu similar to bund, but with the basin at the lower side
33

Check dam An obstruction wall across a gully bottom with which velocity
of runoff can be reduced and gully development checked.

Cut off drain a channel used to collect runoff from land above and to
divert it safely into waterways, thus protecting the land below from
excessive erosion.

Waterways a natural or artificial drainage channel along the steepest slope


or in the valley to accommodate runoff.

Sediment Storage and over-flow earth Dams (SS Dams) stone-faced earth
dams constructed across medium to large gullies to trap sediments, collect
water, and divert excess water.

Spring development Collection, protection from surface contamination,


and storage of the flowing underground water, and made available for use.

Recommendations

Based on the problems identified by the community (section 9.5) and the
different scientific analysis made to soils, climate and land capabilities etc.
by the local experts, the following are recommended on the different land
units by the local experts, in consultation with the community and SWHISA
consultants:

Cultivated land 1 (CU1)

The present land use of this land unit is cultivated land with
an area of 102 ha. The newly proposed land use is the same
but with various technical interventions to improve the
productivity. Following are major interventions
recommended:

Intensive cultivation of rain fed cereals, oil seeds, and


pulses, mainly sorghum, teff, linseed, safflower, lentils
and chick pea should be practiced. The proportion of
land to be covered by the different crops is decided by
the individual household. However, the present land
use is estimated to be 60% covered by teff. But for an
improved productivity and total production, striga
resistant and early maturing sorghum varieties should
34

be introduced in place of teff (available in ARARI or


other research stations). This option should be
supported by an application of compost at the rate of
at least 10 tons/ha each year. The action would
improve productivity of sorghum by five fold than the
present production with an added value of Br. 4000
equivalent/ha each year amounting to a total of Br.
244,800 within this land unit. In addition to this,
application of contour ploughing, alley cropping of
susbania or leucaena hedge rows, at 1 metre width
and 10m horizontal distance is recommended.

From hedge rows plantation, about 5 TDM/ha/year


would be harvested which is sufficient to feed 2 oxen
for one year. On the other hand, the whole sorghum
field can produce forage sufficient enough to feed 122
oxen for a year. The forage production is equivalent
to an estimated amount of Br. 61200.

Under-sowing of forage legumes composed of


desmodium, siratro, and lablab species in sorghum
fields is highly recommended for two purposes: one is
to produce high quality feed for animals without
requiring additional land for feed production, and the
second is that the forage species are leguminous
plants that fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and
fertilize the companion crop (sorghum in this case) for
a better yield. Under sown forage can produce about 4
TDM/ha/season, and, from the whole sorghum field
(planned 61 ha), about 244TDM can be produced. This
35

is equivalent amount to feed some 162cows for one


year, or worth some Br. 48800.

One hand dug well with Indian mark II hand pump


fitted would be constructed within this unit near the
river course for domestic use. It is assumed that one
well would produce about 1500 litres per day and
enough for 100 persons for one day.

About 250 m. long artificial waterway shall be


constructed to collect run off water from the up
located cutoff drain and safely drain to the natural
water course below.

A small storage dam is to be constructed across the


stream, within this land unit, with earth and stone
materials, to collect water enough to irrigate an area
of about 1000m3. From here vegetable crops can be
produced equivalent to about Br. 10000 per year.
36

Fig. 5:- A typical SS dam storing water for small scale irrigation
(Woybla watershed, Goncha)

Stream banks should be closed from human and


animal interference, rehabilitated with plantation,
check dams, and fencing along the stream etc.

Cultivated Land 2 (CU 2 )

This land unit is the second largest in the watershed (140 ha) proposed to
continue to be cultivated land with moderately intensive cultivation of
cereals and pulses (same as in CU 1) and application of different
agricultural inputs for a better production.
37

It is recommended, in this area, that fairly intensive cultivation of


rain fed cereals mainly sorghum, teff, and chick pea should be
practiced with preparation and application of compost fertilizer at
the rate of, at least, 10 tons/ha (see annex 2 for compost preparation
and application guideline). It is very important that as the land has a
rolling slope the application of the above recommendations should
be supported by strong soil conservation measures particularly
contour ploughing, and level soil bund at a vertical interval of 1
metre with standard heights and width of bund and channels (see
annex 1).

Factors that lower erosion should be addressed and considered in the


design and recommendation of the conservation structures. In this
land unit, the erosion status, on average, is 50 tons/ha/year, which
would be sufficient to cause a yield decline of up to 25% (SCRP,
1987); therefore, the design should be in such a way that it lowers
the erosion down to 10 to 15 tons/ha/yr. This amount can be
tolerated because it is compensated by annual soil formation of,
usually, 10 to 15 tons per ha. (Hurni, 1983).

This would keep the soil with the applied compost and the seed
from being washed away by runoff water in the field. In addition, it
conserves soil and increases yield.

It is estimated that soil conservation alone maintains yield of crops


by up to 25% and application of 10tons of compost/ha would double
the yield.

Bunds should be planted with multi purpose tree species such as


sesbania sesban, pegion pea; and forage grass and legumes such like
vetivier, lablab, alfalfa, and siratro etc. to stabilize the bund from
breaking by water in the channel. Furthermore, bund planting
produces green manure, animal feed and/or fuel wood, and therefore
compensates the production lost due to the area taken off by bunds.
Bunds take on average, about 10% of the productive land losing an
estimated amount of one quintal grain equivalent per ha. The
production of forage or green manure from the bunds is estimated at
2tons of dry matter per year per ha. If this amount is applied as
green manure it would increase grain yield by about 5quintals/ha.
Alternatively, if this is used as feed for animals it would be
sufficient to feed one ox for one year. The total cost of forage
obtained here is estimated at Br. 56000.

Depending on the amount of application, compost increases yield by


about three fold while improving the texture, structure of the soil for
38

a better moisture holding capacity and minimizing soil erodability.


The value added to the farmer due to compost application is roughly
Br 2500 equivalent/ha.

Gully rehabilitation and stream course protection is one main


activity recommended here. There are gullies of about four
kilometers long, located between the main road and the stream. The
gully banks should be reshaped at 45, fenced around the periphery,
but five metres away from the banks, planted with matting and/or
rhizome forage species such as elephant grass, reed; acacia saligna,
vetivier grass and siratro etc. Stone check dams reinforced with
gabions should be constructed across gully beds at a vertical interval
of 50 to 100cm between check dams. The height of the check dam
may vary between 50cm to more than 100cm, depending on the
nature of the gully.

In these gullies, apart from arresting eroded soil and halting the
development, about 15 TDM of feed would be obtained in one year
and some 20m3 of fuel wood in 5 years. At the rate of 1.5TDM per
cow per year, the feed produced here is equivalent to feed 10 cows
for one year. Similarly, the fuel wood production is sufficient for a
yearly consumption of 4 households, at the rate of 5m3/HH/yr.

Stream banks should also be protected in the same way as the


gullies.

About 1kms of cutoff drain should be constructed at boundaries


between AC/GL and this land unit. The dimension is depending on
the catchment area and the characteristics above the cutoff ditches.
The cutoffs here are located below a maximum catchment area of 12
ha, and therefore, the recommended dimension of cutoffs in such
conditions would be:

- Depth of cutoff drain (cm) 70 (Including 20cm free board)


- Top width of flow (cm) 200
- Bottom width (cm) 0.7
- Maximum flow gradient (%) 0.5
- Side slope - 1 : 1

The embankment should be reinforced by planting hedgerows of sesbania or


with sodding or planting of vetivier grass.

A series of ponds are proposed to be constructed along the upper


boundary and adjacent to the settlement areas. In this land unit about
39

25 geo-membrane ponds would be constructed at a cost of some Br.


250000. From this it is expected that about a total of half a hectare
land would be developed and some Br. 75000 would be obtained.

Eight Hand dug wells (HDW) fitted with hand pumps and sealed
with cement are to be constructed in this land unit. The total cost of
the hand dug wells is estimated at about Br. 296,000 (at the rate of
Br. 37000 for each HDW.

A typical design, required materials and construction method etc. are


available at woreda office of water development and can be referred to
them as necessary.

Cultivated Land 3 (CU3)

This land unit is also large reaching 100 ha. It is under cultivation and
proposed to continue so but with limited intensity of cereal and pulses and
extensive soil conservation measures as it is a steep foot slope. Striga
resistant and early maturing sorghum variety is recommended again. The
soil conservation bunds should be level and strong enough to convey storm
rains that are common here.

Stream bank protection and rehabilitation should be made along


stream course that cross the land unit. Reshaping of the course,
vegetating, closing, and check dam construction as required should
be done.

Leucaena, lablab, siratro, pigeon pea and desmodium species or


grass species of Rhodes, panicum, and vetiver can be planted on
bunds. The use of bund planting is two fold: It stabilizes the bund
from being destructed and produces forage for animal feed. In this
case, the forage produced on the bunds would be about 150
TDM/year, which is equivalent to about Br. 30000.

Homestead Area (HS)

This area is scattered mainly at four locations. The majority are stretched
along the main road and one is on the other end of the watershed. The total
area of this land unit is 38 ha presently with fairly dense settlement. The
new proposal followed the present land use to continue but with substantial
development recommendations:

Boundary plantation of 50 Eu. camaldulensis seedlings around each


backyard. From this, about 4 m3 of fuel wood is obtained annually
40

which would be nearly sufficient for annual consumption of 1


household with 5 members.

Plantation of Rhamnus prinoides (Gesho) 20 seedlings at one corner of


the backyard. This plant gives production in one year increasing yield
every year. The total annual production is sufficient enough for home
consumption (equivalent to Br.300) including surplus for market of
about >Br 500 equivalent. This plantation is important to increase the
income level of, especially, female households (FHH).

Planting fruit trees in the backyard such as papaya with a population of


about 20 seedlings would give a benefit of Br.1600 equivalent every
year beginning from year two.

Planting forage and fodder species, at least, in an area of 10x10m in


alleys of sesbania/leucaena hedgerows. Herbaceous legumes like siratro
and desmodium mixed with elephant grass etc. can be grown in alleys.
From this area about 0.1tons of dry matter (TDM) would be produced
with additional yield of 0.05TDM every 2 months. The total annual
yield would rise to a cumulative of 1.3 TDM. In this regard, a
household can produce forage in his back yard at least sufficient for 6
sheep for one year. The total forage production in the backyard is
estimated to worth about Br. 72480. This might, however, need very
careful management to get the indicated amount.

Poultry production may be considered in each household with 10 egg


laying Rhode Island Red breed hens and 2 cocks on stall feeding basis.
From this, about 2000 eggs can be laid in one year which is equivalent
to Br. 2000. Increasing the skill of poultry production, especially to
female farmers, also helps to increase the income level of women at
family level. Similarly, bees can be kept within the compound of each
family. Those having 5 modern beehives can produce about 75 kg/year
equivalent to Br.1875.
41

Fig. 6:- Typical of a semi-modern poultry house design

Hand dug well construction fixed with pulley for ease of pulling water
from the well should be carried out in each backyard. This would be
used to grow vegetables on an area of at least 10x20m, and for other
domestic use as required. A minimum of about 500 litres per day is
estimated to be obtained from one hand dug well sufficient enough to
irrigate 200m2 area and produce Br1800 equivalent vegetables.

About 10m3 of compost is recommended to be prepared in each


backyard to be used for backyard plants or to be transported and applied
in crop fields.

To help each family keep healthy, toilet and showers may be


constructed with local materials at every household. A healthy family
work hard and produce food for the members and keep them food
sufficient and self- reliant. The cause for most diseases in rural areas in
particular is lack of hygiene. Healthy family save the time and labour
spent by women on patient care taking, and instead, could be engaged in
production activities. So, the attention towards this is very much
required.

Family planning is worth considering here in this plan. As population


increases over the years, competition for production resources such as
land would increase, land holding decreases, and food production also
decreases leading to food shortage and famine. Therefore, all possible
measures should be taken to control growth rate, at least, to keep it
equal to the death rate. Family planning programs are introduced in
every woreda and almost in all kebeles. The major action is birth control
through different methods, mainly oral or injection contraceptives. This
has enabled the community to have children only when they require. It
should, therefore, be strongly encouraged to minimize population
growth rate and keep it at a very low figure. The responsible institution
42

is mainly the Bureau of Health and Bureau of Finance and Economic


Development with additional interventions by several NGOs.

Forest Development (Fd)

This land is degraded by severe erosion due to deforestation and over


grazing. The slope gradient is the steepest from other land units. The total
area is 145 ha. The following are recommended in this land unit:

Construction of percolation pits, micro basins, and trenches as


appropriate throughout the land unit and hillside terraces at the lower
boundary and planting indigenous tree species such as Cordia,
Ziziphus, Olea Africana, Euphorbia tirucalli, Dodonia viscosa,
Acacia tortolis, acacia albida etc. are recommended. It is also
recommended that exotic tree species be introduced. This may
include Moringa olifiera, shinus molle, delanox regia, and Azadiracta
indica.

Under-sowing of forage species composed of grasses and legume


species such as buffle grass, panicum max., Rhodes, stylosanthes,
siratro, desmodium can be done during the onset of the rains.

About six km of cutoff drain should be constructed at the boundary


between this land unit and the low lying farm land and homestead
area. The dimension would be as follows:

- Depth of cutoff drain (cm) 90 (Including 20cm free board)


- Top width of flow (cm) 300
- Bottom width (cm) 0.9
- Maximum flow gradient (%) 0.5
- Side slope - 1 : 1

Area Closure/Grazing land (AC/GL)

This area is located at the upper tip of the watershed with an area of 20 ha.
The site is abandoned for cultivation due to degradation and is left for
animal browsing

It is now recommended to be closed from human and animal interference


and planted with a mixture of multipurpose and other tree species at wider
spacing (2.5x2.5m apart) to encourage under growing indigenous natural
grass and herbaceous legume species. Under-sowing and over-sowing of
43

forage legumes and grass species is another recommended to be applied


here.

Tree species suitable at this location would be Acacia abyssinica, Ac.


Melanoxilon, Ac. Decurrens, Ac. Cupressus lusitanica etc. Tree population
at spacing of 2.5x2.5m is 1600 plants/ha and would be 32000 trees in 20ha.
An estimated wood yield from this plantation is about 180m3/ha/year, and is
equivalent to roughly Br.45,000/yr.

