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Ingls

Cuatrimestral

Gabriela Anselmo
Silvana Garfalo

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MATERIAL DIDCTICO
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ndice

Indice
Las autoras..........................................................................................................................4
1
Introduccin........................................................................................................................5 2
Problemtica del campo......................................................................................................5 3
Mapa conceptual.................................................................................................................6
Objetivos del curso .............................................................................................................7

1. La lectura de gneros discursivos en ingls...........................................................8


Objetivos de esta unidad: ...................................................................................................8
1.1. Los gneros discursivos...............................................................................................8
1.2. El texto acadmico.....................................................................................................10
1.3. La comprensin lectora.............................................................................................10
1.3.1. El proceso de comprensin lectora en una lengua extranjera ....................12
1.3.2. Estrategias de lectura....................................................................................13

2. Actividades de prctica e integracin...................................................................14


Actividad 1.........................................................................................................................14
2.1. El campo lexical..........................................................................................................15
2.1.1. Las palabras clave..........................................................................................15
2.1.2. Tipos de palabras...........................................................................................16
2.1.3. El lxico acadmico........................................................................................16
2.1.4. Los cognados .................................................................................................17
Actividad 2 .......................................................................................................................17
2.2. La funcin del texto ..................................................................................................18
2.2.1. Fuente y tipo textual.....................................................................................18
Actividad 3.........................................................................................................................18
2.2.2. Lectura global y lectura intensiva.................................................................21
Actividad 4.........................................................................................................................21
Actividad 5.........................................................................................................................24
2.2.3. Evaluacin de progreso..................................................................................25
Actividad 6.........................................................................................................................25
2.3. El captulo...................................................................................................................25
Actividad 7.........................................................................................................................25
2.3.1. Estructura y organizacin: modos de expresar el significado. El prrafo...26
Actividad 8.........................................................................................................................26
2.3.2. El texto expositivo.........................................................................................29
2.3.3. Aspectos textuales.........................................................................................29
Actividad 9.........................................................................................................................30
Actividad 10 (de integracin)...........................................................................................34
2.3.4. Patrones retricos: la definicin. Marcadores de hecho y de opinin........36
Actividad 11.......................................................................................................................38

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3. Las tipologas textuales en los gneros discursivos .........................................40


Objetivos de esta unidad: .................................................................................................40
3.1. Introduccin...............................................................................................................40
3.2. El texto argumentativo..............................................................................................40
Actividad 1.........................................................................................................................41
3.2.1. Los marcadores discursivos...........................................................................44
Actividad 2.........................................................................................................................44
3.3. El texto descriptivo....................................................................................................45 1
Actividad 3.........................................................................................................................47 2
3.3.1. Los patrones retricos...................................................................................48
Actividad 4.........................................................................................................................49
3
3.4. El artculo cientfico...................................................................................................50
3.4.1. Estructura y organizacin de un artculo cientfico.....................................50
Actividad 5.........................................................................................................................51
Actividad 6.........................................................................................................................55
Actividad 7.........................................................................................................................56
3.4.2. El abstract o resumen....................................................................................61
Actividad 8.........................................................................................................................63
3.4.3. El modelo CARS ............................................................................................63
3.5. Actividad de prctica..................................................................................................64
Actividad 9.........................................................................................................................64

Referencias Bibliogrficas...........................................................................................72

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Las autoras
Gabriela Anselmo es profesora de Ingls (I.S.F.D N24), licenciada en Educacin
con Orientacin en Gestin Institucional (UNQ), actualmente cursa la Maestra en
Cs. Sociales y Humanidades Mencin Comunicacin (UNQ). Es docente de cursos 1
de Extensin Universitaria, pregrado, grado y posgrado y autora de Ingls I (2013, 2
Universidad Nacional Arturo Jauretche). Se desempea como capacitadora del 3
Hospital de Alta Complejidad El Cruce y coordina el rea de Idiomas del CPE
de la UNAJ.

Silvana Garfalo es profesora de Ingls (ISP J. V. Gonzlez, CABA), licencia-


da en Ingls con Orientacin en Lingstica (UNL) y docente de cursos de pre-
grado, grado y posgrado. Miembro de Equipos de investigacin DGCyE (prov.
de Buenos Aires) y del Instituto Nacional de Formacin Docente (Ministerio de
Educacin de la Nacin). Se desempea como capacitadora en la Universidad
Nacional de Quilmes, el Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y la DGCyE. Es
co-autora de Estrategias de Enseanza y Aprendizaje de Ingls como Lengua
Extranjera (2011, De los Cuatro Vientos) y coordina el rea de Lenguas Extranjeras
de la UNQ: 2013-2014/2014-2015.

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Introduccin

1
El nivel de desarrollo tecnolgico actual junto con los avances en las reas de la 2
comunicacin e investigacin en las sociedades modernas posicionan al dominio 3
del idioma ingls como una competencia esencial tanto para los alumnos univer-
sitarios como para los futuros profesionales. En consecuencia, la adquisicin de
habilidades lingstico discursivas que permitan el abordaje de textos discipli-
nares en forma exitosa se constituye en un propsito primordial para la forma-
cin integral de los alumnos. A partir de los argumentos expuestos, el presente
trayecto formativo tiene como objetivos brindar la preparacin necesaria para
el desarrollo de tales competencias y lograr que los alumnos puedan acceder a
textos escritos en la lengua extranjera (LE) en forma autnoma y eficiente para
avanzar en su desarrollo acadmico y profesional.

Problemtica del campo


El ingls, pese a no ser la lengua materna ms hablada en el mundo, es el idioma
ms estudiado como segunda lengua o lengua extranjera, ya que se ha cons-
tituido en el idioma internacional utilizado en la investigacin y la publicacin
acadmica por excelencia.
Los motivos de su estudio son variados, como tambin las caractersticas
especficas de los distintos campos disciplinares. Teniendo en cuenta la existen-
cia de diferencias en los modos de escritura de las distintas culturas y comunida-
des cientificas, existen, por lo tanto, patrones retricos que se utilizan tradicio-
nalmente en las ciencias sociales y humanas, y en las ciencias naturales.
Si pensamos la ciencia como una construccin social en la que los procesos
se expresan como argumentos en una negociacin que ha de ser aceptada por
la comunidad, resulta indispensable comprender que, en el mbito acadmico,
tanto el gnero como la funcin retrica tienen un efecto tan importante como
el tpico en la comprensin de un texto. Por ello, el idioma ingls no es visto
como un sistema abstracto, sino como un recurso para la comunicacin que vara
de acuerdo al contexto o a la situacin en la que es producido.

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Mapa conceptual

1
2
3

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Objetivos del curso


Se espera que los estudiantes logren:

Aplicar estrategias cognitivas y metacognitivas que les permitan abordar el


1
texto acadmico eficazmente. 2
Reflexionar sobre su propio proceso de lectura en su lengua materna y la trans- 3
ferencia a la lengua meta (ingls).
Reconocer la organizacin y la estructura de diferentes gneros discursivos.
Identificar informacin central y perifrica en distintos gneros discursivos
aplicando diversas estrategias de lectura.
Comprender y analizar desde una perspectiva crtica diferentes gneros dis-
cursivos escritos, reconociendo sus finalidades y contextos de produccin.
Utilizar de manera eficiente materiales de referencia como diccionarios y tra-
ductores on line.
Demostrar una actitud crtica frente al texto de su especialidad.
Acceder comprensivamente a textos en ingls de manera independiente.

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1. La lectura de gneros
discursivos en ingls
1
Objetivos de esta unidad: 2
3
Se espera que los estudiantes logren:

Identificar las caractersticas y organizacin de diversos gneros discursivos


acadmicos.
Reconocer diferentes tipologas textuales.
Desarrollar estrategias especficas para la comprensin lectora en una lengua
extranjera.
Incorporar aspectos lxico gramaticales y discursivos de la lengua inglesa pre-
sentes en los gneros discursivos escritos.

1.1. Los gneros discursivos


En la primera unidad del curso nos centraremos en el desarrollo de dos de los
componentes esenciales que hacen a la lectocomprensin en una lengua extran-
jera: los textos y el proceso de lectura.
Toda prctica discursiva se constituye en un contexto y est determinada por
una situacin comunicativa dada, dentro de la cual podemos diferenciar prop-
sitos, participantes y contenidos. De la misma manera en la que en el proceso de
elaboracin de un tapiz se entretejen los hilos en un telar, siguiendo la analoga,
podemos aventurar que el lenguaje es como una hebra del entramado comuni-
cacional. Como tal, y dependiendo de las combinaciones, marcas y formas que
va adquiriendo en la trama discursiva, estructura diferentes actos comunicativos.
En cuanto a las formas en las que una prctica discursiva se instancia, estas
no son caprichosas sino que responden a convenciones sociales aceptadas por
la comunidad de habla. Por ejemplo, si una persona quiere postularse para un
empleo seguramente necesitar realizar una solicitud de entrevista por correo,
la cual responde a una serie de convenciones entre las que se encuentran una
disposicin espacial determinada para el nombre del destinatario y del emisor,
el uso de un registro formal, frmulas de apertura y cierre, etctera.
Por lo tanto, podemos concluir que los usos del lenguaje que responden a
las pautas sociales establecidas y aceptadas dan forma a lo que se conoce tc-
nicamente como gneros discursivos.

La comunicacin es una prctica esencialmente social que se desarrolla en un


mbito especfico de la actividad humana y que determina la manera en la
que nos relacionamos. Nuestra produccin discursiva se enmarca siempre en
un espacio social y, por lo tanto, como toda interaccin, est regulada por un
conjunto de reglas o protocolos que establecen cmo comunicarnos. En las
distintas esferas en las que se desarrolla la actividad humana se elaboran un
conjunto de prcticas discursivas destinadas a encauzar la comunicacin.

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Estas formas discursivas son denominadas gneros discursivos, y el conjunto


de estos gneros constituye el discurso propio de cada mbito en particular.
(UNQ, 2011: 24 y 25)

Ejemplos de gneros discursivos en general:

1 receta seminario factura


2 chiste cancin cartel
ancdota documental biografa
3 etiqueta brindis men
tatuaje investigacin cuento de hadas
pasacalle recibo manual
posteo manifiesto testamento
aviso publicitario resea correo electrnico
carta sermn conversacin
discurso ensayo artculo periodstico
mensaje telefnico chat
conferencia jingle

Ejemplos de gneros discursivos en la esfera acadmica:

monografa informe
tesis resea bibliogrfica
examen parcial

Citado en Alexopolou, A., Tipologa Segn Bajtn (1979: 248)


Textual y Comprensin Lectora en
E/LE, [en lnea]. En: Revista Nebrija


de Lingstica Aplicada (2010).
Disponible en http://www.nebri- La riqueza y diversidad de los gneros discursivos es inmensa, porque las po-
ja.com/revista sibilidades de la actividad humana son inagotables y porque en cada esfera
linguistica/files/articulosPDF/ de la praxis existe todo un repertorio de gneros discursivos que se diferencia
articulo_530b646902516.pdf
[Consulta 20 de octubre de 2014] y crece a medida que se desarrolla y se complica la esfera misma (Bajtn, 1979:
248).

Los ejemplos anteriores de gneros discursivos generales y de la esfera aca-


dmica ilustran la relacin que existe entre la diversidad de gneros con las
distintas esferas de la praxis humana, como bien advierte Bajtn.
Por otra parte, podemos observar que las marcas lingsticas propias y fun-
ciones especficas que los gneros presentan permiten su diferenciacin: un
mensaje telefnico de un documental o una receta de una resea bibliogrfica.


Los gneros son formas discursivas convencionales conformadas histrica-
mente en una cultura determinada. Se van constituyendo a lo largo de la his-
toria de una comunidad lingstica como prcticas sociales con valor funcio-
nal. Son, por lo tanto, productos socioculturales y, como tales, se reconocen
fcilmente entre los miembros de una comunidad. Son hechos comunicativos
que suceden en un contexto social, con arreglo a ciertas normas y convencio-
nes, y con una clara finalidad, por ejemplo, la de informar, persuadir, divertir,

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etc. Estas normas y convenciones, que estn definidas institucionalmente, de-


terminan las elecciones lexicogramaticales y la organizacin del texto.
(Alexopolou, 2010: 3 )

1.2. El texto acadmico


Dentro del universo de los gneros discursivos, pasaremos a centrarnos, a conti- 1
nuacin, en el discurso que circula en la academia y a analizar las caractersticas
2
y convenciones que estructuran el texto acadmico.
Siguiendo una orientacin/concepcin bajtiniatna: 3

[] los textos acadmicos en lengua extranjera (LE) pueden definirse como


las producciones verbales concretas que derivan del uso que hacen de la len-
gua los participantes de la esfera de la praxis humana relacionada con la acti-
vidad acadmico-cientfica. (Dorronzoro & Klett, 2006: 62)

Los textos que atraviesan la esfera acadmico-cientfica presentan variaciones


que se instancian en diferentes niveles, los cuales abarcan desde un contenido
temtico en particular, determinado por el objeto de estudio de las disciplinas,
pasando por las condiciones sociolingsticas del evento comunicativo, los recur-
sos lingsticos (aspectos lexicogramaticales) hasta los patrones retricos que
afectan la organizacin y estructura del discurso.
Widdowson (1979:43) define al discurso cientfico como la realizacin tanto
verbal como no verbal del discurso de la ciencia. Por lo tanto, el discurso en los
textos acadmicos se textura o expresa no solo en prrafos sino tambin a
travs de grficos, tablas, frmulas, etc. Por su parte, Wood (en Flowerdew &
Peacock, 2001: 73-74) advierte que los textos cientficos tienen una estructura
retrica definida, pero observa, adems, que los cientficos manipulan sus textos
para alcanzar un propsito retrico en particular, como por ejemplo: informar,
persuadir, describir, convencer, justificar, aconsejar, definir, explicar, entre otros.
Por lo expuesto, acordamos con la apreciacin de Dorronzoro y Klett (2006:
63) en cuanto:

Los textos acadmicos daran cuenta, entonces, de cmo se usa el lenguaje


de un campo disciplinar para dar sentido a sus objetos de conocimiento.
Cada disciplina acadmica ejerce influencia sobre el texto en lo atinente al ti-
po que se genera, su organizacin y produccin, ya que tiene su propia rela-
cin con el lenguaje. Efectivamente, cada disciplina se distingue de las otras
por su lxico, su sintaxis, la especificidad de sus gneros, en definitiva, por su
modo de ser en el mundo intelectual y su manera de construir textos y signifi-
cado textual.

1.3. La comprensin lectora


En los apartados anteriores hemos focalizado en el los textos como uno de los
componentes esenciales que hacen a la lectocomprensin en una LE. Ahora, es
el momento de centrarnos en el poceso de lectura.

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Desde una perspectiva cognitiva, la lectura es un proceso complejo que impli-


ca la realizacin y coordinacin de diferentes procesos de manera simultnea,
entre los que encontramos:

la decodificacin: el reconocimiento de letras e integracin de slabas, la


decodificacin de palabras y la decodificacin sintctica del lenguaje y,
la construccin de significado.
1
2 Siguiendo una lnea psicolingstica, Goodman (1967:127) define a la lectura como
a un juego de adivinanzas psicolingsticas el cual implica la interaccin entre
3
pensamiento y lenguaje.
Dentro de esta visin, el rol del lector excede al de un mero decodificador del
cdigo lingstico y se extiende al de un explorador en busca de la construccin
de significado. Pero ms an, la comprensin o construccin de significado se
torna factible con base en el bagaje de conocimientos previos que el lector posee.
Por lo tanto, desde esa visin, coincidimos con la descripcin de la lecto com-
prensin o comprensin lectora como


[] un proceso interactivo entre un lector con un sistema cognitivo determina-
do y un texto escrito por un autor que, a su vez, posee un sistema cognitivo. El
autor deja en su texto pistas o instrucciones acerca de cmo debe ser inter-
pretado su mensaje. (Lescano, 2001: 3)

Estas pistas o instrucciones permiten a los lectores la formulacin de hiptesis y


de inferencias acerca de la informacin visual a la que se enfrentan.
A continuacin describimos las pistas paratextuales y textuales a modo de
ejemplo.

Las pistas paratextuales

Entendemos por pistas paratextuales los paratextos lingsticos, tales como:


ttulos y subttulos, que jerarquizan la informacin; los copetes, que anticipan el
contenido del texto; las notas al pie, que permiten aclaraciones. Por otra parte,
los paratextos no lingsticos como las ilustraciones y esquemas que permiten
relacionar los conceptos ms importantes.

Las pistas textuales

Los conectores discursivos: su presencia facilita la comprensin lectora en tanto


sirven de gua o instruccin para interpretar el sentido de un texto. Los conectores
se utilizan para distintas funciones:

- Para indicar el orden de los hechos ocurridos: entonces, despus, al otro da,
luego.
- Para indicar la manera en la que el escritor organiza su discurso: en conclusin,
esto quiere decir que, en este punto, as pues, empezaremos por, volviendo
a lo anterior.

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AMPLIAR

Lescano, M. Herramientas para el desarrollo de las Prcticas del Lenguaje, [en


lnea]. Seminario Internacional de la Ctedra UNESCO. 2001. Disponible
en: <http://www.martalescano.com.ar/Pdf/Comprensionlectora.pdf>
[Consulta: 10 de febrero de 2015].

