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TITLE1

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CivilProcedureLaw

TABLEOFCONTENTS
Chapter

PartI.ProcedurebeforeTrial

1. GeneralProvisions
2. LimitationofActions
A. General
B. LimitationsinParticularActions
C. ComputationofLimitations
D. TollingtheStatute
3. CommencementofAction
A. Jurisdiction
B. Form,Issuance,andServiceofProcess
C. Appearance
4. VenueandRemovalofCauses
5. Parties
A. General
B. CapacityofParties
C. SubstitutionofParties
D. JoinderofParties
E. Intervention
F. Interpleader
G. ClassActions
6. JoinderofClaims,Consolidation,andSeverance
7. ProvisionalRemedies
A. InGeneral
B. Attachment
C. Arrest
D. PreliminaryInjunctions
E. Receivership
F. NoticeofPendency
8. Form,Filing,andServiceofPapers
9. Pleadings
10. MotionsinGeneral
11. PretrialMotionsandPractice
12. PretrialConferences
13. Disclosure
A. Deposition
B. PhysicalorMentalorBloodExaminationofPersons
C. Enforcement
14. SubpoenasandOathsandAffirmations
15. CalendarPractice
16. SpecialProceedings
A. GeneralProcedure
B. WritsofCertiorari,Mandamus,Prohibition,andError
C. WritofQuoWarranto
D. HabeasCorpus
E. CondemnationProceedings
F. SpecialProceedingsConcerningMentallyDisabledandLegallyIncompetentPersons

PartII.TrialProcedure

21. GeneralProvisionsRelatingtoTrials
22. TrialbyJury
23. TrialbytheCourt
24. TrialbyReferee
25. Evidence
26. TrialandPostTrialMotions

PartIII.Judgments:EnforcementofJudgmentsandOrders

41. JudgmentsinGeneral
42. DefaultJudgments
43. DeclaratoryJudgments
44. EnforcementofJudgmentsandOrders
A. EnforcementGenerally
B. EnforcementbyExecutionandItsAdjuncts
C. EnforcementofjudgmentsbyMeansOtherthanExecution
45. CostsandInterest
A. CostsGenerally
B. Interest

PartIV.AppellateProcedure

51. AppealsfromCourtsofRecord
52. AppealsfromCourtsNotofRecord

PartV.SpecialMatters

61. ActiontoRecoveraChattel
62. ActionstoRecoverPossessionofRealProperty
A. Ejectment
B. SummaryProceedingtoRecoverPossessionofRealProperty
63. BondsandSecurity
64. Arbitration
65. SuitsbyoragainstIndigentPersons
66. ClaimsbeforePermanentClaimsCommission
67. ProcedureforChangingtheNameofanIndividual

AppendixI.PleadingForms

1. ComplaintonaPromissoryNote
2. ComplaintonanAccount
3. ComplaintinActionforBreachofContract
4. ComplaintforGoodsSoldandDelivered
5. ComplaintforMoneyLent
6. ComplaintforMoneyPaidbyMistake
7. ComplaintforMoneyHadandReceived
8. ComplaintforNegligence
9. ComplaintinActionforDamagesforAssaultandBattery
10. ComplaintinActionforLibelWhereStatementIsNotLibelousPerSe
11. ComplaintinActionforFalseImprisonment
12. ComplaintforDamagesforFraud
13. ComplaintinActionforConversion
14. ComplaintinActionforTrespass
15. ComplaintinActionofEjectmentandMesneProfits
16. ComplaintinActionforDamagesandtoEnjoinNuisance
17. ComplaintforSpecificPerformanceofContract
18. AnswerContainingDenials
19. DefenseofAccordandSatisfaction
20. DefenseofAssumptionofRisk
21. DefenseofContributoryNegligence
22. DefenseofPayment
23. DefenseofResJudicata
24. DefenseofAnotherActionPending
25. ReplytoAnswer

AppendixII.

FormforSummonsonServicebyPublication


PARTI
________
ProcedureBeforeTrial

Chapter1.GENERALPROVISIONS
1.1. ApplicationofCivilProcedureLaw.
1.2. Actionsandspecialproceedings.
1.3. Oneformofcivilaction.
1.4. Construction.
1.5. Harmlesserror.
1.6. Enforcement.
1.7. Time.
1.8. Representationofpartiesinaction.

1.1. ApplicationofCivilProcedureLaw.

TheCivilProcedureLawshallgoverntheprocedureinallcivilactionsandspecialproceedingsbeforealljudges
and in all courts in the judicial branch of the Government, except where the procedure is regulated by
inconsistent statutes or rules adopted in conformity therewith. Acts required by provisions of this title to be
done by clerks of court may be done by a justice of the peace or stipendiary magistrate in applying those
provisionstocourtsnotofrecord.1

1.2. Actionsandspecialproceedings.

1.Prosecutionasaction.Anyindependentapplicationtoacourtforreliefshallbeprosecutedintheformofan
action, except where prosecution in the form of a special proceeding is authorized. Except where otherwise
requiredbystatuteorruleofcourt,procedureinspecialproceedingsshallbethesameasinactions.

1
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1).
2.Errorinformofapplicationforrelief.Ifacourthasobtainedjurisdictionovertheparties,anapplicationfor
reliefshallnotbedismissedbecausenotbroughtasanactionorspecialproceedingormotion,whichevermay
beproper,butthecourtshallmakewhateverorderisrequiredforitsproperprosecution.2

1.3. Oneformofcivilaction.

Thereisonlyoneformofcivilaction.Thedistinctionbetweenactionsatlawandsuitsinequity,andtheformof
thoseactionsandsuitsheretoforeexisting,areabolished.3

1.4. Construction.

The provisions of this title shall be construed to promote the just, speedy, and inexpensive determination of
everyaction.4

1.5. Harmlesserror.

Noerrorineithertheadmissionortheexclusionofevidenceandnoerrorordefectinanyrulingororderorin
anythingdoneoromittedbythecourtorbyanyofthepartiesisgroundforgrantinganewtrialorforsetting
aside a verdict or for vacating, modifying, or otherwise disturbing a judgment or order, unless refusal to take
suchactionappearstothecourtinconsistentwithsubstantialjustice.Thecourtateverystageoftheproceeding
mustdisregardanyerrorordefectintheproceedingwhichdoesnotaffectthesubstantialrightsoftheparties.5

1.6. Enforcement.

1.Dismissalfornoncompliancewithprovisionsoftitleorcourtorder.Ifaclaimantfailstocomplywithaprovision
ofthistitleorwithanyorderofacourtissuedinpursuanceofsuchprovisions,thecourtonitsownmotionor
uponapplicationofanopposingparty,maydismisstheclaimant'spleadingonterms.Unlesstheorderspecifies
otherwise,thedismissalshallnotbeonthemerits.

2.Costsforfailuretocomply.Wherethefailureofapartytocomplywiththistitleresultsinaddedexpenseto
anotherparty,byrequiringdisclosuredevices,proof,motions,orotherwise,suchexpense,includingreasonable
attorney's fees, shall be assessed as costs against the party failing to comply. Refiling of an action shall be
contingentonthepaymentofaccruedcosts.6

1.7. Time.

1.Computation.Incomputinganyperiodoftimeprescribedorallowedbystatute,byorderorruleofcourt,by
ruleorregulation,orbyexecutiveorder,thedayoftheact,event,ordefaultafterwhichthedesignatedperiod

2
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2).
3
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:3).
4
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4);1956Code6:1.
5
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5).
6
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6);1956Code6:597.
oftimebeginstorunisnottobeincluded.Thelastdayoftheperiodsocomputedistobeincludedunlessitisa
Sundayoralegalholiday,inwhicheventtheperiodrunsuntiltheendofthenextdaywhichisneitheraSunday
noralegalholiday.Whentheperiodoftimeprescribedorallowedislessthantendays,intermediateSundays
andholidaysshallbeexcludedfromthecomputation.

2.Enlargement.Whenunderthistitleorbyanoticegiventhereunderorbyorderofcourtanactisrequiredor
allowedtobedoneatorwithinaspecifiedtime,thecourtforcauseshownmay,exceptasotherwiseprovided
bylaw,atanytimeinitsdiscretion:(a)ordertheperiodenlargedifapplicationismadebeforetheexpirationof
theperiodoriginallyprescribedorasextendedbypreviousorder,or(b)uponmotionmadeaftertheexpiration
oftheprescribedperiodpermittheacttobedonewhenthefailuretoactwastheresultofexcusableneglect.

3.Additionaltimeforservicebymail.Wheneverapartyhastherightorisrequiredtodosomeactortakesome
proceedingswithinaprescribedperiodaftertheserviceofanoticeorotherpaperuponhimandthenoticeor
paper is served upon him by mail, five days shall be added to the prescribed period if the mail is sent to him
within the Republic of Liberia, and ten days shall be added if mail is sent to him abroad. Whenever a certain
periodoftimemustelapseafterserviceofanoticeorpaperonapartybeforetheadversepartyhastherightto
dosomeactortakesomeproceedings,andthenoticeorpaperhasbeenservedbymail,fivedaysshallbeadded
totheprescribedperiodifmailissenttothepersonwithintheRepublicofLiberia,andtendaysshallbeaddedif
mailissenttohimabroad.

4.Stay.Exceptwhereotherwiseprescribedbylaw,thecourtinwhichanactionispendingmaygrantastayof
proceedingsinapropercase,uponsuchtermsasmaybejust.

5.Unaffectedbyexpirationofterm.Theperiodoftimeprovidedforthedoingofanyactorthetakingofany
proceedingisnotaffectedorlimitedbythecontinuedexistenceorexpirationofatermofcourt.Thecontinued
existence or expiration of a term of court in no way affects the power of a court to do any act or take any
proceedinginanycivilactionthathasbeenpendingbeforeit.7

1.8. Representationofpartiesinaction.

1.Whomayrepresentaparty.Aparty,otherthananinfantorincompetentperson,mayprosecuteordefenda
civilactioninpersonorbyattorneyorboth,exceptthat(a)acorporationorvoluntaryassociationshallappear
byattorney,and(b)apartymayberepresentedinacourtofastipendiarymagistrateorjusticeofthepeaceby
ahusband,wife,father,mother,brother,sister,son,daughter,orguardian.Ifapartyappearsbyattorney,he
may not act through another person not an attorney except by consent of the court and after notice of the
changehasbeenservedontheotherparties.

7
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:7);1956Code6:30;L.189394,10(2nd),3.Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:7);
1956Code6:31;OBB113,JudiciaryAct,art.IV,11.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:7);1956Code6:33.Par.5:L.196364,ch.III
(6:7);1956Code6:32.
2.Changeofattorney.Anattorneyofrecordmaybechangedbycourtorderor,unlessthepartyisaninfantor
an incompetent person, by filing with the clerk of the court a notice of change together with a statement of
consenttothechangesignedbytheattorneyandtheparty.Acopyofnoticeofsuchchangeshallbeservedon
theotherparties.

3.Death,removal,ordisabilityofattorney.Ifanattorneydies,becomesphysicallyormentallyincapacitatedor
is disbarred, suspended, or otherwise becomes disabled at any time before final judgment, no further
proceedingshallbetakenwithoutleaveofcourtintheactionagainstthepartywhomherepresenteduntilthirty
daysafternoticetoappointanotherattorneyhasbeengiventothatpartyeitherpersonallyorinsuchmanneras
thecourtdirects.8

Chapter2.LIMITATIONOFACTIONS
SubchapterA.General
2.1. Applicationofchapter.
2.2. Effectoffailuretocommenceactionwithintimelimited.
2.3. Effectofwrittenwaiver,partpayment,acknowledgment,ornewpromise.
2.4. Delayforperiodlessthanallowedbystatuteoflimitations.
2.5. Savingsprovisions.
2.6. CauseofactionaccruingoutsideRepublic.
2.7. SuitsbyGovernment.

SubchapterB.LimitationsinParticularActions
2.11. Actionsbasedonpersonalinjuries.
2.12. Actionsaffectingrealproperty.
2.13. Actionsbasedonwritteninstruments.
2.14. Actionstoenforceajudgment.
2.15. Actionsforbreachofcontractnotbasedonwritteninstrument
2.16. Actionsaffectingpersonalproperty.
2.17. Actionbyoronbehalfofacorporationagainstdirectororofficer.
2.18. Actionsbasedonfraud,mistake,orfraudulentconcealment.

8
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:8):1956Code6:229.
2.19. Actionsbasedonofficialmisconduct.
2.20. Otheractions.

SubchapterC.ComputationofLimitations
2.31. Generalmethodofcomputation.
2.32. Whenclaimisinterposed:complaint.
2.33. Codefendantsunitedininterest.
2.34. Whenclaiminterposed:defenseorcounterclaim.
2.35. Effectofdeathwhileclaimbeinginterposed.
2.36. Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:demandnecessary.
2.37. Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:actionbasedonagent'smisconduct.
2.38. Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:actiononanaccount.
2.39. Effectofaccrualofrightafterdeath.

SubchapterD.TollingtheStatute
2.61. Personaldisabilities.
2.62. Infancy.
2.63. Insanity.
2.64. Imprisonment.
2.65. Effectofmultipledisabilities.
2.66. Effectofdeathofpersonunderdisability.
2.67. Deathofclaimant:effectonhisclaim.
2.68. Deathofclaimant:effectondefenseorcounterclaim.
2.69. Deathofdefendant.
2.70. AbsencefromRepublicorconcealment.
2.71. Effectofwar.
2.72. Effectofstayofcommencementofaction.
2.73. Effectofterminationofaction.
2.74. Effectofchangeofrepresentativecharacterofaction.

SubchapterA.GENERAL
2.1. Applicationofchapter.

Everyactionmustbecommencedwithinthetimeprescribedinthischapterunlessadifferenttimeisspecifically
prescribed by statute. Except as otherwise provided, a claim upon which an action cannot be maintained as
prescribed in this chapter or by other statutory provision cannot be effectually interposed as a defense or
counterclaim.9

2.2. Effectoffailuretocommenceactionwithintimelimited.

The failure to commence an action within the time limited therefor shall constitute a defense to the action,
whichshallbepleadedaffirmativelyintheanswerorreplyasrequiredbysection9.8(4).10

2.3. Effectofwrittenwaiver,partpayment,acknowledgment,ornewpromise.

Apersonagainstwhomarighttoreliefhasaccruedmaywaivehisdefenseundertheprovisionsofthischapter
byawrittenwaiversignedbyhim.Inanycasefoundeduponacontract,paymentbythedebtorofanypartof
theprincipalorinterestoranewwrittenpromisetoperformsignedbytheobligorshallstarttherunningofthe
statuteoflimitationsanew.11

2.4. Delayforperiodlessthanallowedbystatuteoflimitations.

A court may refuse equitable relief to a plaintiff who has unjustifiably delayed bringing an action to the
detriment of a defendant although the period within which the action must be commenced under the other
provisionsofthischapterhasnotyetexpired.12

2.5. Savingsprovisions.

1. Actions accruing after effective date. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to all rights to relief which
accrueaftertheeffectivedateofthischapter.

2. Actions barred before effective date. Any action which was barred on or before the effective date of this
chaptershallnotbeaffectedbytheprovisionsofthischapter,exceptthatprovisionsofthischapterauthorizing
therevivalofabarredclaimorstartingagaintherunningofthestatuteoflimitationsagainstaclaimshallbe
applicabletosuchclaim.