Over-sowing and under sowing of suitable forage species, as indicated


above is necessary to increase animal feed both in terms of quantity and
quality. From grass species Phalaris and setaria, and from legumes vetch,
alfalfa, and sesbania broad cast may be suitable. The problem here is that
there is no a wide range of forage species that are suitable for highlands
similar to this watershed.

A substantial amount of feed would be produced from this application


reaching to an estimated minimum amount of 5TDM/ha/yr, and a total
production of 100TDM/yr. This is equivalent of feeding 40 oxen for one
year. Considering a body weight increase due to the feed, it is estimated that
the initial body weight of an ox is 250 kg and would increase to 280 kg
within one year. From this estimate a marginal increase of 30kg is obtained
per ox per year. The total body weight increase due to the feed would,
therefore, be 1200kg/yr, and this is equivalent, at present minimum price, to
Br.36,000.

The management of forage plant should be cut and carry and/or hay making.
Direct grazing should be avoided.

Micro basins may be constructed at each planting site i.e. 2.5x2.5m spacing
along the contour but at staggered position to reduce run off; recharge
ground water; and increase soil depth for plantation. About 32, 000 micro-
basins should be constructed to an equal number with trees to be planted
here. Bamboo planting along the boundaries of the land unit is possible so as
to produce bamboo poles for different uses, and particularly for basket
making. Planting about three rows and in 1x1metre spacing around the
boundary could yield 5400 fully grown poles in 4 years. This would bring
an income to the community an equivalent of Br. 27,000 at a minimum.

Land Unit 6 (LU6)

This land unit is located at the southern tip of the eastern watershed
boundary with an area of about 9ha. It is steep with shallow depth hill side.
44

This area is recommended for pure stand plantation of fast growing,


coppicing, and highly productive tree species such as Eu. Globules for fuel
and construction wood production. Plant population should be 1x1m (10000
plants/ha) and the total number to be 90,000 plants. Hill side terrace should
be constructed at five metre horizontal interval with one line of plantation to
be at each terrace and the rest planted in between. The total hill side terrace
to be constructed is about 18km. From this plantation an estimated total of
about 27,000m3 woods may be obtained in just one rotation of ten years.
This is equivalent of some 300m3 or about Br.90,000/yr.

Other additional recommendations

The following innovative technologies may be appropriate and useful to


consider for rural communities as in May wuha watershed, and could be
tried at demonstration scale:

Gravity irrigation from hand dug well located on a steep slope,


pump water with siphon (no force lifting required) to irrigate
under lying fields.

Ground level

Siphon
Hand dug well

Under-lying crop
field

Silage making with maize or other plants such as elephant grass


and oats etc.

Make a silo at a well drained firm soil (a capacity to hold


6000kg):

- dig a pit with 3.5m diameter and 2m deep


- line the wall with plastic sheet or plaster with clay soil
- Make a stone threshold at the bottom to allow any water
to soak down into the soil
- Harvest the crop for silage e.g. maize after silking
- Chop into pieces of about 3-5 cm long
45

- Wilt the plant by leaving it for few hours in open air so


that moisture content decrease i.e. should not be too wet.
- Fill the silo with the chopped forage and compact each
layer by treading on it
- When silo is full, cover with air and water tight materials
and pile 30cm layer of soil to keep it tight and compact.
Use a thatched roof to keep out rain
- Leave the forage to ferment for 45-60 days
- When ready, remove covering partly and take out feed
as required for the day and cover again as it was
- Feed an adult cow (about 250kg) 10-15kg/day

Crop residue treatment for making it palatable and more valuable


feed:
Treating straw with urea follows the steps below:

- Spread a layer of chopped straw on a thick plastic sheet


and sprinkle it with a mixture of urea and water
- Repeat the process for several layers. To treat 100kg
straw you need 100 litres of water and 6 kg of urea.
- Wrap the plastic sheet over the top and side of the pile
and seal it air tight. Put a stone on it to keep it tight.
- Leave this for 3 weeks
- Before feeding, it is needed to take out treated straw
enough to feed for 1-2 days, and leave it for, at least,
over-night until ammonia smell disappear

Pest control and management using local and organic materials.


Example of this may be explained by the following:

- Decoction of hot chili peppers sprayed on plants control


Aphids
- Pyrethrum flowers steeped in kerosene is used to spray
against cabbage worm, flee beetles, grasshoppers, and
aphids etc.
- Tobacco leaf extract spray is used to control caterpillars

Artificial insemination of local cows, commonly, with Holstein-


Friesian semen to improve dairy production. An adult cow
commonly gives about 3 litres of milk a day while a cross-bred
about 10litres/day, with a marginal yield increase of 6 lit./day.

Horticultural seeds and fruit tree seedling production would


increase income and contribute to the improvement of the
46

livelihood of the community. This can be done as an alternative


production under irrigation at the proposed irrigation sites.

Solar energy lighting for households may be convenient and


comfortable but initial cost could be relatively expensive. For a
household, one unit of solar energy lighting set at a cost of about
Br. 2,500 and lighting 2 strong bulbs will suffice. With careful
management, this unit lasts for about 20 years without any extra
cost.

Kerosene lamps, with all the discomfort and inefficiency, require


about 5litres of diesel oil per month per household. The current
price for one litre is about Br.8 and the annual consumption
would cost about Br.480/yr/HH. This cost is equivalent to the
cost of the solar unit lasting only for 11 years. So, the advantage
of solar unit is that it lasts for more than 20 years.

Introduction of the use of mud bricks for house construction by


making them locally and building a model house made of this
product. This is used for walls of any shape and size. Taking an
example of 6m. diameter rural house, wood requirement for wall
construction is about 150m3 which costs some Br.3750 at present
price. Using mud bricks would, therefore, save such amount of
money per household and is lasting for generations.

Biogas technology could also be introduced to households who


keep large number of animals. A large amount of cow dung could
be available from such households to produce gas sufficient
enough for daily lighting consumption and, to some extent, for
fuel. The by- product (after gas is released) can be used as
manure for fertilizing crop fields.

Simple water purification technique using charcoal, gravel, and


sand in a barrel and filtering the impure water through these
layers:

Impure water
sand
Barrel
gravel

charcoal
filtered water
47

Hand crafts on household basis may be encouraged for additional


income. This may include Basket , chair, table, and shelf making
from bamboo and reed; wood carving for household tools, and
other carpentry work such as wooden bed; making sacks and
ropes from fibre plants; and wool matting or weaving with
material obtained from sheep skin. The technologies can be
obtained through training and materials can be produced locally.

Liquid fertilizer preparation for fertilizing high value fruit or


plantation crops.

1. Add fresh cow dung, legumes or compost in a sack three fourth filled
2. Tie the sack
48

3. Put the tied sack in a container, add water until sack is topped, put
stones on the sack, and place the lid back on container
4. After 3 weeks, remove the sack out and drain the solution in another
container.
5. Add water 4 to 6 times the amount of the concentrated liquid
6. Apply diluted liquid at the base of the plant, splashing is not
recommended

12.7 General recommendation

Training

Training of farmers who would actively participate in the plan


implementation should be trained in the different technical aspects of the
watershed development. Major participant in the training should be the
community watershed planning team, kebele leaders, and other innovative
farmers including female members. Following are areas of needs that would
be given to the indicated groups:

Project leadership and management


soil and water conservation,
nursery establishment and forestry development,
livestock improvement, and forage development
agronomic development for improved crop production
horticultural crop production
Biogas technology
Forest production
water harvesting and small-scale irrigation development
compost and other natural fertilizers preparation
family planning
off-farm activities
preparation and production of energy saving stoves including
solar energy
home economics
mat working etc.

Estimated cost for this activity is about Br. 28,500


49

Experience sharing tours

After the training, experience sharing tour to successful areas would be


necessary to reinforce what they learn in theory. This is also proposed to
cost Br. 31,000 including a field day to be held twice a year within the
model watershed.

Demonstration

Demonstration of some newly introduced technologies may need to


conducted at selected sites to assist the community to understand better and
easily apply such innovations. This may include improved crop seeds,
compost and artificial fertilizers, Highland fruits, natural crop protection
methods etc.

Community road construction

Introduction of rural transportation with animal draught carts used to


transport produce from field to storage and market, and the community, to
towns and health centres at demonstration scale first. Dry weather road/trail
should be constructed by the community on labour basis to connect to the
main road located at 2.5km south. This may require a labour force of 7500
PD which is estimated at Br. 150,000 money equivalent.
50

Figure 8 A typical cross-section design of RR 3 standard rural road


(MoARD, 2005)
51

Fig. 7:- Group of farmers and woreda experts from Belessas Goncha on an
experience sharing visit to E/Gojjam.

13.0 Work Volume and Implementation plan


According to the recommendations given to the different newly proposed
land uses work volume is quantified and presented with schedules of
implementation and cost:
52

Table 7:-
Seed/ seedling requirements

Species Unit Quantity Budget Year


1 2 3 4 5
Forage
Phalaris acquatica kg 10 2000 10
Forage setaria kg 10 2000 10
Oats Q 2 2000 2
Vetch kg 10 2000 3 4 3
Greenleaf Desmodium kg 10 3200 3 4 3
Alfalfa kg 10 3200 3 4 3
Stylosanthes spp. kg 10 3200 3 4 3
Sesbania sesban kg 10 700 4 3 3
Tree lucerne kg 5 500 3 1 1
Elephant grass cuts 5310 1100 2000 2000 1310
Vetiver Grass splits 130,000 13000 30,000 50000 50,000
Fodder beet kg 5 2000 5
Dinsho grass cuts 4000 5000 1000 1500 1500

Fruit tree
Apple seedling 3540 194700 600 1500 1440
Peach seedling 50 2500 50
Plum seedling 50 2500 50

Plantation tree
Rhamnus prinoides seedling 3540 70800 3540

Arable crops
Hibrid Maize (BH660) Q 3 3000 1 1 1
Triticale Q 10 15000 3 2
Potato (improved) Q 5 5000 5
Onion Q 2 2000 2
Garlic Q 1 1500 1
Barley Q 3 3000 3
Wheat Q 3 3000 3

Tree species
Eucalyptus globules seedling 130,000 130000 65000 65000
Highland bamboo seedling 5400 27000 1400 2000 2000
juniperus procera seedling 10,000 20000 2000 4000 4000
Hagenia abyssinica seedling 7500 15000 1500 3000 3000
Olea africana seedling 7,500 15000 1500 3000 3000
Acacia abyssinica seedling 5000 5000 1000 2000 2000
Ac. Decurrens seedling 5,000 5000 1000 2000 2000
ac. Saligna seedling 2000 2000 2000
Reed split 2,000 1000 1000 1000

Table 8 Quantity of Work, Required Person days and Implementation


Schedule
53

Physical soil and water conservation


Activity implementation schedule
Type of activities Unit Quantity Required Cost (year)
Person
days (Br.) 1 2 3 4
Gully fencing km 7.5 625 12500 2.5 5
Reshaping m3 3000 3000 60000 1000 2000
Brushwood check d. linear m. 50 17 340 50
Artificial water way km 3 9000 180000 1 2
SS dams m3 (2) 280 374 7480 140 (1) 140 (1)
Stone check dam linear m. 1400 2800 56000 500 500 400
Gabbion check dam m3 50 100 2000 50
Cutoff drain m3 6075 8680 1736000 2075 2000 2000
Soil bund km 65 9750 195000 35 30
Micro-basins No. 32000 6400 128000 10000 12000 10000
Hillside terrace km 18 4500 90000 9 9
Stone-faced soil bund km 50 12500 250000 20 20 10

Biological Soil and water conservation


Grass sodding m2 30000 6000 120000 10000 20000
Bund planting seedlings 500000 2500 50000 270000 230000
Pitting No. 200000 10000 80000 70000 70000 60000
Tree planting seedlings 200000 4000 200000 70000 70000 60000
Gully revegetation seedlings 72000 720 14400 24000 48000
Tree seedling prdn. seedlings 400000 4000 80000 100000 150000 150000
Area closure (gaurding) ha 20 1460 292000 20 20 20

Forage production
Over-sowing ha 60 300 6000 60
Under-sowing ha 10 50 1000 10
Urea top-dressing ha 50 50 1000 50
Backyard forage prdn. m2 17700 234 4680 17700

Water development
Pond excavation m3 48 48 960 48 48
Trough excavation m3 20 20 400 10 10
Stone-faced earth dam m3 100 100 2000 40
Spill way excavation m3 183 366 7320 183
Hand dug well const. No. 4168 8336 166720 59 59 59

Other activities
Compost preparation m3 7260 2420 48400 7260
Toilet and shower exca. No. 177 531 10620 59 59 59
54

Table 9 Quantity of Materials, tools, Cost and schedule of supply

Materials
Type material and tools Unit Quantity Cost Supply schedule (years)
1 2 3
Urea fertilizer Q 12.5 5000 4.5 4 4
Cement Q 354 1416000 132 133 89
Sand m3 51 10200 19 20 12
Plastic membrane m2 420 4000 420
Wood post post 2000 50000 667 1333
Wood purlin pcs 3000 45000 1000 2000
Nails kg 100 3000 33 67
Brushwood post 300 6000 300
Stone m3 1698 1698000 633 634 431
Gravel m3 93 18600 35 35 23
Nursery tools LS 50000 50000
Hand tools
- pick axe No. 200 8000 200
- shovel No. 200 7000 200
Gabbions box 2m3 box 50 20000 50
Hand dug well with pump No. 10 350000 3 4 3
Chicken house No. 177 177000 59 59 59
Beehives No. 885 708000 295 295 295
Pully No. 177 53100 59 59 59
Barrel No. 177 53100 59 59 59
Chicken purchase No. 2124 53100 708 708 708
Purchase of bee colonies Colonies 885 354000 295 295 295

Table 10 Cost Summary and Disbursement

Cost
Disbursement schedule
No. Item Total cost (year)
(Br) 1 2 3 4 5
Materials cost
1 Procurement of chicken 53100 17710 17710 17710
2 Procurement of chicken 354000 118000 118000 118000
3 Forage fertilizer 5000 1800 1600 1600
4 Construction 645200 224565 275935 144700
5 HDW with hand pumps 350000 105000 140000 105000
6 Cost of beehive 708000 236000 236000 236000
7 Nursery tools 50000 50000
8 Pulley and barrel 106200 35400 35400 35400
9 Hand tools 518200 518200
Management cost
10 Poultry management 1292100 258420 258420 258420 258420 2
11 Apiary management 646050 129210 129210 129210 129210 1
Labour cost
12 Physical SWC 1154920 459543 532225 163152
13 Biological SWC 632000 219000 269000 144000
55

14 Forage production 63400 12680 12680 12680


15 Water development 177400 56253 65573 55574
16 Other activities 59020 51940 3540 3540
Seed/seedling cost
17 Forage seeds and sdlngs 38100 14190 13019 10891 199700 3
18 Fruit tree seedlings 199700 38000 82500 79200
19 Plantation trees 70800 70800
20 Arable crop seeds 32500 19000 12500 1000
21 tree seedlings 219000 846000 101200 33200

Benefit
Benefit disbur
No. Item Unit Total Total (year)
price (5yrs)
Production (Br) 1 2 3
Grass improvement
1 and TDM 6137 1227000 245480 245480 245480
forage yield
2 Meat sale kg 1200 180000 36000 36000 36000
3 Irrigation development Q 3500 1750000 350000 350000 350000
4 Compost fertilization Q 6500 2600000 520000 520000 520000
Backyard
5 development
- Rhamnus prinoides 4442700 888540 888540 888540
- Fruit trees
- Vegetables
6 Woodlot plantation m3 4756 1426800
7 Bamboo plantation Poles 5400 27000
8 Poultry production Eggs 1770000 1770000 354000 354000 354000
9 Honey production kg 17700 1770000 354000 354000 354000

14.0 Monitoring and evaluation


14.1 Objectives

The major objective of the project monitoring and evaluation is to monitor if


the implementation is according to plan and to evaluate the expected
outcome. The success or failure would, therefore, be used as lesson for
planning consideration of the future improvement.