1
2
1.3.1. El proceso de comprensin lectora en una lengua 3
extranjera
Teniendo en cuenta la descripcin y el anlisis desarrollado en el punto anterior,
podemos definir a la lectura como un proceso de construccin de sentido. En
el desarrollo de este proceso, el lector juega un rol activo dado que utiliza sus
conocimientos previos y estrategias cognitivas para realizar hiptesis, prediccio-
nes y procesar la informacin y as lograr la comprensin.
Todos recordamos que el bagaje de informacin que cada individuo almace-
na en su memoria a partir de su experiencia de vida conforma sus conocimien-
tos previos. Pero ahora bien, a qu nos referimos con estrategias congnitivas
especficamente?
Las estrategias cognitivas que emplea el lector pueden describirse como

[] operaciones mentales que el lector pone en marcha frente a lo desconoci-


do y que permiten inferir, relacionar, generalizar, contextualizar, construir es-
tructuras y modelos que dan la posibilidad de interpretar el texto representa-
do mentalmente en la L1. (Mayor, 2000 en Alexopolou, 2010: 3). L1: lengua materna

Por lo expuesto, vemos que para alcanzar la comprensin de un texto el lector


pone en accin procesos cognitivos de nivel superior, tales como las estrategias
de lectura, inferencias, memoria, la relacin con el conocimiento previo, junto con
procesos de nivel inferior, como la decodificacin.
Sin embargo, a diferencia del abordaje de la lectura en la lengua materna
(LM), el proceso de lectura en una lengua extranjera (LE) se encuentra afectado
no solo por un mayor bagaje de conocimientos previos a nivel lingstico (len-
gua materna + lengua extranjera) sino tambin, por conocimientos previos sobre
el proceso de lectura en la LM: experiencia en el uso de estrategias de lectura.
Por lo tanto, al momento de acceder a un texto en LE, el lector cuenta con un
repertorio de estrategias y de conocimientos extra aportados desde la LM, a
los cuales puede acudir y extrapolar para llevar adelante la comprensin de un
texto en LE.
Por otra parte, en relacin con los enfoques para el desarrollo de la lectura
encontramos los llamados analtico (top-down) y sinttico (bottom-up). La imple-
mentacin de los procesos cognitivos de nivel superior e inferior en forma simul-
tnea est reflejada en la integracin de los enfoques (analtico y sinttico) en el
abordaje de la comprensin lectora. Sin embargo, aunque los enfoques comu-
nicativos para la enseanza de lenguas favorecen una aproximacin a la lectu-
ra desde los conocimientos que trae el lector al texto y a partir de los aspectos
ms generales del mismo, la construccin de sentido se completa con un proce-

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samiento sinttico. Por lo tanto, observamos que el proceso de lectura requiere


de la integracin de ambos enfoques.
Como hemos visto, el proceso de comprensin lectora en una LE pone en
accin un complejo andamiaje de diferentes procesos (de nivel superior e infe-
rior) en forma simultnea, pero adems, est afectado por un conocimiento lin-
gstico y un repertorio de estrategias lectoras ms amplio, a diferencia del pro-
ceso de lectura en la LM.
1
2


Sintticamente, podramos decir que la comprensin es el resultado de la in-
3
teraccin entre las pistas que proporciona el texto tanto textuales como pa-
ratextuales (utilizacin de distintos tipos de letra, ilustraciones, disposicin
grfica)- y el conocimiento previo del lector gracias a su experiencia comuni-
cativa y social acerca del tema que aborda el texto y de su organizacin dis-
cursiva. (Alexopolou, 2010:4)

1.3.2. Estrategias de lectura


El repertorio de estrategias de lectura abarca distintos niveles de conocimiento
los cuales se extienden al campo gramatical, al discursivo y hasta al pragmtico,
entre otros. En el caso del abordaje de un texto en una lengua extranjera espe-
cficamente, las estrategias de lectura ms frecuentes en la integracin de los
enfoques analtco (top-down) y sinttico (bottom-up) incluyen:

Realizacin de predicciones e hiptesis preliminares a partir del paratexto


Lectura rpida del texto para obtener una idea general/global del contenido
(skimming)
Determinacin de propsito y organizacin del texto
Bsqueda de palabras especficas (scanning)
Rastreo de repeticin de palabras
Palabras clave
Cognados
Inferencia de significado segn el contexto
Formacin de palabras (afijos)/familia de palabras.

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2. Actividades de prctica e
integracin
Actividad 1 1
2
Tres de los siguientes ttulos corresponden a los textos que figuran debajo.
3
a. Determinar qu ttulo corresponde a cada texto.
1. Regional Climate Change and Tourism: the Case of Southern Brazil
2. Landslides in the Andes and the need to communicate on an interandean
level on landslide mapping and research
3. An approximation to the Bolivian identity
4. Climate change and hazardous processes in high mountains

Landslides in the Andes are some of the highest natural threats to society with sin-
gle events killing up to several thousand people. Landslide mapping and landslide
research became a more widely spread discipline in geosciences in the Andean coun-
tries. However, efforts today, by far, do not match the threat and both more investi-
gations and more mapping activities are needed to support decision makers in land
use planning. In this communication we discussed five key issues that we suggest
focusing on in upcoming years: Impact of climatic change on landslides occurrence,
landslides susceptibility and hazard maps, prediction of megalandslides, seismica-
lly triggered landslides, and temporal spatial distribution of mud and debris flows
potential.

Fuente: texto disponible en: <http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?pid=S0004-


48222012000300001&script=sci_arttext> Consulta: 1 de septiembre de 2014.

In this paper I intend to investigate how it is constructed in the discourse of the pre-
sident of Bolivia, Evo Morales, the topic climate change and the meanings assigned
to them. This concern arose from observing the emergence of climate change issues
as a major concern of the international community, and to inquire into the discourse
of Morales, who postulates two opposing paths meet this problem: to save capitalism
or life and Mother Earth. This question will allow me to make an initial approach to
the construction of identity in Bolivia, from the new discursive dominances emer-
ging with force since 2006 rescuing indigenous peoples and their values as pillars of
the identity of the Bolivian people. The speeches were delivered to analyze between
2007 and 2010 under United Nations International Summit on climate change.

Fuente: texto disponible en: <http://rephip.unr.edu.ar/handle/2133/2551> Consulta:


1 de septiembre de 2014.

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The article proposes an analysis of the interrelation between the regional climate
changes. At first, some indicators of climate change such as average annual tempe-
rature, rainfall, frequency of extreme climatic events, maxima and minimum avera-
ge temperature were taken into account. Then, in order to establish an interrelation
between these indications and tourism in southern Brazil two tourist micro regions
were chosen where there is a close relation between tourism and climate: the moun-
1 tain range of the state of Rio Grande do Sul and the tourist region of the coast of the
2 state of Santa Catarina, which are two good examples to illustrate the way the actual
3 climate change can affect tourism.

Fuente: texto disponible en: <http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?pid=S1851-


17322010000100006&script=sci_arttext&tlng=es> Consulta 1 de septiembre de
2014.

b. Cul es el ttulo que no pertenece a ningn texto?

2.1. El campo lexical


2.1.1. Las palabras clave

REFLEXIN

Qu estrategias emple, en la actividad anterior, para seleccionar los


textos para cada ttulo?
Qu pistas textuales utiliz?

El proceso de lectura nos invita a realizar hiptesis espontneas a medida que


vamos recopilando e interpretando nueva informacin. Entre la variedad de pro-
cesos que entran en juego al momento de abordar la lectura de un texto, emerge
la bsqueda de pistas textuales como, por ejemplo, la identificacin de palabras
clave.
Probablemente en la identificacin del texto relacionado con An approxima-
tion to a Bolivian identity podemos seleccionar:

the construction of identity in Bolivia


the Bolivian people
Evo Morales

Las palabras clave tambin se caracterizan por su recurrencia, es decir su repe-


ticin a lo largo del texto. Qu palabras/frases claves puede reconocer para los
otros dos textos?

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Regional Climate Change and Tourism: the Case of Southern Brazil:

Landslides in the Andes and the need tocommunicate on an interandean level


on landslide mapping and research:

1
2.1.2. Tipos de palabras
2
Existe una distincin entre dos grandes grupos de palabras. Por un lado, se
encuentran las llamadas palabras conceptuales, como los sustantivos, verbos,
3
adjetivos y adverbios; mientras que por otro, se encuentran las llamadas palabras
estructurales o funcionales, tales como preposiciones, artculos, adjetivos deter-
minantes, cojunciones y pronombres.
Las palabras estructurales conforman grupos cerrados, es decir componen
una lista determinada o finita de palabras. Por ejemplo, las preposiciones: ante,
cabe, con, etc. Lo mismo ocurre en ingls (after, before, with, etc.). En cambio,
las palabras conceptuales conforman grupos abiertos dado que cubren una
amplia gama de conceptos e inclusive, porque incorporan y cambian vocablos
permanentemente.

2.1.3. El lxico acadmico


Adems de diferenciar grupos de palabras segn su funcin, podemos diferenciar
grupos segn su forma y frecuencia de uso. En el discurso acadmico-cientfico
existen trminos que tienen una alta recurrencia y que se encuentran solo en este
tipo de textos. Hablamos del lxico acadmico.
El lxico acadmico incluye a aquellas palabras que expresan conceptos de
pensamiento o de relacin de ideas y su reconocimiento acelera y organiza la
lectura (Spath Hirschmann, 1996).
Por otra parte, dentro del campo lexical de los textos acadmicos podemos
diferenciar a su vez entre:

El lxico acadmico general: se encuentra en todo texto eferente, o sea, aquel


que estructura ideas, que abstrae y organiza informacin y que relaciona concep-
tos en todas las reas o carreras.

El lxico acadmico especfico: es aquel que est relacionado con cada carrera
o rea disciplinar (op. cit: 35 y 36).

Algunos ejemplos de tipos de lxico acadmico:

General Especfico
Approach (enfoque) Stem cells: clulas madre
(Biotecnologa)
Framework (marco terico) Literacy: alfabetizacin
(Educacin)
Feature (rasgo) Guest: husped
(Administracin Hotelera)

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2.1.4. Los cognados


Actividad 2
Interpretar al castellano las siguientes palabras segn su significado en el texto.

Natural
Impact
1 Disciplines
Construction
2
Climate
3 Indigenous
Community
Problem
Analysis
Regional
Frequency
Relation
Temperature
Illustrate
Affect
Landslides
Threat
Issues
Both
Meanings
Inquire
Approach
Summit
Average
Way

REFLEXIN

Qu grupo de palabras fue ms rpido y sencillo de interpretar? Por qu?

Por suerte, existen muchas palabras del idioma ingls que tienen races latinas
y, por lo tanto, mantienen la forma y significado originales. Como el castellano
tiene races etimolgicas del latn tambin, existen vocablos que son cognados
en ingls y castellano (palabras que tienen forma y significado similar en las dos
lenguas).
Por ejemplo:

society_sociedad
prediction_prediccin
state_estado
capitalism_capitalismo
extreme_extremo

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La identificacin de palabras transparentes en las dos lenguas permite una


lectura ms rpida y eficiente.

2.2. La funcin del texto


2.2.1. Fuente y tipo textual
Actividad 3 1
a. Leer los siguientes ttulos y determinar el rea temtica en comn.
2
b. Qu pistas textuales permiten determinar el tema? 3

1.
AGA 69(3): 328 - 338 (2012)
John J. Clague, Christian Huggel, Oliver K. Orupand, Bill MCguire
Climate Change and Hazardous processes in High Mountains

Texto disponible en: <http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?pid=S0004-


48222012000300001&script=sci_arttext> Consulta: 27 de octubre de 2014.

2.
Brazil: State of Emergency After Severe Flooding in South
by Indy Staff, 09 June 2014

3.
Chapter 4
Climate change impacts
By Kevin Hennessey
Texto disponible en: <http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_
id=CSIRO_CC_Chapter%204.pdf> Consulta: 27 de octubre de 2014.

c. Uno de los ttulos responde las siguientes preguntas:


qu ocurri?
cundo?
dnde?
por qu?

Ttulo del texto:..

d. Cul es la fuente de cada texto?


Libro digital:
Publicacin especializada:
Portal de noticias:

e. Cul es el objetivo principal de estas publicaciones? Elegir una opcin:


la presentacin/exposicin de un tema
la narracin de una historia
la descripcin
la instruccin de un proceso
la argumentacin

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f. Leer las referencias bibliogrficas de los textos a continuacin y establecer


cul pertenece a cada uno.

3. <http://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p25-1140.pdf>
4. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400292>
5. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC400292/http://taking-
1 note.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/30/another-moratorium-on-state-spon-
2 sored-killing/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0>
3

Texto 1
Do the print media hype genetic research? A comparison of newspaper
stories and peer-reviewed research papers
Tania M. Bubela, Timothy A. Caulfield
See related article page 1415

Abstract
Background: The public gets most of its information about geneticresearch from
the media. It has been suggested thatmedia representations may involve exagge-
ration, calledgenohype. To examine the accuracy and nature of mediacoverage
of genetic research, we reviewed the reporting ofsingle-gene discoveries and asso-
ciated technologies in majordaily newspapers in Canada, the United States, Great
Britainand Australia.
Results: We examined 627 newspaper articles reporting on 111papers published in
24 scientific and medical journals. Only11% of the newspaper articles were categori-
zed as havingmoderately to highly exaggerated claims; the majority were categorized
as having no claims (63%) or slightly exaggerated claims (26%). The classification
analysis ranked the reportingof risks as the most important variable in determi-
ning the categorization of newspaper articles. Only 15% of the newspaper articles
and 5% of the scientific journal articles discussed costs or risks, whereas 97% of the
newspaper articles and98% of the scientific journal articles discussed the likelihood
of benefits of the research.
Interpretation: Our data suggest that the majority of newspaper articles accura-
tely convey the results of and reflect the claims made in scientific journal articles.
Our study also highlights an overemphasis on benefits and under-representation of
risks in both scientific and newspaper articles. The cause and nature of this trend
is uncertain.

CMAJ 2004;170(9):1399-407

Texto 2

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Another Moratorium on State-Sponsored Killing


By JESSE WEGMAN
MAY 30, 2014 8:22 AM 2 Comments
The way things are going, Tennessee may not be alone for long in choosing to revert
to killing its citizens with electricity rather than drugs.
States that rely on lethal injection to do the job have been running into serious
problems lately. A series of botched and particularly gruesome executions has kept
the issue in the public eye, and the states havent helped themselves by passing laws 1
to hide what theyre doing. (After European drug manufacturers stopped supplying
drugs for use in executions, some states turned to loosely regulated and in some 2
cases unlicensed compounding pharmacies, then tried to keep secret both the 3
identities of those pharmacies and the drug protocols they produce.)
On Tuesday, a federal judge in Ohio ordered a moratorium on executions in
the state until at least Aug. 15, so that authorities and the courts would have time
to determine whether a new lethal-injection protocol comports with the law and
Constitution.
State officials settled last month on the new protocol, which increases the amount of drugs
to be administered to a condemned inmate, after the botched Jan. 16 execution of Dennis
McGuire. Mr. McGuire took 25 minutes to die, and several witnesses said the process was
accompanied by movement and gasping, snorting and choking sounds.
For now, the moratorium Ohios second in recent years puts on hold the
scheduled executions of two men: Ronald Phillips and William Montgomery. Both
were convicted of horrific murders, and neither is claiming innocence.
It isnt clear what evidence will satisfy the order of federal District Judge Gregory L.
Frost, but what is clear is that theres no clean way to kill someone: either its quick and
bloody, which has been deemed too barbaric, or it involves cooked skin, accidental
decapitation, gasping, snorting, choking and the like.

Texto 3

An Aging Nation: The Older Population in the United States


May 2014
Report Number: P25-1140
Jennifer M. Ortman, Victoria A. Velkoff, and Howard Hogan

Introduction
This report examines how the age structure of the U.S. population is expected to
change over the coming decades and focuses on the older population in terms of
age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. The size and structure of the older population is
important to public and private interests, both socially and economically.
Between 2012 and 2050, the United States will experience considerable growth in
its older population (see Figure 1). In 2050, the population aged 65 and over is projec-
ted to be 83.7 million, almost double its estimated population of 43.1 million in 2012.
The baby boomers are largely responsible for this increase in the older population, as
they began turning 65 in 2011. By 2050, the surviving baby boomers will be over the
age of 85.
The aging of the population will have wide-ranging implications for the country.
By aging, demographers often mean that the proportion of the population in the
older ages increases. As the United States ages over the next several decades, its older
population will become more racially and ethnically diverse. The projected growth of
the older population in the United States will present challenges to policy makers and
programs, such as Social Security and Medicare. It will also affect families, businesses,
and health care providers.

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g. Cul es la fuente de cada extracto?


Portal de noticias:
Informe:
Artculo de investigacin:

h. Cul es la funcin principal de estas publicaciones? Elegir una opcin:


la presentacin/exposicin de un tema
1 la narracin de una historia
2 la descripcin
la instruccin de un proceso
3
la argumentacin

Dentro del campo de las tipologas textuales, adoptamos la propuesta por Werlich
Bassols, M. Torrent, A. M. (1975, en Bassols & Torrent, 1997: 22), que abarca cinco clases de textos:
(1997), Modelos textuales. Teora
y prctica, Eumo-Octoedro,
Barcelona.
1. Descriptivo, ligado a la percepcin del espacio.
2. Narrativo, ligado a la percepcin del tiempo.
3. Explicativo, asociado al anlisis y la sntesis de representaciones conceptuales.
4. Argumentativo, centrado en el juicio y la toma de posicin.
5. Instructivo, ligado a la previsin del comportamiento futuro.

