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Introduction:

Titration is a technique to determine the concentration of an unknown solution. As

illustrated in the titration setup above, a solution of known concentration (titrant)
is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution (titrand or
analyte).
*) Titrant: solution of a known concentration, which is added to another solution
whose concentration has to be determined.

*) Titrand or analyte: the solution whose concentration has to be determined.

*) Equivalence point: point in titration at which the amount of titrant added is
just enough to completely neutralize the analyte solution. At the equivalence
point in an acid-base titration, moles of base = moles of acid and the solution only
contains salt and water.
*) Indicator: For the purposes of this tutorial, its good enough to know that an
indicator is a weak acid or base that is added to the analyte solution, and it
changes color when the equivalence point is reached
*) Endpoint: refers to the point at which the indicator changes color in an acid-
base titration.

Objectives:
*) To determine the inter action of acids and bases and to examine methods for
determining equivalence points of reactions.
*) determining equivalence points in acids-bases titration using a PH meter or acid
- base indicators.

Apparatus:
- PH meter
- Glass indicator electrode
- Calomel reference electrode
- Magnetic stirrer
- Burets

Theory:
B= delta(titrant volume)/delta(PH)

Procedure:
1- Develop the titration curves to determine the equivalence points for
titration of :
a- 50 ml of 0.1M H2SO4 & 0.1M of NaOH .
b- b- 50 ml of 0.1M acetic acid & 0.1M NaOH .
2- Add 3 drops of an appropriate indicator to the 50ml of 0.1M H2SO4 and
insert the PH electrode and observe the PH values. Then titrate the solution
with 0.1M NaOH until the indicator change in color.
3- Repeat part 2 for another appropriate indicator.
4- Repeat part 2 and 3 for titration of 0.1M acetic acid with 0.1M NaOH using
an appropriate indicators.

Raw Data and Result:

HCL CH3CooH
Indicator M.O ph.ph M.O ph.ph
Titrant(NAOH)
(ml)
0 1 1 3 3.10
2 1.33 1.26 3.7 3.65
4 1.35 1.3 4 4.01
6 1.39 1.36 4.2 4.2
8 1.44 1.43 4.4 4.73
10 1.52 1.52 4.5 4.55
12 1.62 1.62 4.73 4.7
14 1.76 1.76 4.92 4.85
16 1.97 1.98 5.17 5.05
18 2.46 2.43 5.5 5.3
20 9.71 9.71 6.7 5.7
22 10.77 11.02 10.9 10
24 11.26 11.41 11.44 11.2
26 11.57 11.66 11.7 ------
28 ------ 11.8 11.82 ------
30 ------ ------- 11.95 ------
For HCL: B= (28-0)/(11.8-1)=2.5926
For CH3CooH: B=(24-0)/(11.2-3.1)=2.963
Chart Title
14

12

10

8
M.O

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
HCL

Chart Title
14

12

10

8
ph.ph

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
HCL
Chart Title
12

10

8
ph.ph

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
CH3CooH

Chart Title
12

10

8
M.O

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
CH3CooH

Discussion:
*). In this experiment we study the acid-base titration , using weak and strong
acids and bases .
*) The term "strong" usually refers to substance which is completely dissociated
into its ions in solutions. While the term "weak" usually refers to substance which
is partially dissociated in solutions.
*) Equivalence point is the point when moles of H+ and OH- are equal exactly.
*) The PH of the equivalence point depends on :
- The degree of dissociation of the acid .
- Acid concentration and the ionization constant of water.
*) To determine the equivalence point of an acid-base titration we use PH meter
or an acid-base indicator .

*) in this experiment we know that any volume of strong acid need the same
volume of strong base to get the equilibrium point where at which the pH must
be 7 where the moles of each of them are becomes equal and so the
concentration of H+ and OH- but that wasn't in our experiment .
*) The acid base titration is very important especially for environmental
engineering when treating the waste water and the need to clear it to become
more useful. our readings of PH was almost accurate but There were some errors
in this experiment and the data is not accurate because of the following reasons:-
- Some personal errors like reading errors caused by the eye or the non-horizontal
- Some Factorial errors in the PH measure.
- The dishes were not clean from the first
- The taken reading was not taken at the accurate time.

Conclusion:
When we added methyl orange to H2SO4 the color was converted from orange to
yellow and when we added phenolphthalein to H2SO4 the solution was converted
from colorless to the pink color
From this, experimental it can concluded that any volume of strong acid need the
same volume of strong base to get the equilibrium point which the pH must be 7
where the moles of each of them are becomes equal and so the concentration of
H+ and OH- but that wasn't in our experiment.
Once again this process is very important specially for civil engineering when
treating with waste water and the need to clear it to become more useful so it is
very important to know everything of the kinetic of the reaction of components
with water and how to change the PH to make the reaction going on and what is
should do.