The second objective would be to identify unforeseen constraints and


propose workable solutions.

14.2 Parameter to be monitored


56

According to the stages of the project the parameters to be monitored and


evaluated would be:-

Project establishment: those parameters that measure the setting up


of the project together with logistical back up; these include labour,
materials and supplies etc.

Project implementation: those parameters that measure the physical


construction of the project.

Post-implementation: those parameters that measure the physical


effects on production, including yield

Those parameters that measure the continuous aspects of the project:


The timeliness of input delivery, efficiency of labour etc.

The gender sensitivity of the project: the participation in project


implementation, and the benefit sharing from the outcome, of female
members

14.3 Responsibility for M&E

Both the Kebele administration with kebele women affairs and the
community watershed committee including DAs are major responsible
bodies for monitoring and evaluation of the project, with significance
assistance from the woreda watershed team of experts and SWHISA
consultants.

14.4 Methodologies

The methodology of monitoring and evaluation would rest entirely


on regular supervision, reports, and leadership meetings. The
frequency of the above may vary with different stages of the project.

Project implementation should be supervised every scheduled day by


watershed management team. This should be reported to the kebele
leaders every weekend for necessary amendments and actions to be
taken as required.

Post-implementation monitoring and evaluation would be based on


reports reinforced by field physical assessment.
57

Annual meeting to discuss the performance of the project should be


held at the woreda with woreda administration and relevant sector
offices.

15.0 Benefit and Cost Analysis


Costs

The major cost incurred for the development of this watershed may be
described as follows:

a. Labour cost involving water development, forage production,


biological and physical soil conservation, rural road construction,
and other activities like compost preparation. The total cost is about
Br. 2,237,000 distributed over 3 to 5 years.
b. Cost of seeds and seedlings for forage, fruit trees, plantation trees,
crop seeds, and tree seedlings amounts to about Br. 560,100
disbursed over 3 years.
c. Materials and other costs composed of construction materials, hand
tools, hand dug wells fitted with hand pumps etc. amounts up to Br.
2,789700 which is distributed over 3 years.
d. Management costs for poultry and apiary management sum up to Br.
1,938,150 within five years period
e. Training and experience sharing cost amounts to Br. 59,500 to be
applied in yr 1.

The total project cost (investment and running) is estimated to be Br.


7,374,690 which is distributed over 3 to 5 years period.

Benefits

The project is expected to benefit the watershed population from different


interventions. About 50% of the women are assumed to benefit from the
project i.e. out of the total 177 households 22 are women headed and 155
are wives. The major benefits are attributed to grassland improvement and
forage yield, irrigation development, compost production and use, backyard
development and wood lot plantations, and poultry and honey production
etc. The largest benefit is estimated to be obtained from backyard
development involving vegetables, forage, fruits and boundary plantations.
Following are the estimated benefits to be gained from different major
interventions within 5 years of the project life:

Grass improvement and forage yield = Br. 1,227,000


58

Irrigation development = Br.1,750,000


Compost fertilization and crop yield = Br.2,600,000
Woodlot production = Br.1,426,800 (in year 10)
Poultry production = Br. 1,770,000
Honey production = Br. 1,770,000
Sales of meat = Br. 180,000
Sales of bamboo poles = Br. 27,000 (in year 4)

The total benefit obtained over 5 years is estimated to be about Br.


15,193,500 (Br. 1,426,800 to be obtained in year 10).

Benefit : cost analysis

Results and discussion:-

The benefit: cost analysis is made at different discount rates (r) 5, 10, 15,
and 20%, and at different periods. The choices of the discount rates are
based on the following justifications: The lower the discount rate, the higher
the value of the discounted net benefit in any future year, and vice-versa. To
demonstrate this four levels of discount rate (r), i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, and
20% are used and benefit-cost calculated at each r.

The decision of choosing the suitable discount rate (r) depends on the
circumstances. Private individuals are usually concerned about money now
rather than in the future. Therefore they usually choose higher r (in this case
20%), whereas government is more concerned about future values, hence
can go for the lower value of r. reflecting the value of watershed
development to the society as a whole.

The length of time for which the analysis is made depends on the economic
returns of the different interventions. In other words, some measures showed
a positive net present value (NPV) at an earlier period than others.

Results of the analysis are briefly presented as follows:

Analysis was made for ten years for woodlot production, four years
for bamboo production, and five years for the rest of development
interventions i.e. grassland improvement and pasture production,
irrigation development and vegetable production, soil conservation
with natural fertilizer application and crop yield improvement,
poultry and honey production, and backyard development and
package productions etc.
The overall analysis resulted that in discount rates 5, 10, 15, and
20% the NPV is 5.2, 3.5, 2.5, and 1.9million Birr while the Net
benefit-investment ratio (N/K), similar to Benefit Cost ratio, 1.9, 1.8,
1.7, and 1.64 respectively. Internal rate of return (IRR) could not be
59

calculated due to its nature that it cannot be calculate if there is/are


no negative value/s in the cash flow.
The NPV is positive at all discount rates and the N/K is above 1
again for all discount rates. Therefore, the project is very robust, and
so, can be comfortably undertaken.

16.0 Responsibilities of plan implementation


As indicated in section 12.3, the major implementers of the plan are the
benefiting population. Any labour incurred in plan implementation should
be produced from the community. In addition to this, the supply of inputs
such as rock and gravel, wooden posts and purlin, composting materials,
purchase of chicken and bee colonies etc. should be made, as much as
possible, by the community.

Overall coordination of plan implementation should rest primarily on the


watershed committee, with sufficient support from the development agents,
the woreda watershed team, and the woreda office of agriculture and rural
development (WoARD). Furthermore, the supply of seeds, fruit seedlings,
construction materials, skilled labour, and hand tools etc. should be made
through the WoARD.

However, the community calls for potential donors to obtain resources


which are not available and affordable locally, and this may include the
following:

On a demonstration basis the supply of


Arable crop seeds
Highland fruit seedlings

b) Full supply of

Forage seeds
Tree seeds
Cost of materials for backyard hand dug wells (cement, barrel,
pulley etc.)
Cost of materials for toilet and shower
Nursery materials and tools for establishment
Hand tools
and construction of water trough.

The cost of labour required for all development activities and other major
costs would be covered by donors such as PSNP, MERET, or GTZ-Sun
60

Amhara etc upon formal request and agreement. This may include the
following:

a. Labour cost for:-


Soil and water conservation activities, particularly on
common lands
Water development activities (Backyard HDW, stone faced
earth dam, spring development, pond excavation, and trough
construction)
Forage development and production
Livestock development
Natural fertilizer production
Seedling production
Forest/woodlot development

b. Material cost for:-

Urea fertilization
Cement and sand
Plastic membrane
Wood post and purlin
Stone, gravel, and nails
Gabion boxes
Bee hives and bee colonies
Chicken and chicken house

c. Total cost for the construction of hand dug wells fitted with hand
pump.

As indicated in 14.3, the responsibility of monitoring and evaluation would


lie on the community and the woreda offices with a substantial assistance
from SWHISA experts and other donors who are involved in the
development of this project.

17.0 Issues
The plan is a community based and owned development plan. For the plan
to be implemented, however, they need to be supported with materials,
supplies, and finance for the development work which is essential but which
they can not afford. For such activities, therefore, they would need
facilitation support to obtain assistances from potential donors.
In addition to this, the following may also need to be considered:
61

The supply of the materials indicated in the plan should be made


available accordingly. Delay of supplies will directly affect the
implementation schedule.
The major implementers of the planned activities are the
communities. The commitment and the participation of the people,
on which the implementation of the plan is based, is the most
important. Without this commitment it would be difficult to
accomplish the activities as per the plan.
It is also important that, prior to the commencement of the
implementation, training should be given to the community on some
of the technically advanced activities.
Credit and market access should be sought for the production
storage, and marketing of, especially, irrigated crops, poultry and
honey produces, and other value adding business. This may be
possible through credit and savings cooperative establishment and
promotion.
Supportive policies are required to secure family farming; for
example, purchasing farm produces directly from the households
creates market and encourages continuous production, while
improving the income and the livelihood.

18.0 References
Alemayehu Mengistu, 1997. Conservation based forage development for
Ethiopia, SHDI, Addis Ababa

Chadhokar, P.A., 1985. Multi-purpose plant species for soil and water
conservation, field Document No. 14 (Revised),
FAO, Addis Ababa.

FAO/UNESCO, 1974. Soil Map of the World, Vol. 1 Legend, Paris


62

Hudson, N., 1981. Soil Conservation, 2nd ed. BT Batsford, London.

Huisman, 1988. Guideline on some Important Calculations in the Analysis


of Socio economic Survey (unpub.), FAO, Addis Ababa

Hurni, H., 1986. Guideline for Development Agents on Soil Conservation in


Ethiopia, CFSDD, MoA, Addis Ababa

MoARD, 2005. Community Based Participatory Watershed Development,


Addis Ababa

MoARD, RELMA, 2005. Managing Land: A practical Guide for


Development Agents in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
and Nairobi

Michael, A.M. 1978. Irrigation: Theory and practice, Vikas pub. House
PVT. LTD. DELHI.

Gittinger, J. P., 1982. Economic Analysis of Agricultural Projects, the John


Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

SIDA, (No date). Village Nurseries: for forest trees how to set them and
how to run them, Swedforest Consulting AB, Stocholm.

Stocking, M.A., 1984. Erosion and soil productivity: A Review. FAO,


Rome.

Stoll, G., 1992. Natural Crop protection in the Tropics, Verlag Josef
Margraf, Scientific books, FR Germany

Tantigegn Kebede, 1991. Soil conservation based Land use Plan for Yisr
Catchment, MSc. Thesis, Norwich, UK.

Tantigegn Kebede, 1996. Soil Conservation Reconnaissance Phase Report,


Kobo Girana Valley Development Project, Kobo,
CoSAERAR

Tantigegn Kebede, 2008. Guideline for Compost Preparation, Bahr Dar


(unpub.).

Thomas, D.B., (ed.), 1997. Soil Conservation for Kenya, Ministry of


Agriculture, Livestock Development and
Marketing, Nairobi.

Wenner, C.G., 1985. Soil Conservation: Pocket book for technicians of


63

South Eastern Zone, SIDA, Asella


Addis Ababa

Yohannes Gebre Michael, 1988. Land Use, Agricultural Production and Soil
Conservation Methods in Andit Tsid Area,
Shewa Region. MA Thesis, Addis Ababa
University.
64

ANNEX 1

SOIL AND
WATER CONSERVATION MEASURES
(EXTRACTED FROM SOIL
CONSERVATION IN ETHIOPIA)
By
(HANS HURNI, 1986)
65

1. Soil Conservation Measures on Cultivated Land

Definition:

Cultivated land is land under cultivation or under temporary fallow,


or land that will be used for cultivation in immediate future.