2.2.2. Lectura global y lectura intensiva


Actividad 4
Lectura general/global

a. Realizar una lectura global de los siguientes textos y determinar tema prin-
cipal y tipo textual.
b. Determinar las fuentes de cada extracto. Qu texto/s se relaciona/n con
gneros discursivos especficos de la esfera acadmica y cul/es con gneros
discursivos en general?
c. De qu manera incide el tipo de fuente sobre las caractersticas de cada
texto? Por ejemplo: organizacin, especificidad del tema, estilo (seleccin de
vocabulario y estructuras).
d. Cul de los tres extractos puede ser interpretado por una gran audiencia?
Por qu?

Texto 1
Chapter 4.
Introduction
Australia is the driest inhabited continent in the world. In addition, the climate is
inherently variable as noted in our literary history of droughts and flooding rains.
There is now strong evidence that our climate is also changing, with Australia war-
ming by about 0.8C since 1960, and more heatwaves, fewer frosts, more rain in
north-west Australia, less rain in southern and eastern Australia, an increase in the
intensity of droughts, and a rise in global sea level of 77 mm from 19612003 (see

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Chapter 1). The impact of these changes, which are due to a combination of natural
variability and changes in greenhouse gas concentrations from human activities, can
now be clearly seen in stresses on our water supplies and farming, changed natural
ecosystems, coastal impacts, and reduced seasonal snow cover.
It is now likely that the world will see 2C global warming on top of changes
already experienced within the lifetime of the current generation. Without rapid
action to reduce CO2 emissions, there is a serious risk that global warming could be
as much as 4C by later this century. 1
For Australia, heatwaves, fires, floods, and southern Australian droughts are all
expected to become more frequent and more intense in the coming decades. Snow 2
and frost are very likely to become rarer or less intense events. Locally and regio- 3
nally, the greatest impacts will be felt through changes in water availability and sea
level, and extreme weather events.
Australia is highly vulnerable to these projected changes in climate and this
highlights the need for adaptation to the unfolding and unavoidable changes that
lie ahead (see Chapter 5). Adaptation needs to be informed by a good understan-
ding of the impacts of climate change. Global and national assessments show that a
changing climate affects food production, disturbs coastal margins, displaces species,
and changes economies. New extremes in temperature and sea level will exceed the
habitable limit for some species. Shifting population patterns of plants, animals, and
people will bring more changes.
Although the impacts of climate change are on the whole negative for the environ-
ment and the economy, not all climate changes will be deleterious, especially in the
next few decades. Moderate warming in the absence of rainfall declines can actually
be beneficial for some agricultural crops. Therefore it is important to understand how
the likely impacts of climate change will be distributed.

Texto 2

John J. Clague, Christian Huggel, Oliver K. Orupand, Bill MCguire


Climate Change and Hazardous processes in High Mountains

PROCESS INTERACTIONS AND CASCADES


Interactions and cascades of climatically driven processes have been responsi-
ble for several destructive events in recent decades. Examples are outburst floods
from moraine-dammed lakes caused by overtopping waves that were generated by
landslides (Hubbard et al. 2005, Vilimek et al.2005) or by ice avalanches (Llilboutry
et al.1977, Blown and Church 1985, Clague et al.1985, Clague and Evans 2000,
Kershaw et al.2005). Very large debris flows, generated by initial rock or ice avalan-
ches (Huggel et al.2005. Evans et al.2009) or volcanic eruptions (Pierson et al.1990),
have killed thousands of people during the twentieth century.
Debris flows can be initiated in alpine environments by thermal and hydrological
changes to aprons of colluvium or glacial sediment (Haeberli et al.1990, Rickenmann
and Zimmermann 1993). An increase in the thickness of the active layer in perma-
frost areas, together with after melt, may increase both frequency and size of debris
flows (Zimmermann et al.1997, Rist et al.2006).
The base of the active layer is a barrier to groundwater infiltration, thus overlying
thawed sediment is generally saturated. Snow cover can also have an effect by
supplying additional water to soil, thereby increasing pore water pressure and ini-
tiating slope instability.
Some large debris flows in the Alps in the past 20 years have been triggered by
intense rainfall in summer or fall (Zimmermann and Haerberli 1992, Rickenmann and

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Zimmermann 1993, Chiarle et al.2007). Warming may also increase the speed of rock
glaciers, causing instability (Roer et al.2008). Velocities of rock glaciers at some sites in
the Alps have reached up to 15 m a (Delaloye et al.2008). These phenomena could lead
to debris avalanches or other landslides, or could change the frequency or magnitude
of debris flows.Rock slopes can fail after they have been steepened by glacial erosion
or debuttressed due to glacier retreat (Fig. 7; Evans and Clague 1994, Augustinus
1995). Many marginally stable slopes that were buttressed by glacier ice during the
1 Little Ice Age failed after they became ice-free in the twentieth century. A factor that
possibly has contributed to these failures is steepening of rock slopes by cirque and
2 valley glaciers during the Little Ice Age. Although it may take centuries, or even longer,
3 for a slope to fail following glacier retreat, recent landslides, including one in 2006 at
Grindelwald in the Swiss Alps (O-ppikofer et al. 2008), demonstrate that some slopes
can respond to glacier downwasting within a few decades or shorter.

Texto 3

Brazil: State of Emergency After Severe Flooding in South


by Indy Staff, 09 June 2014

Nine people died and thousands were evacuated over the weekend after severe
flooding led to a state of emergency being called in the southern Brazilian states of
Paran and Santa Catarina.
At least 110 cities in the region including Paran state capital and World Cup
host city Curitiba have been damaged by flooding and landslides, affecting an esti-
mated 55,000. Travel around the region has also been disrupted as roads and major
highways are flooded and some bridges are impassable.

Bridge flooded near the city of Guarapuava, in Paran (photo courtesy of Paran
state news agency)
Paran governor Beto Richa today decreed a state of emergency for the affected
areas, diverting an initial R$6m (reals) for medical supplies. Brazilian president
Dilma Rousseff said that the federal government would offer all the support neces-
sary, and help coordinate recovery efforts by different state agencies.
According to the national meteorological office, the flooding came after the
region received more than double the monthly average rainfall between Friday and
Sunday. The rains are expected to ease this week, though rising water levels in major
rivers will still pose a threat.

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Fuente: texto disponible en: <http://www.argentinaindependent.com/currentaffairs/


newsfromlatinamerica/brazil-state-of-emergency-after-severe-flooding-in-south/>

Actividad 5
Lectura intensiva 1
2
a. El tema principal de las condiciones climticas extremas puede rastrearse a 3
travs del vocabulario recurrente. Busque los trminos en ingls de la siguien-
te lista:

Sequa
Inundacin
Lluvias
Derrumbe
Ola de calor
Nieve
Heladas
Hielo
Avalanchas
Erupciones volcnicas
Mar
Lagos
Olas
Nivel del mar
Detritos
Verano
Otoo
Derretimiento
Agua subterrnea
Ladera

b. Responder las siguientes preguntas de cada texto:

Texto 1
1.a. Cul es la condicin climtica extrema caracterstica de Australia? Por qu?

1.b. Cul es la importancia de evaluar los impactos del cambio climtico?

Texto 2
2.a. Qu tipos de procesos climticos han causado la muerte de miles de personas
el siglo pasado?

2.b. Qu factores han contribuido al desarrollo de detritos en los Alpes?

Texto 3
3.a. Qu regin de Brasil ha sido afectada por las inundaciones y derrumbes?

3.b. Cules son las causas de la inundacin?

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3.c. Cul es el pronstico para los siguientes das?

2.2.3. Evaluacin de progreso

Actividad 6
1
2 a. Marcar las estrategias de lectura que ha implementado durante el desarrollo
3 de las actividades de prctica e integracin y de lectura global e intensiva:

Realizacin de predicciones e hiptesis preliminares a partir del paratexto.


Lectura rpida/global (skimming).
Determinacin de propsito y organizacin del texto.
Bsqueda de palabras especficas (scanning).
Rastreo de recurrencia de palabras.
Palabras clave.
Cognados
Inferencia de significado segn contexto.
Familia de palabras.

b. Enumerar distintos tipos de gneros discursivos de la esfera acadmica.


c. Qu tipo/s/ textual es/son ms recurrente/s en los textos acadmicos? Por
qu?

2.3. El captulo
Una de las fuentes ms utilizadas de informacin y conocimiento en el mbito
acadmico es el libro. Ya sea una obra literaria o un libro especializado es nece-
sario conocer su composicin y estructura para realizar una consulta eficiente.

Actividad 7

a. A continuacin completar las secciones del libro en castellano:

Ingls Castellano
Cover
Preface/Foreword/Prologue
Acknowledgements
Table of contents / Contents
Chapters
Epilogue
References
Bibliography
Index
Appendix
Backcover / Blurb

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REFLEXIN

Se encuentran diferencias entre las nomenclaturas del ingls y el


castellano?
Cul es la diferencia entre contents e index?

1
Una de las secciones ms importantes del libro es el captulo, dado que permite 2
el orden y la integracin de los contenidos. En lneas generales, los captulos
3
aparecen numerados en orden cronolgico y estn encabezados por un ttulo,
aunque esta organizacin puede variar de a cuerdo con el tipo de obra y temtica
de que se trate.

2.3.1. Estructura y organizacin: modos de expresar el


significado. El prrafo

Public Health
Giddens, A. (2006) Chapter 8: Health, Illness and Disability. Sociological
Perspectives on Medicine in: Sociology, Cambridge: Polity, pp. 259-260.

Actividad 8

a. Leer el ttulo del fragmento (en negrita) y la referencia bibliogrfica:


b. Cul parecera ser el propsito o la finalidad comunicativa de la publicacin?
Seleccionar una opcin:
Explicar uno o varios conceptos referidos a una disciplina en particular.
Narrar un acontecimiento poltico internacional relevante ocurrido recientemente.
Presentar una visin personal acerca de un problema de actualidad.
Brindar informacin.
Definir el concepto de:
Ubicar el mbito de produccin del texto.
A qu gnero discursivo pertenece el texto?
A qu tipo de lector est dirigido?

c. Leer el siguiente fragmento:

PUBLIC HEALTH
We saw above how members of traditional societies relied largely on folk reme-
dies, treatments and healing techniques which were passed down from generation
to generation. Illnesses were frequently regarded in magical or religious terms and
were attributed to the presence of evil spirits or sin. For peasants and average town-
dwellers, there was no outside authority that was concerned with their health in the
way that states and public health systems are today. Health was a private matter,
not a public concern.
The rise of both the nation-state and industrialization brought about drastic
changes in this situation, however. The emergence of nation-states with defined
territories produced a shift in attitudes towards local people, who were no longer

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simply inhabitants of the land, but were a population falling under the rule of a cen-
tral authority. The human population was seen as a resource to be monitored and
regulated as part of the process of maximizing national wealth and power.
The state began to take a heightened interest in the health of its population, as
the well-being of its members affected the nations productivity, level of prosperity,
defensive capabilities and rate of growth. The study of demography the size, com-
position and dynamics of human populations assumed much greater importance.
1 The Census was introduced in order to record and monitor changes occurring in
the population. Statistics of all sorts were collected and calculated: birth rates, mor-
2 tality rates, average ages of marriage and child-bearing, suicide rates, life expectancy,
3 diet, common illnesses, causes of death and so forth.
Michel Foucault (19261984) has made an influential contribution to our
understanding of the rise of modern medicine by drawing attention to the regu-
lation and disciplining of bodies by the state (1973). He argues that sexuality and
sexual behaviour were of central importance to this process. Sex was both the way in
which the population could reproduce and grow, and a potential threat to its health
and well-being. Sexuality not linked to reproduction was something to be repressed
and controlled. This monitoring of sexuality by the state occurred in part through
the collection of data about marriage, sexual behaviour, legitimacy and illegitimacy,
the use of contraception and abortions. This surveillance went hand in hand with
the promotion of strong public norms about sexual morality and acceptable sexual
activity. For example, sexual perversions such as homosexuality, masturbation and
sex outside marriage were all labelled and condemned (see chapter 12, Sexuality
and Gender).
The idea of public health took shape in an attempt to eradicate pathologies from
the population the social body. The state began to assume responsibility for impro-
ving the conditions in which the population lived. Sanitation and water systems were
developed to protect against disease. Roads were paved and attention was devoted to
housing. Regulations were gradually imposed on slaughterhouses and facilities for food
processing. Burial practices were monitored to ensure that they did not pose a health
threat to the population. A whole series of institutions, such as prisons, asylums,
workhouses, schools and hospitals emerged as part of the move towards monitoring,
controlling and reforming the people.

d. Cul es la funcin del primer prrafo? Fundamentar por qu.


Definir el concepto de salud pblica.
Realizar una introduccin al texto a travs de un enlace con prrafos anteriores.

e. En el segundo prrafo el conector however es utilizado para introducir:


Una consecuencia.
Una causa.
Una restriccin.
Una ejemplificacin.

f. Cules son las ideas que conecta?


g. Por qu el Estado comenz a interesarse por la salud de la poblacin?
h. En el tercer prrafo la palabra demography aparece en negrita (en el origi-
nal). Establecer por qu. Existe alguna relacin entre esta palabra y la palabra
Census en el prrafo siguiente?
i. Qu funcin parece, entonces, cumplir el prrafo 4?

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Introduce un nuevo concepto.


Introduce un elemento para expandir el concepto expresado en el prrafo
anterior.

j. En el prrafo 5 Giddens presenta los conceptos de regulacin y dis-


ciplinamiento de los cuerpos de Michel Foucault. Foucault define al
sexo como................... 1
y tambin como......................................... 2
3
k. En este prrafo hay dos referencias temporales explcitas. Cules son? Qu
marca cada una de ellas?

I. Al final del prrafo hay una frase entre parntesis. Por qu?
II. Cul o cules son las operaciones comunicativas que se realizan en este
prrafo?

Se narra el surgimiento de la medicina moderna.


Se presenta una contribucin importante.

l. Completar las siguientes frases con la informacin que se brinda en el prrafo


5:

El sexo fuera del matrimonio es un ejemplo de


Otros ejemplos son ..............

m. Con qu frase/s se introducen los ejemplos?


n. A qu se hace referencia con la frase monitoreo de la sexualidad por parte
del estado?
o. La palabra pathologies (entre comillas y en negrita en el original) cumple
una funcin en el ltimo prrafo. Cul es esa funcin? A qu patologas se
refiere el autor?
p. En el prrafo 6 se mencionan medidas para el mejoramiento de las condicio-
nes de vida de la poblacin:

Cules fueron esas medidas?


Qu instituciones emergieron?
Para qu?

q. Con lo ya visto, completar el siguiente cuadro para intentar diagramar una


posible estructura del texto:

Prrafo Operacin comunicativa Ejemplos


1
2
3
4
5
6

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r. El objetivo comunicativo fundamental de Giddens es:

Brindar informacin sobre la salud pblica.


Presentar una perspectiva propia sobre la salud pblica.
Describir un estado de situacin.
Relatar una experiencia personal.

1 s. Qu tiempo verbal predomina a lo largo del texto? Por qu?


2
t. Con arreglo a la estructura general vista en este texto, qu tipologa textual
3 parece predominar? Estn de acuerdo con las siguientes formulaciones?

Una pretensin de persuadir al lector al que se hallan dirigidos.


Una serie de rasgos estilsticos vinculados, no tanto a la estructura argumentati-
va sino al mbito social en el que se producen.

2.3.2. El texto expositivo


El texto expositivo es un tipo de texto cuyo propsito suele ser informar, expli-
car o describir. Por ello, el texto expositivo se organiza lgicamente a travs de
estructuras cuyas principales caractersticas son la descripcin, (enumeracin),
comparacin y contraste, causa-efecto, problema-solucin y secuencia.
El texto expositivo contiene vocabulario especfico dependiente del contexto
y no siempre provee suficiente informacin. Otra de las caractersticas del texto
expositivo es que puede brindar conceptos nuevos muy rpidamente, as como
tambin puede incluir eventos o informacin que deben ser dejados de lado para
evitar que dificulten la comprensin.
La organizacin del texto refiere a la disposicin de las ideas y a las relaciones
que se establecen entre ellas. El conocimiento de las relaciones retricas ideas
principales, ideas secundarias, detalles de apoyo es importante en cuanto al
logro de la comprensin de un texto expositivo.
Como fue sealado al comienzo de esta unidad, el gnero categoriza a los
textos sobre la base de criterios externos, mientras que la agrupacin segn
tipologa textual representa agrupamientos de textos que son similares en su
forma lingstica, independientemente del gnero. As, el trmino gnero des-
cribe tipos de actividades como, por ejemplo, sermones, canciones, poemas, lo
que regularmente ocurre en la sociedad (Dudley Evans 1989:77), mientras que
los tipos de texto representan agrupaciones que son similares en trminos de
la coocurrencia de patrones lingsticos. Por ello, los trminos gnero y tipo de
texto representan perspectivas diferentes y complementarias.
Como los elementos y estructuras en diferentes textos expositivos varan, es
importante abordar una amplia variedad de ejemplos.