9
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6.201).
10
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:202).
11
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:203).
12
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:204).
3. Actions accruing before effective date and not yet barred. The time limited for commencing an action on a
claimwhichaccruedbeforethischapterbecameeffectiveandwasnotthenbarredshallbethetimespecifiedby
thestatutesoflimitationsineffectbeforetheenactmentofthistitle.13

2.6. CauseofactionaccruingoutsideRepublic.

An action based on a right to relief which accrued outside the Republic cannot be commenced after the
expiration of the time limited by the laws either of this Republic or of the state where the right to relief
accrued.14

2.7. SuitsbyGovernment.

Unlessotherwisespecificallyprovidedbystatute, nostatuteoflimitationsshallbaranyactionbroughtorany
defenseorcounterclaiminterposedbytheGovernmentoftheRepublicofLiberia.15

SubchapterB.LIMITATIONSINPARTICULARACTIONS
2.11.Actionsbasedonpersonalinjuries.

1.Injuriestotheperson.Exceptasotherwiseprovidedinparagraphs2and3below,anactionfordamagesfor
injuriestothepersonshallbecommencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.

2. Malpractice not involving fraud. An action for damages for medical malpractice not involving fraud or
fraudulentconcealmentshallbecommencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued;provided,
however, that the right to relief shall be deemed to have accrued as of the date of the termination of the
agreementsoroftherelationshipduringwhichthemalpracticeoccurred.

3.Malpracticeinvolvingfraud.Anactionfordamagesformedicalmalpracticebaseduponfraudorfraudulent
concealmentbythedefendantoftheinformationestablishingarighttoreliefshallbecommencedwithintwo
yearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued;provided,however,thattherighttoreliefshallbedeemedtohave
accruedasofthetimetheplaintiffdiscoveredorreasonablycouldhavediscoveredthefraudorthemalpractice
fraudulentlyconcealed.

4.Injuriestothereputation.Anactionforinjuriestothereputationshallbecommencedwithinoneyearofthe
timetherighttoreliefaccrued.

13
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:205).
14
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:206).
15
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:207).
5.Injuriestodomesticrelations.Anactionforinjuriestodomesticrelationsshallbecommencedwithinoneyear
ofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.16

2.12.Actionsaffectingrealproperty.

1.Againstpersondisqualifiedfromholding.Thereshallbenolimitationonanactiontorecoverrealproperty
fromapersonconstitutionallydisqualifiedfromholdingrealpropertywithintheRepublic.

2.Torecoverrealproperty.Anactiontorecoverrealpropertyoritspossessionshallbebarredifthedefendant
orhisprivyhasheldthepropertyadverselyforaperiodofnotlessthantwentyyears.

3.Eliminatingtherightofredemptionafterajudicialsaleofmortgagedrealty.Thatpriortothecommencement
ofanyproceedingfortheforeclosureofmortgageaffectingrealproperty,aconditionofwhichisthesaleofsuch
propertyupondefault,themortgagororhissuccessorininterestorlegalrepresentativeshallbegivenagrace
period of at least six calendar months to comply with the terms of said mortgage. That a mortgagee or his
successor in interest or one (1) legal representative shall ensure that any realty to be sold as a result of
successfulforeclosureproceedingsshallbesoldatthefairmarketvalueatthetimeofsale.17

4. To recover damages. An action for damages for injuries to real property shall be commenced within three
yearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.18

2.13.Actionsbasedonwritteninstruments.

1.Fordebtordamagesforbreachofcontract.Anactiontoobtainpaymentofadebtorfordamagesforbreach
ofacontractbasedonawritteninstrumentoracknowledgmentshallbecommencedwithinsevenyearsofthe
timetherighttoreliefaccrued.

2.Onbondornotesecuredbymortgage.Anactionuponabondornote,thepaymentofwhichissecuredbya
mortgage upon real or personal property or upon a bond or note and the mortgage so secured or upon a
mortgageuponrealorpersonalpropertyoranyinterestthereinshallbecommencedwithinsevenyearsofthe
timetherighttoreliefaccrued.

16
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:211);1956Code,6:50(e);Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Actannullingandforbiddinga
StatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,18,2Hub.1524;Acts1844,Acttorepealthe
LimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.I,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations,2Hub.1508
(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450.
17
ThepresentParagraph(3)waspromulgatedtoreplacethepreviousparagraphwhichwasrepealedbyInterimNational
AssemblydecreeNo.20,EliminatingtheRightofredemptionAfteraJudicialSaleofMortgagedRealty,issuedonDecember
24,1985.
18
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:212);1956Code6:50(a);Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Actannullingandforbiddinga
StatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,18,2Hub.1524;Acts1844,Acttorepealthe
LimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.1,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations,2Hub.1508
(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450.
3.Toestablishawill.Anactiontoestablishawillshallbecommencedwithinoneyearafterthe deathofthe
testator;provided,however,thatwhenawillhasbeenlost,concealed,ordestroyed,thetimewithinwhichan
action shall be commenced to establish such will shall be computed from the time that the plaintiff or his
predecessorininterestdiscoveredtheloss,concealment,ordestructionorcouldwithreasonablediligencehave
discoveredit.

4. On instrument establishing a trust. An action upon a deed or other instrument establishing a trust shall be
commenced within seven years of the time the right to relief accrued; provided, however, that an action to
establishawillwhichcreatesatestamentarytrustshallbecommencedasprovidedinparagraph3above.19

2.14.Actionstoenforceajudgment.

1.Judgmentofsumofmoneyincourtsofrecord.Ajudgmentforasumofmoneyordirectingthepaymentofa
sum of money rendered by a court of record is presumed to be paid and satisfied after the expiration of ten
years from the time the person who recovered it was first entitled to enforce it. This presumption shall be
conclusiveexceptasagainstapersonwhowithinsuchtenyearperiod:

(a) Acknowledgestheindebtedness,suchacknowledgmenttobeinwritingandsignedbyhim,or
(b) Makes part payment of the amount for which the judgment was rendered, property acquired by an
enforcementorderorbylevyuponanexecutionbeingsuchapaymentunlessthepersontobecharged
showsthatitdidnotincludepropertyclaimedbyhim,or
(c) Istheheirorpersonalrepresentativeofsuchpersonorisapersonwhomheotherwiserepresents.

Ifsuchanacknowledgmentorpaymentismade,thejudgmentisconclusivelypresumedtobepaidandsatisfied
asagainstanypersonaftertheexpirationoftenyearsafterthelastacknowledgmentorpaymentbyhim.

2.Judgmentforsumofmoneyincourtnotofrecord.Theprovisionsofparagraph1aboveshallapplyequallyto
judgmentsofcourtsnotofrecord,butsuchajudgmentshallbeconclusivelypresumedtobepaidandsatisfied
aftertheexpirationofthreeyearsfromthetimethepersonwhorecovereditwasfirstentitledtoenforceitor
afteranacknowledgmentorpartpayment.

3. Pleading giving rise to presumption. The presumption created by this section may be availed of under an
allegationthattheactionwasnotcommencedwithinthetimelimited.20

19
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:213);1956Code6:50(c);L.193536,ch.XXIII,8;Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Act
annullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.1,18,2Hub.1524;Acts1844,
ActtorepealtheLimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.I,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteof
Limitations,2Hub.1508(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450.
20
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:214);1956Code6:50(b);Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Actannullingandforbiddinga
StatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,18,2Hub.1524;Acts1844,Acttorepealthe
LimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.1,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations,2Hub.1508
(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450.
2.15.Actionsforbreachofcontractnotbasedonwritteninstrument.

An action to obtain payment of a debt or for damages for a breach of a contract not based on a written
instrument or acknowledgment, whether such contract is express or implied in fact or in law, shall be
commencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.21

2.16.Actionsaffectingpersonalproperty.

1.Torecoverachattel.Anactiontorecoverachattelshallbecommencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimethe
righttoreliefaccrued.

2.Fordamages.Anactiontorecoverdamagesforinjurytopersonalpropertyshallbecommencedwithinthree
yearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.22

2.17.Actionbyoronbehalfofacorporationagainstdirectororofficer.

1.Limitationontimeofcommencement.Anactionbyoronbehalfofacorporationagainstapresentorformer
director or officer for the violation of or failure to perform his duty as such director or officer shall be
commencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued,exceptthatanactionbasedonfraudor
fraudulentconcealmentshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofsection2.18.

2.Personaldisabilitiesinrepresentativeaction.Inarepresentativeactionthetimelimitedforcommencingan
action under the provisions of this section shall not be extended by personal disabilities on the part of any
personinwhomsucharighttoreliefaccrues.23

2.18.Actionsbasedonfraud,mistake,orfraudulentconcealment.

1.Actioningeneralbasedonfraudormistake.Exceptasotherwisespecificallyprovidedbystatute,anaction
basedonfraudormistakeshallbecommencedwithintwoyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued;provided,
however,thattherighttoreliefshallbedeemedtohaveaccruedasofthetimetheclaimantorhispredecessor
ininterestdiscoveredthefraudormistakeorwithreasonablediligencecouldhavediscoveredit.

2.Actiontoimposeconstructivetrust,Anactiontoimposeaconstructivetrustshallbecommencedwithintwo
yearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued;provided,however,thattherighttoreliefshallbedeemedtohave
accruedasofthetimetheclaimantorhispredecessorininterestdiscoveredorwithreasonablediligencecould
havediscoveredthefactswhichgaverisetotherighttohaveaconstructivetrustdeclared.

21
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:215);1956Code50(d);L.193536,ch.XXIII,8;Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Act
annullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.1,18,2Hub.1524;Acts
1844,ActtorepealtheLimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.1,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteof
Limitations,2Hub.1508(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450;Corn.L.(Jan.12,184;pub.
1944),2Hub.1639(3rd).
22
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:216).
23
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:217).
3.Actiontoannulmarriageongroundoffraud.Anactiontoannulamarriageonthegroundoffraudshallbe
commencedwithinoneyearofthetimetheplaintiffdiscoveredthefactsconstitutingthefraudorcouldwith
reasonablediligence have discovered them;provided,however,thatiftheplaintiffisapersonother thanthe
spouse whose consent was obtained by fraud, the time within which the action shall be commenced shall be
computedfromthetime,ifearlier,whenthatpersondiscoveredthefactsconstitutingthefraudorcouldwith
reasonablediligencehavediscoveredthem.

4.Actionforfraudulentconcealment.Exceptasotherwisespecificallyprovidedbystatute,anactionbasedon
fraudulent concealment shall be commenced within two years of the time the claimant or his predecessor in
interestdiscoveredorwithreasonablediligencecouldhavediscoveredthefraudulentconcealment.24

2.19.Actionsbasedonofficialmisconduct.

An action against a public officer upon a liability incurred by him by doing an act in his official capacity or by
omissionofanofficialdutyshallbecommencedwithinthreeyearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.25

2.20.Otheractions.

All actions for which no other period of limitations is specifically provided shall be commenced within three
yearsofthetimetherighttoreliefaccrued.26

SubchapterC.COMPUTATIONOFLIMITATIONS
2.31.Generalmethodofcomputation.Thetimewithinwhichanactionshallbecommencedshall,exceptas
otherwisespecificallyprescribedbylaw,becomputedfromthetimetherighttoreliefaccruedtothetimethe
claimisinterposed.27

2.32.Whenclaimisinterposed:complaint.

Aclaimassertedinacomplaintisinterposedwhenthecomplaintisfiledinacourtofrecordoranoralcomplaint
ismadetoamagistrateorjusticeofthepeace.28

2.33.Codefendantsunitedininterest.

24
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:218).
25
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:219).
26
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:220);1956Code6:50(f);Rev.Stat.263;OBB144,Actannullingandforbiddinga
StatuteofLimitations;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,18,2Hub.1524;Acts1844;Acttorepealthe
LimitationActof1841,2Hub.1639;1841Digest,pt.I,ActannullingandforbiddingaStatuteofLimitations,2Hub.1508
(1st);Acts1841,Acttoamendandrepealcertainlaws,7,2Hub.1450.
27
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:231).
28
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:232).
An action commenced against a defendant is deemed commenced against any codefendant who is united in
interestwithhim.29

2.34.Whenclaiminterposed:defenseorcounterclaim.

1.Whendefenseorcounterclaimnotbarred.Adefenseorcounterclaimisnotbarredifitwasnotbarredatthe
timetheclaimassertedinthecomplaintwasinterposed.

2. When defense or counterclaim not barred to extent of demand in complaint. If a defense or counterclaim
arisesoutofthetransactionoroccurrenceorseriesoftransactionsoroccurrencesuponwhichaclaimasserted
inthecomplaintdepends,suchdefenseorcounterclaimshallnotbebarredtotheextentofthedemandonsuch
claiminthecomplaint,notwithstandingthatsuchdefenseorcounterclaimwasotherwisebarredatthetimethe
claimassertedinthecomplaintwasinterposed.30

2.35.Effectofdeathwhileclaimbeinginterposed.

1.Deathofdefendant.Ifthedefendantdiesafteraclaimhasbeeninterposedundertheprovisionsofsection
2.32butbeforeserviceofsummonsintheprescribedmanneriscompleted,andthetimeforsuchservicehad
notexpiredatthe timeofhisdeath,theclaimshallbedeemed tohavebeeninterposed within theperiodof
limitation if the summons is served upon the personal representative of the deceased defendant within sixty
daysafterlettersareissued;provided,however,thatlettersshallbeissuedwithinoneyearofhisdeath,asset
forthinsection2.69below;andprovidedfurtherthattheclaimantmayavailhimselfoftheprovisionsofsection
2.69(2)belowifnopersonalrepresentativehasbeenappointedwithintheperiodspecifiedtherein.

2.Deathofplaintiff.Iftheplaintiffdiesafteraclaimhasbeeninterposedundertheprovisionsofsection2.32
butbeforetheserviceofsummonsintheprescribedmanneriscompleted,andthetimeforsuchsuchservice
hadnotexpiredatthetimeofhisdeath,theclaimshallbedeemedtohavebeeninterposedwithintheperiodof
limitationifthesummonsisserveduponthedefendantbythepersonalrepresentativeoftheplaintiffwithinsix
monthsafterlettersareissued;provided,however,thatlettersshallbeissuedwithinoneyearofhisdeath,as
set forth in section 2.67 below; and provided further that the provisions of section 2.67(2) shall apply if no
personalrepresentativehasbeenappointedwithintheperiodspecifiedtherein.31

2.36.Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:demandnecessary.

When a demand is necessary to entitle a person to maintain an action, the right to relief shall be deemed to
haveaccruedwhentherighttomakethedemandiscomplete,exceptthat:

(a) Whentherighttomakethedemandgrowsoutofthereceiptordetentionofmoneyorpropertybya
trustee,agent,attorney,orotherpersonactinginafiduciarycapacity,therighttoreliefoccurswhenthe

29
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:233).
30
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:234).
31
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:235).
person who has the right to make the demand discovers the facts upon which that right depends or
couldwithreasonablediligencehavediscoveredsuchfacts;and
(b) When there is a deposit of money to be repaid only upon a special demand or a delivery of personal
propertynottobereturnedspecificallyorinkindatafixedtimeoruponafixedcontingency,theright
toreliefshallbedeemedtohaveaccruedasofthetimeofthedemandforrepaymentorreturn.32

2.37.Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:actionbasedonagent'smisconduct.