List:

Alley cropping
Grass strip
Level bund
Level Fanya juu
Graded bund
Graded Fanya juu
Bench terrace
66
ALLEY CROPPING Alley cropping is applied by individual land holders on their land, and
Definition: the products are at their own use.
Alley cropping is an agroforestry system in which food crops are grown Trees are planted in rows of pits along the contour spaced with up to a
in alleys between rows of hedges. The hedges follow the contour and 5 meter vertical interval on steep slopes.
consists of trees and shrubs such as Leucaena or Pigeon peas.
Leguminous perennials are more suitable as they fix nitrogen. Hedges Effects:
can also be placed on conservation structures. Trees and shrubs provide green manure or mulch for recycling nutrients to
the soil. Prunings, applied during follow, suppress weeds and create
Area of Applicability: favorable conditions for soil organisms. Soil erosion is reduced. Bunds
on steeper slopes are stabilized. Nitrogen is fixed and made available to
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: companion plants.
a) Slope Range:
All Wurch All Combinations:
Moist and Wet b) Soil Range: Alley cropping can be used with physical measures applied on steep
Weyna Dega All, including shallow and degraded slopes, even in the Dega belt for certain leguminous trees
Moist Kolla degraded soils growing at that altitude. Below steep slopes, CUTOFF DRAIN is used to
protect cultivated land. CUT AND CARRY, TREE PLANTING and
REVEGETATION are used with alley cropping.
Specifications:
Materials:
Besides the trees mentioned, bushes and shrubs, which are traditionally
The following tree species are commonly used in agroforestry in known as fodder perennials, can also be used for alley cropping.
Ethiopia: Additional materials are line level and digging instrument.
Acacia albida: This tree occurs in the moist Kolla and moist
Weyna dega, and is used on cultivated land to improve soil Management and Maintenance:
fertility and as fodder. Branches are cut short to minimize Planting must be narrow in the hedge (every 1m). Weeding and pruning
shadow when planted with tef. is needed. Grazing between rows of trees only with tied cattle, better
Sesbania and Leucaena: These have been introduced and are used even CUT AND CARRY. Crop production is shifting between trees,
like Acacia albida on cultivated land. They may be cut short at the leaving a strip fallow after cultivation for above five years. Use
end of the dry season to keep shadow to a minimum especially with traditional knowledge about soil fertility improvement and tree
tef. With sorghum and maize, problems of light competition are less. management. Use traditional knowledge about soil fertility improvement
Bamboo, true mans tree, and many local species known to farmers and tree management. Up-brining of trees need careful supervision by the
can be used for alley cropping at the altitudes of their natural farmer who applies alley cropping on his land. Grazing should not
occurrence. degrade the grass cover. Crops are allowed only if soil fertility has
improved. Crop rotation. Regular cutting of tree branches for mulch and
Spacing between rows of hedges should not be more than 5m on fodder.
hedgerows, trees and shrubs can be spaced 25-100cm apart.
When cutting down, take care that shrub is cut above lowest split of
branches, and not below, to support fast regrowth.
67
Combinations:
Use CUT AND CARRY for grass management. Sometimes,
CUTOFFDRAN between grass strips is useful for safety reasons if heavy
GRASS STRIP storms occur. REVEGETATION as for bunds can be applied to improve
Definition:
grass strips.
A grass strip is a ribbon-like band of grass laid out on cultivated land
along the contour. Usually, grass strips are about 1 meter wide and
Materials:
spaced at 1 m vertical interval. They are mainly used to replace physical
Local grass sods from well developed grassland for planting. Digging
structures on soil with good in filtration (sandy, silty) on gentle slopes.
instruments, line level, stakes for marking strips. Grass seeds if available
Cattle must be excluded from this measure all year long to provide for
or collected nearby.
sufficient length of the grasses to slow runoff and retain soil sediment.
Management and Maintenance:
Area of Applicability:
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: Select grass carefully and consult farmers. Runner grass is not suitable
a) Slope Range: because it will disturb the crops. Introduced grass may be used, but
Slope of less than 15% gradients generally the local species known to the farmers will do. Grass strips can
Moist & Wet Wurch be improved to ALLEY CROPPING. Every farmer maintains the grass
Moist and Wet Dega b) Soil Range: strips on his own land and he is allowed to CUT AND CARRY. Care
Moist & Wet Weyna Dega All must be taken that the strips are not narrowed with every ploughing.
Moist Kolla Width of one meter is the absolute minimum required for effectiveness.

Specification:
Spacing with 1 meter vertical interval means that on a 3% slope, grass
strips will be 33 m apart, and on a 15% slope, only 7 m apart, still
sufficient for ploughing between the strips.

Effects:
Grass strips help to reduce runoff and to filter out sediments carried by
runoff. They are especially suitable on soil with good infiltration and
where the climate is not too dry for dense grass development. If grazing
is totally prevented, the grass strips will effectively build up into terraces
and provide good fodder for cattle which can be used with CUT AND
CARRY.
68

LEVEL BUND
Definition Combination:
A level bund is an embankment along the contour, made of soil and/or
stones, with a basin at its upper side. The bund reduces or stops the CUTOFF DRAIN may be necessary in cases where not all runoff can be
velocity of overland flow and consequently soil erosion. Level bunds are retained between the bunds. REVEGETATION is essential as is a
about 50-75 cm high and have a bottom width of 100-150 cm and a water combination with ALLEY CROPPING.
retention basin on their upper side. Usually, tied ridges, placed in the
basin about every 10m, help to prevent runoff to flow sideways and to Materials:
concentrate and overflow one point of the bund. Line level, digging instruments, stone for stone-faced bunds and as
Area of Applicability: mentioned for combined measures (such as suitable local grass and
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: legume for REVEGETATION).
a) Slope Range:
Moist Wurch 3-50% Management and Maintenance:
Moist Dega b) Soil Range:
Moist & Dry Weyna Dega All depths of more than REVEGTATION is recommended on all bunds, especially on soil bunds
All Kolla 50 cm, or according to in moist areas. Grazing in cultivated land treated with bunds must be
farmers consent stopped throughout the year. CUT AND CARRY can be used as an
alternative. The farmer must be present and agree to the design and lining
out of bunds on his land. Otherwise, discuss alternatives. Every farmer is
Specification: responsible for carrying out the maintenance of bunds on his own land.
The vertical interval between two bunds is 1 meter for slope gradients Bunds must be maintained whenever they tend to break. Bunds have to
of less than 15%. For steeper slopes, the vertical interval must be two be increased annually until BENCH TERRACE is developed.
and a half times the depth of reworkable soil.
About every 50 m, a gap can be left open to allow ploughing oxen to
cross and reach their land.

Effects:
Level bunds are walls to retain all run off between two bunds. Overflow
should never occur and runoff sideways will occur only due to
inappropriate lining of the bunds. Soil which is eroded between to bunds
is deposited in the basin behind the lower bund. Whenever the basin is
full of sediment, the bund must be raised. Like this, a BENCH
TERRACE will develop in the course of years.
69
LEVEL FANYA JUU
Definition Combination:
A level Fanya juu (Throw uphill in Swahili language) is an
embankment along the contour, made of soil and/or stones, with a basin at CUTOFF DRAIN may be necessary in cases where not all runoff can be
its lower side. The Fanya juu reduces or stops the velocity of overland retained between the Fanya juus. REVEGETATION is essential as is a
flow and consequently soil erosion. In difference to the LEVEL BUND, combination with ALLEY CROPPING. Both can be used for better
the soil in a Fanya juu is moved upslope for construction. The water stabilization of the Fanya juu.
retention basin is thus at the lower side of the wall. Tied ridges about
every 10 meters are used also here to prevent runoff to flow sideways. Materials:
Area of Applicability: Line level, digging instruments, blocks of stone for stone-faced
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: embankment, and material mentioned for combined measures (such as
a) Slope Range: suitable local grass and legume for REVEGETATION).
Moist Wurch 3-50%
Moist Dega b) Soil Range: Management and Maintenance:
Moist & Dry Weyna Dega All depths of more than
All Kolla 50 cm, or according to REVEGTATION is recommended on all Fanya juus, especially on soil
farmers consent bunds in moist areas. Grazing must be stopped on cultivated land treated
with bund throughout the year. CUT AND CARRY can be used as an
Specification: alternative. The farmer must be present and agree to the design and lining
The vertical interval between two bunds is 1 meter for slope gradients out of bunds on his land. Every farmer is responsible for carrying out the
of less than 15%. For steeper slopes, the vertical interval must be two maintenance of Fanya juus on his own land. They must be maintained
and a half times the depth of rework able soil. The height of the Fanya whenever they tend to break, especially is storms. Fanya juus have to be
juu is 50-75 cm, and the ditch is about 50 cm deep. The space increased annually until BENCH TERRACE is developed.
between the ditch and the berm is at least 25cm. The width of the
ditch depends on the soil fertility. On fertile subsoil, it may be very
wide and crops can be planted in the ditch.

About every 50 m, a gap can be left open to allow ploughing oxen to


cross and reach their land.

Effects:
Level Fanya juu are embankments to retain all run off between two
bunds. Runoff is retarded behind them, and the overflow is collected in
the ditch below the embankment. Runoff in the ditch flowing sideways is
stopped by the tied ridges. Soil eroded between two Fanya juus is
deposited behind the lower one. Whenever the small basin behind and the
ditch below the Fanya juus are full of sediment, they must be raised with
deposit material from the ditch. Like this, A BENCH TERRACE will
develop in the course of a few years.
70
GRADED BUND two bunds in deposited, while some will be drained sideways during
Definition heavy storms and lost from the land. However, graded bunds are more
A graded bund defined like a LEVEL BUND with the only difference that effective in wet areas as well as in moist areas with clay soils .
is slightly graded sideways, with a gradient of up to 1%, towards a
waterway or river. Such a gradient is for surplus runoff to be drained if Combination:
the retention of the bund is not sufficient. Tied ridges with top heights
lower than the bund height serves to retard such flow and to provide small WATERWAY must be developed one year before graded bunds are
basins for water storage. applied. This is needed for draining the excess runoff. REVEGETATION
or ALLEY CROPPING must be used on the bunds for their stabilization.
Area of Applicability: BENCH TERRACE develops from graded bunds with continuous
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: increase over the years.
a) Slope Range:
3-50%s Materials:
All Wurch
All Dega b) Soil Range: Line level, digging instruments, blocks of stone for stone-faced bunds and
Wet & Moist Weyna Dega All soil in wet, clay as mentioned for combined measures (such as suitable local grass and
Moist Kolla in moist agro climatic legume for REVEGETATION).
zones
Specification: Management and Maintenance:
The vertical interval between two bunds is 1 meter for slope gradients
of less than 15%. For steeper slopes, the vertical interval must be two REVEGTATION is needed especially on soil bunds in moist areas.
and a half times the depth of rework able soil. Continuous repair during and after heavy storms is indispensable,
No gaps can be provided for ploughing oxen to cross (as for level especially in the first years after construction. The entry point to the
bunds) because the graded bund serves as drainage line which cannot WATERWAY has to be constructed carefully with dry masonry. Every
be interrupted. farmer is responsible for carrying out continues maintenance on the
Whenever possible, use and improve traditional waterways in the area graded bunds of his land. Breakings have to be closed during and after
where you intend to apply graded bunds. Discuss with farmers about storms. Bunds have to be increased annually until BENCH TERRACE is
the measures lined out before you implement them. Make the developed. Even thereafter, the drainage ditch going sideways to next
waterways one year before the graded structures to stabilize them waterway or river must be maintained.
before use.
If the bunds are long, the basins behind them have to be increased
towards the waterway, because more and more runoff will have to
pass during storms. The size of the ditch can be 25cm deep by 50cm
wide at the beginning of the bund, but 50cm deep by 100cm wide
after about 100-150m when the bund reaches the river.

Effects:
Graded bunds retain normal amounts of run off in their basins, but they
can drain excess runoff of heavy storms which would cause overflow and
downs lope destruction on level bunds. Most of the soil eroded between
71
GRADED FANYA JUU by 25 cm wide at the beginning of the structure, but 75 cm wide after
Definition about 100-150m when the graded Fanya juu reaches the waterway.
A graded Fanya juu (Throw uphill in Swahili language) is defined like a
LEVEL FANYA JUU with the only difference that is slightly graded Effects:
sideways towards a waterway with a gradient of up to 1%. This gradient
is for surplus runoff to be drained if the retention of the fanya juu is not Graded Fanya juus retain small amounts of runoff above their wall and
sufficient. Tied ridges behind the embankment provide small basin for they drain excess runoff heavy storms through the ditch below which
water storage and guide the water over the bund into the ditch below from would cause overflow and downslope destruction on level (Fanya juu)
where it is drained sideways. structures. Some of the soil eroded between two Fanya Juus deposited
above the wall, some is deposited in the ditch, while the rest is drained
Area of Applicability: sideways. Graded Fanya juus are more difficult to manage, but support
1. Agro climatic Zones: 2. Local situation: the development of BENCH TERRACE very well.
a) Slope Range:
3-50%, more on steeper slopes Combination:
All Dega
Wet and Moist b) Soil Range: WATERWAY is needed for draining the excess runoff. It must be
Weyna Dega All deep soils in wet, deep clay developed over the year before graded Fanya Juus are applied.
Moist Kolla soils in moist agro climatic REVEGETATION or ALLEY CROPPING is used on the Fanya juus for
zones their stabilization. BENCH TERRACE develops from graded Fany juus
with the continuous increase of the wall.
Specification:
Materials:
Caution is needed when applying graded Fanya juus because they Line level, digging instruments, blocks of stone for stone-faced
need careful design, supervision and maintenance, although embankment and as mentioned for combined measures (such as suitable
conservation is effective. local grass and legumes for REVEGETATION).
The vertical interval between two graded Fanya juu is 1 m for slope
gradients of less than 15% for steeper slopes, the vertical interval is Management and Maintenance:
two and a half times the depth of rework able soil. It is recommended
to apply stone-faced bunds whenever possible to make them strong REVEGETATION is recommended on all Fanya juus, including the
for overflows. stone-faced ones. Most important is a continuous repair during and after
No gaps can be provided for ploughing oxen to cross (as for level heavy storm. Otherwise, the ditch will be filled with sediment. The entry
Fanya juu) because the graded Fanya juu serves as drainage line point of the WATERWAY has to be constructed with careful dry
which cannot be interrupted. masonry. Every farmer is responsible for carrying out continuous
Whenever possible, use and improve traditional waterways in the area maintenance on the graded Fanya juus of his land. Breakings have to be
one year before you apply graded Fanya juus. Discuss with farmers closed during and after storms and the ditch emptied from sediment.
about the measures lined out before you implement them. Embankments have to be increased annually until BENCH TERRACE is
If the Fanya juus are long, the ditches below them have to be developed. The drain sideways to the next waterway or river must be
increased towards the waterway because more and more runoff will maintained.
have to pass during storms. The size of the ditch can be 50 cm deep
72

BENCH TERRACE Effects:


Definition Leveling the cultivated land will greatly reduce soil erosion, mostly to
A bench terrace is a conservation structure where a slope is converted into tolerable amounts. If the spacing between two riser slopes is carried out
series of steps, with a horizontal cultivated area on the step and steep with the vertical interval as described here, the cultivated land will be
risers between two steps. In Ethiopia, it is either constructed directly on a almost level when the terrace is developed. On the riser slope, grass and
slope or gradually developed from bunds and Fanya juus. Bench terraces legumes can be developed through REVEGETATION. Maintenance is
are level along the contour in dry to moist agroclimatic zones. In moist to essential for terrace development from Fanya juus and bunds, and
wet agroclimatic zones, they are graded to drain excess runoff sideways to indispensable also to the prevention of terrace destruction later on.
the next river or waterway.
Combination:
Area of Applicability:
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation: LEVEL or GRADED BUNDS or FANYA JUUs GRASS STRIP and
ALLEY CROPPING can all be used for starting terrace development if
a) Slope Range: the terraces are not constructed directly. Stabilization of the riser slope
All Wurch slope up to 50% gradient through REVEGETATION. Add CUTOFF DRAIN for protecting the
All Dega b) Soil Range: terraces from runoff coming from upslope Start with WATERWAY in the
All Weyna Dega Vertical interval is two and a first year for graded terrace development.
All Kolla half times the soil depth
Materials:
Digging instruments, line level, materials as indicated fro combined
Specification: measures.
Bench terraces must be spaced with a vertical interval which is two
and a half times the depth of reworkable soil. If the soil is 1m, the Management and Maintenance:
vertical interval is 2.5 m.
Continuous upgrading is indispensable if terraces are developed from
The width of cultivated area on a bench terrace is determined by the bunds. Stabilization of the riser slope through REVEGETATION is
slope gradient and the soil depth as shown in the Table below: necessary. CUTOFFDRAIN for level terraces and continuous
improvement of the ditches below graded terraces is necessary to drain
slope Soil depth (cm) excess run off during storms. Drainage ditches have to be emptied from
gradient 25 50 75 100 125 150 deposited soil after every heavy storm. This is the duty of the farmer to
20% 2.81 m 5.63 m 8.44 m 11.25 m 14.06 m 16.88 m whom the terraces belong and must be supervised by the Peasant
30% 1.77 m 3.54 m 5.31 m 7.07 m 8.85 m 10.63 m Association. The terraces have to be increased and repaired continually
40% 1.25 m 3.50 m 3.25 m 5.00 m 6.25 m 7.50 m
50% 0.94 m 1.88 m 2.81 m 3.75 m 4.69 m 6.63 m
until a stable situation is reached.