2.3.3. Aspectos textuales


En este apartado nos referimos a: hiptesis de lectura, cohesin lexica, conecto-
res, tiempos verbales, sufijo-ing, referencia, sinonimia, repeticin y referencias
bibliogrficas.

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Actividad 9

a. Leer las siguientes citas bibliogrficas:


1. Van Valkenburg, M. , Middleton, W. (2002) Reference Data for Engineers.
Radio, Electronics, Computer and Communications, Ninth Edition. USA:
Newness. Pg. 44-4.
2. Davis, J.R. (ed.) (2003) Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices, USA: 1
ASM International. Pg. vii. 2
3. Marshall, A. (2004) Labour market policies and regulations in Argentina, 3
Brazil and Mexico: Programmes and impacts, Documento N 13, OIT. Pg. 8
4. <http://www.pre-sustainability.com/sustainability-library>
5. Bubela, T., Caulfield, T. (2004) Do the print media hype genetic research? A
comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian
Medical Association Journal, CMAJ 2004;170(9):1399-407

b. Cul cree que es el origen de cada texto?


c. A partir de la lectura de las referencias bibliogrficas, realizar una hiptesis
sobre el tema a tratar en cada texto.
d. A continuacin se transcriben fragmentos de los textos cuyas referencias
bibliogrficas fueron analizadas. Cul es la referencia bibliogrfica de cada
texto?

Texto 1

Abstract
Background: The public gets most of its information about genetic research from
the media. It has been suggested that media representations may involve exagge-
ration, called genohype. To examine the accuracy and nature of media coverage
of genetic research, we reviewed the reporting of single-gene discoveries and asso-
ciated technologies in major daily newspapers in Canada, the United States, Great
Britain and Australia.

Methods: We used neutral search terms to identify articles about gene discoveries
and associated technologies hosted on the Dow Jones Interactive and Canadian
NewsDisk data bases from January 1995 to June 2001. We compared the contents,
claims and conclusions of the scientific journal article with those of the associa-
ted newspaper article. Coders subjectively assigned the newspaper articles to 1 of 3
categories: moderately to highly exaggerated claims, slightly exaggerated claims or
no exaggerated claims. We used classification tree software to identify the variables
that contributed to the assignment of each newspaper article to 1 of the 3 categories:
attention structure (positioning in the newspaper and length of the article), author-
ship, research topic, source of information other than the scientific paper, type and
likelihood of risks and benefits, discussion of controversy, valuation tone (positive
or negative), framing (e.g., description of research, celebration of progress, report of
economic prospects or ethical perspective), technical accuracy (either omissions or
errors that changed the description of the methods or interpretation of the results)
and use of metaphors.

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Results: We examined 627 newspaper articles reporting on 111 papers published in


24 scientific and medical journals. Only11% of the newspaper articles were categori-
zed as having moderately to highly exaggerated claims; the majority were categorized
as having no claims (63%) or slightly exaggerated claims (26%). The classification
analysis ranked the reporting of risks as the most important variable in determi-
ning the categorization of newspaper articles. Only 15% of the newspaper articles
and 5% of the scientific journal articles discussed costs or risks, whereas 97% of the
1 newspaper articles and 98% of the scientific journal articles discussed the likelihood
of benefits of the research.
2
3 Interpretation: Our data suggest that the majority of newspaper articles accurately
convey the results of and reflect the claims made in scientific journal articles. Our study
also highlights an overemphasis on benefits and under-representation of risks in both
scientific and newspaper articles. The cause and natureof this trend is uncertain.

Texto 2

A Clear Route to Quantification of Sustainability


Many organizations struggle with how to make their Sustainability efforts measura-
ble, how to embed sustainability in their daily operations and how to create competi-
tive advantage with this. Life Cycle thinking and Life Cycle Assessment give insight
and provide metrics.
That is why LCA has become a hot topic on the agenda of many boards. But inte-
grating Life Cycle thinking, setting-up procedures and gathering data, is a process of
defining your goals, choosing the metrics, integrating them and creating value. Built
on 20 years of experience in providing our clients with consultancy services in LCA,
being at the forefront of methodology development and providing the worlds most
reknown LCA software, we have now defined four steps to empower your company
to sustainability excellence and build the required capabilities to put corporate sus-
tainability programs on a quantitative, yet scientific footing.

Texto 3

Important theoretical probability distributions


A probability distribution describes the behavior of a random variable. Often, the
observations generated from many different statistical experiments behave in similar
ways. This means that the random variables generated by the different experiments
may be more or less explained by the same probability distribution and hence could be
represented by a single mathematical expression. As it turns out, one requires only a
few of the standard probability distributions to describe most types of random varia-
bles encountered in practice.

31
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

Texto 4
In this report I examine some aspects of the labour policies implemented together with
or after economic liberalization in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, and the employment
and unemployment compensation programmes existing in these countries in the early
2000s, as well as certain of their labour market effects. In the case of labour policy,
the emphasis is placed on employment protection reforms and on trends in non-
1
wage labour costs. These three countries applied basically similar economic reforms,
although the reforms had distinct aspects and different rhythms of implementation. 2
Their labour policies and labour market programmes were less uniform. 3

Texto 5

Preface
In January, 2000, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimated that 8 to 10%
of Americans, or about 20 to 25 million people, had some sort of medical device
implanted in their bodies (refer to the NIH Technology Assessment Conference on
Implants, held 10-12 Jan 2000 in Bethesda, MD). In the United States, the market for
orthopedic implant devices such as total knee and hip replacements, spinal implants,
and bone fixation devices, exceeds two billion dollars per year. Worldwide, this market
exceeds $4.3 billion per year. These numbers, which clearly demonstrate the economic
impact of the medical device industry, should continue to rise due to the combination
of advances in the medical and materials science fields and an aging population (par-
ticularly in the United States, where some baby boomers are now in their sixties).

e. Luego de leer los fragmentos, revisar las hiptesis realizadas en el punto 2.


En qu medida los ttulos ayudan a anticipar el contenido? Cules son las
palabras clave?
f. Quines son los destinatarios de cada texto? Con qu propsito fueron
escritos? Completar el siguiente cuadro:

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

Texto 1 Texto 2 Texto 3 Texto 4 Texto 5


Texto Do the print media
hype genetic
Ttulo research? .

Origen

1
2 Destinatario
3
Propsito

Tema

Palabras clave

Esta actividad pertenece a: g. Releer el texto 1. En qu secciones se utiliza el tiempo presente y en cul el
Anselmo, G. (2013), Cap. 4. pasado? Por qu? Qu ocurre en los textos 3, 4 y 5?
Funciones Retricas en el Discurso
Cientfico en: Ingls I. Florencio h. Cul es el tiempo verbal que predomina en el texto 2? Por qu?
Varela: Universidad Nacional
Arturo Jauretche.

Recomendamos visitar esta pgina: <http://www.grammarbank.


com/tiempos-verbales-en-Ingles.html>

i. Cules son las categoras y funciones de las palabras que terminan con el
sufijo ing en el texto 2?
Integrating
Thinking
Setting
Gathering
Defining
Choosing
Creating
Providing
Being
Footing

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

La terminacin -ING
La terminacin-ing presenta diferentes acepciones y funciones en su traduccin al
castellano, dependiendo de su ubicacin y uso en el texto. Las funciones son varia-
das e incluyen las de sustantivo, adjetivo, verbo no conjugado (infinitivo y gerun-
dio) y verbo.

Funcin Ejemplo Interpretacin 1


Sustantivo Lodgings Alojamiento 2
Findings Hallazgos
3
Adjetivo Working conditions Condiciones laborales.
Drinking water Agua potable.
Infinitivo Explaining the concepts that are Explicar los conceptos que son relevantes.
relevant. Las claves para implementar
The keys to implementing interventions. intervenciones.
Gerundio Including Incluyendo
Taking into account. Teniendo en cuenta.
Verbo When analysing the evidence, we Cuando analizamos los datos, observamos.
observed.

Actividad 10 (de integracin)

a. Leer el texto Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices:

Preface
In January of 2000, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) estimated that 8 to 10% of
Americans, or about 20 to 25 million people, had some sort of medical device implan-
ted in their bodies (refer to the NIH Technology Assessment Conference on Implants,
held 10-12 Jan 2000 in Bethesda, MD). In the United States, the market for ortho-
pedic implant devices such as total knee and hip replacements, spinal implants, and
bone fixation devices, exceeds two billion dollars per year. Worldwide, this market
exceeds $4.3 billion per year. These numbers, which clearly demonstrate the economic
impact of the medical device industry, should continue to rise due to the combination
of advances in the medical and materials science fields and an aging population (par-
ticularly in the United States, where some baby boomers are now in their sixties).
Humans have sought to restore function to the human body stricken by trauma
or disease for thousands of years. For example, ancient civilizations such as the
Phoenicians, Etruscans, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in dentis-
try as far back as 2700 BC. The use of sutures made from linen can be traced back
to the Egyptians in circa 2000 BC. However, it has only been during the past 100
years that man-made materials and devices have been developed to the point where
they can be used extensively to replace parts of living systems in the human body.
These special materials able to function in intimate contact with living tissue, with
minimal adverse reaction or rejection by the body- are called biomaterials. Today,
biomaterials play a major role in replacing or improving the function of every major
body system (skeletal, circulatory, nervous, etc.). Some common implants include
the orthopedic devices mentioned earlier; cardiac implants such as artificial heart
valves and pacemakers; soft tissue implants such as breast implants and injectable
collagen for soft tissue augmentation; and dental implants to replace teeth/root

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

systems and bony tissue in the oral cavity.


Recognizing the growing importance of biomaterials and bioengineering, ASM
International has published a number of reviews during the past 20 years that docu-
ment the properties and failure mechanisms of metallic implant materials. The majo-
rity of these reviews can be found in various volumes of the Metals/ASM Handbook
series. Until now, however, there was no single definitive source published by ASM
that described the many important topics associated with the use of various implant
1 materials (including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and coatings). These
materials include:
2
3 Implant material selection and applications
The body/oral environment and its impact on impact material performance
The basic concepts of biocompatibility
Tissue attachment mechanisms
Biophysical and biomechanical requirements of implant materials
Corrosion and wear behavior, including degradation of polymeric materials
[]
Davis, J.R. (ed.) (2003), Handbook of Materials for Medical Devices, USA: ASM Inter-
national. Pg. vii.

b. Identificar los conectores principales y las ideas fundamentales que unen.

c. El vocabulario de este texto est relacionado en trminos de la reiteracin de


algunos elementos, el uso de sinnimos, antnimos, hipernimos e hipni-
mos. Releer el texto e identificar las posibles relaciones.
d. Indicar la referencia temporal de las siguientes oraciones extradas del texto:

Humans have sought to restore function to the human body stricken by trauma
or disease for thousands of years.
Today, biomaterials play a major role in replacing or improving the function of
every major body system (skeletal, circulatory, nervous, etc.).

For example, ancient civilizations such as the Phoenicians, Etruscans, Greeks,


Romans, Chinese, and Aztecs used gold in dentistry as far back as 2700 BC.

El Texto 1 (Bubela, T., Caulfield, T. (2004) Do the print media hype genetic research?
A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian Medical
Association Journal, CMAJ 2004;170(9):1399-407 pgs. 40/41) presenta una estruc-
tura del tipo problemarespuesta al problemasolucin/resultadoevaluacin. Si el
problema es que las representaciones de los medios pueden involucrar un grado de
exageracin Cules seran las otras cuestiones? Cmo estn expresadas en el texto?

e. De modo similar, identificar problema y solucin en el Texto 2.

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2.3.4. Patrones retricos: la definicin. Marcadores de hecho y


de opinin
Fragmentos

Texto 1
Bell, A. and Monaghan, P. and Page, A.P. (2006) Peptidyl-prolyl cistrans isomerases
1
(immunophilins) and their roles in parasite biochemistry, host-parasite interaction and
antiparasitic drug action. International Journal for Parasitology, 36 (3). pp. 261-276. 2
ISSN 0020-7519http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/4949/ 3
Deposited on: 25 February 2009

The cyclophilin (CYP) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP) families, although unre-
lated in sequence, are often considered together because of their shared enzymic
activities. Both cyclophilins and FKBPs, along with a smaller protein class, the par-
vulins, exhibit peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase: EC 5.2.1.8) activity that
plays a vital role in protein folding (Fischer and Aumller, 2003). Although the pep-
tide bonds of nascent polypeptides emerge from the ribosome in the transconfor-
mation, and the majority retains that energetically-favoured state in fully-folded
proteins, there is a significant minority (~57% of the proteins with structures sol-
ved) of peptidyl-prolyl (Xaa-Pro) bonds that switch to the cis-conformation during
folding, transport and assembly. (Pg. 4)
[]

Texto 2

1.2.2. Governance: An analytical framework


[]
The nodal points constitute another key concept within the analytical
framework(Hufty 2004; Chiara and Di Virgilio 2005; Hufty 2006; Cross andFreytes
Frey 2007). These are the meeting points (actual or virtual) for theSocial Movements
and Management of Urban Solid Waste, Argentinadifferent logics of actors concer-
ned, in which agreements and differencestake shape about which resolutions are
strategically relevant for policyimplementation. Thus identification of nodal points
is an important analyticalaspect in studying governance processes. This requires pre-
vious explorationof actors perspectives and interests in order to identify the central-
conflicts that have the potential to block, modify or reshape a policy duringits imple-
mentation. Each nodal point is characterised by a central stake, inreference to which
different actors concerned interact (discuss, negotiate,build agreements, fight, etc.).
In light of this definition, some of the aspects that should be analysed incharacte-
rising a nodal point are: possible alliances of interests and perspectives,power asym-
metries among actors, and interaction patterns. By studyingthese dynamic aspects,
it is possible to comprehend the complexity ofnorms, the production process, social
actors constructions, and the definitionand redefinition of the policy pursued.
[]
Cross, C., Freytes Frey, A. (2009) 3. The Social and Ecological Dimensions of a
Decentralisation Process: Participation by Social Movements in the Sustainable Mana-
gement of Urban Solid Waste in Buenos Aires, en: Geiser U, Rist S, editors. 2009.
Decentralisation Meets Local Complexity: Local Struggles, State Decentralisation and Access
to Natural Resources in South Asia and Latin America. Perspectives of the Swiss National

36
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University ofBern, Vol. 4.


Bern: Geographica Bernensia. Pg. 101.

Texto 3
Leaders and Followers: The Role of Achievement Motives and Their Effects on Motivating
1 Strategies for Enhancing Performance
2 AUTHORS: Patricia Ann Castelli, Ph.D.
Lawrence Technological University, USA
3 Frank Castronova, Ph.D.
Lawrence Technological University, USA
Jacqueline Stavros, EDM
Lawrence Technological University, USA
Jane Galloway Seiling, Ph.D.
Taos Institute, USA21000 West Ten Mile Road Southfield, MI 48075-1058248.204.3066
castelli@ltu.edu

WHAT IS MOTIVATION?
Steers et al. noted various definitions by writers who have attempted to define the
term motivation, a term that is derived from the Latin word for movement (move-
re). They note that Atkinson offers the definition as the contemporary (immedia-
te) influence on direction, vigor and persistence of action (1964, p. 2) and Vroom
offers a process governing choice made by persons...among alternative forms of
voluntary activity: (1964, p.6). According to Maddock and Fulton, Motivation,
surprisingly enough, has not been defined in a scientifically acceptable, reasonable
and legitimate manner. It has not even been defined in a practical, commonsense
or useful manner. According to these authors, leadership is defined in one word:
motivation.They suggest that motivation has not been adequately defined because
it is too near to emotion and no one wants to flirt with emotion (1998, p. xii). Their
suggestion that motivation is the silent side of leadership is pertinent to the ten-
dency of researchers to describe motivation, but not to explain it. To prepare future
leaders to motivate people they must understand how one is motivated.
[]
<http://abwic.org/Proceedings/2007-ABW-Proceedings.pdf> (Pg. 38)

Progress in Biomass and Bioenergy Production


Edited by Syed Shahid Shaukat, ISBN 978-953-307-491-7, Hard cover, 444 pages,
Publisher: InTech, Published: July 27, 2011 under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license, in sub-
ject Energy Engineering
DOI: 10.5772/972

37
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

Alternative energy sources have become a hot topic in recent years. The supply of
fossil fuel, which provides about 95 percent of total energy demand today, will even-
tually run out in a few decades. By contrast, biomass and biofuel have the potential
to become one of the major global primary energy source along with other alternate
energy sources in the years to come. A wide variety of biomass conversion options with
different performance characteristics exists. The goal of this book is to provide the
readers with current state of art about biomass and bioenergy production and some
other environmental technologies such as Wastewater treatment, Biosorption and Bio- 1
economics. Organized around providing recent methodology, current state of mode-
lling and techniques of parameter estimation in gasification process are presented at 2
length. As such, this volume can be used by undergraduate and graduate students as 3
a reference book and by the researchers and environmental engineers for reviewing
the current state of knowledge on biomass and bioenergy production, biosorption and
wastewater treatment.