Whenajudgmentisenteredagainstaprincipalinanactionbasedonaninjuryresultingfromanactoromission
of his deputy or agent, the right to relief of such principal in an action against his deputy or agent to recover
damagesbyreasonofsuchjudgmentshallbedeemedtohaveaccruedwhentheactionagainsttheprincipalis
finallydetermined.33

2.38.Whenrighttoreliefaccrues:actiononanaccount.

Inanactionbasedonamutual,open,andcurrentaccount,wheretherehavebeenreciprocaldemandsbetween
the parties, the right to relief shall be deemed to have accrued as of the time of the last transaction in the
accountoneitherside.34

2.39.Effectofaccrualofrightafterdeath.

1.Rightaccruingafterdeathbeforeissuanceofletters.Ifarighttoreliefaccruesafterthedeathofaclaimantor
ofthepersonliablebutbeforetheissuanceofletterstohispersonalrepresentative,therightshallbedeemed,
forthepurposeofdeterminingtheperiodoflimitation,tohaveaccruedwhenthelettersareissuedorasoftwo
yearsafterthedeath,whichevereventfirstoccurs.

2.Recoveryofpersonalpropertybyrepresentativeofdecedent.Therightofanexecutororofanadministrator
torecoverpersonalpropertywrongfullytakenafterdeathandbeforeissuanceoflettersortorecoverdamages
fortaking,detaining,orinjuringpersonalpropertywithinthatperiodshallbedeemedtohaveaccruedwhenthe
lettersareissuedorasoftwoyearsafterthedeath,whichevereventfirstoccurs.

3.Whenrighttoreliefaccruedmorethantwoyearsafterdeath.Iftherighttoreliefineitherparagraphabove
can be shown in fact to have accrued more than two years after the death of the claimant or of the person
liable, the period of limitation shall be computed from such later date on which the right to relief actually
accrued.35

32
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:236).
33
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:237).
34
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:238).
35
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:239).
SubchapterD.TOLLINGTHESTATUTE
2.61.Personaldisabilities.

1.Definition.Infancy,insanity,andimprisonmentarepersonaldisabilities.

2.Effect.Exceptasotherwiseprovidedinsection2.17(2),ifapersonisunderapersonaldisabilitywhenorafter
arighttoreliefaccruesinhisfavor,thetimeotherwiselimitedforcommencinganactiononsuchrighttorelief
shallbeextendedassetforthinsections2.62through2.65below.36

2.62.Infancy.

1. Expiration of time during disability. If a right to relief accrues in favor of an infant and the time otherwise
limited for commencing an action thereon expires before he attains his majority, the time within which the
actionmustbecommencedshallbeextendeduntiloneyearafterhisdisabilityendsoruntilfiveyearsafterthe
expirationofthetimelimitedforcommencingtheaction,whichevereventfirstoccurs.

2.Expirationoftimelessthanoneyearafterterminationofdisability.Ifarighttoreliefaccruesinfavorofan
infant and the time otherwise limited for commencing an action thereon expires less than one year after he
attainshismajority,thetimewithinwhichtheactionmustbecommencedshallbeextendeduntiloneyearafter
heattainshismajority.37

2.63.Insanity.

1. Expiration of time during disability. If a right to relief accrues in favor of a person who is insane or who
thereafterbecomesinsaneandthetimeotherwiselimitedforcommencinganactionthereonexpireswhileheis
stillundersuchdisability,thetimewithinwhichtheactionmustbecommencedshallbeextendeduntiloneyear
afterhisdisabilityceasesoruntilfiveyearsaftertheexpirationofthetimelimitedforcommencingtheaction,
whichevereventfirstoccurs.

2. Expiration of time less than one year after termination of disability. If a right to relief accrues in favor of a
person who is insane or who thereafter becomes insane and the time otherwise limited for commencing an
action thereon expires less than one year after the disability ceases the time within which the action shall be
commencedshallbeextendedoneyearafterthedisabilityceases.38

2.64.Imprisonment.

1.Expirationoftimeduringdisability.Ifarighttoreliefaccruesinfavorofapersonwhothenorthereafteris
imprisonedonacriminalchargeandthetimeotherwiselimitedforcommencinganactionthereonexpireswhile

36
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:261).
37
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:262);1956Code6:51;Rev.Stat.263.
38
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:263);1956Code6:51;Rev.Stat.263.
heisstillundersuchdisability,thetimewithinwhichtheactionshallbecommencedshallbeextendeduntilone
year after his disability ceases or until five years after the expiration of the time limited for commencing the
action,whichevereventfirstoccurs.

2. Expiration of time less than one year after termination of disability. If a right to relief accrues in favor of a
personwhoisthenorthereafterunderadisabilityassetforthinparagraph1andthetimeotherwiselimitedfor
commencinganactionthereonexpireslessthanoneyearafterthedisabilityceases,thetimewithinwhichthe
actionshallbecommencedshallbeextendedoneyearafterthedisabilityceases.39

2.65.Effectofmultipledisabilities.

Ifapersoninwhomarighttoreliefaccruesisundermultipledisabilitieswhenoraftersuchrightaccrues,the
timeotherwiselimitedforcommencinganactiononsuchrightshallbeextendeduntilalldisabilitiesceaseor
untiltheexpirationofthelongestextensionavailabletohimunderanydisabilityfromwhichhesuffers;butthe
extensionstowhichheisentitledshallrunconcurrentlyandnotconsecutively.40

2.66.Effectofdeathofpersonunderdisability.

Ifapersoninwhosefavorarighttoreliefaccruedwhilehewasunderadisabilitydieseitherbeforeorafterhis
disabilityterminatedbutbeforeexpirationofthetimelimitedforcommencinganactionascomputedinviewof
theprovisionsofsection2.62,2.63,2.64,or2.65,thetimewithinwhichtheactionshallbecommencedshallbe
extendedasprovidedinsection2.67below.Adisabilityexistingatthetime ofthedeath ofapersonshallbe
deemedtohaveterminatedatthattime.41

2.67.Deathofclaimant:effectonhisclaim.

1.Extensionoftimeallowed.Theperiodofoneyearafterthedeathofapersoninwhosefavorarighttorelief
hasaccruedisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichanactiononsuchrightmustbecommencedbyhispersonal
representative.

2.Appointmentofspecialrepresentativetobringaction;statutetolled.Ifnopersonalrepresentativehasbeen
appointed six months after the death of the claimant, any distributee, next of kin, legatee, or creditor of the
decedent may petition the court for the appointment of a special representative to bring an action on the
accruedrighttorelief.Serviceuponthedefendantofasummonsandacopyofthepetition,whichshallspecify
thenatureoftheclaiminthesamemannerasifitwereacomplaintissuedinanactionontheclaim,shalltoll
thestatute.42

2.68.Deathofclaimant:effectondefenseorcounterclaim.

39
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:264);1956Code6:51;Rev.Stat.263.
40
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:265).
41
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:266).
42
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:267).
When a defendant has served an answer containing a defense or counterclaim and the action is terminated
because of the plaintiff's death, the time which elapsed between the commencement and termination of the
actionisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichanactionmustbecommencedtorecoveruponaclaimarisingoutof
thefactsallegedinsuchdefenseorcounterclaimorthetimewithinwhichsuchdefenseorcounterclaimmaybe
interposedinanotheractionbroughtbytheplaintiff'ssuccessorininterest.43

2.69.Deathofdefendant.

1.Extensionoftimeallowed.Theperiodofoneyearafterthedeath,withinorwithouttheRepublic,ofaperson
againstwhomarighttoreliefhasaccruedisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichanactiononsuchrightmustbe
commencedagainsthispersonalrepresentative.

2. Appointment of special representative to defend action; statute tolled. If no executor or administrator is


appointedwithinsixmonthsafterthedeathofthedefendant,anypersoninwhomarighttoreliefhadaccrued
againstthedecedentmaypetitionthecourtfortheappointmentofaspecialrepresentativetodefendanaction
broughtagainsttheestateonsucharighttorelief,thenatureofwhichshallbesetforthinthesamemanneras
inacomplaint.Theappointmentofsucharepresentativeshalltollthestatute.Thecourtmaygrantsuchpetition
and appoint a special representative or may stay further action and direct that the claim be tried upon
appointmentofanexecutororadministrator,asitdeemsexpedientandequitable.44

2.70.AbsencefromRepublicorconcealment.

1.Defendant'sabsenceorconcealment.Ifwhenaclaimforreliefaccruesagainstapersonheisabsentfromthe
Republic,thetimewithinwhichtheactionmustbecommencedshallbecomputedfromthetimehecomesinto
orreturnstotheRepublic.If,afteraclaimforreliefhasaccruedagainstaperson,hedepartsfromtheRepublic
and remains continuously absent therefrom for four months or more, or if he conceals himself within the
Republic for the purpose of avoiding service of process, the time of such absence from the Republic or
concealmentisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichactionmustbecommenced.

2.Plaintiff'sabsence.IfwhenaclaimforreliefaccruesinfavorofapersonheisabsentfromtheRepublic,the
timeofhisabsencefromtheRepublicuptooneyearisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichtheactionmustbe
commenced. If after a claim has accrued in favor of a person, he departs from the Republic and remains
continuouslyabsenttherefromforfourmonthsormore,thetimeofhisabsencefromtheRepublicuptoone
yearisnotapartofthetimewithinwhichactionmustbecommenced.45

2.71.Effectofwar.

43
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:268).
44
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:269).
45
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:270);1956Code6:51;Rev.Stat.263.
1.Righttoreliefaccruinginenemycountry.Whenarighttoreliefaccruesinaforeigncountrywithwhichthe
Republic of Liberia or any of its allies is then or subsequently at war or in a territory then or subsequently
occupiedbythegovernmentofsuchaforeigncountry,thetimewhichelapsesbetweenthecommencementof
thewarorofsuchoccupationandtheterminationofhostilitieswithsuchforeigncountryorofsuchoccupation
isnotapartofthetimewithinwhichtheactionshallbecommenced;provided,however,thatifthetimewithin
whichtheactionwould,inaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisparagraph,havetobecommencedexpiresless
thansixmonthsaftertheterminationofsuchhostilitiesoroccupation,itshallbeextendeduntilsixmonthsafter
suchtermination.

2. Party who is enemy alien. When a person is unable to commence an action in the courts of this Republic
becauseanypartyisanaliensubjectorcitizenofaforeigncountryatwarwiththeRepublicoranyofitsallies,
whether the right to relief accrued during or prior to the war, the time which elapses between the
commencementofthewarandtheterminationofhostilitieswithsuchcountryisnotapartofthetimewithin
which the action must be commenced; provided, however, that if the time within which the action would, in
accordancewiththeprovisionsofthisparagraph,havetobecommencedexpireslessthansixmonthsafterthe
terminationofhostilities,itshallbeextendeduntilatleastsixmonthsaftersuchtermination.

3.Claimantanonenemyinenemycountry.Whenarighttoreliefaccruesinfavorofapersonnotentitledtothe
benefitsofparagraph2whoisaresidentoforasojournerinaforeigncountrywithwhichtheRepublicofLiberia
oranyofitsalliesisatwarorinaterritoryoccupiedbythegovernmentofsuchaforeigncountry,theperiodof
suchresidenceorsojournduringwhichthewarcontinuesortheterritoryissooccupiedisnotapartofthetime
withinwhichtheactionmustbecommenced;provided,however,thatifthetimewithinwhichtheactionwould,
inaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthisparagraph,havetobecommencedexpireslessthansixmonthsafter
the termination of such hostilities or occupation, it shall be extended until at least six months after such
termination.46

2.72.Effectofstayofcommencementofaction.

Whenthecommencementofanactionhasbeenstayedbyacourtorbyastatutoryprohibition,thedurationof
thestayisnotpartofthetimelimitedforcommencementoftheaction.Astatutorygrantofimmunityfromsuit
shallbedeemedtobeastayofcommencementofactionwithinthemeaningofthissection.47

2.73.Effectofterminationofaction.

Ifanactionistimelycommencedandisterminatedinanymannerotherthanbyadismissalofthecomplaintfor
failuretoprosecutetheactionorafinaljudgmentonthemerits,theplaintiffmaycommenceanewactionupon
thesamerighttoreliefaftertheexpirationofthetimelimitedbystatutethereforandwithinsixmonthsafter

46
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:271).
47
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:272).

the termination, and the defendant may interpose any defense or counterclaim which might have been
interposedintheoriginalaction.48

2.74.Effectofchangeofrepresentativecharacterofaction.

Iftherepresentativecharacterofaclassactionbegunundersection5.91iseliminatedinaccordancewiththe
provisions of section 5.92, any member of the class who had not intervened prior to the elimination of the
representativecharacteroftheactionmaythereafterinterveneintheoriginalactionasprovidedinsection5.62
ormay,withinsixmonthsafternoticeofsuchchange,commenceaseparateactionagainstthedefendantupon
therighttoreliefwhichwouldhavebeendecidedbythecourtintherepresentativeaction;andthedefendant
may interpose any defense or counterclaim which might have been interposed in the original representative
action.49

Chapter3.COMMENCEMENTOFACTION
SubchapterA.Jurisdiction
3.1. PersonaljurisdictionovernondomiciliarywhohasbeeninLiberia.
3.2. PersonaljurisdictionovernondomiciliarythroughactswithinLiberia.
3.3. Personaljurisdictionoverdomiciliariesandnondomiciliariesincertainkindsofactions.

SubchapterB.Form,Issuance,andServiceofProcess
3.31. Commencementbyfilingcomplaintandissuanceofwrit.
3.32. Summonstobeissuedforthwith.
3.33. Formofsummons.
3.34. Writtendirections.
3.35. Resummons.
3.36. Personwhomayserve.
3.37. Territoriallimitsofeffectiveservice.
3.38. PersonalserviceofsummonswithinLiberia.
3.39. PersonalserviceofsummonsoutsideLiberia.
3.40. Servicebypublicationandmailing.
3.41. Whenservicebypublicationiscomplete.

48
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:273).
49
Priorlegislation;L.196364,ch.III(6:274).
3.42. Return.
3.43. Amendment.
3.44. Defensebypersonnotpersonallyserved.

SubchapterC.Appearance
3.61. Appearancebydefendantdefined.
3.62. Timewhenappearancerequired.
3.63. Effectofappearanceonpersonaljurisdiction.

SubchapterA.JURISDICTION
3.1.PersonaljurisdictionovernondomiciliarywhohasbeeninLiberia.

A nondomiciliary who has been in Liberia shall be subject to the jurisdiction of Liberian courts in the same
mannerasifhewereadomiciliaryofLiberia.50

3.2.PersonaljurisdictionovernondomiciliarythroughactswithinLiberia.

Afterproperserviceofsummons,acourtmayexercisejurisdictionoveranondomiciliary,eventhoughhehas
notbeeninLiberia,astoaclaimarisingfromanyoftheactsenumeratedinthissectioninthesamemannerasif
hewereadomiciliary,if,inpersonorthroughanagent,he

(a) Transacts any business within Liberia or makes a contract with a person in Liberia which is to be
performedthere,or
(b) CommitsatortuousactwithinLiberia,or
(c) Owns,uses,orpossessesanyrealpropertysituatedwithinLiberia.51

3.3.Personaljurisdictionoverdomiciliariesandnondomiciliariesincertainkindsofactions.