Table: Width of cultivated land on bench terraces in meters for variable slope
gradients and soil depths.
Measure the slope gradient and the average soil depth and look in the
Table what width of cultivated land you can expect when using a
vertical interval of two and a half times the soil depth.
73

Soil Conservation measures common to all land use


AREA CLOSURE Effects:
Soil and water conservation is best attained through a dense ground
Definition: cover-by grass and legumes, while roots stabilize the soil. Growth of
Areas closure is a protection system to improve land with degraded vegetation is considerably improved after the exclusion of livestock from
vegetation and/or soil through natural regeneration. No livestock is the area and the future use can be decided according to the conservation
allowed to graze, and no human interference tolerated for 3-5 years, until status and local need.
an 80% natural grass cover is obtained. Utilization of these areas has to
be planned and initiated as soon as a satisfactory state of recovery has Combinations:
been reached.
During area closure CUT AND CARRY may be applied occasionally or
Area of Applicability: reduce fire incidence. If a very good vegetation cover is reached,
CONTROLLED GRAZING is possible on gentle slopes. CUTOFF
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation DRAIN below area closure protects cultivated land. Live-fencing can be
a) Slope Range: used to exclude livestock from grazing.
All Wurch All
All Dega b) Soil Range: Materials:
All weyna Dega All
All Kolla
Plants for live fencing. Line level and digging instruments for cutoff
Specifications: drain. Tools for grass cutting.
Area closure is a temporary action to protect degraded land until a
certain degree of recovery has been attained.
Management and Maintenance:
In area closures no specific actions are taken, except that all human
and livestock interference is excluded. Closed areas have to be well protected. It is important to totally exclude
Sometime after natural recovery, the grass may be cut regularly to the livestock from the area. Degraded parts need long recovery time. The
minimize fire incidence. Hay can be prepared and fed to livestock. responsibility for closed areas is with the Peasant Association, which
During the time to closure, it has to be decided in consultation and provides for the management of such closed areas, for organizing the
with the agreement of the Peasant Association involved how to future use of the area, for CUT AND CARRY and for eventual
increase the productivity of the closed area while maintaining the CONTROLLED GRAZING.
conservation mandate.
There are three main possibilities for the management of area
closures:
1. Return it to cultivation while applying proper conservation
measures.
2. Use it as grassland while applying proper grassland conservation
and development measures.
3. Develop it into forest land while applying forest conservation and
development measures.
75
REVEGETATION Combinations:
Re-vegetation can be used on all physical structures such as BUND and
Definition: FANYA JUU, CUTOFF DRAIN and WATERWAY and for gully control.
Revegetation is a system of forage establishment on land with an The most important issue for successful re-vegetation is the complete
unsatisfactory vegetation cover. Such land can be newly constructed exclusion of cattle from the area throughout the year.
bunds, cutoff drains, water ways or degraded land and gullies. Forage
includes grass, legumes and selected trees and bushes. Materials
Take natural grass and legumes from nearby areas selected by farmers for
Area of Applicability: re-vegetation. Digging instruments for collecting grass sods and legumes.
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation:
a) Slope Range: Management and Maintenance
All Wurch All
All Dega b) Soil Range: Regular cutting of weeds, and CUT AND CARRY of grass and legumes is
All Weyna Dega All important. Cattle must be excluded from re-vegetation area all year,
All Kolla especially after harvest. Sods are planted about every 25cm. Every
farmer is responsible for regularly maintaining the re-vegetation on his
land. The Peasant Association is responsible for re-vegetation on
Specifications: communal land and in gullies.
Three steps are important for revegetation:
1. Exclude all cattle throughout the year. Use CUT AND CARRY
instead.
2. Regularly, cut the weed which grows during the rainy season so
that grass and legumes can develop.
3. Plant sods of grass and legumes. Such sods can be taken from
good natural grassland nearby or from forage nurseries. However,
native species will grow best, and are well known to the farmers
for their quality and value.

Effects:
Revegetation is the most effective way of soil conservation. Grass is able
to reduce soil erosion manifold if established well. Grass also helps to
stabilizing bunds and other structures very much if cattle is excluded from
grazing all year. Revegetation provides forage which is essential for
livestock.
76
CHECKDAM
Combinations:
CUTOFF DRAIN above major gullies is useful for the time of
Definition: establishment of REVEGETATION in the gully if the diverted water can
be drained safely. In severe cases, AREA CLOSURE reduces the
amounts of runoff into the gully. In dry agroclimatic zones, LEVEL
A checkdam is an obstruction wall across the bottom of a gully or a small BUND can be used to retain water in the catchment above the gully.
river, which reduces the velocity of the runoff and prevents the deepening Protection of gully borders and river banks must be carried out
or widening of the gully. Checkdams can be made of any material simultaneously.
available locally, such as stones, live or dead branches, iron bars, wooden
poles, etc. If made of stone, such wall is up to 1 meter high and about 1 Materials:
meter thick and has a depression in the middle to allow runoff to flow
Large boulders, preferably flat sided. Gabions, if available.
through.
Line level. Grass and trees for REVEGETATION (Eucalyptus, Bamboo,
Rhodes grass and Elephant grass. Any material suitable for checkdam
Area of Applicability:
construction.
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation:
a) Slope Range:
Management and Maintenance:
All Wurch All
Checkdams have to be repaired annually, or after every heavy storm. For
All Dega b) Soil Range:
bigger gullies or rivers, refer to technical documents, because there is a
All Weyna Dega Take care on deeply weathered
danger that improperly designed or constructed checkdams are removed
All Kolla rock or loosely accumulated
in a big storm. Checkdams have to be maintained by the group of farmers
deposits
that have land either in the catchment above the gully, along the sides of
Specification: the gully or below the gully. They all have an interest to reduce gullying.
Vertical interval between chekdams is equal to the height of a Maintenance is needed regularly, with somebody assigned by the peasant
checkdam. For stone checkdams, it is 1 meter. Association to supervise how the checkdams behave during the rainy
season.
Checkdams can be easily applied in all gullies of less than 2m depth
and 5m width. Bigger or steep gullies need more attention and
careful design for treatment.

Effects:
Checkdams prevent the widening and deepening of a gully, and assist in
filling it up with sediments. They reduce the velocity of runoff in the
gully. The potential energy is absorbed below the vertical drops of the
overfall. Sediments are deposited behind the checkdams so that the slope
gradient of the gully is also reduced.
77
CUTOFF DRAIN Combinations:
Definition:
A cutoff drain is a channel used to collect runoff from the land above and
to divert it safely to a waterway or river, thus protecting the land below Cutoff drains are combined with WATERWAY to be constructed one year
from excessive erosion. Cutoff drains usually protect cultivated land earlier, with AREA CLOSURE, CONTROLLED GRAZING, CUT AND
from upslope forest land or grassland. CARRY HILLSIDE TERRACE AND MICROBASIN. For the
stabilization of the ditch, REVEGETATION is needed. On very long
Area of Applicability slopes, repeat cutoff drains several times.
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation:
a) Slope Range:
All Wurch 3-50% Materials:
All Dega b) Soil Range:
All Weyna Dega All
All Kolla Line levels, digging irons, shovels, stones, and as needed for combined
Specifications: measures such as grass sods or seeds.
Assuming a 70 mm/hr storm intensity, a poorly grassed cutoff drain, a
hilly pasture above the drain, clay loam soil, and a freeboard of 20 cm Management and Maintenance:
in the drain, the dimensions of the cutoff drain, given for different
sizes of the catchment above the drain area as follows:
Cutoff drains have to be carefully designed and lined out in the field. The
Size of Depth of cutoff Width of cutoff Maximum table on the left side gives some indications of the dimensions of a drain.
catchment (ha) drain (cm) drain (cm) gradient (%) An expert is needed to approve the bigger drains that you want to apply in
1 35 50 4.0 your area. During heavy storms, the cutoff drains have to be supervised.
2 45 70 2.5 If overflow occurs, the dimensions must be increased. If erosion in the
4 55 100 1.5 drain takes place, CHECKDAM and REVEGETATION are needed. All
8 70 140 1.0 farmers that have land below the cutoff drain are responsible for
16 85 200 05
maintenance and repair. For the construction, the members of the Peasant
32 115 280 0.4
64 155 400 0.2 Association have to cooperate since everybody profits from the grass land
above the drain. Cutoff drains have to be maintained annually or after
The gradient of the cutoff drain should not exceed the maximum
heavy storms if necessary.
gradient given. However, in some cases, it will be necessary to
follow a natural line instead of a technical one. If the maximum
gradient is exceeded, take care of erosion in the drain, improve the
grass cover or apply CHECKDAM.
Bigger cutoff drains have to be approved by an expert.

Effects:
Cutoff drains protect down slope land from upslope runoff and erosion.
78
WATERWAY
Definition: Materials:

A waterway is a natural or artificial drainage channel along the steepest Big, flat shaped stones, line level, digging instruments, gabions (wire nets
slope or in the valley used to accommodate runoff. Artificial water ways for stones) and materials needed for combined measures.
as discussed here need to be grassed or stone paved. Traditional
waterways need improvement according to the technical standards given. Management and Maintenance
Area of Applicability Waterways should not create a gully and not endanger land below them
1. Agroclimatic Zones: 2. Local Situation: through overflow. Continuous management and repair of breakages,
a) Slope Range: disruptions of the stone pavement and excessive scouring is needed.
All Wurch 3-50% Waterways have to be maintained by the group of farmers who have land
All Dega b) Soil Range: above and on the sides of he waterways or from whose land there are
Wet & Moist Weyna Dega All, but take care on deeply graded structures leading into them as well as farmers who have land
All Kolla weathered sub soils below them. Maintenance is needed for cutting the grass along and in
waterways, for repairing the stone paving or for improving drop
structures. If gullying is observed, additional measures have to be put
Specifications: into waterways.
On cultivated land with graded structures, waterways must be placed
every 250 m to avoid graded ditches to be too long.
Waterways must always be constructed and grass developed on them,
one year before graded structures are applied on the land.
If there is enough land, cross-sections of waterways should be gentle
If, for lack of land, only narrow waterways are feasible, they must be
made deeper, up to 1 meter and more narrow, about 1.5m. In such
cases, the bottom of the waterway has to be paved very densely with
big, flat shaped stones,.
In long waterways and difficult situations, gabions made of wire nets
can be used as drop structure (CHECKDAM).

Effects:
Waterways enable runoff water which is not stored behind bunds or
infiltrating on the land during a storm to be drained safely to the next
river.
.
lxxix

lxxix
lxxx

Annex 2:

GUIDELINE FOR COMPOST PREPARATION


AND UTILIZATION

CONTENTS
1. Background 1

2. The use of compost 4

3. The process of composting 6

4. Compost materials 7

5. Composting methods 9

6. Site selection for compost preparation 11

7. Schedule for compost preparation 12

8. Procedures for compost preparation 13

9. Diagnosing composting problems

16

10. Application of compost in the field 17

lxxx
1

1. Background
Proper soil management is important both for soil and water conservation and crop
production. The soil management includes maintenance of sufficient organic matter in
the soil that improves texture and structure stability of the soil, improves infiltration and
water holding capacity, and as a result, decreases overland flow, reduces erosion,
improves soil fertility and increases productivity.

The main sources of soil organic matter are the plant residues and animal waste, and this
can be applied in the form of compost. The main advantage of compost is that almost
any kind of plan residues, green or dry, can be used for compost making. Large amount
of crop residues and wild vegetation is available after the rains in rural areas of the wet
and moist agro-climatic zones in Ethiopia. But it is seldom used as compost for soil
fertility improvement.

The preparation of this manual is to technically assist the woreda agriculture experts to
train farmers on compost preparation so that they benefit from this excellent source of
organic fertilizer.

1
2

2. The Use of Compost


Compost is fertilizer made from leaves, weeds, manure, household waste and other
organic materials. It is one of the natures best mulches and soil amendments, an
excellent soil builder supplying a wide variety of plant nutrients. It also creates a
favorable environment for soil organisms. Best of all, compost is cheap you can make it
without spending money.

Using compost improves soil structure, texture and aeration and increase soil water
holding capacity. Compost loosens clay soils and helps sandy soils retain water.
Compost recycles organic materials from around the farm and house, and if it is done
properly it also helps to kill weed seeds.

Generally, compost preparation maximizes the use of locally available organic waste
material in increasing soil organic matter content with the benefits of improved water
retention, better soil workability and texture and structure stability. Apart from being a
source of nutrients and improve soil fertility, it also indirectly minimize soil erosion by
improving infiltration and reducing surface runoff.

Compost should be considered as a valuable soil amendment rather than a fertilizer as


additional fertilization may be necessary to obtain maximum growth and yields.
Compost also is a valuable mulching material for gardens and landscape plants. It may
be used as topdressing for grasses, and when it contains a small amount of soil, as part of
a growing medium for house plants or for starting seedlings.