Actividad 11

a. Leer y comparar los ttulos de los textos 2 y 3. En qu medida el ttulo per-


mite anticipar el contenido de los textos?
b. A quin est dirigido cada texto?

c. Cul es el mbito de produccin de los cuatro textos?

d. A qu gnero pertenecen los textos?

e. El segundo prrafo del texto 2 comienza as: In light of this definition. A


qu definicin se refiere? Subrayarla en el texto.

f. Leer la siguiente definicin:

Flowers are compressed shoots, but in place of the leaves that surround a vegeta-
tive shoot, there are four types of floral organs: sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
(which fuse to form the ovary).

g. Cul es la estructura de una definicin? Puede establecerse alguna diferen-


cia entre las definiciones de los puntos e y f?

h. En el texto 3, qu es aquello que an no se ha definido de modo prctico,


con sentido comn o til?
i. Cul sera la definicin ms adecuada segn los autores?

j. Los autores sugieren un motivo por el cual la motivacin no ha sido definida


adecuadamente. Cul es ese motivo?

k. Leer los cuatro textos e identificar frases que expresen opiniones y frases
que expresen hechos.

l. Transcribir ejemplos de los textos de frases que introducen una opinin.

m. En el texto 4 est la tapa de un libro. Qu se puede anticipar de la tapa? En


qu medida ayuda la imagen?

38
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

n. Qu informacin brinda una tapa?


Qu informacin sobre la publicacin puede extraerse del texto que figura
debajo de la imagen?
Cul ser el contenido del libro?

o. Completar el siguiente cuadro:

1
2 Texto 1 Texto 2 Texto 3 Texto 4

3 Origen
Destinatario
Indicadores de hechos
Indicadores de opinin
Gnero

39
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

3. Las tipologas textuales


en los gneros discursivos
1
2
Objetivos de esta unidad: 3
Se espera que los estudiantes logren:

Reconocer las finalidades, caractersticas y contextos de produccin de diver-


sos gneros discursivos en el mbito acadmico.
Aplicar estrategias especficas para la comprensin lectora de textos acad-
micos en una lengua extranjera.
Profundizar aspectos lxico gramaticales y discursivos de la lengua inglesa
presentes en los gneros discursivos escritos.
Utilizar de manera eficiente materiales de referencia como diccionarios y tra-
ductores on line.

3.1. Introduccin
Dentro del abanico de gneros discursivos escritos propios del mbito acad-
mico-cientfico encontramos la tesis, la monografa, la resea bibliogrfica, el
informe, el examen parcial, la monografa, el artculo de investigacin y el ensayo,
entre otros.
Tal como observamos en la Unidad 1 (apartado 1.2.), los textos acadmicos
presentan variaciones que se reflejan en diferentes niveles, las cuales abarcan
desde un contenido temtico en particular, determinado por el objeto de estudio
de las disciplinas, pasando por las condiciones sociolingsticas del evento comu-
nicativo, los recursos lingsticos (aspectos lexicogramaticales) hasta los patrones
retricos que afectan la organizacin y estructura del discurso.
En la presente Unidad, focalizaremos en el nivel de organizacin y estructura
del discurso, a partir de las tipologas textuales y sus caractersticas para luego
abordar el gnero artculo cientfico.

3.2. El texto argumentativo


Siguiendo las categoras de los cinco tipos textuales propuesta por Werlich
(Unidad 2, p. 23), abordaremos, a continuacin, el tipo de texto argumentativo:
aquel que se centra en el juicio y la toma de posicin.
Los textos argumentativos se orientan a persuadir, a convencer a la audien-
cia a travs de la justificacin de una opinin o argumento con el objetivo de
cambiar la opinin de los oyentes/lectores o simplemente comunicar las ideas
propias.

40
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El parlamento, el tribunal, la prensa, los medios audiovisuales de comunica-
cin, las instituciones acadmicas, la escuela, entre otros muchos, son espa-
cios en los que se desarrollan un conjunto de gneros discursivos que tienen
en la argumentacin un denominador comn. El objetivo de la argumentacin
es, segn la definicin tradicional provocar o acrecentar la adhesin de un
auditorio a las tesis que se le presentan para su asentimiento. Es decir, su
1 funcin principal es persuadir o convencer a los destinatarios del discurso de
2 que las posiciones sostenidas por el enunciador son crebles, y, por lo tanto,
3 dignas de ser apoyadas. Son gneros tpicamente argumentativos: la arenga
poltica, el debate parlamentario, el alegato, el editorial, el artculo periodsti-
co de opinin, el mensaje publicitario, el ensayo, el artculo cientfico, entre
otros. (UNQ, 2011, pp. 77)

Actividad 1
Leer el siguiente texto y realizar las actividades a continuacin.

The Guardian, Sunday 28 September 2014 19.25 BST

The Guardian view on lowering the voting age to 16


One of the hallmarks of our democracy is periodic willingness to complement
the fundamentals of our system with bold innovation

A mock ballot box. Young people have shown a willingness to participate in complex
political and societal debates on social media. Photograph: Matt Cardy/Getty Images

The decision to give 16- and 17-year-olds the vote was without question one of the
most striking ways in which the Scottish referendum campaign electrified the more
general political process. It should now be made one of the most lasting. Both Alex
Salmond and now Ed Miliband have rightly identified lowering the voting age as an
idea whose time has come. This reform now needs to be put on a more general elec-
toral footing.
The arguments put forward by campaign groups such as votesat16.org bear repea-
ting. Aged 16, a teenager can get married or enter a civil partnership and consent

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to a sexual relationship, pay income tax and national insurance, become a company
director, join the army or a trade union and give their full consent to life or death
medical procedures. They can also look overseas with envy. Sixteen-year-olds can
vote in nations and territories including Jersey, Guernsey, Austria, Brazil, Germany,
Hungary, Slovenia and Norway.
In this country the argument has always been that 16-year-olds are simply too
immature to grapple with the enormity of the issues involved and are too young to
have the requisite stake in the outcome. But these are stances increasingly difficult 1
to maintain given the participation of young people in complex political and socie-
tal debates on social media. Suggestions that young voters would merely replicate 2
the positions of their parents are also open to question. Early research in Scotland 3
suggests 40% of the young voters there took stances different to their parents. And
they may have brought additional benefits, their enthusiasm increasing interest
among those parents.
In Scotland, 109,533 young people aged 16 and 17 registered to vote. Statisticians
are still studying the data to discover how many actually made it to the polls. But
there was ample evidence throughout the campaign to indicate mature and informed
involvement in its highs and lows by young voters, many from the classroom. Early
polling, by no means definitive, suggests that the majority of the teenagers who
did vote, backed the Yes campaign. But the positions they adopted, for and against,
matter less than the processes involved in reaching those decisions. And of primary
importance was surely their induction into a democratic structure shunned by so
many of their elders in other parts of the UK. Might this be a way of bringing vitality
to what promises to be a bitter, cynical general election next year?
There are risks. Some will fear a slump of interest among the young that might
drain further confidence from a system already teetering on the edge of legitimacy.
But one of the hallmarks of our democracy highlighted by the Scottish vote is
periodic willingness to complement the fundamentals of our system with bold inno-
vation. Devolved government, revised voting systems, postal ballots, early voting; all
have defeated scepticism and serve us admirably. Our young citizens deserve their
chance as well.

Disponible en:
<http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/28/the-guardian-view-on-
lowering-the-voing-age> Consulta: 17 de febrero 2015

a. Lectura global
1. Determinar fuente del texto. Justificar la respuesta con datos del texto y
del paratexto.
2. Describir las caractersticas del narrador y destinatario del texto.
3. A qu gnero discursivo pertenece?
4. Cul es la relacin entre la imagen y el tema central?
5. Qu hiptesis de lectura puede realizar a partir del ttulo y la bajada?

b. Lectura analtica
1. Creen Alex Salmond y Ed Milband que lleg el momento de impulsar la
reforma?
2. Cules son los argumentos que los defensores de la reforma electoral
postulan?
3.Cul es la postura de los que se oponen a ella?
4. Cul es la crtica del autor del texto a esta postura?
5. Por qu el autor se pregunta/cuestiona si la reforma para el referndum
en Escocia podra revitalizar la eleccin general en el Reino Unido del ao

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siguiente?
6. El autor: est a favor o en contra de la participacin de los menores de 16
y 17 aos?
7. Cul es la funcin del texto: informar, describir, narrar, argumentar, dar
instrucciones? Por qu?

c. Anlisis lingstico
1 1. Realice una red lxica con trminos relacionados al tema central del texto.
2
3

2. Busque el equivalente de los siguientes trminos en ingls.

Castellano Ingls
Distintivo
Establecer
Sugerencias
Tema
A favor y en contra
Postura
Audaz
Voluntad
Derrotar
Merecer

3. Interpretar los siguientes trminos de acuerdo a los afijos y su ubicacin/


funcin en el texto:

Willigness
Innovation
Political
Increasing
Increasingly
Involvement
Involved
Merely
Arguments
Including

4. A partir de la lectura y anlisis del editorial, completar con las ideas que
estructuran el texto.

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1
3.2.1. Los marcadores discursivos 2
Uno de los aspectos que facilitan y constituyen la cohesin textual est relacio- 3
nado con los enlaces entre enunciados que facilitan la expresin y comprensin
de las ideas. A estos enlaces los llamamos marcadores discursivos o conectores.
Su funcin es sealar (marcar) la relacin que se establece entre dos unidades de
sentido y, de esta manera, organizan y estructuran el texto.
.

Hay muchas palabras y expresiones que utilizamos para mostrar la estructura


del discurso. Algunas de ellas hacen clara la conexin entre lo que vamos a
decir y lo que decamos previamente (por ejemplo: talking about., anyway,
however). Algunas de ellas muestran nuestra actitud con respecto a la veraci-
dad de lo que decimos (por ejemplo: I susppose, I think, frankly, sort of).
Mientas que otras muestran el tipo de comunicacin que se est desarrollan-
do (como el uso de after all al persuadir, o Im afraid antes de negar en forma
amble, o la palabra actually al realizar un anuncio. Expresiones como estas
pueden llamarse marcadores discursivos. (Swan, 1994:172)

Actividad 2
a. Teniendo en cuenta la descripcin de los marcadores discursivos anterior,
cmo analizara la funcin de las siguientes expresiones?:

The arguments put forward by campaign groups


Early research in Scotland suggests
And of primary importance was
But the positions they adopted, for and against,

b. Buscar en el texto otras instancias del uso de marcadores adversativos y de


adicin. Determinar las ideas que unen.

A partir de los aspectos analizados con base en la lectura del editorial, podemos
observar que la argumentacin es la estrategia discursiva que utilizamos para
persuadir, para convencer, para lograr adhesin a aquello que se expresa.
Para ello, se emplean diversas estrategias tales como la ejemplificacin, el uso
de analogas o las citas. Adems, se utilizan palabras y frases que expresan opi-
niones, juicios de valor y conectores que, como marcadores discursivos, cumplen
funciones especficas en la trama textual como el establecimiento de una causa
y su efecto, una concesin o una organizacin particular.

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3.3. El texto descriptivo


Adems de los textos expositivos y argumentativos ya analizados, otra tipologa
frecuente en los genros discursivos de la esfera acadmica es el texto descripti-
vo. El propsito de esta tipologa textual es precisamente describir y revelar una
persona, lugar, objeto o fenmeno en particular, a travs de la identificacin,
descripcin de sus partes, cualidades y/o caractersticas.
1
2 Texto descriptivo
3 The Economist - Jan 4th 2014 (from the printed edition)

All men are created unequal

Revisiting an old argument about the impact of capitalism


INEQUALITY is one of the most controversial attributes of capitalism. Early in the
industrial revolution stagnant wages and concentrated wealth led David Ricardo and
Karl Marx to question capitalisms sustainability. Twentieth-century economists
lost interest in distributional issues amid the Great Compression that followed
the second world war. But a modern surge in inequality has new economists wonde-
ring, as Marx and Ricardo did, which forces may be stopping the fruits of capitalism
from being more widely distributed.
Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, an economist at the
Paris School of Economics, is an authoritative guide to the question. Mr Pikettys
book, which was published in French in 2013 and will be released in English in March
2014, self-consciously builds on the work of 19th-century thinkers; his title is an
allusion to Marxs magnum opus. But he possesses an advantage they lacked: two
centuries worth of hard data.
The book suggests that some 20th-century conventional wisdom was badly
wrong. Inequality does not appear to ebb as economies mature, as Simon Kuznets,
a Nobel-winning economist, argued in the 1950s. Neither should we expect the share
of income flowing to capital to stay roughly constant over time: what another eco-
nomist, Nicholas Kaldor, labelled a key fact of economic growth. Mr Piketty argues
there is no reason to think that capitalism will naturally reverse rising inequality.

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1
2
3

The centrepiece of Mr Pikettys analysis is the ratio of an economys capital (or


equivalently, its wealth) to its annual output. From 1700 until the first world war,
the stock of wealth in Western Europe hovered at around 700% of national income.
Over time the composition of wealth changed; agricultural land declined in impor-
tance while industrial capitalfactories, machinery and intellectual propertygai-
ned prominence. Yet wealth held steady at a high level (see chart, first panel).
Pre-1914 economies were very unequal. In 1910 the top 10% of European hou-
seholds controlled almost 90% of all wealth. The flow of rents and dividends from
capital contributed to high inequality of income; the top 10% captured more than
45% of all income. Mr Pikettys work suggests there was little sign of any natural
decline in inequality on the outbreak of the first world war.
The wars and depressions between 1914 and 1950 dragged the wealthy back to
earth. Wars brought physical destruction of capital, nationalisation, taxation and
inflation, while the Great Depression destroyed fortunes through capital losses and
bankruptcy. Yet capital has been rebuilt, and the owners of capital have prospered
once more. From the 1970s the ratio of wealth to income has grown along with
income inequality, and levels of wealth concentration are approaching those of the
pre-war era.
Mr Piketty describes these trends through what he calls two fundamental laws
of capitalism. The first explains variations in capitals share of income (as opposed
to the share going to wages). It is a simple accounting identity: at all times, capitals
share is equal to the rate of return on capital multiplied by the total stock of wealth
as a share of GDP. The rate of return is the sum of all income flowing to capital
rents, dividends and profitsas a percentage of the value of all capital.
The second law is more a rough rule of thumb: over long periods and under the
right circumstances the stock of capital, as a percentage of national income, should
approach the ratio of the national-savings rate to the economic growth rate. With a
savings rate of 8% (roughly that of the American economy) and GDP growth of 2%,
wealth should rise to 400% of annual output, for example, while a drop in long-run
growth to 1% would push up expected wealth to 800% of GDP. Whether this is a
law or not, the important point is that a lower growth rate is conducive to higher
concentrations of wealth.
In Mr Pikettys narrative, rapid growthfrom large productivity gains or a
growing populationis a force for economic convergence. Prior wealth casts less
of an economic and political shadow over the new income generated each year. And
population growth is a critical component of economic growth, accounting for about

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half of average global GDP growth between 1700 and 2012. Americas breakneck
population and GDP growth in the 19th century eroded the power of old fortunes
while throwing up a steady supply of new ones.

Victorian values
Tumbling rates of population growth are pushing wealth concentrations back toward
Victorian levels, in Mr Pikettys estimation. The ratio of wealth to income is highest
1 among demographically challenged economies such as Italy and Japan (although
both countries have managed to mitigate inequality through redistributive taxes
2 and transfers). Interestingly, Mr Piketty reckons this world, in which the return to
3 capital is persistently higher than growth, is the more normal state. In that case,
wealth piles up faster than growth in output or incomes. The mid-20th century,
when wealth compression combined with extraordinary growth to generate an ega-
litarian interregnum, was the exception.
Sustained rates of return above the rate of growth may sound unrealistic. The
more capital there is, the lower the return should be: the millionth industrial robot
adds less to production than the hundredth. Yet somewhat surprisingly, the rate of
return on capital is remarkably constant over long periods (see chart, second panel).
Technology is partly responsible. Innovation, and growth in output per person,
creates investment opportunities even when shrinking populations reduce GDP
growth to near zero.
New technology can also make it easier to substitute machines for human wor-
kers. That allows capital to gobble up a larger share of national income, raising its
return. Amid a new burst of automation, wealth concentrations and inequality
could reach unprecedented heights, putting a modern twist on a very 19th- century
problem.
Disponible en: <http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-
economics/21592635-revisiting-old-argument-about-impact-capitalism-all-men-
are-created> Consulta: 16 febrero 2015.

Actividad 3
a. Lectura global
1. Determinar la fuente del texto. Justificar la respuesta con datos del texto
y del paratexto.
2. Describir las caractersticas del narrador y destinatario del texto.
3. A qu gnero discursivo pertenece?
4. Cul es la relacin entre la imagen y el tema central?
5. Qu hiptesis de lectura puede realizar a partir del ttulo y la bajada?

b. Lectura analtica
1. Cul es inters principal del anlisis de la inequidad en la actualidad?
2. Qu atributos posee el libro de Piketty?
3. Hasta qu punto una concepcin biolgica o naturista del capitalismo es
vlida para explicar la inequidad dentro de ese sistema?
4. En qu consiste el argumento principal que sostiene la tesis de Piketty?
5. Describa brevemente el devenir econmico europeo en el siglo XX.
6. Cules son las dos leyes que rigen el sistema capitalista segn Piketty?
7. Cul es la relacin entre la riqueza y el crecimiento? Qu rol desempean
las nuevas tecnologas?