After proper service of summons, a court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person in the following
actions:

(a) Toannulamarriageorfordivorce,ifthemaritalstatusissubjecttoadjudicationinLiberiancourts;
(b) Affectingthepossessionof,interestin,ortitleto,realorpersonalpropertywithinLiberia;
(c) InwhichalevyuponpropertyofthedefendanthasbeenmadewithinLiberiapursuanttoanorderof
attachmentorachattelhasbeenseizedinanactiontorecoverachattel.

50
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:301).
51
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:302).
Theprovisionsofthissectionareapplicabletoanydefendantwhetheradomiciliaryornondomiciliary.52

SubchapterB.FORM,ISSUANCE,ANDSERVICEOFPROCESS
3.31.Commencementbyfilingcomplaintandissuanceofwrit.

Acivilactioniscommencedinacourtofrecordbyfilingacomplaintorpetitionwiththeclerkandissuanceof
theappropriatewrit.Inacourtnotofrecord,acivilactioniscommencedbymakingofanoralcomplainttothe
justiceormagistrateandissuanceoftheappropriatewrit.53

3.32.Summonstobeissuedforthwith.

Onthefilingofacomplaint,theclerkofthecourt,orinacourtnotofrecordthemagistrateorjustice,shallissue
thewritofsummonsorotherwritforthwith.54

3.33.Formofsummons.

Thesummonsshallbedirectedtotheministerialofficerofthecourtinwhichtheactionisbrought;shallstate
thecourtandnamesoftheparties,togetherwiththeiraddressesifknown;shallbesignedbytheclerkandbear
thesealofthecourt;shallstatethetimewithinwhichthedefendantisrequiredtoappearanddefend;andshall
notify him that in case of his failure to do so judgment by default will be rendered against him for the relief
demanded in the complaint. In a court not of record, a statement of the substance of the complaint shall be
includedinthesummons.55

3.34.Writtendirections.

Theplaintiffshallfilewiththecomplaintinacourtofrecordanapplicationforissuanceofthesummonscalled
the"writtendirections"whichshallfulfillthefollowingrequirements:

(a) Itmustbeaddressedtotheclerkofthecourt;
(b) Itmuststatethenameoftheplaintiffandhisplaceofresidence;
(c) Itmuststatethenameofthedefendantandhisplaceofresidence;
(d) Itmustcontainabriefstatementoftheobjectoftheaction;
(e) Itmustrequesttheclerkofthecourttoissueawritofsummonsanddirectittotheministerialofficer
whoistoserveit;

52
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6.303).
53
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:331);1956Code6:167,168;Rev.Stat.275,284,629;J.P.Code16;Acts1846,
ActtoamendtheJudiciaryAct,8,2Hub.1653;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.II,I,3,2Hub.1527.
54
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:332);1956Code6:167,168;Rev.Stat.630.
55
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:333);1956Code6:201;Rev.Stat.277,630;J.P.Code17;LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.II,3,2Hub.1527.
(f) Itmuststatethedatebywhichthedefendantmustappear;
(g) Itmuststatethetermofthecourtinwhichthedefendantmustappear;
(h) Itmuststateadateonorbeforewhichthesheriffmustmakehisreturn,whichdateshallnotbelater
thanthedateonwhichthedefendantmustmakehisappearance;
(i) Itmuststatetheopeningdateofthesessionofcourtforwhichtheactionisdocketedandrequirethe
defendanttoattendonthatdate;
(j) Itmustinformthedefendantthatifhefailstoappearjudgmentwillbetakenagainsthim;and
(k) Itmustbesignedbytheplaintifforhiscounsel.56

3.35.Resummons.

Ifthereturnonasummonsstatesthatthesummonswasnotservedonadefendant,awritofresummonsmay
issueastosuchdefendant.Awritofresummonsdiffersfromawritofsummonsonlybytheinsertiontherein
aftertheword"summoned"ofthewords"asyouwerebeforecommanded."Itshallbeservedandthereturn
shallbemadethereoninthesamemannerasifitwereasummons.57

3.36.Personwhomayserve.

Exceptasotherwiseprovidedbylaw,serviceofallprocessshallbemadebytheministerialofficerofthecourt
which issued the process or by his deputy, or in the absence or inability of both, by some person specifically
appointed by the court for that purpose. Special appointments to serve process shall be freely made when
substantialsavingsintravelwillresulttherefrom.58

3.37.Territoriallimitsofeffectiveservice.

All process of courts of record may be served anywhere within the Republic of Liberia. Service in a county,
district,orterritoryotherthanthatinwhichthecourtissuingtheprocessislocatedshallbebytheministerial
officerofthecorrespondingcourtofthecounty,district,orterritorywherethepersontobeservedislocated.
Process of a justice's court may be served only within the county in which the justice sits; and process of a
magistrate'scourtmaybeservedonlyinthemagisterialareaforwhichthemagistratesits.59

3.38.PersonalserviceofsummonswithinLiberia.

1. Upon a natural person. Personal service of summons within Liberia upon a natural person other than an
infantorincompetentshallbemadebyreadinganddeliveringthesummonsto:

56
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:334);1956Code6:167;Rev.Stat.277;OBB,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.II,
3,2Hub.1527.
57
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:335);1956Code6:203,204;Rev.Stat.280,633;J.P.Code20;OBB33,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.H,5,6,2Hub.1527.
58
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:336);1956Code6:220;Rev.Stat.632;J.P.Code19.
59
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:337);1956Code6:223.
(a) Thepersontobeserved;or
(b) A person designated by the person to be served as his agent for service in a writing which shall be
probatedandregisteredintheofficeoftheRegistrarofDeedsofthecountyinwhichthepersontobe
served resides within three years of service unless the designation has been revoked by filing a
revocationorbythedeathorlegalincompetencyofthepersonoragent.

2.Uponaninfant.PersonalservicewithinLiberiauponaninfantshallbemadebyreadinganddeliveringthe
summons to the parent or guardian of the infant, or, if there is no parent or guardian within Liberia, to the
personhavingthecareandcontroloftheinfant,orwithwhomheresides,orbywhomheisemployed.Ifthe
infantisoftheageoffourteenyearsorover,thesummonsshallalsobereadandservedpersonallyuponhim
withinLiberia.

3. Upon a person declared to be incompetent. Personal service upon a person judicially declared to be
incompetenttomanagehisaffairsandforwhomacommitteeorguardianhasbeenappointedshallbemadeby
personallyreadinganddeliveringthesummonswithinLiberiatothecommitteeorguardian.

4. Upon a partnership. Personal service upon persons carrying on business as a partnership may be made by
readingandpersonallydeliveringthesummonswithinLiberiato:

(a) Anyoneofthem,or
(b) Toanagentappointedinthesamemannerandsubjecttothesameconditionsasanagentappointed
underparagraph1(b)ofthissection,or
(c) If the partnership is subject to suit under a common name, by reading and personally delivering the
summonswithinLiberiatoanofficerormanagingorgeneralagent.

5.Uponanunincorporatedassociation.Personalserviceuponanunincorporatedassociationinasuitagainstit
in its common name shall be made by reading and personally delivering the summons within Liberia to an
officer,amanagingorgeneralagent,ortoanyotheragentappointedinthesamemannerandsubjecttothe
sameconditionsasanagentappointedunderparagraph1(b)ofthissection.

6.Uponacorporation.Personalserviceshallbemadeuponadomesticorforeigncorporationbyreadingand
personally delivering the summons within Liberia to an officer, or managing or general agent, or to any other
agentauthorizedbyappointmentorbystatutetoreceiveserviceofprocess,and,ifthesummonsisdeliveredto
astatutoryagent,by,inaddition,mailingacopythereoftothedefendant.

7.UpontheRepublicofLiberia.PersonalserviceshallbemadeupontheRepublicofLiberiabydeliveringthe
summonstotheMinisterofJustice,SolicitorGeneral,[aDeputyMinisterofJustice],oranAssistantMinisterof
JusticeortotheCounty,District,orTerritorialAttorneyforthecounty,district,orterritoryinwhichtheactionis
brought.
8.UponanofficeroragencyoftheRepublic.Personalserviceshallbemadeuponanofficeroragencyofthe
Republic of Liberia by serving the Republic of Liberia and by delivering the summons to such officer or to the
chairman,ifthereisachairman,orchiefexecutiveofficerofsuchagency.

9. Upon a subdivision of government or a municipal corporation. Personal service upon a subdivision of the
government subject to suit or upon a municipal corporation shall be made by reading and delivering the
summonstothechiefexecutivethereof.60

3.39.PersonalserviceofsummonsoutsideLiberia.

ThefollowingpersonsmaybeservedwithsummonsoutsideLiberiainthesamemannerasifsuchservicewere
madewithinLiberiaandwiththesamejurisdictionaleffectasifthesummonsweredeliveredwithinLiberia:

(a) ApersondomiciledinLiberia;
(b) ApersonsubjecttothejurisdictionofthecourtsofLiberiaundersections3.1,3.2,or3.3ofthistitle.

SuchserviceoutsideLiberiamaybemadebyaministerialofficerofacourtinthejurisdictionwhereserviceis
made or by any attorney, solicitor, barrister, or equivalent who is duly qualified to serve a summons in such
jurisdiction.61

3.40.Servicebypublicationandmailing.

Ifthereturnonthewritofresummonsshowsthatthedefendanthasnotbeenservedandiftheplaintiffmakes
applicationnotlaterthantendaysaftersuchreturn,thecourtshallorderserviceofthesummonstobemadeby
publication.Anorderforservicebypublicationshalldirectthatthesummonsbepublishedtogetherwithabrief
statementoftheobjectoftheactioninarecognizednewspaperforaspecifiedtime,atleastonceineachoffour
successiveweeks.Thefirstpublicationshallbemadewithintwentydaysaftertheorderisgranted.Onthedayof
eachpublication,acopythereoftogetherwithacopyofthecomplaintshallbemailedbyregisteredmailtothe
lastknownaddressofthedefendant.62

3.41.Whenservicebypublicationiscomplete.

Service by publication is complete on the day when the last notice is published pursuant to the order of the
court,exceptthat

(a) Ifthedefendantshallhaveappearedbeforesuchlastnoticeispublished,theserviceshallbedeemed
completeonthedayofhisappearance;or

60
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:338);1956Code6:221;Rev.Stat.279,283.
61
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:339).
62
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:340);1956Code6:222;Rev.Stat.281;L.190304,10(3rd).
(b) Ifthedefendanthasreceivedthemailedcopyofthepublicationcontainingthesummonsasevidenced
bythereturnofareceiptsignedbyhim,theserviceshallbedeemedcompleteasofthedateofsuch
receipt.63

3.42.Return.

1. Personal service. The person serving the process personally shall make return as to service thereof to the
court promptly and in any event within the time during which the person served must appear. If the process
commandstheofficertowhomitisdirectedtotakesomeactionotherthanservice,heshallreporttheaction
takenbyhimonorbeforethedatesetthereforinthewritororder.Returnofserviceshallspecifythepapers
served,thepersonwhowasserved,andthedate,place,andmannerofservice.

2.Servicebypublicationandmailing.Publicationmaybeprovedbyacopyofthepublicationaccompaniedby
the affidavit of the publisher or printer or foreman of the paper in which publication was made. Mailing the
summonsmaybeprovedbythepostofficereceiptshowingthatregisteredmailaddressedtothedefendantat
hislastknownaddresswasdepositedinthepostoffice.Suchreceiptshallbemadeapartofthereturnofthe
person who made the service. If the return is disputed, the service may be proved by the record of the post
officeshowingthatdeliveryofthemailwasmadetothedefendantorthatherefuseddelivery.64

3.43.Amendment.

Atany timeinits discretionand uponsuchterms asitdeemsjust,acourt mayallowanyprocessor proofof


servicethereoftobeamended,unlessitclearlyappearsthatmaterialprejudicewouldresulttothesubstantial
rightsofthepartyagainstwhomtheprocessissued.65

3.44.Defensebypersonnotpersonallyserved.

Apersonservedwithasummonsotherthanbypersonaldeliverytohim,withinorwithoutLiberia,whodoesnot
appear,maybeallowedtodefendtheactionatanytimebeforefinaljudgmentorwithinfiveyearsafterentryof
thejudgmentorwithinthirtydaysafterwrittennoticeofthejudgmentispersonallydeliveredtohimwithinor
without Liberia, whichever period first expires, upon a finding of the court that he may have a meritorious
defenseandthathehasnotpersonallyreceivednoticeofthesummonsintimetoappearasrequiredbysection
3.62anddefend.Ifthedefenseissuccessful,thecourtmaydirectandenforcerestitutionofpropertyorrights
lostbythejudgment,exceptthatwherethetitleofapurchaseringoodfaithandforvaluewouldbeaffected,
thecourtmayorderthevalueorthepurchasepricepaidinlieuofrestorationoftheproperty.66

63
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:341).
64
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:342);1956Code6:224;Rev.Stat.278,632;J.P.Code19;OBB33,Legal
PrinciplesandRides,t.II,ch.II,4,2Hub.1527.
65
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:343).
66
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:344).
SubchapterC.APPEARANCE
3.61.Appearancebydefendantdefined.

Service of an answer or a notice of appearance or the making by the defendant of a motion constitutes an
appearancebyhim.67

3.62.Timewhenappearancerequired.

Anappearanceshallbemadewithintendaysafterserviceofthesummonsorresummons.68

3.63.Effectofappearanceonpersonaljurisdiction.

Anappearanceofthedefendantisequivalenttopersonalserviceofthesummonsuponhim,unlessanobjection
tojurisdictionofthepersonisassertedbymotionundersection11.2(1)(b)orintheanswerandisupheldbythe
court.69

Chapter4.VENUEANDREMOVALOFCAUSES
4.1. Actionstriedincountyofresidenceofparty.
4.2. Realpropertyactions.
4.3. Actiontorecoverachattel.
4.4. Actionsagainstcertainparties.
4.5. Changeofplaceoftrial.

4.1. Actionstriedincountyofresidenceofparty.

1. General requirement as to actions in Circuit Courts. Except as otherwise provided, an action in the Circuit
Court shall be tried in the county in which one of the parties resided or was regularly employed or had his
regularplaceofbusinesswhentheactionwascommenced.Ifnoneofthepartiesthenresidedorhadhisregular
placeofbusinessinanycountyoftheRepublicofLiberia,anactionmaybetriedinanycountydesignatedbythe
plaintiff.

2.Generalrequirementastoactionsincourtsnotofrecord.Anactioninthecourtofastipendiarymagistrateor
a justice of the peace shall be tried before a magistrate or justice of the peace having jurisdiction over the

67
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:361);1956Code6:290;Rev.Stat.285.
68
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:362).
69
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:363).
territorywhereinoneofthepartiesresidedorwasregularlyemployedorhadhisregularplaceofbusinesswhen
the action was commenced. If none of the parties then resided or was regularly employed or had his regular
place of business in any county of the Republic of Liberia, an action may be tried before any stipendiary
magistrateorjusticeofthepeacedesignatedbytheplaintiff.