A very good example for the use of compost and its acceptability may be expressed by
the following data collected from farmers fields who utilize compost for crop production
in East Gojjam zone of Amhara Region.

2
3

Crop Types Applied Yield Applied Yield from


compost Quintal/ha Chemical chemical
Q/ha (from compost) fertilizer fertilizer
Kg/ha
Wheat 120 30 100 27
Teff 100 12 100 12
Barely 80 17 100 20
Wheat 100 19 100 10.25
Faba bean 120 22.6 - -

Farmers in this area accepted and widely used compost for its several advantages as they
observed the material for compost preparation is available at hand, it has a positive
environmental impact, it is equally or more productive than chemical fertilizers, there is
no extra cost for the preparation and it can be made available any time.

A few benefits of using compost are:


1. Contains humus which is the end result of decomposed organic mater and readily
available soil and plant food.
2. Holds nutrients in root zone and delivers them to the plant as needed without
leaching out.
3. Delivers healthy soil organisms that combat soil disease and predatory organisms by
providing natural balance of predator and prey.
4. Unlike manure, compost does not use up available nitrogen to decompose organic
matter.
5. Helps prevent erosion by holding together soil particles which also aerates and
suspends moisture
6. Reduces ground compaction because of those properties and it is a dry application
with less truck traffic needed to apply.
7. Crop yield increases up to 25% or even more.
8. Increased microbial activity consumes pesticide /herbicide carryover from previous
years.
9. Has residual yearly carryover
10. Environmentally friendly

3. The Process of Composting

3
4

Composting is a natural biological process, carried out under controlled aerobic


conditions. In this process, various microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, break
down organic matter into simpler substances. During the first stages of composting,
bacteria increase rapidly. Later actinomycetes (filamentous bacteria), fungi and
protozoans go to work. After much of the carbon in the compost has been utilized and
the temperature has fallen, centipedes, millipedes, sowbugs, earthworms and other
organisms continue the decomposition.

As micro-organisms decompose the organic materials, their body heat causes the
temperature in the pile to rise dramatically. The center of a properly made heap should
reach a temperature of 43 to 600C in four to five days. At this time the pile will begin
settling, which is a good sign that the pile is working properly. The pH should rise to
approximately 7.0 to 7.2.

The heating in the pile will kill some of the weed seeds and disease organisms. However,
this happens only in areas where the most intense temperatures develop. To achieve the
heating of all parts of the pile proper turning is important. The organisms that break
down the organic materials require large quantities of nitrogen. Therefore, adding
nitrogen fertilizer, or other materials that supply nitrogen, is necessary for rapid and
thorough decomposition.

During the breakdown period, the nitrogen is incorporated into the bodies of the microbes
and is not available for plant use. This nitrogen is released when the decomposition is
completed and the compost is returned to the garden.

4
5

4. Compost Materials
Almost any organic material is suitable for compost pile, such ad sods, grass clippings,
leaves, hay, straw, weeds, manure, chopped corn cobs, corn stalks, saw dust, wood ashes,
plant refuse etc. The pile needs a proper ratio of carbon-rich materials or browns, and
nitrogen rich materials, or greens. Among the brown materials are dried leaves, straw,
and wood chips. Nitrogen materials are fresh or green, such as grass clippings and
kitchen scraps.

Mixing certain types of materials or changing the proportions can make a difference in
the rate of decomposition. Too much carbon will cause the pile to break down too
slowly, while too much nitrogen can cause odor. The carbon provides energy for the
microbes, and the nitrogen provides protein. The ideal ratio of carbon to Nitrogen (C:N)
is 30 to 1 (measured on a dry weight basis).

Most organic materials do not have this ratio and, to accelerate the composting process, it
may be necessary to balance the numbers. The following list would help to consider
what materials combined to what for carbon-nitrogen ratios are balancing:
Maternal C:N Ratio
Vegetable wastes 12-20:1
Alfalfa hay 13:1
Cow manure 20:1
Leaves 40-80:1
Corn stalks 60:1
Oat straw 74:1
Saw dust 100-500:1
Grass clipping 12-25:1
Coffee grounds 20:1
Bark 100-130:1
Fruit wastes 35:1
Poultry manure (fresh) 10:1
Horse manure 25:1
Rotted manure 20:1
Pig manure 5-7:1
Tree leaves and misc. foliage 30-80:1
Straw 40-100:1

5
6

Spoiled hay or straw makes an excellent carbon base for a compost pile, especially in a
place where few leaves are available. Hay contains more nitrogen than straw. Manure is
one of the finest materials you can add to any compost pile. It contains large amounts of
both nitrogen and beneficial microbes. Manure for composting can come from sheep,
ducks, pigs, goats, cows, pigeons, and any other vegetarian animals. As a rule of thumb,
we should avoid manure from carnivores, as they contain dangerous pathogens. Most
manure are considered hot when fresh, meaning it is so rich in nutrients that it can burn
the tender roots of young plants or overheat a compost pile, killing off earthworms and
friendly bacteria. Soil helps in composting process by introducing soil micro organisms.

Materials that are not recommended and must not be used are such like the following:
Ashes from coal or charcoal
Carnivores droppings
Fish scraps
Lime
Meat, fat, grease, oils, bones
Plastic materials

6
7

5. Composting Methods
There are several methods of composting. Some of them are those listed as follows:

Sheet Composting
Sheet composting is carried out by spreading organic material on the surface of the soil or
untilled ground and allowing it to decompose naturally. Over time, the material will
decompose and filter into the soil. This method is ideally suited for forage land, no till
applications, erosion control, roadside landscaping etc. The process does not favour the
destruction of weed seeds; fly larvae, pathogens etc. and composting materials should be
limited to plant residues and manure. Again, decomposition time is governed by
environmental conditions and can be quite lengthy.

Trench Composting
Trench composting is relatively simple. Simply dig a trench of up to 20cms deep, fill
with 10cms of organic material and cover with soil. Wait a few weeks and plant directly
on the trench. This method does not favour the destruction of weed seeds, fly larvae, and
pathogens and the composting process can be relatively slow.

Vermi Composting: Composting with Worms


Vermi-composting is different than the traditional composting. Worm composting is a
process that uses red earthworms to consume organic waste, producing castings (an odour
free compost product for use as mulch), soil conditioner and top soil additives. Naturally
occurring organisms, such as bacteria and millipedes, also assist in the aerobic
degradation of organic material.

Heap Composting
Generally this is one of the most popular methods of composting. The heap method can
be in open air and no labour is required for digging the ground. Moisture, temperature
and aeration can easily be controlled as the heap is easily accessed; and there would not

7
8

be a problem of excess water in the compost as it can drain easily and freely. The heap
can also be turned and mixed for aeration and decomposition without difficulty.

Pit Composting
This method requires digging the ground deep and wide depending on the amount of
compost to be prepared. The disadvantages of the pit method is that (apart from labour
requirement) it is difficult to control the moisture, temperature and aeration; water
logging can occur and difficult to avoid it, and more difficult to turn and mix or requires
more labour to do so.

The advantages of the pit method, however, are the following:


In areas located above 2800masl where temperatures are too low;
In areas where water supply is a problem or insufficient particularly during the
dry season.

From the composting methods discussed, the heap (pile) method is by far the most
suitable methods for local conditions and it is recommended to be used widely.

8
9

6. Site Selection for Compost Preparation


Any pile of organic matter will eventually rot, but a well chosen site can speed up the
process.

There are a few criteria for selecting sites for compost preparation. Under the local
conditions the major ones are the following:
Look for a level and well drained area
Sites that have natural shelter such as trees. If this is not available and the area is
to warm a light grass matting may be constructed over the compost. The shelter
will improve that composting process by reducing moisture loss through sun and
wind.
Should be located on near or at a water supply
Should be far enough from residences to avoid possible bad odours

9
10

7. Schedule for Compost Preparation


Scheduling for compost preparation differs much from temperate to tropical zones. In the
case of the tropical highlands such like Eastern Africa, the largest amount of compost
material is provided during and after the offset of the big rains. Weeds, grass clippings,
maize stalks are the major ones abundant during this period followed by cereal straws,
legume husks and sorghum stalk etc.

This period is therefore peak time to collect composting materials of organic residues.
Animal manure and wood ash is also in excess during the rainy season which should be
collected for this purpose at this time.

After the collection of these materials in sufficient amount compost heaping (piling)
should follow and completed according to the procedures. The schedule for
decomposition and other management requirements continue right after piling is
completed.

Generally, compost materials should be collected in September to October, piling or


proper heaping in November, and follow up to maturity from December to April or
beyond depending on the climate. Cooler climates require longer period and the vice
versa for warm climate.

10
11

8. Procedures for Compost Preparation


There are several methods and procedures of compost preparations in different countries
especially the sequence of piling materials and the thickness of each material. The
following is generally accepted, locally proven for successful decomposition and quality
of compost:
a) Select the most appropriate site for compost preparation, under a natural shelter and
near a water supply.
b) Collect organic wastes, animal manure and ashes etc sufficient for the intended
amount.
c) On the selected site demarcate the boundaries with pegs where the heap will be based.
The heap generally should not exceed 2m width and 1.5m height. But the length
would be as necessary.
d) Within the demarcated boundary, the first layer of organic residues would be spread
up to 20cm from the ground and compact firmly. Moist each layer with water. The
organic materials have to contain as much as possible the right C: N ratio referring to
the table in section 4. Do not use weeds with persistent root systems, and weeds that
are about to seed. For faster decomposition all organic residues should be chopped up
before adding to the pile.
e) Sprinkle wood ash at the rate of about Kg/m 2, over the compacted organic residues.
Do not use coal ashes, as they usually contain a large amount of sulfur and iron that
injure plants. (This might not be a problem in rural areas where no one uses coal as
fuel).
f) Over the layer of plant materials, add a layer of material that contain high nitrogen.
The best material for this purpose is animal manure and a layer of 2-3cm thick will
suffice.
g) Add a layer of soil about 3cms thick. The soil contains micro-organisms that help to
start the decomposition process.
h) This procedure should repeatedly be continued until the required heap height is
reached. To improve aeration and to check the temperature and moisture in the heap,
bamboo sticks should be placed along the middle of the length of the heap at 2m
interval. Some people also layer branches and twigs on the floor of the pile to

11
12

provide aeration and to improve drainage but this might not be comfortable when the
pile is mixed or turned.
i) Cover the heap with dry grass. The sides can also be covered in cold areas to keep it
warm and retain moisture from wind.
j) Leave the heap for 3 to 5 weeks, checking the moisture at least once a week. It
should not be wet or dry as both slow down decomposition process.
k) Turn and mix the heap after 3, 4 and 5 weeks, in Kolla, Woina Dega or Dega
respectively for aeration and speeding up of decomposition.
l) Repeat the operation mentioned in procedure (k) for up to 3 times with the same
interval.

As materials decompose the pile heats up and should also shrink, eventually reaching
half of the original height. If the procedures are followed correctly, the compost will
mature in three months in lowlands, four months in medium altitudes, and 5 months in
high lands (>2300m). Matured compost shows:
Colour homogeneity (dark brown)
Texture homogeneity (light in weight and spongy in appearance)
Smells earthy

For those who want a very fine product, it can be run through 1cm screen and the
courser material can be used for mulch or returned to pile for further decomposition.

12
13

Up to
1.5m
high

Soil (3cm)
Aminal manure (3cm)

1m wide

Cross Section of Compost Heap 20cm

13
14

9. Diagnosing Composting Problems


The pile is producing a bad odour:
o The pile may be too wet, too tight, or both. Turn it to loosen and allow better
air exchange in the pile. If too wet, also turn the pile, but at the same time,
add dry new materials. Odours may also indicate that animal products are in
the compost pile.
No decomposition seems to be taking place:
o The pile is too dry. Moisten the materials while turning the pile.
The compost is moist enough and the center is warm but not hot enough for complete
breakdown:
o The pile is too small. Collect more materials or add those available to make a
larger pile. Turn and mix the old ingredients that may have only slightly
decomposed into the new pile. If the pile is not small, more nitrogen may be
needed (green materials or animal manure).
The heap is moist, sweet smelling, with some decomposition, but still does not heat
enough:
There is not enough nitrogen available for proper decomposition. Mix nitrogen
source such as fresh grass clippings or manure into the pile.
Odour like ammonia: There is not enough carbon (pungent smell like urine).
Therefore, add brown materials like leaves, straw, hay etc..

14
15

10. Application of Compost in the Field


Finished compost is dark brown, crumbly and is earthy smelling. Small pieces of leaves
or other ingredients may be visible. If compost contains many materials which are not
broken down, it is only partly decomposed. This product can be used as mulch, but
adding partly decomposed compost to the soil can reduce the amount of nitrogen
available to the plants. The micro-organisms will continue to do the work of
decomposing, but will use soil nitrogen for their own growth, restricting the nitrogens
availability to plants growing nearby.

Compost serves primarily as a soil conditioner, whether it is spread in a layer on the soil
or is dug in. Soil amended with compost is better able to hold air and water, drains more
efficiently, and contains a nutrient reserve that plants can draw on. The amended soil also
tends to produce plants with fewer insect and disease problems. The compost encourages
a larger population of beneficial soil micro organisms, which control harmful micro
organisms. It also fosters healthy plant growth, and healthy plants are better able to resist
pests.

Compost mulch can benefit trees and shrubs as it does other plants. Adding compost to
the planting hole of small perennial plants is valuable, particularly perennial food plants.

For annual crops compost can be applied on crop fields just before or during the first
ploughing. It can easily be spread over the field evenly. It is preferred to apply on fields
that are flat, gently sloping or on fields where soil conservation measures have been
applied. This helps the compost to be used to the maximum. Steep slopes have erosion
hazards which take both soil and the compost and affect the actual response to improved
productivity.

The rate of application depends on the quality of the land but generally in the range of 15
to 25 tons/ha gradually decreasing in the successive years to up to 10 tones/ha/year.

15
16

Annex 3:- Step by step guide for the establishment of a


new community nursery
1. Step One:- site selection
Enough water should be available at all times
Near to the plantation site and accessible
Soil should be well drained, deep and easy to work
Gently sloping
Sufficient size (in this case 10x20 20x20m) enough to accommodate about
150,000 potted seedlings every year.