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c. Anlisis lingstico
1. Completar el siguiente cuadro con trminos especficos de comercio que
aparecen en el texto.

Espaol Ingls
Paga/quincena/jornal
Riqueza 1
Produccin 2
Flujo/fluir
3
Renta
Dividendo
Sistema tributario
Impuesto
Inflacin
Ingreso
Prdida
Ganancia
Bancarrota
Tasa de retorno
Ahorro
Crecimiento
Oferta / suministro
Producto bruto interno

2. La frase verbal: tiempos y verbos modales. Completar el cuadro siguiente


determinando el tiempo verbal de la frase seleccionada del texto y su inter-
pretacin al castellano.

Frase Tiempo verbal Interpretacin


He possesses
They lacked
There was little sign
Capital has been rebuilt
Rates of population growth are
pushing
Technology can also make it easier
The rate of growth may sound
unrealistic

3.3.1. Los patrones retricos


Los textos, tanto escritos como orales, presentan una organizacin que suele estar
determinada por su mbito de produccin, es decir, el contexto. En el caso del
texto escrito, puede observarse que su organizacin est determinada por una
estructura en prrafos.

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Una primera definicin de prrafo est ligada estrechamente a su forma, aun-


que no implique desatender el contenido: los prrafos han de expresar una idea
completa, y, en un texto escrito, suelen presentar una sangra y finalizar con un
punto y aparte. Esta afirmacin es la que puede definir un prrafo fsicamente.
Cuando nos referimos a aquellos procesos por los que pasa un escritor para
organizar sus ideas con un propsito especfico pasamos a otro nivel de anli-
sis, hablamos de las funciones retricas. En estos procesos se realizan eleccio-
1 nes y se secuencian elementos con las formas lingsticas apropiadas para que
2 el texto tenga unidad y coherencia, encontrando como funciones retricas que
predominan en el texto acadmico la definicin, la descripcin y la clasificacin.
3
Actividad 4.
a. A partir de la seleccin de oraciones del texto de Piketty, determinar cul de
las siguientes funciones se cumplen dentro del prrafo: definir, describir o
clasificar.

1. INEQUALITY is one of the most controversial attributes of capitalism.

2. Mr Pikettys book, which was published in French in 2013 and will be relea-
sed in English in March 2014, self-consciously builds on the work of 19th-
century thinkers; his title is an allusion to Marxs magnum opus.

3. Pre-1914 economies were very unequal.

4. The ratio of wealth to income is highest among demographically challenged


economies such as Italy and Japan.

5. From the 1970s the ratio of wealth to income has grown along with income
inequality, and levels of wealth concentration are approaching those of the
pre-war era.

6. Mr Piketty describes these trends through what he calls two fundamental


laws of capitalism.

Los prrafos suelen tener una declaracin principal, un tpico, que se desarrolla
dentro del mismo prrafo fsico, o varios, en lo que puede llamarse un prrafo
conceptual. Ese tpico, comnmente expresado al inicio, hace que el prrafo
sea deductivo. Tambin, a travs de una tcnica retrica, puede estar al final,
provocando una induccin por parte del lector: leemos pistas que nos llevan al
tema principal. Por ltimo, la idea principal puede ser expresada en medio de
un prrafo.
Asimismo, cada prrafo cumple una funcin: la de narrar, describir, mostrar un
proceso, ejemplificar, comparar, realizar una analoga, clasificar, definir, mostrar
una causa y un efecto, entre otras. Y, a su vez, en cada prrafo podemos rastrear
aquellos marcadores que nos muestran los lazos entre cada uno de ellos, reto-
mando as, los conceptos de unidad y coherencia.

b. Leer el siguiente prrafo extrado del texto anterior.

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Mr Piketty describes these trends through what he calls two fundamental laws of
capitalism. The first explains variations in capitals share of income (as opposed to
the share going to wages). It is a simple accounting identity: at all times, capitals
share is equal to the rate of return on capital multiplied by the total stock of wealth
as a share of GDP. The rate of return is the sum of all income flowing to capital
rents, dividends and profitsas a percentage of the value of all capital.
1
2
1. A qu refiere la frase these trends? Podemos recuperar esta referencia 3
en este prrafo, o debemos recurrir al anterior?
2. Cuntos prrafos fsicos podemos contar?
3. Cul sera el tpico en este prrafo?
4. En el mismo prrafo encontramos un nmero y un marcador de enumera-
cin cules son? Est finalizada la enumeracin?

c. Leer ahora el siguiente prrafo extrado tambin del texto anterior.

The second law is more a rough rule of thumb: over long periods and under the
right circumstances the stock of capital, as a percentage of national income, should
approach the ratio of the national-savings rate to the economic growth rate. With a
savings rate of 8% (roughly that of the American economy) and GDP growth of 2%,
wealth should rise to 400% of annual output, for example, while a drop in long-run
growth to 1% would push up expected wealth to 800% of GDP. Whether this is a
law or not, the important point is that a lower growth rate is conducive to higher
concentrations of wealth.

1. Podemos encontrar aqu un lazo con el prrafo anterior?


2. En estos dos prrafos, cuntos conceptos se han desarrollado?

3.4. El artculo cientfico


Un artculo cientfico o artculo de investigacin (en ingls: Paper) analiza una
perspectiva o discute un tpico. Es una presentacin de hechos que estn basa-
dos en la lectura y consulta de diversas fuentes especficas, se presenta de acuer-
do con una metodologa de procedimiento, se limita a un tema especfico y debe
ser original en la seleccin, evaluacin expresin y conclusin. Ms all del tipo
de investigacin que se est llevando a cabo, el resultado final debe reflejar una
conclusin personal sustentada por la informacin con la que se cuenta.

3.4.1. Estructura y organizacin de un artculo cientfico


El artculo de investigacin tiene una estructura bien definida y comprende dife-
rentes secciones, entre las que encontramos:

Ttulo
Autor/autores
Datos de Filiacin

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Dedicatoria
ndice
Resumen/Abstract
Introduccin
Materiales y metodologa
Resultados
Discusin
1 Agradecimientos
2 Referencias
Bibliografa
3
Apndice

Sin embargo, dependiendo del tipo de investigacin que se lleve a cabo y del
escritor, el Paper puede incluir todas u omitir algunas de las secciones opcionales.

Actividad 5
a. Leer el siguiente artculo en forma rpida y determinar
1. Fuente del texto
2. Cantidad de secciones.
3. Tipos de secciones.

b. Responder:
Con qu carrera/s de la Universidad podra relacionarlo? Por qu?
Hay alguna seccin del Paper que no aparece en la lista anterior?

Vol. 9 No. 3, Issue of April 15, 2006

Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458


2006 by Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Valparaso -- Chile
DOI: 10.2225/vol9-issue3-fulltext-27

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Biotechnology in Argentine agriculture faces world-wide concentration


Liliana Varela*
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientficas y Tecnolgicas
Instituto de Industria
Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento
Malvinas Argentinas
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel/fax: 54 11 44697552
E-mail: lvarela@ungs.edu.ar
Roberto Bisang
Instituto de Industria
Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento
Malvinas Argentinas
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Tel/fax: 54 11 44697552
E-mail: rbisang@ungs.edu.ar

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*Corresponding author

Financial support: This work was supported by the Project on Economic Impacts
of Biotechnology on Agriculture and the Food and Health Industries in Argentina,
Project PICT 2002 - Code 02-13063.

Keywords: internalization, local adaptation, mergers and acquisitions, multinationals.


1
Abbreviations:
M and A: mergers and acquisitions 2
R and D: research and development 3
Abstract
In the 1980s, the technical pattern of production in agriculture changed due to the
increasing design of genetically modified plants. Modern biotechnology thrived on
events requiring certain thresholds of scientific and technological skills as well as
scale economies usually seen in developed countries. The mergers and acquisitions
during the mid-1990s led to a world-wide oligopoly composed of very few agri-bio-
technological mega-corporations and the literature discusses the impact of the mer-
gers and acquisitions on the agriculture of developing countries with comparative
advantages in agriculture. This paper analyzes the world-wide process of agri-bio-
technological mega-corporation mergers and acquisitions as well as its impact and
interrelationships with Argentine agriculture using information from primary and
secondary sources. Conclusions refer to the set-backs of endogenous agri-biotechno-
logical development due to world-wide concentration in developing countries with
comparative advantage in agriculture.

Introduction
In the 1980s, the technical pattern of production in agriculture changed due to the
design of genetically modified plants. This new agricultural model, which included
direct sowing as a new production technique in the case of glyphosate-resistant
transgenic soybean, led to new relationships in the schemes of knowledge and com-
petence generation. These changes also modified the agricultural network because
they strengthened large seed-producing firms.
Now that seeds are produced, science and, hence, laboratories have a crucial
role to play in the new set-up because the production function, which was formerly
determined by the agricultural producer, is now indirectly determined by the indus-
trial supplier of inputs through a technological mix based on transgenic seeds.
One of the distinctive traits of the new model is the consolidation of several mega
transnational firms that specialize in agricultural biotechnology. In effect, there
has been a world-wide concentration of capital at the main stages of the industrial
process (i.e. R and D, production and marketing). Even so, certain characteristics of
agriculture and the pervasiveness of world-wide mega corporations lead the latter
to articulate with local agents.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the M and A process of mega agri-biotechnolo-
gical transnational corporations during the last decade measuring their global share
in agriculture and inquiring about their impact on the agriculture of a developing
country with comparative advantage in the production of natural resource-intensive
goods with special reference to Argentina as a case study.

Methodology
The analysis draws on two types of information sources. The first source provi-
des quantitative information which is extracted from balance sheets, entrepre-
neurial reports prepared by specialized consultants, official statistics on innova-
tion, own surveys and the database generated by the project Economic Impact of

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Biotechnology on Agriculture and the Food and Health Industries in Argentina


(Project PICT 2002 - Code 02-13063) and the Instituto de Industria de la Universidad
Nacional de General Sarmiento. The second source provides qualitative informa-
tion through research carried out in books, revised articles and publications on the
subject.

Results and Discussion


1 Between 1995 and 2000, several agri-biotechnological mega corporations (that star-
ted their business outside agriculture) became very strong players in the agroche-
2 mical and transgenic seed markets (Morales, 2001; European Commission, 2000).
3 These mega firms increased their scale in terms of turnover, employment, R and D
budget, etc. and, due to their vertical integration, also generate basic science (Zucker
and Darby, 1995; Deeds and Hill, 1996; Ernst and Young, 2000; Cooke, 2001; Coriat
and Orsi, 2002).
The annual turnovers of the six mega corporations concentrating agri-biote-
chnological generation (Monsanto, Syngenta, Dupont, Bayer Crop Science, Dow
Agroscience and Basf) exceeds US$ 5,000 million and their annual R and D budgets
are around US$ 600 million (Table 1). The total turnover of these six corporations
exceeds the total value of Argentine agricultural production and some of these firms
individual R and D investments exceed 50% of total Argentine R and D investment
(Table 2).
Mega agri-biotechnological firms consolidated through a series of M and As
which began in 1995 (James and Krattiger, 1996; Lesser, 1998; Oehmke and Wolf,
2003). According to Bisang and Varela (2005) these six firms acquired at least 50
seed and research firms between 1996 and 2004 so that in 2003 just five of them
(Monsanto, Syngenta, Dupont, Bayer Crop Science and Basf) concentrated 70%
of the world-wide agrochemical market, 20% of the seed market and, with Dow
Agroscience, 100% of the transgenic seed market (Morales, 2001; James, 2003).
For example, Figure 1 shows the Monsanto M and A process during 1997-2004
and its constitution as an agri-biotechnological mega firm. Figure 2 shows the path
of the firms that converged into Syngenta in 2000.
These world-wide production and innovation M and As have a deep impact on the
international competitiveness of local agriculture, particularly for developing coun-
tries with comparative advantage in agriculture. In Argentina, where biotechnology
is not only used but is also adapted to local production, adopting the new scheme led
to significant changes in agricultural organization and forms of competence. On one
hand, in the 1990s significant correlation was observed between the effects of the M
and As on the operations of the main offices of mega corporations and of their local
ancillaries. On the other, industrial producers of inputs were empowered within the
agricultural network. The new phenomenum consists of adopting not-quite-closed
technological bundles as well as an impressive presence of foreign capital at the main
nodes (Lesser, 1998; Limpert and Kim, 2002; Niosi, 2003; Bisang and Varela, 2005).
The discussion on the future of biotechnology in developing countries with com-
parative advantage in agriculture pivots around the following issues. The first issue is
the degree of technical and industrial integration to be achieved in the entire agricul-
tural sector. The second is the role to be adopted by different scientific and technolo-
gical agents with respect to generating, transferring and adaptating knowledge and
how to articulate it with agricultural activities. The third issue is the local behaviour
and integration of mega corporations, the profile to be adopted by local capital firms
and the evolution of the forms of competence in world-wide markets. And, finally,
the fourth is the evolution between world-wide biotechonological developments and
the local technological gap. To summarize, local agricultural dynamics will depend
on the ability of reaching the minimum threshold of technological and industrial
capacity; on the articulation with the local system of innovation and on the way in
which endogenous learning processes are generated.

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

Concluding Remarks

The consolidation of the new agricultural technical and productive scheme was found
to be related to a strong world-wide process of production and innovation centrali-
zation. Present agri-biotechnology develops new events as from certain thresholds
of scale production as well as minimum scientific and technological thresholds.
The M and A process that started in the mid-1990s configured an oligopoly of
mega transnational agri-biotechnological corporations that set their technical and 1
productive strategies up on a world-wide basis as the main players in local agriculture.
Argentine agri-biotechnology started up in the 1990s in the shade of mega trans- 2
national corporations and, fostered by public policies such as trade liberalization and 3
market deregulation, the process of world-wide concentration spread to the rest of
the local economy.
The scale reached by these mega corporations in local agriculture empowered
them to the point of becoming the main nodes of the network in such a way that the
Argentine economy - endowed with natural resources and comparative advantage in
agriculture- plays the role of user and adaptor of the new technology.
Recent analysis reveals two opposing tensions in the world-wide market. The first
tension arises due to the high concentration of R and D, production and marketing
as well as the constitution of not-quite-closed technological bundles which condition
the development of firms, scientific and technical institutions as well as other agents
operating in the local innovation system. And the second tension arises due to cer-
tain characteristics of agriculture and its present high growth rate that constitute
incentives for mega firms to articulate with local actors thus facilitating the adap-
tation of state-of-the-art products. The dilemma facing Argentine agriculture and,
particularly, local innovation players relates to the pros and cons of articulating with
the technical and industrial strategies of mega agri-biotechnological corporations

Acknowledgments
Translation by Ana M. Vartalitis (amvartalitis@ar.inter.net).

References
BISANG, Roberto and VARELA, Liliana. Panorama internacional de la biotecnologa
en el sector agrario. Dinmica de las mega empresas internacionales de agro biotec-
nologa e impacto sobre la oferta local. Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento-
CONICET- Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, July 2005, Working Paper, no. 2, PICT
2002, Code 02-13063, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
COOKE, P. New Economy innovation systems: biotechnology in Europe and in the
USA. Industry and Innovation, 2001, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 267-289. [CrossRef]
CORIAT, Benjamin and ORSI, Fabianne. Establishing a new intellectual property
rights regime in the United States. Origins, content and problems. Research Policy,
2002, vol. 31, no. 8-9, p.1491-1507. [CrossRef]
DEEDS, David and HILL, Charles. Strategic alliances and the rate of new product
development: an empirical study of entrepreneurial biotechnology firms. Journal of
Business Venturing, January 1996, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 41-55. [CrossRef]
ERNST and YOUNG Economics Consulting and Quantitative Analysis. The econo-
mics contributions of the biotechnology industry to the U.S. economy. Ernst and
Young [online]. Prepared for the Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), May
2000, p. 13 [cited 20 October 2004]. Available from Internet: http://www.bio.org/
speeches/pubs/ernstyoung.pdf
EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Economic Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops on
the Agri-Food Sector. A first Review. Working Papers Rev. N2. Directorate-General
for Agriculture, Commission of the European Communities [online]. April 2000 [cited

54
UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

30 July 2004]. Available from: http://europa.eu.int/comm/agriculture/publi/gmo/


fullrep/index.htm
JAMES, Clive and KRATTIGER, Anatole. Global review of the field testing and com-
mercialization of transgenic plants, 1986-1995: The first decade of crop biotechno-
logy. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) Briefs
[online]. 1996, no. 1, p. 31, Ithaca, New York, USA. Available from internet: http://
www.isaaa.org/kc/Publications/pdfs/isaaabriefs/Briefs%201.pdf
1 JAMES, Clives. Preview: Global Status of commercialized transgenic crops: 2003.
2 International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) Briefs
3 [online]. 2003, no. 30, p. 38 [cited 22 November 2004]. Ithaca, New York, USA.
Available from Internet: http://www.isaaa.org/kc/Publications/pdfs/isaaabriefs/
Briefs%2030.pdf
ISBN 1-892456-34-6
LESSER, William. Intellectual Property Rights and the concentration in agricultural
biotechnology. AgBioForum, 1998, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 56-61.
LIMPERT, Brad and KIM, Selena. Biotechnology Alliances: Co- Development and
Co-Marketing Agreements. Business of Biotechnology Osgoode Professional Development
Program, March 2002, p. 32.
MORALES, Cesar. Las nuevas fronteras tecnolgicas: promesas, desafos y amena-
zas de los transgnicos. CEPAL/ Naciones Unidas, Serie Desarrollo Productivo, Chile.
2001, no. 101. 71 p. ISBN 92-1-321896-8.
NIOSI, Jorge. Alliances are not enough explaining rapid growth in biotechnology
firms. Research Policy, 2003, vol. 32, no. 5, p. 737-750. [CrossRef]
OEHMKE, J. and WOLF, C. Measuring concentration in the biotechnology R&D
Industry: Adjusting for Interfirm Transfer of Genetic Materials. AgBioForum, 2003,
vol. 6, no. 3, p. 134-140.
ZUCKER, Lynne and DARBY, Michel. Virtuous Circles of productivity: start biocien-
tist and the institutional transformation of industry. NBER Working Paper Series,
1995, no. 5342, 37 p.
Available at: <http://www.ejbiotechnology.info/index.php/ejbiotechnology/rt/
printerFriendly/v9n3-27/276>

Actividad 6
a. Compare la estructura del artculo anterior con la siguiente.
Abstract
1. Introduction
2. Why is phenology an adaptive trait?
3. How is phenology involved in reproductive success, survival and growth?
4. How is phenology involved in species distribution?
5. How will climate change affect species phenology and distribution?
6. How can we improve fitness-based species distribution models?
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References

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b. Responder
1. Qu diferencias nota?
2. Qu secciones son las que se repiten?
3. Hay alguna seccin nueva?