3.Definitionofresidence.Apartyresidentinmorethanonecountyorinmorethanonemagisterialarea,town,
orcityshallbedeemedaresidentofeithercounty,andofeithermagisterialarea,town,orcity.Anexecutor,
administrator, trustee, committee, or guardian, or receiver shall be deemed a resident of the county of his
appointmentaswellasthecountyinwhichheactuallyresides.Acorporationorganizedunderthelawsofthe
RepublicofLiberiaoraforeigncorporationdoingbusinessthereshallbedeemedaresidentofthecountyandof
the magisterial area, town, or city in which its principal office or other recognized office is located. An
unincorporatedassociationorpartnershipshallbedeemedaresidentofanycountyandofanymagisterialarea,
town,orcityinwhichanofficeroftheassociationsuingorbeingsuedorpartnersuingorbeingsuedresidesor
inwhichtheassociationorpartnershiphasitsprincipaloffice.Inanactionbyanassigneeforasumofmoney,
other than an assignee for the benefit of creditors or a holder in due course of a negotiable instrument, the
assignee'sresidenceshallbedeemedthesameasthatoftheassignoratthetimeoftheassignment.70

4.2. Realpropertyactions.

Every action to recover or to procure a judgment establishing, determining, defining, forfeiting, annulling, or
otherwiseaffectinganestate,right,title,lien,orotherinterestinrealpropertyshallbetriedinthecountyin
which all or part of the subject of the action is situated. If such an action is before the court of a stipendiary
magistrateorjusticeofthepeace,theactionshallbebroughtbeforethemagistrateorjusticeofthemagisterial
area,town,orcityinwhichallorpartofthesubjectoftheactionissituated.71

4.3. Actiontorecoverachattel.

AnactiontorecoverachattelintheCircuitCourtmaybetriedinthecountyinwhichallorpartofthesubjectof
theactionissituated;andsuchanactionmaybetriedbeforeastipendiarymagistrateorjusticeofthepeaceof
themagisterialarea,town,orcityinwhichanorpartofthesubjectoftheactionissituated.72

4.4. Actionsagainstcertainparties.

1.Againstcounties,cities,towns,andvillages.Theplaceofthetrialofanactionagainstacountyshallbeinthat
county,andagainstacity,town,orvillage,inthecountyinwhichsuchcity,town,orvillageislocated.

2.Actionsagainstagovernmentalagency.Anactionagainstagovernmentalagencyshallbetriedinthecounty
wheresuchagencyhasitsprincipalofficeorwhereithasfacilitiesinvolvedintheaction.73

70
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:401);1956Code6:70;Rev.Stat.264.
71
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:402);1956Code6:71;Rev.Stat.265.
72
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:403).
4.5. Changeofplaceoftrial.

1. When place of trial may be changed. The court may change the place of trial of an action in any of the
followingcases:

(a) Onmotion,ifthecounty,orinthecaseofanactioninacourtnotofrecord,themagisterialarea,town,
orcitydesignatedisnotproper;
(b) Ifthereisreasontobelievethatanimpartialtrialcannotbehadinthepropercounty,magisterialarea,
town,orcity;or
(c) Onmotion,ifallthepartiesagreeandiftheconvenienceofmaterialwitnessesandtheendsofjustice
willbepromotedthereby.

2. Time of motion. A motion for change of place of trial on the ground that the place designated for that
purpose is not the proper place must be made on or before the date on which the defendant is required to
plead. A motion for change of place of trial on any other ground must be made at any time before
commencementoftrial.

3.Orderandsubsequentproceedings.Anorderchangingtheplaceoftrialshallbecomeeffectiveuponentry.In
anactionintheCircuitCourtorprobatecourt,theclerkofthecourtfromwhichitischangedmustforthwith
delivertotheclerkofthecourttowhichitischangedallpapersonfileandallrecordsintheaction.Subsequent
proceedingsshallbehadinthecounty,magisterialarea,town,orcitytowhichthechangeismadeasifithad
beendesignatedoriginallyastheplaceoftrial.74

Chapter5.PARTIES
SubchapterA.General
5.1. Designationofparties.
5.2. Fictitiouspartiesabolished.
5.3. Unknownparties.
5.4. Misnomers.
5.5. Publicofficersdescribedbytitle.

SubchapterB.CapacityofParties
5.11. Capacitygenerally.

73
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:404).
74
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:405);1956Code6:72,73;Rev.Stat.266,635;L.190809,48(2nd),5;L.189697,
16(2nd),2,3;L.187980,9,6;L.186546,46.
5.12.Infants.
5.13.Incompetents.
5.14.Marriedwomen.
5.15.Partnerships.
5.16.Unincorporatedassociations.
5.17.Corporations.
5.18.TheRepublicanditssubdivisions.

SubchapterC.SubstitutionofParties
5.31.Substitutionincaseofdeath.
5.32.Substitutionincaseofincompetency.
5.33.Substitutionincaseofassignmentforbenefitofcreditors.
5.34.Substitutionupontransferofinterest.
5.35.Substitutionofpublicofficers.
5.36.Procedureforsubstitution.
5.37.Effectoffailuretosubstitute.
5.38.Extensionoftimefortakingproceduralsteps.

SubchapterD.JoinderofParties
5.51.Whenjoinderrequired.
5.52.Effectoffailuretojoin.
5.53.Personsnotrequiredtobejoined.
5.54.Additionalpartiesmaybebroughtin.
5.55.Whenjoinderpermitted.
5.56.Effectofmisjoinder.
5.57.Protectionofpartiesjoinedinaction.

SubchapterE.Intervention
5.61.Interventionasofright.
5.62.Permissiveintervention.
5.63.Procedure.
5.64.Dutyofcourtwhenconstitutionalityquestioned.

SubchapterF.Interpleader
5.81.Wheninterpleaderpermitted.
5.82.Depositofmoneyorproperty.
5.83.Injunctionininterpleader.
5.84.Adjudicationbycourt.
5.85.EffectofsubchapterD.
5.86.Otherremediesabolished.

SubchapterG.ClassActions
5.91.Whenclassactionsallowed.
5.92.Eliminationofrepresentativecharacter.
5.93.Secondaryactionbyshareholders.
5.94.Protectiveorders;notice.
5.95.Courtapprovalforterminationofaction.
5.96.Effectofjudgmentinclassaction.

SubchapterA.GENERAL

5.1. Designationofparties.

1. In actions generally. Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, a person who brings a civil action in
courtagainstanothershallbecalledtheplaintiff,andthepersonagainstwhomitisbroughtshallbecalledthe
defendant.

2.Inadmiralty.Apersonwhobringsanactioninadmiraltyshallbecalledthelibellant,andthepersonagainst
whomitisbroughtshallbecalledthelibellee.

3. Claimants. A person who has a claim (including a counterclaim) against another may be referred to as a
claimant in relation to such claim; and any party against whom such claim is made may be referred to as a
defendantinrelationthereto.75

75
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:501);1956Code6:90;Rev.Stat.252;OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,
2,2Hub.1524.
5.2. Fictitiouspartiesabolished.

Allfictitiouspartiesandfictitiousdesignationsofpartiesrequiredbythecommonlawareherebyabolished.No
person who has capacity to sue and be sued shall, except as otherwise provided by law, be required to join
anotherortosueinthenameofanothertoenforceaclaimonhisownbehalforonbehalfofapersonwhomhe
represents.76

5.3. Unknownparties.

Apersonwhoisignorant,inwholeorinpart,ofthenameoridentityofapersonwhomayproperlybemadea
partytoanactionmayproceedagainstsuchapersonasanunknownpartybydesignatingasmuchofhisname
andidentityasisknown.Ifthenameortheremainderofhisnamebecomesknown,allsubsequentproceedings
shallbetakenunderhistruename,andallpriorproceedingsshallbedeemedamendedaccordingly.77

5.4. Misnomers.

1.Notgroundfordismissal.Misnomerofapartyshallnot,unlessitaffectssubstantialrightsofotherparties,
constitute grounds for dismissal of a claim for relief or of a defense; but the names of the parties may be
corrected at any time, before or after judgment, on motion, upon such terms and proof as the court may
require.

2. Misnomer of plaintiff When an action is brought in good faith in the name of some actual or supposed
person,individuallyorinarepresentativecapacity,anditappearsthattheactionshouldhavebeenbroughtin
thenameofsomeotherpersonorinsomeothercapacity,sucherrorshallbeconsideredoneofmisnomeronly;
provided, however, that the action was commenced by or with the express or implied consent of the proper
person and that the defendant, from all the facts within his knowledge, did know or reasonably should have
knownwhatclaimforrelieftheplaintiffwassuingfor.

3. Misnomer of defendant. If the name or the capacity of a defendant is erroneously stated, the error shall
similarlybeconsideredoneofmisnomeronly;provided,however,thattheproperdefendant,personallyorby
hisattorney,defendedinthenameofthenameddefendantorthattheproperdefendantactuallydidlearnor
shouldhavelearnedofthecommencementoftheactionand,fromallthefactswithinhisknowledge,didknow
orreasonablyshouldhaveknownwhatclaimorrelieftheplaintiffwassuingfor;andprovidedfurtherthatthe
serviceofsummonsorotherjurisdictionalactrelieduponwouldhavegiventhecourtjurisdictionoftheproper
defendantifhehadbeenproperlynamedinthecomplaintandsummons.

4.Procedure.Inthecasessetforthinparagraphs2and3abovethedefendantoranyotherpartymaysuggest
theexistenceoftheerrorbymotion,oraninterestedpersonmayintervenetomakesuchsuggestion;andthe
courtshallorderallpleadings,process,andotherpaperstobeamendedortobedeemedamendedaccordingly.

76
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:502);1956Code6:91;Rev.Stat.267.
77
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:503).
Thecourt'sordershallprotectthedefendantandanyotherinterestedpersonsfromunfairprejudice;iftheerror
is timely suggested, ordinarily both the costs and the expenses necessarily resulting to the named or proper
defendant or to the interested person shall be taxed against the person who made the error as terms for
permittingtheamendment.

5.Applicabilityofsection.Theprovisionsofthissectionshallapplytoallcivilactionsandspecialproceedings
and to all parties to such actions and proceedings, however denominated, including persons who seek to
intervene.78

5.5. Publicofficersdescribedbytitle.

Whenapublicofficermaysueandbesuedinhisofficialcapacity,hemaybedescribedasaparty,byhisofficial
titleratherthanbyname,subjecttothepowerofthecourttorequirethathisnamebeadded.79

SubchapterB.CAPACITYOFPARTIES
5.11.Capacitygenerally.

1.Naturalpersons.Everynaturalpersonshallhavecapacitytosueandbesued,exceptasotherwiseprovided
inthissubchapter.

2. Persons other than natural persons. Except as otherwise specifically provided by the statute laws of this
Republic,everypersonotherthananaturalpersonshallhavecapacitytosueandbesuedinaccordancewith
theprovisionsofthissubchapter.

3.Personsactinginrepresentativecapacity.Thecapacityofanypersonactinginarepresentativecapacityshall
bedeterminedbythestatutesofthisRepublic.80

5.12.Infants.

1.Representativerequired.Aninfantshallsueandbesuedthrougharepresentative.

2.Suitbyoragainstinfantwhohasguardian.Ifaninfanthasageneralortestamentaryguardian,theguardian
shall sue or defend on behalf of the infant. If, however, the guardian fails to bring or to defend an action on
behalfoftheinfant,orifthecourtfindsthathehasaninterestadversetotheinfant,thecourtshallappointa
guardianadlitem,suasponte,orupontheapplicationofarelativeorfriendorupontheapplicationoftheinfant
himselfifheisfourteenyearsofageorolder.

78
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:504).
79
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:505).
80
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:511);1956Code6:110.
3.Suitbyoragainstinfantwhohasnoguardian.Iftheinfantdoesnothaveageneralortestamentaryguardian,
hemaysuebyhisnextfriendorbyaguardianadlitem.Thecourtshallappointaguardianadlitemuponthe
applicationofarelativeorfriendorupontheapplicationoftheinfantifheisfourteenyearsofageorolder.A
plaintiffwhobringsanactionagainstaninfantmay,atthecommencementthereof,applytothecourtforthe
appointment of a guardian ad litem for the infant if he has no general or testamentary guardian; and if no
appearanceismadeonbehalfofaninfantinanyactionagainsthim,theplaintiffmayapplyfortheappointment
of a guardian ad litem. Application for the appointment of a guardian ad litem shall be made to the court in
whichtheactionistobebroughtorispending,or,iftheactionistobebroughtorispendinginacourtofa
justiceofthepeaceoramagistrate,theapplicationshallbemadetotheprobatecourt.

4. Court to act sua sponte. In any case in which in infant is not represented in an action, or is inadequately
represented, the court shall, sua sponte, appoint a guardian ad litem or make such other order as it deems
properforhisprotection.81

5.13.Incompetents.

1.Representativerequired.Everypersonwhoisinfactincompetent,whetherornothehasbeensoadjudgedby
acourt,shallsueandbesuedthrougharepresentative.

2.Suitbyoragainstincompetentwhohasguardian.Iftheincompetenthasaguardian,committee,conservator,
trustee, or other similar fiduciary, such representative shall sue or defend on behalf of the incompetent. If,
however,suchrepresentativefailstobringortodefendanactiononbehalfoftheincompetent,orifthecourt
findsthathehasaninterestadversetotheincompetent,thecourtshallappointaguardianadlitem,asprovided
inparagraph3.

3. Suit by or against incompetent who has no guardian. If the incompetent does not have any such
representativeaslistedinparagraph2above,hemaysuebyhisnextfriendorbyaguardianadlitem.Thecourt
shall appoint a guardian ad litem upon the application of a relative or friend. A plaintiff who brings an action
against an incompetent may, at the commencement thereof, apply to the court for the appointment of a
guardianadlitemfortheincompetentifhehasnorepresentative;andifnoappearanceismadeonbehalfofan
incompetentdefendantinanyactionagainsthim,theplaintiffmayapplyfortheappointmentofaguardianad
litem.Applicationfortheappointmentofaguardianadlitemshallbemadetothecourtinwhichtheactionisto
bebroughtorispending,or,iftheactionistobebroughtorispendinginacourtofajusticeofthepeaceora
magistrate,theapplicationshallbemadetotheprobatecourt.

4. Court to act sua sponte. In any case in which an incompetent is not represented in an action, or is
inadequatelyrepresented,thecourtshall,suasponte,appointaguardianadlitemormakesuchotherorderasit
deemsproperforhisprotection.82

81
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.HI(6:512);1956Code6:112;Rev.Stat.270,271.
82
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:513);1956Code6:112.
5.14. Marriedwomen.

When a right of action accrues in favor ofor against a marriedwoman, her husband must be joined with her
except when the action is between her and her husband or when she sues or is sued in connection with a
businessorenterpriseinwhichsheisengagingunderherownnameinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthe
DomesticRelationsLaw.Innocaseshallitbenecessaryforhertoappearbyguardian.83

5.15.Partnerships.

Twoormorepersonscarryingonanenterpriseasapartnershipregisteredinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof
the Associations Law may sue or be sued in the partnership name; provided, however, that if any persons
holdingthemselvesouttobeapartnershiphavenotregisteredinaccordancewiththeAssociationsLaw,they
mayneverthelessbesuedinthepartnershipnamebyanypersonwhohasdealtwiththemasapartnership.84

5.16.Unincorporatedassociations.

Anunincorporatedassociationmaysueandbesuedinitsassociationname.85

5.17.Corporations.

Anycorporation,domesticorforeign,hasthecapacitytosueorbesuedinLiberiancourts,subject,however,to
theprovisionsoftheAssociationsLaw;andanyregisteredcooperativesocietyhasthecapacitytosueorbesued
inLiberiancourts,subject,however,totheprovisionsoftheAssociationsLaw.86

5.18.TheRepublicanditssubdivisions.