2. Step two:- Set up nursery


Site preparation clearing, hoeing, removing stumps, roots, and stones
Seed bed preparation
- 5 to 10m long and 1m wide seed bed along east-west
direction
- 0.5 path between beds
- Use sunken bed to hold the polythene tube pots
Shade seedling need shades especially when young. Use thatch grass with
frames made of bamboo or Eucalyptus
Fencing Use wooden posts and barbed wire to keep out animals from
damaging
3. Step three Management and maintenance
Plan all aspects of nursery including budget
Set targets (how much to produce)
Organize and train and explain the duties of the labourers
Set up system to make necessary materials are always available
Budget the required costs
Keep records ( species, seed sources, sowing date, date of germination,
germination %, remarks, transplanting dates, general remarks.

16
17

Distribution date ready for planting, location of planting etc.


List of essential nursery tools and materials
Unit
Total
No. Item Unit Qty cost
cost (Br.)
(Br.)
1 Sickle Pcs 5 25 125

2 Axe Pcs 2 40 80

3 Wheel Barrow Pcs 2 270 540

4 Spade Pcs 10 40 400

5 Rake Pcs 10 30 300

6 Hoe Pcs 5 40 200

7 Pick axe Pcs 10 45 450

8 metre (50m long) Pcs 1 100 100

9 Matchet Pcs 2 35 70

10 Baw saw Pcs 2 35 70

11 Sledge hammer Pcs 1 160 160

12 Claw hammer Pcs 1 30 30

13 Crow bar Pcs 1 160 160

14 Polythene tube Qtl 3 2800 8400

15 Nilon string roll 1 40 40

16 Watering Can Pcs 10 35 350

17
18

Annex 4.
Work Norms and unit
cost/prices

No. Type of work PD/Units and cost


1 Gully revegetation 1PD/100 seedlings
2 Seedling production 1PD/100 seedlings
3 Gully reshaping 1Pd/m3
4 SS dams 1PD/0.75m3
5 Spill way excavation 1PD/0.5m3
6 Pitting 1PD/20pits
7 Planting trees 1Pd/50seedlings
8 Seedling production 1PD/100 seedlings
9 Area closure .2/ha/yr
10 Bund planting 1PD/ 200 plants
11 Grass sodding 1PD/5m2
12 Over-sowing/Under-sowing 5PD/ha
13 Top dressing 1PD/ha
14 Backyard forest production 132PD/ha
15 Farm dams 1PD/0.4m3
16 Hand dug wells 1PD/0.5m3
17 Compost making (heap) 1PD/3m3
18 Gabbion 1PD/0.5m3
19 Fencing 1PD/8poles
20 Poultry Management 0.2PD/12chicken/day
21 Apiary Management 0.1 PD/5hives
22 Chicken purchase Br.25/chick
23 Sand Br 200/m3
24 Stone Br. 100/m3
24 Cement Br. 400/Q
26 Urea Br. 400/Q
27 Plastic membrane Br.1/m2
28 Beehives Br 800/hive
29 Barrel Br 300/barrel
30 Pully Br. 300/pully
31 HDW fitted to hand pump Br.35000/unit
32 Gabion Br. 400/box
33 1 TDM Br. 200/TDM
34 Seedling Br. 1/seedling
35 Wood Br. 300/m3
36 Potato Br. 300/Q
37 Wheat Br. 400/Q
38 Onion Br. 500/Q
39 Egg Br. 1/egg
40 Bee colony Br. 400/colony
41 Honey Br. 20/kg

18
19

Annex 5
Quantity of Work, Required Person days and Implementation Schedule

Physical soil and water conservation


Activity implementation schedule
Type of activities Unit Quantity Required Cost (year)
Person
days (Br.) 1 2 3 4
Gully fencing km 7.5 625 12500 2.5 5
Reshaping m3 3000 3000 60000 1000 2000
Brushwood check d. linear m. 50 17 340 50
Artificial water way km 3 9000 180000 1 2
SS dams m3 (2) 280 374 7480 140 (1) 140 (1)
Stone check dam linear m. 1400 2800 56000 500 500 400
Gabbion check dam m3 50 100 2000 50
Cutoff drain m3 6075 8680 1736000 2075 2000 2000
Soil bund km 65 9750 195000 35 30
Micro-basins No. 32000 6400 128000 10000 12000 10000
Hillside terrace km 18 4500 90000 9 9
Stone-faced soil bund km 50 12500 250000 20 20 10

Biological Soil and water conservation


Grass sodding m2 30000 6000 120000 10000 20000
Bund planting seedlings 500000 2500 50000 270000 230000
Pitting No. 200000 10000 80000 70000 70000 60000
Tree planting seedlings 200000 4000 200000 70000 70000 60000
Gully revegetation seedlings 72000 720 14400 24000 48000
Tree seedling prdn. seedlings 400000 4000 80000 100000 150000 150000
Area closure (gaurding) ha 20 1460 292000 20 20 20

Forage production
Over-sowing ha 60 300 6000 60
Under-sowing ha 10 50 1000 10
Urea top-dressing ha 50 50 1000 50
Backyard forage prdn. m2 17700 234 4680 17700

Water development
Pond excavation m3 48 48 960 48 48
Trough excavation m3 20 20 400 10 10
Stone-faced earth dam m3 100 100 2000 100
Spill way excavation m3 183 366 7320 183
Hand dug well const. No. 4168 8336 166720 59 59 59

Other activities
Compost preparation m3 7260 2420 48400 7260
Toilet and shower exca. No. 177 531 10620 59 59 59

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20

Quantity of Materials, tools, Cost and schedule of supply

Materials
Type material and tools Unit Quantity Cost Supply schedule (years)
1 2 3
Urea fertilizer Q 12.5 5000 4.5 4 4
Cement Q 354 1416000 132 133 89
Sand m3 51 10200 19 20 12
Plastic membrane m2 420 4000 420
Wood post post 2000 50000 667 1333
Wood purlin pcs 3000 45000 1000 2000
Nails kg 100 3000 33 67
Brushwood post 300 6000 300
Stone m3 1698 169800 633 634 431
Gravel m3 93 18600 35 35 23
Nursery tools LS 50000 50000
Hand tools
- pick axe No. 200 8000 200
- shovel No. 200 7000 200
Gabbions box 2m3 box 50 20000 50
Hand dug well with pump No. 10 350000 3 4 3
Chicken house No. 177 177000 59 59 59
Beehives No. 885 708000 295 295 295
Pully No. 177 53100 59 59 59
Barrel No. 177 53100 59 59 59
Chicken purchase No. 2124 53100 708 708 708
Purchase of bee colonies Colonies 885 354000 295 295 295
Annex 6 Cost and Benefit Summary and
Disbursement

Cost
Disbursement schedule
No. Item Total cost (year)
(Br) 1 2 3 4 5
Materials cost
1 Procurement of chicken 53100 17710 17710 17710
2 Procurement of bee colonies 354000 118000 118000 118000
3 Forage fertilizer 5000 1800 1600 1600
4 Construction 645200 224565 275935 144700
5 HDW with hand pumps 350000 105000 140000 105000
6 Cost of beehive 708000 236000 236000 236000
7 Nursery tools 50000 50000
8 Pulley and barrel 106200 35400 35400 35400
9 Hand tools 518200 518200
Management cost
10 Poultry management 1292100 258420 258420 258420 258420 2584
11 Apiary management 646050 129210 129210 129210 129210 1292
Labour cost
12 Physical SWC 1154920 459543 532225 163152

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21

13 Biological SWC 632000 219000 269000 144000


14 Forage production 63400 12680 12680 12680
15 Water development 177400 56253 65573 55574
16 Other activities 59020 51940 3540 3540
Seed/seedling cost
17 Forage seeds and sdlngs 38100 14190 13019 10891 199700 3800
18 Fruit tree seedlings 199700 38000 82500 79200
19 Plantation trees 70800 70800
20 Arable crop seeds 32500 19000 12500 1000
21 tree seedlings 219000 84600 101200 33200
Benefits
No. Item Unit Total Total Benefit disbursement (year)
Productio
n price (5yrs)(Br) 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10
Grass improvement
1 and TDM 6137 1227000 245480 245480 245480 245480 245480
forage yield
2 Meat sale kg 1200 180000 36000 36000 36000 36000 36000
3 Irrigation development Q 3500 1750000 350000 350000 350000 350000 350000
4 Compost fertilization Q 6500 2600000 520000 520000 520000 520000 520000
5 Backyard development
- Rhamnus prinoides 4442700 888540 888540 888540 888540 888540
- Fruit trees
- Vegetables
6 Woodlot plantation m3 4756 1426800 1426800
7 Bamboo plantation Poles 5400 27000 27000 27000
8 Poultry production Eggs 1770000 1770000 354000 354000 354000 354000 354000
9 Honey production kg 17700 1770000 354000 354000 354000 354000 354000

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1

Annex
7 COST AND BENEFIT/ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Benefit
Year Cost (B) Benefit less Discounted net Benefit (DNB)
Cost r=5% DNB r=10% DNB r=15% DNB r=20% DNB
(B-C) DF= DF= DF= DF=
0 2720311 2748020 27709 1 27709 1 27709 1 27709 1 27709
1 2304512 2748020 443508 0.952 422219.616 0.909 403148.772 0.87 385851.96 0.833 369442.164
2 1549277 2748020 1198743 0.907 1087259.901 0.826 990161.718 0.756 906249.708 0.694 831927.642
3 400310 2775020 2374710 0.864 2051749.44 0.751 1783407.21 0.658 1562559.18 0.579 1374957.09
4 400310 2748020 2347710 0.823 1932165.33 0.683 1603485.93 0.572 1342890.12 0.482 1131596.22
5 0 0.784 0.621 0 0.497 0 0.402 0
6 0 0.746 0.564 0 0.432 0 0.335 0
7 0 0.711 0.513 0 0.376 0 0.279 0
8 0 0.677 0.467 0 0.327 0 0.233 0
9 0 0.645 0.424 0 0.284 0 0.194 0
10 1426800 1426800 0.614 876055.2 0.386 550744.8 0.247 352419.6 0.162 231141.6
NPV $5,204,178.46 $3,509,056.38 $2,548,530.41 $1,910,036.82
IRR - - - -

1.914569 1.803534 1.716508


N/K 1.646065
DF =
r = discount Discount
rate Factor

IRR = NPV = N/K = Net


Internal Net Benefit
Rate of Present investment
Return Value ratio

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2

SAMPLE
Annex 8 (This would be modified by the watershed
committee and the community as a whole to their
situations and requirements )
Association Statute, Byelaw and Natural Resource Use Agreement
(Model)
GTZ-Debre Tabour)

Whereas,
- The development and sustainability of natural resources requires local-level
management efforts,
- The involvement of natural resource users in watershed development is called for by
government policy,
- The setting of a binding natural resource use agreement is to be facilitated by a local
body representing all natural resource users,

Therefore, the general assembly of ____________ Watershed Association

hereby adopts this statue

on the __ day of _______ in the year 20__.

CHAPTER ONE
Statute and Byelaw

A. Territory
The watershed overseen by the association is located in _________________ Kebele,

_________________ Woreda, ________________ Zone, _______________ Region,

The territory lies between the following landmarks:


North: _______________________________________________________
South: _______________________________________________________
West: _______________________________________________________
East: _______________________________________________________

The boundary connecting these landmarks follows natural water dividing lines or other
conspicuous delineations such as roads, footpaths or waterways.

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3

B. Objective
The objectives of the association comprise:
Promoting watershed development initiatives requiring leadership, community
cohesion and collective action.
Developing the natural resource use agreement and enforcing compliance.
Implementing collective schemes for soil and water harvesting as well as natural
resources conservation.
Organizing association members for collective work schemes and their equitable
contribution and remuneration.
Acquiring and administrating financial resources provided for the above
mentioned purposes by public or donor bodies.
Representing the watershed communities in their relation with authorities,
governmental or non-governmental organizations as well as other bodies of the
civil society.

C. Membership
C.1 Any person aged 18 years or more and holding land or dwelling in the watershed
is eligible to become a member of the association. A corresponding entry of the
member list signed by the applicant will attest to his/her membership.
C.2 Members have the right to attend assembly sessions, to elect executive
committee members, to be elected to the executive committee, and to
participate equitably in collective work schemes and benefits generated by the
association.
C.3 The duties of members comprise the compliance with the present statutes, the
byelaw and the natural resource use agreement as well as with any other
resolution taken by the assembly. Members are expected to contribute
equitably to collective work schemes organized by the association.
C.4 Alternate members are invited by the association to become members on the
ground of their capacity to play the role of resources person. The above
mentioned criteria for membership eligibility and for benefit shares or
obligations do not apply to alternate members.

D. Assembly
D.1The assembly is attended by the members. The presence of at least one half of the
members is required to fill the quorum.
D.2Unless otherwise stated, voting by the assembly requires a majority of at least
two thirds of the attending members.
D.3Ordinary sessions of the assembly are called for once every four months. Extra-
ordinary sessions may be called for at any point in time, and must be called for
whenever requested by at least one half of the members.

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D.4The assembly is the supreme decision making body and is vested with the
following powers:
Elect or demote members of the executive committee,
Propose points for the agenda of the assembly,
Discuss, reject or adopt operation and budget plans drafted by the executive
committee.
Approve or reject financial and activity reports submitted by the executive
committee,
Decide on any amendment of the natural resource use agreement,
Move resolutions which the executive committee is bound to implement in
particular with regard to the natural resource use agreement.

E. Executive committee
E.1 The executive committee is composed of nine members elected by the assembly.
The Executive committee assumes the following functions:
Calls for and organizes assembly sessions, takes the minutes and sees to
their proper documentation and dissemination.
Implements the decisions of the assembly in particular with regard to the
natural resource use agreement.
Manages and administrates the associations physical and financial
resources.
Drafts operational plans, financial budgets and natural resource use
regulations to be submitted to the assembly for approval.
Reports to the assembly on the execution of the same issues.
Acts on behalf of the association in all day-to-day functions that cannot be
left to the collective.
E.2 Executive committee meetings take pace whenever the need arises and must be
attended by at least one half of the executive committee members.
E.3 Decisions enter into force when voted for by at least two thirds of all executive
committee members.
E.4 The executive committees day-to-day tasks are shared between four executive
committee post holders, namely chairman, secretary, cashier and watershed
development coordinator.