A partir de la lectura de los artculos presentados hasta ahora, podemos ver


que las secciones ms frecuentes en este gnero discursivo son 1
2
Resumen 3
Introduccin

Metodologa

Resultados

Discusin

Conclusin

Referencias

Actividad 7
a. Contraste la seccin Conclusin del primer Paper con la del siguiente:

Action Research: The Effects of a Teacher-created web page on arent communica-


tion: An Action Research Study

Elizabeth L. Nelms

Abstract: The purpose of this action research study was to determine why parents
use or do not use a teacher-created web page as an informational resource, as well as
how teacher-created web pages affect communication among parents, teachers, and
students. Participants in the study consisted of ten parents/guardians of second-gra-
de students. A survey was administered both prior to and after the intervention to
determine what, if any, effects the web page had on communication. Parents were
also asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of open-ended responses concer-
ning those components of the web page they considered most beneficial. Parent
interviews were conducted with five of the participants to gain further insight into
the perceived usefulness of the web page. A teacher log of observation during the
study allowed reflection concerning the implementation of the program. Based on
evidence obtained from the surveys, questionnaires, and interviews, participants in
the study viewed teacher-created web pages as an effective form of communication
with schools. The most beneficial components of the web page were the classroom
calendar and the one-to-one correspondence area. Parents stated that knowing what
their children were learning about and how their children were performing acade-
mically helped them to stay more involved in their childrens education. However,
of the 68 possible participants to the study, only 10 parents opted to participate.
Several factors could be related to this low level of participation. These factors inclu-
de time constraints, the parents lack of computer access or lack of knowledge of
navigating the Internet, and a low level of interest in this form of communication.

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Introduction
In 1996, Governor Roy Barnes and the Georgia Legislature enacted a set of collecti-
ve mandates generallyreferred to as House Bill 1187. These mandates made schools
accountable for the education of all students, thereby raising the bar of expecta-
tions for all school systems across Georgia. To effectively meet these new demands,
schools began working on individual improvement plans addressing critical areas of
need. One such area is parent involvement.
1 Research indicates there is a direct connection between parent involvement and
student success. Harold Hester (as cited in Freedman & Montgomery, 1994) identi-
2 fied several important benefits for students whose parents take an active role in their
3 education. Some of these benefits include improved student behavior, increased
student motivation, higher student attendance, increased community support, and
improved student attitudes.
Although there are numerous definitions for parent involvement, it can be gene-
rally referred to as the interaction that occurs between parents/guardians and the
school. This can involve parent/teacher communication, parent participation in
school-related activities, and active participation in the childs education. For the
purpose of this study, parent involvement was defined as the communication that
occurred between parents/guardians and the school system. Specifically, this study
examined the frequency of use and perceived usefulness of teacher and parent web-
based communication. The method of communication used in this study was a tea-
cher-created web page. The content of the web page included information such as up-
coming class projects or activities, subject skills taught, online resources for parents
and students, and other information deemed relevant at the time. Additionally, a
personal messages section allowed one-to-one correspondence between parents and
the teacher. Parents were sent letters of information and instructions on accessing
the web page.
As stated previously, research indicates a strong correlation between parent invol-
vement and student achievement. A study conducted by Marcon (1999) attempted
to determine the effects of parent involvement on inner-city preschoolers deve-
lopment and academic performance. Data from the study indicated a significant
increase in student performance when there was increased, active parent involve-
ment. However, barriers to effective parent involvement exist. According to Liontos
(1991), issues related to both parents and teachers perceptions can create barriers
to parent involvement. A parents sense of inadequacy or low self-worth could result
in poor parent involvement in their own childs education. Additionally, economic,
emotional, and time constraints also play an important role in parent involvement.
To increase parent involvement in schools, these obstacles must be addressed and,
hopefully, overcome. In order to accomplish this, schools must adopt new beliefs
and attitudes concerning parent involvement. These include ongoing communica-
tion between home and school, building trust between home and school, and recog-
nizing language and cultural differences.
Bauch (n.d.) stated that the first step toward active participation for families is
a common information base with the schools (p.2). Home-school communication
can now take place in a variety of ways, including using computer-based communica-
tions. Bauch (n.d.) described the Transparent School Model as one type of electronic
communication that can be implemented in a school system. Upon dialing the school
hotline number from any tone-based phone, the teacher enters his or her secure
voice mailbox and then records a 60 to 90 second message. Parents then call the
hotline number and select their childs teacher. Parents are given the option of
leaving a message once they have listened to the teachers message. Abilock (1997)
conducted a study involving the effects of Parent Internet Driving School on parent
motivation. The program motivates parents to come to school to develop their skills
and learn what their children are doing on the Internet. According to the study, the
program has been successful in helping parents understand the value of the Internet

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to their children and to the school. Johnson (2000) describes the use of teacher web
pages that help to build parent partnerships.
One of the major goals of my school is to increase parent involvement. This is
accomplished in a variety of ways, such as parent/teacher conferences, family fun
nights, and parent/teacher organizations. Although these methods help to improve
parent involvement, we are continuously striving to increase the amount of parent/
teacher communication. Factors such as teacher time constraints and a heavy
workload make ongoing make face-to-face and other synchronous communication 1
difficult. In addition, my school is in the process of undergoing SACS accreditation.
One of the major components of our internal SACS review is a plan to increase 2
parent involvement. 3
Motivated by the literature and my own schools goals, I chose to study the effects
of web-based communication on parent involvement. The purpose of this action
research study was to determine why parents use or do not use a teacher-created
web page as an informational resource, as well as how teacher-created web pages
affect communication among parents, teachers, and students. Specifically, this study
attempted to determine how the teacher-created web page affected the number of
meaningful exchanges between parents and myself, and the parents perceived use-
fulness of the web page. The following research questions were addressed:
Do parents use teacher-created web pages as an information resource? How
often? For what purposes?
What information included on the web page do parents note as most beneficial?
What implications does regular use of on-line communications have for parents,
teachers, and students?

Methods
This study was conducted at a rural primary school in southeastern Georgia. The
school consists of grades Kindergarten through Second, and has a population of 778
students. Approximately 59% of the student population qualifies for free or redu-
ced lunch. The participants were parents/guardians of ten second-grade students.
During the initial phase of the study, parents were sent letters of information ins-
tructing them on how to access the web page. Of the 68 possible participants to this
study, 10 chose to participate. The racial make -up of the participants consisted of
eight Caucasian families and two African-American families. Protection of the par-
ticipants was achieved through written consent forms, website access codes, and
guaranteed anonymity.
The method of communication used in this study was a teacher-created web page
that included up-coming class events and activities, current subject matter and skills,
informational resources for parents, and one-to-one parent/teacher correspondence.
The web page calendar was updated on a weekly basis, and parents received infor-
mation about their childs progress as specific skills were taught and tested. The
duration of the research was approximately four weeks.
A survey was conducted prior to implementation of the web page to determine
which forms of home -school communication parents utilized most often. The survey
consisted of Likert-Response type questions. Upon completion of the intervention,
participants of the study were surveyed again to note any affects the intervention
had upon parents choice of communication methods. Additionally, parent question-
naires were completed to determine the perceived usefulness of the web page. The
questionnaires consisted of open-ended questions about the information on the web
page. To gain further insight into the participants attitudes toward the usefulness
of the web page, interviews were conducted with five of the ten participants in the
study. These five participants were chosen randomly. The interview consisted of
open-ended questions pertaining to the most beneficial and least beneficial aspects
of the web page. A teacher log was kept throughout the intervention to record addi-
tional observations or insights gained during the study.

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Results and Analysis


Prior to implementation of the study, I surveyed the participants to determine how
many had computer access and which types of communication were used most often.
I sent the surveys home with each student. Of the 68 surveys sent home, 65 were
returned. Based on results obtained from the survey, the number of participants
with computer access was only slightly higher than the number without access.
Additionally, the survey indicated that parents communicated with the school most
1 often by personal visits, telephone calls, and written notes. E-mail was not used as a
form of communication by the parents. The pre-survey also showed that, although
2 many participants had computer access, only a small group chose to use this access
3 to participate in the study.
At the completion of the study, I sent the same survey to those parents who
opted to participate. Information obtained from the post-survey did identify e-mail
as form of communication with the school. However, the survey indicated that
although e-mail was now included as a form of communication, it was not used
often, and probably only through this particular web page.
Parent questionnaires provided further insight into the frequency of use and
perceived usefulness of the web page. According to information obtained from the
questionnaire, all participants felt that the web page was beneficial to improving
parent/teacher communication. Information pertaining to individual students, the
classroom calendar, and informational resources were considered to be the most
valuable aspects of the web page. One suggestion for improving the web page invol-
ved increasing the number of on-line resources for parents.
Participants interviewed during the study felt that the web page had provided
better communication with the school. All participants interviewed felt that the clas-
sroom calendar was the most beneficial component of the web page. Additionally,
participants did not find any information on the web page that was not beneficial.
One parent stated that knowing what her child was learning in the classroom was
most valuable to her because she was able to help her child at home. Another parent
felt the one-to-one correspondence on the web page helped her keep track of her
childs progress throughout the quarter. One parent stated that the web page see-
med to equalize the responsibility of establishing on-going communication between
school and home. While the teacher is responsible for updating the web page and
contacting parents concerning information relevant to a particular student, parents
are responsible for checking the web page periodically for any upcoming news. All
of the parents interviewed felt that all components of the web page were beneficial
in some way.
In addition to surveys, questionnaires, and interviews, I kept a personal log of
my experiences during the study. The log provided clarification and reflection during
the course of the intervention, and helped to confirm findings following the inter-
vention. Information in the log included observations concerning participants in the
study, use of the web page, and data relevant to the study that was obtained through
direct interaction with parents.

Discussion
Based on information obtained from surveys, questionnaires, and teacher inter-
views, all of the participating parents used the web page as an informational resou-
rce. However, as stated previously, some participants of the study used the web page
more frequently than others, though the reasons for this were not clear.
Surveys and questionnaires also indicated that parents found the web page a
useful source of information about their child. Many parents reported using the
web page as a means of staying informed about their childs educational experiences.
Parents stated that the classroom calendar kept them informed about the current
activities occurring in their childs education and many identified the calendar as the
most beneficial component. Parents also used the web page as a source of one-to-

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one correspondence with me. Through the personal messages section of the web
page, I was able to keep parents informed about their childs academic progress.
Additionally, parents were also able to contact me with specific questions or con-
cerns regarding their child. These features apparently have value for parents and
guardians. Fewer parents found the on-line references and resources section helpful,
though at least one noted it provided additional help or practice on a particular skill
being taught in the classroom. Participants in this study indicated that all of the
information included on the web page was relevant and beneficial. However, one 1
participant did suggest that additional resources should be included to make the
web page more useful but did not offer specifics. 2
The teacher observation log provided a good foundation for understanding the 3
effects of the intervention and allowed me to reflect on the outcomes of the study.
One interesting outcome involved the number of participants in this study. The pre-
survey indicated approximately half the participants had access to a computer, but
only onethird of that number actually chose to participate in the study. This may be
due to the particular method of instructions given to the participants. The letter of
instruction had to be signed and returned to the school. Many parents signed the
letter, but did not record or remember how to access the website. Perhaps a different
method of instruction, one where the parent signs a portion of the form but keeps
the instructions for later use, would encourage greater participation. Another factor
which might have affected the number of participants involved in the study was
lack of computer skills, such as knowledge or confidence in navigating the Internet.
A free, schoolsponsored workshop for parents on accessing the Internet and the
school website may have improved participation, but time constraints of the study
did not permit this. In areas where home computer and Internet use is already high,
I believe participation would have been greater. Other parents and guardians may
simply have not had an interest in ongoing communication of this type, since phone
calls, notes to/from teachers, and report cards on progress were readily available and
more easily used.
With the increased availability of technology in todays society, electronic com-
munication is being utilized more frequently. Schools are constantly looking for
ways to more effectively increase communication with parents. E-mail and web
pages offer schools new alternatives for communication and parent involvement.
However, much research still needs to be conducted in this area. Factors both within
and beyond the control of the schools need to be explored. Some of the factors that
directly affected this study include parents current skills with computer techno-
logy, access to the Internet, and parents comfort with current methods of home-
school communication. Further research related to parent communication needs to
be explored as well. Forms of communication involving telephone hotlines to the
school, e-mail and school web pages need to be studied to determine their relative
effectiveness. Currently, my school is working on a web page designed to provide
parents, students, and teachers online access to valuable information on school
activities and events. The lessons learned from this study will certainly aid in that
development.
Upon completion of the study, I communicated my findings to my building-level
administrators via personal accounts of the results. During the scheduled confe-
rence, I demonstrated how the web page was utilized in the study via an Internet-
connected computer. During the demonstration, I explained how a calendar of up-
coming events is created, and how the web page allows one-to-one correspondence
with parents. I also demonstrated how the informational resources available on
the web page could be useful in increasing parent involvement at home and school.
My school administrators found this information particularly useful since they are
currently working on a school web page. They felt that the information gained from
this study would be helpful in making the school web page more effective.

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As evidenced by the results, web-based communication does have a positive effect


on parent communication. The parents who participated in this study confirmed
the value of the types of information and communication made available. However,
many barriers to effective online communication, such as lack of computer access,
lack of technical skills, and lack of knowledge about the available technology must
be overcome before this form of communication can be more effective. Based on the
response by the participants in this study, web-based communication as a way to
1 increase parent involvement is certainly worthy of additional research.

2 References
3 Abilock, D. (1997). Parent internet driving school: Using technology to increase
parent involvement in schools. Technology Connection, 4, 12-14.
Bauch, J. P. (n.d.). Applications of technology to linking schools, families, and
students. Proceedings of the Families, Technology, and Education Conference.
Retrieved Oct. 1, 2001 at http://ericeece.org/pubs/books/fte/links/bauch.html
Freedman, E. & Montgomery, J. F. (1994). Parent education and student achievement.
Thrust for Educational
Leadership, 24, 40-45.
Johnson, D. (2002). Teacher web pages that build parent partnerships. Multimedia
Schools, 7, 48.
Liontos, L. B. (1991). Involving at-risk families in their childrens education. (ERIC
Document Reproduction Service No. ED326925).
Marcon (1999). Positive relationships between parent school involvement and
public school inner-city preschoolers development and academic performance.
School Psychology Review, 28, 395-413.
Available at: <https://www.asdk12.org/staff/vanwinkle_lynda/
HOMEWORK/109720_WebPageCommunication.pdf>

b. Resuma en el cuadro siguiente la informacin ms relevante de la seccin


Conclusions de cada artculo.

Biotechnology in Argentine The effects of TCWP

3.4.2. El abstract o resumen


El abstract es un resumen conciso del contenido de un artculo de investigacin
o una tesis.
Como todos los resmenes, cubre los principales puntos de un texto acad-
mico utilizando el mismo nivel de lenguaje tcnico y pericia que se encontrar
luego en el resto del Paper o tesis. Contrariamente a otros resmenes, un abs-
tract generalmente contiene entre 150 y 200 palabras y posee ciertas caracters-
ticas en cuanto a su organizacin y partes que lo componen.

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Tipos de abstract
Contexto
Propsito o meta
Inters particular
Metodologa

Cuando un abstract tiene solo todas o algunas de las secciones anteriores se lo


1
denomina: ABSTRACT DESCRIPTIVO.
Ahora bien, cuando adems de las anteriores secciones se le suman algunas 2
o todas las siguientes: 3

Hallazgos o resultados
Conclusiones
Sugerencias y/o recomendaciones

Se lo denomina ABSTRACT INFORMATIVO.