The Republic of Liberia, its subdivisions, agencies, and officers, and municipal corporations chartered by the
Legislature may sue and be sued in Liberian courts, subject, however, to the provisions of chapter 66 of this
title.87

SubchapterC.SUBSTITUTIONOFPARTIES
5.31.Substitutionincaseofdeath.

1.Ingeneral.Exceptasotherwisespecificallyprovidedbylaw,ifanypartytoanactiondieswhilesuchactionis
pending before any court in this Republic, the action may be continued by or against the executors,

83
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:514);1956Code6:111;Rev.Stat.268,269.
84
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:515);1956Code6:110.
85
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:516);1956Code6:110.
86
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:517);1956Code6:110.
87
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:518).
administrators,orotherlegalrepresentativesofthedeceasedpartyorpartiesinaccordancewiththeprovisions
ofthissubchapterandthestatutesrelatingtosurvivalofactions.

2.Devolutionofrightsorliabilitiestootherparties.Intheeventofthedeathofoneormoreplaintiffsorofone
ormoredefendantsinanactioninwhichtherightssoughttobeenforcedsurviveonlytothesurvivingplaintiffs
oragainstthesurvivingdefendants,theactionshallnotabate.Thedeathshallbenotedontherecord,andthe
actionshallproceedinfavoroforagainstthesurvivingparties.88

5.32.Substitutionincaseofincompetency.

If a party becomes incompetent, the court shall direct the action to be continued by or against the legal
representativeoraguardianadlitemoftheincompetent.Thecourtshallprotecttheinterestsoftheincompe
tentinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofsection5.13(2)(4)above.89

5.33.Substitutionincaseofassignmentforbenefitofcreditors.

Whenapartytoanactionassignshispropertyforthebenefitofcreditors,theactionshallbecontinuedbyor
againstthereceiver,trustee,curatorofestate,orothersuccessorininterestofsuchparty;provided,however,
thatthepartyshallbeentitledtomaintainandshallcontinuetobeliableinactionsforpersonalinjuries.90

5.34.Substitutionupontransferofinterest.

Incaseofanytransferofinterestotherthanoneforwhichspecialprovisionsaresetoutinthissubchapter,the
action may be continued by or against the original parties unless the court directs the person to whom the
interestistransferredtobesubstitutedintheactionortobejoinedwiththeoriginalparty.91

5.35.Substitutionofpublicofficers.

1.Continuanceagainstsuccessor.Whenapublicofficerisapartytoanactionandduringthependencyofthe
actiondiesorotherwiseceasestoholdoffice,theactiondoesnotabatebutmaybecontinuedbyoragainsthis
successor if it is shown to the court that there is need for so continuing it. Before a substitution is made, his
successor and, unless the court otherwise orders, the original party shall be given notice of the motion for
substitutionandaccordedanopportunitytoobject.

2.Useofnameofsubstitutedparty.Proceedingsfollowingsubstitutionofapublicofficershallbeinthename
of the substituted party, and any misnomer shall be subject to the provisions of section 5.4. An order of
substitutionmaybeenteredatanytime,butthefailuretoentersuchanordershallnotaffectthesubstitution.

88
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:531);L.195859,ch.XLI,1(6:100);1956Code6:100;Rev.Stat.260,274;OBB
22,30,63,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.I,9;t.II,ch.I,19;ch.XIV,5,2Hub.1515,1527,1563.
89
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:532);1956Code6:101.
90
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:533);1956Code6:102;OBB63,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIV,5,2Hub.
1562.
91
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:534);1956Code6:103.
3.Descriptiononlybyofficialtitle.Whenapublicofficerisdescribedbyhisofficialtitle,asprovidedinsection
5.5above,andhisnameisnotadded,noformalsubstitutionisnecessary.92

5.36.Procedureforsubstitution.

1.Personswhomaymove;notice.Amotiontosubstituteapartymaybemadebyanypartytoanactionorby
thesuccessorstoorrepresentativesofaparty;noticeofthemotionshallbeservedonallpartiestotheaction.

2.Courtmayordersubstitution.Anypersonmaynotifyacourtofthedeathofapartytoanactionbeforeitor
that any party has been adjudged incompetent, and the court shall in such case order substitution for the
deceasedorincompetentparty.Acourtmay,suasponte,ordersubstitutionofapartyinanycaseinwhichthe
interestsofjusticerequireit.

3.Compulsorysubstitution.Ifapersonwhoshouldbesubstituteddoesnotappearvoluntarily,hemaybemade
apartybyserviceofasummonsuponhim.

4.Substitutionafterjudgment.Iftheeventrequiringsubstitutionoccursafterjudgmentisenteredinanyaction
inwhichanappealisnoticed,applicationforsubstitutionshallbemadetothetrialcourtbeforetheappealis
perfectedandtotheappellatecourtthereafter;provided,however,thatifanapplicationismadetothewrong
court, the appeal shall not thereupon be dismissed, nor the application prejudiced thereby, but it shall be
forwardedtothecourtwhichhasjurisdictionwithcoststhereforchargedtotheapplicant.93

5.37.Effectoffailuretosubstitute.

Ifsubstitutionisnotmadewithinareasonabletime,whichintheeventofthedeathofapartyshallbenotmore
than one year thereafter, the court may, upon motion of an opposing party, (a) dismiss the action as to the
plaintiffforwhomsubstitutionshouldhavebeenmadeinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofsection11.5ofthis
title,or(b)directtheentryofjudgmentbydefaultagainstthedefendantforwhomsubstitutionhasnotbeen
madeand/oragainsthisrepresentativesandsuccessorsininterest,asshallbeappropriate.94

5.38.Extensionoftimefortakingproceduralsteps.

Ifaneventrequiringsubstitutionoccursbeforetheexpirationofthetimeformakingamotionforanewtrial,for
taking an appeal, or for taking any other procedural step in anaction, the time therefor is extended, as toall
parties,untilfifteendaysaftersubstitutionismade.95

92
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:535);1956Code6:104.
93
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:536);L.195859,ch.XLI,1(6:100);1956Code6:100(2ndpar.).
94
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:537);L.195859,ch.XLI,1(6:100);1956Code6:100(2ndpar.).
95
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:538).
SubchapterD.JOINDEROFPARTIES
5.51.Whenjoinderrequired.

1. Parties who should be joined. Persons (a) who ought to be parties to an action if complete relief is to be
accorded between the persons who are parties to such action, or (b) who might be inequitably affected by a
judgmentinsuchactionshallbemadeplaintiffsordefendantstherein.

2. Compulsory joinder. When a person who should join as a plaintiff refuses to do so, he may be made a
defendantor,inapropercase,aninvoluntaryplaintiff.Whenapersonwhoshouldbejoinedaccordingtothe
provisions of paragraph 1 has not been made a party and is subject to the jurisdiction of the court, the court
shallorderhimsummonedtoappearintheaction.96

5.52.Effectoffailuretojoin.

1.Whencourtmayproceedinabsenceofpersonwhoshouldbejoined.Ifjurisdictionoverapersonwhoshould
bejoinedaccordingtotheprovisionsofsection5.51(1)abovecanbeobtainedonlybyhisconsentorvoluntary
appearance, the courtmaydismisswithoutprejudiceor,whenjusticerequires,proceedintheaction without
makinghimaparty.Indeterminingwhethertoproceedortodismisswithoutprejudice,thecourtshallconsider:
(a)whethertheplaintiffhasanothereffectiveremedyiftheactionisdismissedonaccountofthenonjoinder;(b)
theprejudicewhichmayaccruetothedefendantortothepersonnotjoinedasaresultofthenonjoinder;(c)
whetherandbywhomprejudicemighthavebeenavoidedormayinthefuturebeavoided;(d)thefeasibilityof
aprotectiveprovisionbyorderofthecourtorinitsfinaljudgment;and(e)whetheraneffectivejudgmentmay
berenderedintheabsenceofthepersonwhoshouldbejoined.

2.Nonjoindernotwaived.Theobjectionthatacourtcannotproceedintheabsenceofapersonwhoshouldbe
joinedisnotwaivedatanytimebeforejudgmentinthetrialcourt.Ifthecourtonappealfindsthatjoinderofan
additionalpartyisindispensabletoanenforceablejudgment,itshallremandthecasetothetrialcourtforretrial
afterjoinderofsuchparty.97

5.53.Personsnotrequiredtobejoined.

Unlessthecourtotherwiseorders,anexecutor,administrator,guardian,committee,conservator,trusteeofan
expresstrust,personwithwhomorinwhosenameacontracthasbeenmadeforthebenefitofanother,ora
personsoauthorizedbystatutemaysueorbesuedwithoutjoiningwithhimthepersonfororagainstwhose
interesttheactionisbrought.98

5.54.Additionalpartiesmaybebroughtin.

96
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:551);1956Code6:120;Rev.Stat.272.
97
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:552);1956Code6:120.
98
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:553);1956Code6:91;Rev.Stat.267.
1.Procedure.PartiesmaybeaddedbyorderofanycourtexcepttheSupremeCourtonmotionofanyparty,or
onitsowninitiativeatanystageoftheactiononanytermsthatarejust.

2.Forreliefastocounterclaims.Whenthepresenceofpersonsotherthanthepartiestotheoriginalactionis
requiredforthegrantingofcompletereliefastoacounterclaim,anycourtexcepttheSupremeCourtmayon
applicationinapropercaseorderthemtobebroughtinaspartiestotheactionifjurisdictioncanbeobtained
overthem.99

5.55.Whenjoinderpermitted.

1.Astoplaintiffs.Allpersonsmayjoininoneactionasplaintiffswhoassertanyrighttoreliefjointly,severally,
orinthealternativeinrespectoforarisingoutofthesametransaction,occurrence,orseriesoftransactionsor
occurrencesifanyquestionoflaworfactcommontoallofthemwouldariseintheaction.

2. As to defendants. All persons may be joined in one action as defendants against whom there is asserted
jointly, severally, or in the alternative any right to relief in respect of or arising out of the same transaction,
occurrence,orseriesoftransactionsoroccurrencesifanyquestionoflaworfactcommontoallofthemwould
ariseintheaction.

3.Interestineveryclaimunnecessary.Aplaintiffordefendantneednotbeinterestedineveryclaimincludedin
theactionorinobtainingordefendingagainstallthereliefdemanded.Judgmentshallbegivenfororagainst
eachpartyaccordingtohisrighttorelieforhisliability.100

5.56.Effectofmisjoinder.

Misjoinder of parties is not ground for dismissal of an action, but for a motion to drop the misjoined party.
Partiesmaybedroppedbyorderofthecourtonmotionofanypartyoronitsowninitiativeatanystageofthe
actiononanytermsthatarejust.101

5.57.Protectionofpartiesjoinedinaction.

Thecourtmaymakesuchordersaswillpreventapartyfrombeingembarrassed,delayed,orputtoexpenseby
theinclusionofapartyagainstwhomheassertsnoclaimandwhoassertsnoclaimagainsthimandmayorder
separatetrialsormakeotherorderstopreventdelayorprejudice.102

SubchapterE.INTERVENTION

99
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:554);1956Code6:123,125.
100
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:555);1956Code6:120.
101
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:556);1956Code6:125.
102
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:557);1956Code6:124.
5.61.Interventionasofright.

1.Ingeneral.Upontimelyapplication,anypersonshallbeallowedtointerveneinanaction:

(a) WhenastatuteoftheRepublicofLiberiaconfersanunconditionalrighttointervene;or
(b) Whentherepresentationoftheapplicant'sinterestsbyexistingpartiesisormaybeinadequateandthe
applicantisormaybeboundbyajudgmentintheaction;or
(c) When the applicant is so situated as to be adversely affected by a distribution or other disposition of
propertyinthecustodyorsubjecttothecontrolordispositionofthecourtorofanofficerthereof.

2.Rightofgovernmentofficeroragency.Whenapartytoanactionreliesforgroundofclaimordefenseupon
anystatuteorexecutiveorderadministeredbyaLiberiangovernmentofficeroragencyoruponanyregulation,
order, requirement, or agreement issued or made pursuant to the statute or executive order, the officer or
agencyshall,upontimelyapplication,bepermittedtointerveneintheaction.103

5.62.Permissiveintervention.

1.Ingeneral.Upontimelyapplication,anypersonmaybeallowedtointerveneinanaction:

(a) WhenastatuteoftheRepublicofLiberiaconfersaconditionalrighttointervene;or
(b) Whentheapplicant'sclaimordefenseandthemainactionhaveaquestionoflaworfactincommon.

2. Consideration by court. In exercising its discretion the court shall consider whether the intervention will
undulydelayorprejudicetheadjudicationoftherightsoftheoriginalparties.104

5.63.Procedure.

Apersondesiringtointerveneshallserveamotiontointerveneuponallpartiesaffectedthereby.Themotion
shallstatethegroundsthereforandshallbeaccompaniedbyapleadingsettingforththeclaimordefensefor
whichinterventionissought.105

5.64.Dutyofcourtwhenconstitutionalityquestioned.

WhentheconstitutionalityofanactoftheLegislatureaffectingthepublicinterestisdrawnintoquestioninany
actiontowhichtheRepublicofLiberiaoranofficer,agency,orpoliticalsubdivisionthereofisnotaparty,the
courtshallsonotifytheAttorneyGeneraloraCounty,District,orTerritorialAttorney,whoshallhavetheright
tointerveneinsupportoftheconstitutionalityofthestatute.106

103
Priorlegislation:L196364,ch.III(6:561);1956Code6:129.
104
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:562);1956Code6:130.
105
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:563);1956Code6:131.
106
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:564);1956Code6:131.
SubchapterF.INTERPLEADER
5.81.Wheninterpleaderpermitted.

1.Byplaintiff.Whentwoormorepersonshaveclaimsagainstanother(hereinafterinthissubchapterreferred
toasthe"complainant")suchthatthecomplainantisormaybeexposedtodoubleormultipleliability,hemay
joinallsuchclaimantsasopposingpartiesinoneactionandrequirethemtointerpleadtheirclaims.

2.Bydefendant.Adefendantinanactioninacircuitorprobatecourtwhoisormaybesimilarlyexposedto
doubleormultipleliabilitymayobtaininterpleaderbywayofcounterclaimagainstpartiestotheaction;heshall
beentitledtojoinanyclaimantsnotpartiesandtorequirethemtointerpleadtheirclaims.

3.Extentofright.Theclaimswhichacomplainantmayrequiretobeinterpleadedagainsthimmayariseoutof
money, or other property in his possession or out of a bond, note, certificate, policy of insurance, or other
instrumentissuedbyhimprovidingforthedelivery,payment,orloanofmoneyorotherpropertyoroutofany
otherobligation,writtenorunwritten,madebyhim;butitshallnotbegroundforobjectiontothejoinderthat
theclaimsoftheseveralclaimantsorthetitlesonwhichtheirclaimsdependdonothaveacommonoriginor
arenotidentical,butareadversetoorindependentofoneanother,orthatthecomplainantaversthatheisnot
liableinwholeorinparttoanyoralloftheclaimants.107

5.82.Depositofmoneyorproperty.