F. Executive committee posts


F.1 The chairman:
Calls for and presides over executive committee meetings and assembly
sessions.

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5

Coordinates the executive committee members for the diligent


implementation of the assemblys resolutions.
Authorizes the utilization of the associations physical resources and funds.
Represents the association in its relations with authorities, technical
services, contracting parties, cooperating donors or non-governmental
organizations and other bodies of the civil society.

F.2 The secretary:


Replaces the chairman during his absence,
Is responsible for organizing executive committee meetings and assembly
sessions, and takes, archives and disseminates the corresponding minutes
and documents.
Attends to any other required administrative procedures.

F.3 The cashier:


Executes the chairmans instructions for depositing funds generated
through fees, fines, donations, and other means such as contracts entered
into with public or third parties.
Disburses funds after being authorized to do so by the chairman together
with at least one other executive committee post holder.
Attends to proper bookkeeping of all financial transactions.

F.4 The watershed development coordinator:


Coordinates the community labour force deployed for implementing
collective work schemes.
Facilitates the drafting by the executive committee of any amendments to
the natural resource use agreement.
Organizes the means deployed to enforce compliance with the said natural
resource use agreement.
Follows up on imposed penalties according to the said natural resource use
agreement and deals with grievances, petitions and court cases.

CHAPTER TWO
Natural Resource Use Agreement

G. Deadwood and live wood utilization


7.1 Deadwood or live wood found within compounds, farm plots or plantation sites
established by private or legal persons is under the management and exclusive

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use of the respective owner. Abusive uses are settled between the involved
parties.
7.2 Deadwood found outside the afore-mentioned sites is considered a common
property resource. Its cutting and collection is prohibited for users dwelling
outside the watershed.
7.3 Deadwood found outside the afore-mentioned sites is free for members of the
watershed community.
7.4 Deadwood found in sites established by the association is freely available to
association members only.
7.5 Live wood found outside the afore-mentioned sites is considered a common
property resource. Its cutting and collection is prohibited for users dwelling
outside the watershed.
7.6 Cutting and collection of live wood found outside the afore-mentioned sites is
regulated for members of the watershed community as follows.
(a) In order to match a sustainable supply with the demand for live wood, the
association fixes the fee to be paid per donkey-cart load, or one cubic
meter of live wood to Birr 20. Periodic revisions of this rate will be
decided by the assembly and posted at the association office.
(b) For quantities of live wood not exceeding one donkey-cart load or one
cubic meter, the executive committee issues a permit signed by at least
four executive committee members. The same beneficiary can get another
such permit only six moths or more after the issuance of a preceding
permit.
(c) For quantities of live wood exceeding one donkey-cart load or one cubic
meter, the executive committees can only issues permits after a
corresponding decision by the assembly.

7.7 Harvesting live wood without permit or in excess is dealt with as follows.
(a) Two or more executive committee members are assigned to evaluate the
illegally extracted amount of live wood.
(b) The corresponding value in Birr is taken as the damage caused by the
offence.
(c) The fine amounts to a lump sum of 50 Birr. If the offence is a repeated
one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(d) The compensation for the damage caused is collected by the association
together with the fine.
(e) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine collected by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

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H. Utilization of non-woody vegetation


H.1Grass or other non-woody vegetation found within compounds, farm plots or
plantation sites established by private or legal persons is under the management
and exclusive use of the respective owner. Abusive uses are settled between the
involved parties.
H.2Grass or other non-woody vegetation found outside the afore-mentioned sites is
considered a common property resource. Its cutting and collection is prohibited
for users dwelling outside the watershed.
H.3Grass or other non-woody vegetation found outside the afore-mentioned sites is
made available against payment of a fee to members only.
H.4In order to match a sustainable supply with the demand for grass or other non-
woody vegetation, the association fixes the fee to be paid per plot of 100
square meters to Birr 20 per harvest. Periodic revisions of this rate will be
decided by the assembly and posted at the association office.
H.5Harvesting grass or non-woody vegetation without permit or in excess is dealt
with as follows.
(a) Two or more executive committee members are assigned to evaluate the
vegetation harvested without or in excess of the permit.
(b) The corresponding value in Birr is taken as the damage caused by the
offence.
(c) The fine amounts to a lump sum of 50 Birr. If the offence is a repeated
one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(d) The compensation for the damage caused is collected by the association
together with the fine.
(e) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine collected by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

I. Grazing land utilization


I.1 The unconditional right for livestock grazing in unrestricted areas of the
watershed is limited to those livestock owners holding land or dwelling in the
watershed. Other livestock owners have to solicit grazing rights. The assembly
may grant applicants individual rights involving fees or restrictions with regard
to season, duration or livestock types.
I.2 Grazing in certain watershed areas is fully prohibited or limited to certain
seasons, livestock species or categories. The regulations may change from year
to year. The assemblys resolution with regard to restricted grazing areas will
be visualized on suitable posters at the association office.
I.3 The preceding disposition together with those of section 8 above pertaining to
cut-and-carry feeding of livestock shall be used to promote controlled grazing
and to gradually introduce zero-grazing in the watershed.

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I.4 Animals found grazing where they are not allowed will be seized and dealt with
as follows.
(a) Seized animals are kept by the claimant, or brought to a barn installed and
maintained by the Association.
(b) Seized animals are returned to the owner after settlement of:
The damage caused
The fee for maintaining the seized animal
The fine for unauthorized grazing

(c) The damage caused will be evaluated by two or more executive committee
members.
(d) The cost of maintaining a seized animal is set at one percent of its value
per day.
(e) The fine amounts to one tenth of the value of the seized livestock.
(f) If the offence is a repeated one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(g) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine collected by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

J. Farmland utilization
All farmland must be protected by its occupant against soil erosion through suitable
erosion control measures. Where erosion damage is observed, and where it is found to be
due to the landholders lack of sufficient initiative, the executive committee will
intervene according to the following procedure.
(a) Two or more executive committee members are assigned to negotiate with
the landholder the measures to be taken before the next rainy season.
(b) The estimated number of work-days required for the implementation are
documented and archived by the association secretary.
(c) The implemented measures are inspected in due time by the involved
executive committee members. If all the measures are found to have been
fully implemented the case is closed.
(d) If the measures are only partially implemented, or not at all, the number of
work-days still required for a full implantation are evaluated by the
involved executive committee members.
(e) The value in Birr of the still required work-days is taken as the damage
caused by the offence.
(f) The fine amounts to one fifth of the value of the damage caused. If the
offence is a repeated one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(g) The compensation for the damage caused is collected by the association
together with the fine.

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(h) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine collected by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

K. Organization of collective work schemes on farmland


11.1 Erosion-control schemes on farmland through collective work are organized by
the executive committee using the contributions of the beneficiaries on the one
hand and public, donor or own funds on the other hand.
11.2 To mobilize the contributions of the beneficiaries, the following principles will
be applied.
(a) Landholders who benefit from the collectively undertaken measures
contribute their equitable share to the total work load. The shares are
determined by the executive committee and laid open before the work
scheme starts.
(b) Every share is to be contributed either in the form of workdays or in the
form of a financial equivalent paid to the association.
(c) The financial equivalent is the number of workdays to be contributed
times the rural wage rate of 10 Birr per person-day.
(d) The executive committee will fix an appropriate deadline for settling the
individual contributions. After expiry, a fine will be inflicted while the
debt remains to be settled.
(e) The fine amounts to one fifth of the value of the share owed to the
association.
(f) If the offence is a repeated one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(g) The outstanding contribution is colleted by the association together with
the fine.
(h) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine colleted by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

L. Organization of collective work schemes on communal land


L.1 Erosion-control or rehabilitation schemes on communal land are organised by the
executive committee using the contributions of all or some association
members the one hand and public, donor or own fund on the other hand.
L.2 If the treated communal land is to be partitioned for allocation to individual
holders, the association undertakes a partitioning into plots of viable size.
L.3 Only members of the association are eligible to become beneficiaries. If there are
fewer viable plots than applicants, the assembly selects the beneficiaries.
L.4 Every beneficiary contributes an equitable share to the total work load, and
which is proportional to the size of his or her prospective plot.

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L.5 If the treated communal land is to remain open for use by all association embers,
every member takes an equal share of the total community labour to be
contributed.
L.6 To mobilize the contributions of the beneficiaries, the principles outlined in the
preceding section (11) will be applied.

M. Land clearing
M.1 Land-clearing is subject to the executive committees written approval. The
executive committee can only approve of land-clearing after a corresponding
decision by the assembly.
M.2 Unauthorized clearing of land is dealt with as follows.
(a) Two or more executive committee members are assigned to evaluate the
destroyed vegetation and the cost of its re-establishment.
(b) The sum of the respective value in Birr is taken as the damage caused by
the offence.
(c) The fine amounts to a lump sum of 100 Birr. If the offence is a repeated
one, the amount of fine will be doubled.
(d) The compensation for the damage caused is collected by the association
together with the fine.
(e) If claimed, the most senior person among those involved in procuring the
fine receives a share of one half of the fine collected by the association.
Sharing among the beneficiaries remains at their discretion.

N. Application

The present natural resource use agreement shall be binding for all resource users in the
territory of the watershed association regardless of their association membership status.

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Annex 9 (To be filled by the DAs together with CWPT)


SAMPLE Project Implementation Quarterly Reporting Format
(May Wuha Community (Model) Watershed Development Project)
Reporting Year:- Yr1, Yr2, Yr3, Yr4 (circle as appropriate)

Reporting Quarter:- Qtr1, Qtr2, Qtr3, Qrtr4 (circle as


appropriate)

% %
S. No. Activities Unit Yearly Quarterly Quarterly achieved achieved
Achievemen from from
total plan t quarterly yearly
plan plan plan
1 Grassland Improvement
- forage seed supply
- fertilizer supply
- Over-sowing of seeds
- top-dressing of urea
- pond construction
- trough construction
2 Crop land management
- Supply of improved seeds
- compost application
- soil bund construction
- stone faced soil bund co.
- bund planting
- hedgerow planting
- gully control
. Reshaping

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. Fencing
. Revegetating
. Stone check dam const.
. Brushwood check dam
. Gabion check dam con.
. SS dam construction
- Cutoff drain construction
- Artificial waterway const.
3 Irrigation development
- construction of stone faced
earth dam
- supply of vegetable seeds
- land preparation
- area under irrigation
- vegetable production
4 Homestead development
- back yard plantation
. Eucalyptus globules
. Rhamnus prinoides
. Apple
. Forage
- hand dug well construction
with pulley
- poultry production
- beekeeping
-compost preparation
-toilet and shower const.
5 Area closure
- under/over-sowing forage
- micro-basin construction
- bamboo production
- selected tree spp. Planting
6 Nursery development

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- nursery establishment
- supply of materials and
tools
. Site selection
. fencing
. Land and seed bed prep.
. Sowing
. Transplanting
. Seedling production
. Distribution
7 Forest/woodlot production
- pitting
- planting on farm boundaries
- planting on wood lot sites
- hillside terrace construction

8 Other water development


- hand dug well with hand
pump
- spring development

Annex 10
Yearly Quantity of Work, Required Person days and Implementation Schedule

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YEAR ONE
Physical soil and water conservation
Total
Yearly Yearly yearly Activity implementation schedule
Type of activities Unit Quantity Required Cost (First year)
Of work Person days (Br.) Qtr. 1 Qtr. 2 Qtr. 3 Qtr.4
Gully fencing km 2.5 208 4167 2.5
Reshaping m3 1000 1000 20000
Brushwood check d. linear m. 50 17 340 50
Artificial water way km 1 3000 60000 1
SS dams m3 140 187 3740 140 (1)
Stone check dam linear m. 500 1000 20000 500
Gabbion check dam m3 50 100 2000 50
Cutoff drain m3 2075 2965 592955 2075
5250
Soil bund km 35 105000 35
Micro-basins No. 10000 2000 40000 10000
Hillside terrace km 9 2250 45000 9
Stone-faced soil bund km 20 5000 100000 20

Biological Soil and water conservation


Grass sodding m2 10000 2000 40000 10000
Bund planting seedlings 270000 1350 27000 170000 100000
Pitting No. 70000 3500 28000 70000
Tree planting seedlings 70000 1400 70000 50000 20000
Gully revegetation seedlings 24000 240 4800 24000
Tree seedling prdn. seedlings 100000 4000 80000 100000
Area closure (gaurding) ha 20 1460 292000 20

Forage production
Over-sowing ha 60 300 6000 60
Under-sowing ha 10 50 1000 10
Urea top-dressing ha 50 50 1000 50

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Backyard forage prdn. m2 17700 234 4680 17700

Water development
Pond excavation m3 48 48 960 48
Trough excavation m3 10 20 400 10
Stone-faced earth dam m3 100 100 2000 100
Spill way excavation m3 183 366 7320 183
Hand dug well const. No. 59 2778 55573 20 39

Other activities
Compost preparation m3 7260 2420 48400 7260
Toilet and shower exca. No. 59 531 10620 59 59 59

Yearly Quantity of Materials, tools, Cost and schedule of supply

Materials
Type material and tools Unit Yearly Yearly Cost Quarterly Supply schedule (Year One)

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Quantity
Of
supply Qtr. 1 Qtr. 2 Qtr. 3 Qtr. 4
Urea fertilizer Q 4.5 1800 4.5
Cement Q 132 528000 132
Sand M3 19 3800 19
Wood post post 667 16675 667
Wood purlin pcs 1000 15000 1000
Nails kg 33 990 33
Brushwood post 300 6000 300
Stone m3 633 169800 633
Gravel m3 35 7000 - 35
Nursery tools LS - 50000 50000
Hand tools -
- pick axe No. 200 8000 200

- shovel No. 200 7000 200

Hand dug well with pump No. 1 105000 1


Chicken house No. 59 59000 59
Beehives No. 295 236000 295
Pully No. 59 17700 20 39
Barrel No. 59 17700 20 39
Chicken purchase No. 708 17700 708
Purchase of bee colonies Colonies 295 118000 295

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Annex 11 Drawings of some of the recommended forage


species

Tree lucerne
Sesbania sesban

Alfalfa Vetch

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Green leaf desmodium Siratro

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Stylosanthes Oats

Elephant grass

19