Ejemplos

Occupational Value among Individuals with Long-Term Mental Illness


Mona Eklund Lena-Karin Erlandsson Dennis Persson

Abstract
Purpose. The study compared the perceived value of occupation among a sample
of individuals with long-term mental illness to a sample of people not diagnosed
with mental illness. As well, it investigated whether diagnostic and demographic
factors were related to perceived occupational value among the individuals with
mental illness. Finally, the study examined the relationship between occupational
value and ratings of health and well-being. Method. One hundred and three indi-
viduals with mental illness and 28 healthy individuals were recruited for the study.
Results. Overall occupational value among the individuals diagnosed with mental
illness differed only marginally from the healthy group, indicating that perceived
occupational value was by and large not related to mental illness. Among the indivi-
duals with mental illness, having children living at home was related to occupatio-
nal value. There were moderate to strong associations between occupational value
and measures of health and well-being. Practice Implications. This study provi-
des important insights into occupational value among individuals with persistent
mental health problems and provides some preliminary evidence in support of the
Value, Meaning and Occupation Model.

Abstract
The goal of this paper is to analyze the behavior of digital music consumers on the
Internet. Using clickstream data on a panel of more than 16,000 European consu-
mers, we estimate the effects of illegal downloading and legal streaming on the legal
purchases of digital music. Our results suggest that Internet users do not view ille-
gal downloading as a substitute to legal digital music. Although positive and signifi-
cant, our estimated elasticities are essentially zero: a 10% increase in clicks on illegal
downloading websites leads to a 0.2% increase in legal purchases websites. Online
music streaming services are found to have a somewhat larger (but still small) effect
on the purchases of digital sound recordings, suggesting complementarities between
these two modes of music consumption. According to our results, a 10% increase in

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clicks on legal streaming websites lead to up to a 0.7% increase on legal digital pur-
chases websites. We find important cross country difference in these effects.
Keywords: Digital Music, Copyright, Downloading, Streaming.

Partes del abstract


1
2 Actividad 8
3
a. A partir de los ejemplos anteriores:

1. Cules son la/s palabra/s o frases indicadoras de cada parte del abs-
tract? Es decir, qu palabras marcan, definen cada parte, ayudndonos a
reconocerlas?
2. Qu son las keywords que aparecen al final del segundo abstract? qu
funcin cumplen?
3. En qu persona estn redactados?
4. Qu tipo de registro se utiliza?
5. Se incluyen citas o referencias a otros trabajos de investigacin?

3.4.3. El modelo CARS


Dentro del estudio de la escritura de los artculos de investigacin, el trabajo
del lingista Swales ofrece una clara descripcin de los movimientos que gene-
ralmente se generan en el proceso de creacin de un espacio de investigacin
(research space), concocido como el modelo CARS.

CARS (creating a research space) (Swales, 2005:141)

The CARS model is from English in Todays Research World: a writing guide (Swales

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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE QUILMES

and Fea, 2000). This book is published by the University of Michigan Press: Michigan
Series in English for Academic and Professional Purposes.

Swales Model of Rhetorical Moves in Research Articles (CARS)


The Create A Research Space (CARS) Model, by John Swales

Move 1 Establishing a territory


Step 1 Claiming centrality and/or 1
Step 2 Making topic generalization(s) and/or
Step 3 Reviewing items of previous research 2
Move 2 Establishing a niche 3
Step 1A Counter-claiming or
Step 1B Indicating a gap or
Step 1C Question-raising or
Step 1D Continuing a tradition
Move 3 Occupying the niche
Step 1A Outlining purposes or
Step 1B Announcing present research
Step 2 Announcing principal findings
Step 3 Indicating Research Article structure

Como puede observarse, en este modelo:


Se establece el campo de estudio y el tema.
Se crea el espacio de investigacin estableciendo la originalidad del problema.
Se introduce la lnea de investigacin indicando la importancia que tendr
para el rea.

3.5. Actividad de prctica


Actividad 9
a. Realizar una lectura rpida de los siguientes abstracts y determinar:
1. Carrera con la se lo podra vincular.
2. Tipo

b. Elegir dos abstracts y determinar su estructura (partes).

c. Describir las frases y palabras indicadoras.

Texto 1

Decreasing Inequality Under Latin Americas Social Democratic and Populist


Governments: Is the Difference Real?
October 2011, Juan A. Montecino

This paper addresses the claim that the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador
and Venezuela, Latin Americas so-called left-populist governments, have failed
to effectively reduce inequality in the 2000s and have only benefitted from high
commodity prices and other benign external conditions. In particular, it examines

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the econometric evidence presented by McLeod and Lustig (2011) that the social
democratic governments of Brazil, Chile and Uruguay were more successful and
finds that their original results are highly sensitive to which source of data on inco-
me inequality is employed.
Using data from the Socioeconomic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean
(SEDLAC), McLeod and Lustig show that after accounting for favorable external
conditions, structural determinants of inequality and the impact of historical and
1 institutional factors, Latin Americas social democratic governments appear to
have effectively reduced inequality, while the so-called left-populist governments
2 have not. However, this paper finds that conducting the same analysis using data
3 on income inequality from the Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean (ECLAC) yields the exact opposite results: it is the so-called left-populist
governments that appear to have effectively reduced inequality while the social-
democratic governments have not.
Disponible en: http://www.cepr.net/index.php/publications/reports/decreasing-
inequality-under-latin-americas-social-democratic-and-populist-governments

Texto 2

Int. J. Manufacturing Research, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006 405


Copyright 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Functional structure-based modelling of automation systems


Christoph Snder* and Alois Zoitl
Automation and Control Institute,
Vienna University of Technology,
1040 Vienna, Austria

Abstract: In modern production and assembly processes, conventional PLCbased


architectures are state-of-the-art for control engineering and applications. These
kinds of architectures cause high costs for engineering and maintenance, and spe-
cially the adaptation of applications or even hardware changes are problematic. The
paper presents a new modular control architecture, designed to meet the require-
ments of future production systems. Control hardware and control software are
modularised in the same manner as is given by the mechanical and functional struc-
ture. Even more, also the structure of the HumanMachine Interface (HMI) follows
this target. The main benefits are given by hierarchical design of different views of
the control software (logic, HMI, diagnostics) with the same structure as the physi-
cal devices, capable of providing easy engineering, maintenance and re-configuration
of the production system. The concept has been verified by the use of a real-world
material-handling example.

Keywords: automation component; distributed automation system; functional


structure; HMI; IEC 61499; modular control architecture; production systems.
Disponible en: <http://www.researchgate.net/publication/220650652_Functional_
structure-based_modelling_of_automation_systems>

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Texto 3
Responsible tourism management: the missing link between attitude and behaviour
in an emerging market
Nicole Frey
School of Management Studies, University of Cape Town
March 2008
1
Abstract
Responsible tourism management (RTM) practices in Cape Town, South Africa are 2
limited. In the face of global climate change, diminishing natural resources and sig- 3
nificant socio-economic challenges, it is essential that the tourism industry critically
evaluate the impact it is having on the natural, social and economic environments.
This paper investigates the current attitudes and perceptions of tourism business
owners in Cape Town towards responsible tourism management (RTM) practices.
Survey data of 244 tourism businesses was used to statistically test what factors
are causing the low levels of RTM practices. Findings suggest that despite general
positive attitudes towards RTM, businesses are not investing time and money into
changing management practices. This is a common emerging market phenomenon
where resource constraints negatively impact the relationship between what busi-
nesses would like to do and what actually gets done. Factors such as the perceived
cost of RTM, the highly competitive environment and lack of government support
are further negatively moderating the relationship. This paper recommends on how
the perceived costs of implementing RTM can be reduced and what channels should
be implemented to facilitate change.

Disponible en: <http://www.researchgate.net/publication/237613278_Responsible_


tourism_management_the_missing_link_between_attitude_and_behaviour_in_
an_emerging_market>

Texto 4

Multimedia Composition As Research


John Coulter
Griffith University
Presented at Electroacoustic Music Studies Network International Conference
Series: EMS05 19-22 October 2005

Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

EMS : Electroacoustic Music Studies Network Montral 2005

Abstract
This paper presents an unorthodox solution to issues surrounding the validity of
practice as research within the field multimedia composition. Firstly, it evaluates
the process of multimedia composition leading to findings that the practice is simi-
lar to action research. Results are presented in the form of a model entitled The
Multimedia Realisation Spiral, developed with the aid of Soft Systems Methodology.
The purpose of the model is to be used as methodology in validating the practice of
multimedia composition as action research. Secondly, the paper presents methodo-
logies for multimedia composers to undertake evaluation of practice, practice-led

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research, and practice as research. Each methodology specifies the type of research
output, ranging from papers to creative works and is tested for validity against
extant literature from the research community. In summary, the paper presents
some interesting findings; namely, that practice as research is not a valid form of
research, along with several other points of discussion including a broad definition
of multimedia composition and a useful model for teaching and learning purposes.
Disponible en: <http://www.ems-network.org/IMG/EMS2005-Coulter.pdf>
1
2
3
Texto 5

Why does phenology drive species distribution?


Isabelle Chuine
DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0142 Published 6 September 2010

Abstract
Despite the numerous studies which have been conducted during the past decade
on species ranges and their relationship to the environment, our understanding of
how environmental conditions shape species distribution is still far from comple-
te. Yet, some process-based species distribution models have been able to simulate
plants and insects distribution at a global scale. These models strongly rely on the
completion of the annual cycle of the species and therefore on their accomplished
phenology. In particular, they have shown that the northern limit of species ranges
appears to be caused mainly by the inability to undergo full fruit maturation, while
the southern limit appears to be caused by the inability to flower or unfold leaves
owing to a lack of chilling temperatures that are necessary to break bud dormancy.
I discuss here why phenology is a key adaptive trait in shaping species distribution
using mostly examples from plant species, which have been the most documented.
After discussing how phenology is involved in fitness and why it is an adaptive trait
susceptible to evolve quickly in changing climate conditions, I describe how pheno-
logy is related to fitness in species distribution process-based models and discuss the
fate of species under climate change scenarios using model projections and experi-
mental or field studies from the literature.
Disponible en: <http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/365/1555/3149.
short>

Texto 6
Kothari, V N. (2004)
Challenge of universalization of elementary education in India. Journal of
Educational Planning and Administration, 18(3): 85-94

Key Words: 1.EDUCATION 2.ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 3.UNIVERSALIZATION


OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 4.LITERACY 5.YOUTH LITERACY RATE
6.PRIMARY EDUCATION 7. AGE AT ENROLMENT.

Abstract: The study was conducted by National Institute of Educational Planning


and Administration (NIEPA) to explain the elementary education scenario in India
through the use of a variety of data sources such as Census, the NSS, NCERT and
NFHS surveys. The overall development situation was assessed with respect to gen-
der, age, rural-urban divide, expenditure groups, village amenities, and health status

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of children. India was classified in the medium human development category. Adult
literacy rate was found to be extremely low in India 55.7% in 1998, youth literacy
rate was 71%, and enrolment ratio in primary education (1997) was found to be
77.2%. To conclude, it was emphasized that we are far from attaining the goal of
universal enrolment of children 6 to 14 years of age. It is even possible that under-
nourishment, severe morbidity and physical disability are delaying their entry into
school. For girls and for first generation learners school has to become more attrac-
tive. Unless we take adequate steps, we as a country are likely to remain stuck at 1
80%-85% enrolment rates, while most of the developing countries would be heading
towards 100% enrolment. 2
Disponible en: <http://nipccd.nic.in/reports/raed.pdf> 3

Texto 7

Journal of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 4(2007) 57-71


EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON MARINE PODDED
PROPULSORS
Mohammed F Islam, Brian Veitch and Pengfei Liu

Abstract
This paper describes a research program on podded propulsors that combines para-
llel developments in numerical prediction methods and experimental evaluation.
Amongst the hydrodynamic issues that have been identified and addressed are
questions regarding the effects of hub taper angle, pod-strut configurations, sta-
tic azimuthing conditions, pod-strut interactions, gap pressure, pod gap and pod-
strut geometry on podded propulsors performance. On the experimental side, a
pod dynamometer system consisting of a sixcomponent global dynamometer and a
three-component pod dynamometer were designed, manufactured and used to per-
form measurements on propeller thrust and torque and unit forces and moments
in the three orthogonal directions in pusher and puller configurations in open water
conditions. Four propellers with the same blade sections but different hub taper
angles were designed and used to fit with eighteen pod-strut shells. Among the
shells, two podstrut models were based on the average dimensions of commercial
pods and used to study the hub angle, pod configuration, pod gap, gap pressure and
azimuthing conditions effect on propulsive performance. The other sixteen pods
were designed and manufactured to study the effect of five geometric parameters
on hydrodynamic performance using a design of experiments technique. In another
study, an experimental method was implemented in a cavitation tunnel to evalua-
te the wake/strut interaction of a podded propeller model. All of the measurements
showed consistency.

Keywords: Podded propulsors, pusher and puller propellers, propulsive perfor-


mance, hub taper angle, pod gap distance, azimuthing conditions, wake impinge-
ment effect.
Disponible en: <http://www.researchgate.net/publication/
44061594_Experimental_research_on_marine_podded_propulsors>

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Texto 8
Performance impact on resource sharing among multiple CPU- and GPU-
based applications
Shinichi Yamagiwaa* & Koichi Wadabpages 313-329
Available online: 09 Aug 2010

1 Abstract
2 During the last decade, the performance and capabilities of graphics processing units
(GPUs) have been drastically improved mostly due to the demands of the visualisa-
3 tion and the entertainment markets, where both consumers and companies push
for an increase in the levels of visual fidelity, which is only achieved with better and
higher performing GPU solutions. The ongoing global research effort for using such
immense computing power for applications beyond graphics is the domain of gene-
ral purpose computing. Combining GPUs with existing CPU resources is also an
important task. This work is a contribution to that effort, focusing on the analysis
of performance factors applying actual general purpose computation on GPU pro-
gramming platforms, while introducing a novel job scheduler that manages resou-
rce sharing between these two resources. Through experimental performance eva-
luation, this work investigates what are the most important factors to eliminate
overhead that is caused by conflict for resource ownership and designs that must be
taken into account while designing such job scheduler.
Keywords: graphics processing unit, multicore architecture, task scheduling,
memory bandwidth, caravela, CUDA

Disponible: <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17445760.2010.481
788#preview>

Texto 9

The City and the cities: ownership, finance and the geography of recovery
Will Huttona and Neil Leeb
Author Affiliations

a Hertford College, University of Oxford, Catte Street, Oxford OX1 3BW, UK and Big Innovation Centre, The
Work Foundation, 21 Palmer Street, London SW1H 0AE, UK, whutton@theworkfoundation.com
b Socio-Economic Centre, The Work Foundation, 21 Palmer Street, London SW1H 0AE, UK and Department of
Economics, Lancaster University Management School, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK, nlee@theworkfoun-
dation.com

Received March 5, 2012.


Revision received August 10, 2012.
Accepted August 14, 2012.

Abstract
In the wake of a financial crisis and recession, the UK faces a challenging recovery.
This represents an important time to revisit the UKs systems of finance and owner-
ship. This article argues that failures in the national structure of ownership have had
significant consequences in local economies where important companies were based.
It argues that current efforts to reform the financial system need to focus on suppor-
ting innovative high growth firms, ensuring a diversity of new forms of ownership

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can develop and that finance is available for all firms, regardless of geography. At
present, these factors underpin the potentially uneven geography of recovery.
Disponible en: <http://cjres.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/3/325.abstract>

Texto 10 1
Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship 2
3
Abstract
Social network sites (SNSs) are increasingly attracting the attention of academic and
industry researchers intrigued by their affordances and reach. This special theme sec-
tion of the Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication brings together scholars-
hip on these emergent phenomena. In this introductory article, we describe features
of SNSs and propose a comprehensive definition. We then present one perspective
on the history of such sites, discussing key changes and developments. After briefly
summarizing existing scholarship concerning SNSs, we discuss the articles in this
special section and conclude with considerations for future research.
Disponible en: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/
j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x/abstract>

Texto 11
Social occupational therapy
Conversations about a Brazilian experience

1. Ana Paula Serrata Malfitano1


2. Roseli Esquerdo Lopes
3. Lilian Magalhes
4. Elizabeth A. Townsend
1. Malfitano, Universidade Federal de So Carlos, Occupational Therapy Department, Rodovia
Washington Luis, 235, SP-310 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, 13565-905, Brazil. Telephone: +55-16-3306-
6623. E-mail: anamalfitano@ufscar.br

Abstract
Background. Researchers and practitioners worldwide have advocated for the deve-
lopment of critical perspectives in occupational therapy to examine the structural
influences of social exclusion and injustice experienced by individuals, groups, and
communities. To take action against social exclusion and injustice, Brazilian occu-
pational therapists have been developing social occupational therapy, referring to
practice that is focused on social issues and funded outside the health system.
Purpose. This paper presents a Brazilian perspective on the concept and practice of
social occupational therapy. Illustrations are drawn from 12 studies, developed bet-
ween 2008 and 2013, which were completed with socially vulnerable youth through
an ongoing university-community engagement partnership in So Carlos, So Paulo
State, Brazil.
Key issues. The authors discuss possibilities and challenges for developing a socially
committed, transformative occupational therapy outside the health system.
Implications. Occupational therapists may wish to seize opportunities to address

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social issues and attract funding beyond health services.


Disponible en:<http://cjo.sagepub.com/content/81/5/298.abstract>

1
2
3

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