1.Requirementofdepositincourt.Thecourtinwhichclaimsareinterpleadedinaccordancewiththeprovisions
ofsection5.81mayrequirethecomplainanttodepositincourtthemoneyorpropertyinhispossessionorthe
amountofthemoneyorotherpropertydueontheinstrumentorobligationinquestionortogivebondinsuch
amountandwithsuchsuretyasthecourtdeemsproperconditioneduponcompliancebythecomplainantwith
anyfutureorderordecreeofthecourtinregardtothesubjectmatterofthecontroversy.

2. Preservation of subject matter. The court may make such order as it deems appropriate to preserve the
subject matter of the controversy; if it is subject to deterioration or depreciation, the court may order such
subjectmattersoldandgivejudgmentastotheproceedsfromsuchsale.108

5.83.Injunctionininterpleader.

The court which has jurisdiction of an action of interpleader shall have power to issue its process for every
claimantandtoissueanorderofinjunctionagainsteachofthem,enjoininghimfrominstitutingorprosecuting
anactioninanyothercourtonaccountofthesubjectmatterofthecontroversyuntilfurtherorderoftheissuing
court. The sheriff of the county, district, or territory where any one or more of the claimants lives or may be

107
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:581);1956Code6:132,133(1),(5).
108
Priorlegislation:L.1963,ch.III(6:582);1956Code6:133(1)(b).
foundshallservesuchclaimantorclaimantswiththeprocessandorderofinjunction,whichshallbereturnable
atsuchtimeasthecourtmaydetermine.109

5.84.Adjudicationbycourt.

Thecourtshallhearanddeterminethecauseasamongtheclaimants(andthecomplainantifhedeniesliability
inwholeorinpart)andshalluponfinaldeterminationthereof,ifthecomplainantisfoundnotliable,discharge
him from further liability to all the claimants as to the subject matter of the controversy. It shall make the
injunction permanent and shall enter such other orders and decrees as may be necessary and convenient to
carryoutandenforceitsjudgment.110

5.85.EffectonsubchapterD.

The provisions of this subchapter supplement, and do not in any way limit, the joinder of parties provided in
subchapterD.111

5.86.Otherremediesabolished.

Billsofinterpleaderandbillsinthenatureofinterpleaderarehenceforthabolished.112

SubchapterG.CLASSACTIONS
5.91.Whenclassactionsallowed.

Whenthereisaquestionoflaworfactcommontopersonsofanumerousclasswhosejoinderisimpracticable
due totheir number,theirabsencefromthejurisdiction,orotherwise,one ormoreofthemwhoseclaimsor
defenses are representative of the claims or defenses of all and who will fairly and adequately protect the
interestsofallmaysueorbesuedonbehalfofall.113

5.92.Eliminationofrepresentativecharacter.

Exceptwhenaclassactionismaintainedasofright,thecourtmay,atanytimepriortoentryoffinaljudgment,
orderanamendmentofthepleadingseliminatingtherefromallreferencetotherepresentativecharacterofthe
actionandrenderjudgmentinsuchformastobindonlythepartiestothe action.In determiningwhether to
order pleadings to be so amended, the court shall consider: (a) the size of the class and the court's ability to
identify its members; (b) the nature and identity of interest of members of the class; (c) the number of

109
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:583);1956Code6:133(3).
110
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:584);1956Code6:133(4).
111
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:585).
112
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:586).
113
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:591);1956Code6:126.
representatives, the extent of their interest, and the apparent ability and zeal with which they pursue their
claimsordefenses;(d)theadequacyofnoticetomembersoftheclass;(e)theextenttowhichadecreeissued
by the court may be subject to relitigation by members of the class or may leave open further issues to be
litigated by them; and (f) the extent to which a decree binding on the individual parties only will remedy the
injurycomplainedofbyoragainstthemembersoftheclass.114

5.93.Secondaryactionbyshareholders.

In an action brought to enforce a secondary right on the part of one or more shareholders in an association,
incorporated or unincorporated, because the association refuses to enforce rights which may properly be
assertedbyit,thecomplaintshallbeverifiedbyoathandshallaver:

(a) That the plaintiff was a shareholder at the time of the transaction of which he complains or that his
sharethereafterdevolvedonhimbyoperationoflaw,and
(b) ThattheactionisnotacollusiveonetoconferonacourtoftheRepublicofLiberiajurisdictionofan
actionoverwhichitwouldnototherwisehavehadjurisdiction.

The complaint shall also set forth with particularity the efforts of the plaintiff to secure from the managing
directorsortrusteesand,ifnecessary,fromtheshareholderssuchactionashedesiresandthereasonforhis
failuretoobtainsuchactionorthereasonsfornotmakingsuchefforts.115

5.94.Protectiveorders;notice.

The court may, at any stage of the action, impose upon any or all parties such terms as shall fairly and
adequatelyprotecttheinterestsofthemembersoftheclassonwhosebehalftheactionisbroughtordefended.
Itmayorderthatnoticeshallbegiveninsuchmannerasitdirects:(a)ofthependencyoftheaction;(b)ofa
proposedsettlement;(c)ofrenditionofjudgment;or(d)ofanyotherproceedingsintheaction,includingnotice
tocomeinandpresentclaims.116

5.95.Courtapprovalforterminationofaction.

A class action shall not be compromised, discontinued, or dismissed by consent, by default, or for failure to
prosecuteexceptwiththeapprovalofthecourt.117

5.96.Effectofjudgmentinclassaction.

Except when the court, in accordance with the provisions of section 5.92 above, orders amendment of the
pleadings to eliminate all reference to the representative character of the action, the judgment in an action

114
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:592).
115
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:593);1956Code6:127.
116
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:594).
117
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:595);1956Code6:128.
brought under the provisions of section 5.91 above shall bind all members of the class on whose behalf the
claimsordefensesweremadeeveniftheydonotparticipateintheaction.Whenappropriate,membersofthe
class shall be given notice to present their individual claims to share in an award, to prove their individual
damages,ortolitigatesubsidiaryissuesnotsettledbythejudgmentintheclassaction.118

Chapter6.JOINDEROFCLAIMS,CONSOLIDATION,ANDSEVERANCE
6.1. Joinderpermitted.
6.2. Successiveclaims.
6.3. Consolidationofclaims.
6.4. Judgmentonmultipleclaims.
6.5. Severanceandseparatetrials.

6.1. Joinderpermitted.

Twoormoreclaimsforrelief,whetherlegalorequitable,maybejoinedinonepleading,providedthatallclaims
sojoinedaretriableinthesamecourtandallbelongtooneofthefollowingclasses:

(a) Contracts,expressorimplied;
(b) Injuriestothepersonorpropertyorboth;
(c) Injuriestothereputation;
(d) Recoveryofrealproperty,withorwithoutdamagesforthewithholdingthereofandfortherentsand
profitsthereof;
(e) Recoveryofpersonalproperty,withorwithoutdamagesforwithholdingsuchproperty;
(f) Claimsarisingbyvirtueofacontractorbyoperationoflawagainstapartyinafiduciarycapacity.119

6.2. Successiveclaims.

Aclaimwhichheretoforewascognizableonlyafteranotherclaimhadbeenprosecutedtoaconclusionmaynow
bejoinedwithsuchotherclaiminasingleaction.Butthecourtshallgrantreliefintheactioninaccordancewith
therelativesubstantiverightsoftheparties,anditmayconditionreliefaccordingly.120

6.3. Consolidationofclaims.

118
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:596).
119
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:601).
120
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:602).
1.Courtorderofconsolidation.Whenactionsinvolvingacommonquestionoflaworfactarependingbeforea
court of record, the court, upon motion by any party or sua sponte, may order a joint trial of any or all the
mattersinissueortheconsolidationoftheactions;anditmaymakesuchotherordersconcerningproceedings
thereinasmaytendtoavoidunnecessarycostsordelay.

2.Ordertoavoidunnecessarycostsordelay.Thecourtinwhichtheactionsareconsolidatedorissuesorclaims
tried together may make such orders concerning the proceedings therein as may tend to avoid unnecessary
costsordelay.121

6.4.Judgmentonmultipleclaims.

When more than one claim for relief is presented in an action, the court may enter or direct the entry of a
judgmentupononeormorebutlessthanalloftheclaimsonlyuponanexpressdeterminationthatthereisno
just reason for delay and upon an express direction for the entry of judgment. In the absence of such
determination and direction, any order orotherformofdecision,however designated,whichadjudicatesless
thanalltheclaimsshallnotterminatetheactionastoanyoftheclaims,andtheorderorotherformofdecision
shallbesubjecttorevisionatanytimebeforetheentryofjudgmentadjudicatingalltheclaims.122

6.5.Severanceandseparatetrials.

1.Orderofseveranceandpriority.Tofurtherconvenienceortoavoidprejudice,acourtmayorderseveranceof
claimsorissues.Thecourtmayorderthetrialofanyclaimorissuepriortothetrialofotherclaimsorissues.

2.Jurisdictionunaffectedbyseverance.Ifseveranceisordered,thecourtshallretainjurisdictionofallparties
andofallseveredclaims.

3. Protection of parties. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall be in addition to any other provisions for the
protectionofparties.123

Chapter7.PROVISIONALREMEDIES
SubchapterA.InGeneral
7.1. Kindsofprovisionalremedies.
7.2. Provisionalremedyinconnectionwithcounterclaim.
7.3. Definitionof"sheriff."
7.4. Courtsauthorizedtograntprovisionalremedies.

121
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:603).
122
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:604).
123
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:605);1956Code6:125(lastsent.),599.
7.5. Effectofjudgmentfordefendantonordergrantingprovisionalremedy.

SubchapterB.Attachment
7.11.Groundsforattachment.
7.12.Debtorpropertysubjecttoattachment;propergarnishee.
7.13.Attachingcreditor'srightsinpersonalproperty.
7.14.Dischargeofgarnishee'sobligation.
7.15.Applicationfororderofattachment.
7.16.Orderofattachment.
7.17.Serviceofwritofattachment.
7.18.Levyonrealproperty.
7.19.Levyonpersonalpropertybyseizure.
7.20.Levyonpersonalpropertybyserviceofwritofattachment.
7.21.Sheriff'sdutiesafterlevy.
7.22.Priorityofattachment.
7.23. Garnishee'sstatement.
7.24. Disclosure.
7.25.Proceedingtodetermineadverseclaims.
7.26.Dischargeofattachment.
7.27.Vacatingormodifyingattachment.
7.28.Annulmentofattachment.
7.29.Returnofproperty;directionstoclerkandsheriff.
7.30.Dispositionofattachedpropertyafterexecutionissued.

SubchapterC.Arrest
7.41.Groundsforarrest.
7.42.Orderofarrest.
7.43.Papersnecessarytosecureorder.
7.44.Serviceofwrit;hearing.
7.45.Releasebecauseofprivilegeorlackofgrounds.
7.46.Bail;releasefromcustody.
7.47.Actionagainstbailsurety.
7.48.Liabilityofsheriffonbailbond.
7.49.Vacatingorderofarrest;reducingbail.

SubchapterD.PreliminaryInjunctions
7.61.Groundsforpreliminaryinjunction.
7.62.Noticerequired.
7.63.Procedureforsecuringpreliminaryinjunction.
7.64.Temporaryrestrainingorder.
7.65.Vacatingormodifyingpreliminaryinjunctionortemporaryrestrainingorder.

SubchapterE.Receivership
7.81.Appointmentandpowersoftemporaryreceivers.
7.82.Oath.
7.83.Bond.
7.84.Accounts.
7.85.Removal.

SubchapterF.NoticeofPendency
7.91.Noticeofpendency.
7.92.Filing,content,andindexingofnoticeofpendency.
7.93.Durationofnoticeofpendency.
7.94.Motionforcancellationofnoticeofpendency.
7.95.Bondforcancellationofnoticeofpendency.

SubchapterA.INGENERAL
7.1. Kindsofprovisionalremedies.

The provisional remedies include attachment, arrest, injunction, receivership, and notice of pendency. On a
motionforaprovisionalremedy,theplaintiffshallstatewhetheranyotherprovisionalremedyhasbeensecured
or sought in the same action against the same defendant, and the court may require the plaintiff to elect
betweenthoseremediestowhichhewouldotherwisebeentitled.Forthispurpose,seizureofachattelinan
actiontorecoverachattelisaprovisionalremedy.124

7.2. Provisionalremedyinconnectionwithcounterclaim.

Aclaimcontainedinacounterclaimentitiesadefendanttothesameprovisionalremediestowhichhewouldbe
entitledifheweretheplaintiff,thepartyagainstwhomthejudgmentinthecounterclaimisdemandedwerethe
defendant,andtheclaimwerecontainedinthecomplaint.125

7.3. Definitionof"sheriff."

Exceptwherethecontextindicatestothecontrary,theterm"sheriff'asusedinthischaptershallbedeemedto
include the ministerial officer of a court other than a Circuit Court when the provision wherein it is used is
appliedtosuchacourt.126

7.4. Courtsauthorizedtograntprovisionalremedies.

Provisionalremediesmaybegrantedonlybycourtsofrecord,exceptthatajusticeormagistratemayissuean
orderofattachmentauthorizingtheseizureofpersonalpropertyonly.Aplaintiffinacourtnotofrecordmay
apply for any provisional remedy other than attachment and, if the statutory requirements are fulfilled, be
grantedanorderallowingsuchremedyintheCircuitCourtofthejudicialcircuitinwhichthecourtwherethe
actionispendingislocated.127

7.5. Effectofjudgmentfordefendantonordergrantingprovisionalremedy.

Anordergrantingaprovisionalremedyisannulledimmediatelyonjudgmentforthedefendantunlessanappeal
istaken.Thetakingofanappealcontinuesaprovisionalremedyineffectuntilajudgmentisrendered.128

SubchapterB.ATTACHMENT
7.11.Groundsforattachment.

An order of attachment may be granted in any action where the plaintiff has demanded and where there is
reasonablegroundforbelievingthathewouldbeentitled,inwholeorinpart,orinthealternativetoamoney
judgmentagainstoneormoredefendants,when

124
Priorlegislation:L.1963434,ch.III(6:701);1956Code6:380.
125
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:702).
126
Priorlegislation:L.1963.64,ch.III(6:703).
127
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:704).
128
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:705).
(a) ThedefendantisaforeigncorporationornotadomiciliaryoftheRepublic;or
(b) ThedefendantisdomiciledintheRepublicandcannotbepersonallyserveddespitediligenteffortstodo
so;or
(c) Thedefendant,withintenttodefraudhiscreditorsortoavoidserviceofsummons,hasdepartedoris
abouttodepartfromtheRepublic,orkeepshimselfconcealedtherein;or
(d) Thedefendant,withintenttodefraudhiscreditors,hasassigned,disposedoforsecretedproperty,or
removeditfromtheRepublicorisabouttodoanyoftheseacts;or
(e) TheactionisoneforamoneyjudgmentenforceableundersubchapterBofchapter44.

Thedefinitionofthetermmoneyjudgmentinsection41.1isapplicabletothissection.129

7.12.Debtorpropertysubjecttoattachment;propergarnishee.

Anydebtorpropertyagainstwhichamoneyjudgmentmaybeenforcedasprovidedinsection44.23issubject
toattachment.Thepropergarnisheeofanysuchdebtorpropertyisthepersondesignatedinsection44.36;for
thepurposeofapplyingtheprovisionsofsection44.36toattachment,referencestoa"judgmentdebtor"inthat
sectionshallbeconstruedtomean"defendant."130

7.13.Attachingcreditor'srightsinpersonalproperty.

Whereaclerkofcourthasdeliveredawritofattachmenttoasheriff,theplaintiffsrightsinadebtowedtothe
defendant or in an interest of the defendant in personal property against which debt or property a judgment
maybeenforced,aresuperiortotheextentoftheamountoftheattachmenttotherightsofanytransfereeof
thedebtorproperty,except:

(a) A transferee who acquired the debt or property before it was levied upon for fair consideration or
withoutknowledgeoftheorderofattachment;or
(b) Atransfereewhoacquiredthedebtorpropertyforfairconsiderationafteritwaslevieduponwithout
knowledgeofthelevyandwhilesuchdebtorpropertywasnotinthepossessionofthesheriff.131

7.14.Dischargeofgarnishee'sobligation.

A person who, pursuant to an order of attachment, pays or delivers to the sheriff money or other personal
property in which a defendant has or will have an interest, or so pays a debt he owes the defendant, is
dischargedfromhisobligationtothedefendanttotheextentofthepaymentordelivery.132

129
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:711);L.195960,ch.XLVIII(6:392);1956Code6:392;Rev.Stat262,322,323;L.
187980,9,1;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tII,ch.II.7,10,13,2Hub.1527;1828Code,Orb.No.13,2Hub.
1272,1319.
130
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:712);1956Code6:398;Rev.Stat.327;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
II,16,2Hub.1527.
131
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III,(6:713).
7.15.Applicationfororderofattachment.

1. Affidavit. On an application for an order of attachment, the plaintiff shall file an affidavit subscribed and
sworntobyhimself,hisattorneyoragent,statinghisclaimandthedamagesthathebelieveshehassustained
thereby, showing that one or more of the grounds of attachment provided by section 7.11 exist, and that he
fearsthatthedefendantcannotbefoundtobesummonedorwillnotappearoranswerifsummoned,andthat
thereforehemaybeunabletoenforceajudgmentagainstthedefendantwithoutanattachment.Acopyofthe
complaintshallbepresentedtothejudgewiththeapplication.

2.Bondbyplaintiff.Onanapplicationforanorderofattachment,theplaintiffshallgiveabondinanamount
equal to one and onehalf times the amount demanded in the complaint that the plaintiff shall pay to the
defendantalllegalcostsanddamageswhichmaybesustainedbyreasonoftheattachmentiftheplaintifffailsto
prosecutethecasesuccessfullyorifitisfinallydecidedthattheplaintiffwasnotentitledtoanattachmentof
thedefendant'sproperty,andthattheplaintiffshallpaytothesheriffallofhisallowablefees.133

7.16.Orderofattachment.

Anorderofattachmentmaybegrantedwithoutnoticeinanycourtbeforeorafterserviceofsummonsandat
anytimepriortojudgment.Itshallspecifytheamountoftheplaintiffsdemand,beindorsedwiththenameand
address of the plaintiffs attorney, and shall be directed to the sheriff of the county where the action was
commencedwhomaydirectittothesheriffofanothercountywhereanypropertyinwhichthedefendanthas
aninterestislocatedorwhereagarnisheemaybeserved.Theordershalldirectthesherifftolevywithinhis
jurisdiction at any time before final judgment upon so much of the property and upon so much of the debts
owingtothedefendantaswillsatisfytheplaintiff'sdemandtogetherwithprobableinterest,costs,sheriffsfees,
andexpenses.134

7.17.Serviceofwritofattachment.

Ifthepropertyattachedisinthepossessionofthedefendant,acopyofthewritofattachmentshallbeserved
onhimatthetimeoflevyinthesamemannerasasummons.Ifthepropertyattachedisinthepossessionofa
person other than the defendant, a copy of the writ of attachment shall be served on the defendant in the
mannerprescribedinsection8.3atthetimeofserviceofthesummonsoratanytimepriortothelevy.135

7.18.Levyonrealproperty.

132
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:714).
133
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:715);1956Code6:396,397;Rev.Stat.325,326;L.187980,9,3;OBB33,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.II,14,2Hub.1527.
134
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:716);1956Code6:390;Rev.Stat.326;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
II,8,2Hub.1527.
135
Priorlegislation:L.1963434,ch.III(6:717);1956Code6:396;Rev.Stat.326;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
11,14,2Hub.1527.
The sheriff shall levy on real property under an order of attachment by posting notice of the attachment in a
prominent place of the property and also on the door of the courthouse of the circuit where the property is
located and in two other prominent public places in the circuit. The sheriff shall also file a notice of the
attachment with reference to such real property in the office of the clerk of the probate court of the county
wherethepropertyislocated.Thefilingofsuchanoticeshallhavethesameeffectasthefilingofanoticeof
pendency.136

7.19.Levyonpersonalpropertybyseizure.

Thesheriffshalllevyonpersonalpropertycapableofmanualdeliverybyfakingpropertyintohisactualcustody.
Thesheriffshallforthwithserveacopyofthewritofattachmentinthesamemannerasserviceofasummons
onthepersonfromwhosepossessionorcustodythepropertyistakenandgiveareceipttosuchperson.137

7.20.Levyonpersonalpropertybyserviceofwritofattachment.

1.Methodoflevy.Thesheriffshalllevyuponanyinterestofthedefendantinpersonalpropertynotcapableof
manual delivery or upon any debt owed to the defendant by serving a copy of the writ of attachment on the
garnishee,oruponthedefendantifthepropertytobelevieduponisinthedefendant'spossessionorcustody,
inthesamemannerasserviceofsummons.

2. Effect of levy on garnishee; prohibition against transfer. A levy by service of a writ of attachment upon a
personotherthanthedefendantiseffectiveonlyif,atthetimeofservice,heowesadebttothedefendantorif
heisinthepossessionorcustodyofpropertyinwhichheknowsorhasreasontobelievethedefendanthasan
interestoriftheplaintiffhasstatedinanoticewhichmaybeservedwiththewritthataspecifieddebtisowed
by the person served to the defendant or that the defendant has an interest in specified property in the
possessionorcustodyofthepersonserved.Allpropertyinwhichthedefendantisknownorbelievedtohavean
interesttheninandthereaftercomingintothepossessionorcustodyofsuchaperson,includinganyspecifiedin
thenotice,andalldebtsofsuchaperson,includinganyspecifiedinthenotice,thendueandthereaftercoming
duetothedefendant,shallbesubjecttothelevy. Thepersonservedwith thewritshall forthwith transferor
deliver all such property and pay all such debts upon maturity to the sheriff and execute any documents
necessarytoeffectthepayment,transfer,ordelivery.Aftersuchpayment,transfer,ordelivery,propertycoming
intothepossessionorcustodyofthegarnisheeordebtincurredbyhimshallnotbesubjecttolevy.Untilsuch
payment, transfer, or delivery is made, or until the expiration of ninety days after the service of the writ of
attachment upon him or of such further time as is provided by any subsequent order of the court, notice of
whichisserveduponhimbywrit,whichevereventfirstoccurs,thegarnisheeisforbiddentocauseorsufferany
sale,assignment,ortransferof,oranyinterferencewithanysuchproperty,orpayoverorotherwisedisposeof
anysuchdebt,toanypersonotherthanthesheriff,exceptupondirectionofthesherifforpursuanttoanorder

136
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:718).
137
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:719);1956Code6:398;Rev.Stat.327;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
II,16,2Hub.1527.
ofthecourt.Agarnishee,however,maycollectorredeemaninstrumentreceivedbyhimforsuchpurposeand
hemaysellortransferingoodfaithpropertyheldascollateralorotherwisepursuanttopledgethereoforatthe
direction of any person other than the defendant authorized to direct sale or transfer, provided that the
proceedsin whichthedefendanthas aninterest beretainedsubjectto thelevy.A plaintiffwhohasspecified
personalpropertyoradebttobelevieduponinanoticeservedwithawritofattachmentshallbeliabletothe
ownerofthepropertyorthepersontowhomthedebtisowed,ifotherthanthedefendant,foranydamages
sustainedbyreasonofthelevy.

3.Proceedingtocompeldeliveryorpayment.Wherepropertyordebtshavebeenlevieduponbyserviceofa
writofattachment,theplaintiffmaycommenceaspecialproceedingagainstthegarnisheeservedwiththewrit
tocompelthepayment,delivery,ortransfertothesheriffofsuchpropertyordebts.Noticeofpetitionshallalso
be served on the sheriff of the county in which the attachment was issued. A garnishee may interpose any
defenseorcounterclaimwhichhemighthaveinterposedagainstthedefendantifsuedbyhim.Thecourtmay
permit any adverse claimant to intervene in the proceeding and may determine his rights in accordance with
section7.25.

4.Failuretoproceed.Attheexpirationofninetydaysafteralevyismadebyserviceofthewritofattachmentor
ofsuchfurthertimeasthecourt,uponmotionoftheplaintiff,hasprovided,thelevyshallbevoidexceptasto
property or debts which the sheriff has taken into his actual custody, collected, or received, or as to which a
proceedinginparagraph3hasbeencommenced.138

7.21.Sheriffsdutiesafterlevy.

1.Retentionofproperty.Thesheriffshallholdandsafelykeepallpropertyordebtspaid,transferred,assigned,
or delivered to him or taken into his custody to answer any judgment that may be obtained against the
defendantintheaction,unlessotherwisedirectedbythecourtortheplaintiff,subjecttothepaymentofthe
sheriff'sfeesandexpenses.Iftheurgencyofthecaserequires,thecourtmaydirectsaleorotherdispositionof
property,specifythemannerandtermsthereof,withorwithoutnotice.

2.Valuationofpropertyseized.Afteralevyunderawritofattachmentandpriortomakingareturn,thesheriff
maycallupontwoqualifiedpersonstoappraisetheattachedproperty.Iftheappraisalindicatesthatmoreor
lesspropertyhasbeenseizedthanissufficienttosatisfytheamountstatedinthewritofattachment,thesheriff
may accordingly seize additional property or return some of the seized property to the person from whose
possessionorcustodyitwastaken.

3.Return;inventory.Withinfivedaysafterserviceofawritofattachmentorforthwithaftersuchwrithasbeen
vacatedorannulled,thesheriffshallfileareturnwhichshallincludeaninventoryofpropertymanuallyseized,a

138
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:720);1956Code6:400,402,403;Rev.Stat.329,334,335;OBB33,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.H,ch.II,20,21,2Hub.1527.
statementofotherpropertyleviedupon,adescriptionofrealpropertyleviedupon,thenamesandaddressesof
allpersonsservedwiththewritofattachment,andanestimateofthevalueofallpropertyleviedupon.139

7.22.Priorityofattachment.

Thepriorityamongtwoormorewritsofattachmentagainstthesamedefendantshallbeintheorderinwhich
theyweredeliveredtotheofficerwholevieduponthepropertyordebt.140

7.23.Garnishee'sstatement.

Withintendaysafterserviceuponagarnisheeofawritofattachment,orwithinsuchshortertimeasthecourt
maydirect,thegarnisheeshallfilewiththeclerkofthecourtissuingthewritastatementspecifyingalldebtsof
the garnishee to the defendant, when the debts are due, all property in the possession or custody of the
garnishee in which the defendant has an interest, and the amounts and value of the debts and property
specified.Ifthegarnisheehasmoneybelongingtothedefendantinatleasttheamountoftheattachment,he
maylimithisstatementtothatfact.141

7.24.Disclosure.

Uponmotionofanyinterestedperson,atanytimeafterthegrantingofanorderofattachmentandpriortofinal
judgmentintheaction,uponsuchnoticeasthecourtmaydirect,thecourtmayorderdisclosurebyanyperson
of information regarding any property in which the defendant has an interest or any debt owing to the
defendant.142

7.25.Proceedingtodetermineadverseclaims.

Priortotheapplicationofpropertywhichhasbeenattachedforthesatisfactionofajudgment,anyinterested
personmaycommenceaspecialproceedingagainsttheplaintifftodeterminetherightsofadverseclaimantsto
thepropertyordebt,byfilinganoticeofpetitionwiththeclerkandservingcopiesthereofuponallinterested
parties.Theproceedingshallbecommencedinthecountywherethewritofattachmentisfiled.Thecourtmay
vacate or discharge the attachment, void the levy, direct the disposition of the property or debt, direct that
bonds be provided or released, or direct that damages be awarded. Where there appear to be disputed
questionsoffact,thecourtshallorderaseparatetrialindicatingthepersonwhoshallhavepossessionofthe
propertypendingadecisionandthebond,ifany,whichsuchpersonshallgive.Ifthecourtdeterminesthatthe

139
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:721);1956Code6:399,401,404,406;Rev.Stat.328,336;OBB33,63,71,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.II,18,19,22,23;ch.XIV,3,ch.XVIII,8,10,2Hub.1527,1562,1570.
140
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:722).
141
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:723).
142
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:724).
adverseclaimwasfraudulent,itmayrequiretheclaimanttopaytheplaintiffreasonableexpensesincurredin
theproceeding,includingreasonableattorney'sfees,andanyotherdamagessufferedbyreasonoftheclaim.143

7.26.Dischargeofattachment.

Adefendantwhosepropertyhasbeenlevieduponunderanorderofattachmentmaymove,uponnoticetothe
plaintiffandthesheriff,foranorderdischargingtheattachmentastoallorapartofthepropertyuponpayment
ofthesheriff'sfeesandexpenses.Onsuchamotion,thedefendantshallgiveabond,inanamountequaltothe
value of the property sought to be discharged, that the defendant will pay to the plaintiff the amount of any
judgmentwhichmayberecoveredintheactionagainsthim,notexceedingtheamountofthebond.144

7.27.Vacatingormodifyingattachment.

Priortotheapplicationofpropertywhichhasbeenleviedupontothesatisfactionofajudgment,thedefendant,
the garnishee, or any person having an interest in the property may move, on notice to all parties and the
sheriff,foranordervacatingormodifyingtheorderofattachment.Uponthemotion,thecourtshallgivethe
plaintiffareasonableopportunitytocorrectanydefectintheattachment.If,afterthedefendanthasappeared
in the action, the court determines that the attachment is unnecessary to the security of the plaintiff, it shall
vacatetheorderofattachment.145

7.28.Annulmentofattachment.

An order of attachment is annulled when the action in which it was granted abates or is discontinued, or a
judgmententeredthereininfavoroftheplaintiffisfullysatisfied,orafinaljudgmentisenteredthereininfavor
ofdefendant.146

7.29.Returnofproperty;directionstoclerkandsheriff.

Uponmotionofanyinterestedperson,onnoticetothesheriffandeachparty,thecourtmaydirectthesheriffto
removeanoticeofattachmentandtodisposeof,accountfor,assign,return,orreleaseanypropertyordebt,or
the proceeds thereof, or any bond, or to file additional inventories or returns, subject to the payment of the
sheriff'sfeesandexpenses..Thecourtshalldirectthatnoticeofmotionbegiventootherpersonsinterestedin
thepropertyordebt,ortheproceedsthereof,soughttobereturnedorreleased.147

7.30.Dispositionofattachedpropertyafterexecutionissued.

143
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:725).
144
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:726);1956Code6:410;Rev.Stat.331.
145
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:727);1956Code6:408;Rev.Stat.330;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
II,24,25,26,2Hub.1527.
146
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:728).
147
Priorlegistration:L.196364,ch.III(6:729);1956Code6:412;Rev.Stat.332.
Whereanexecutionisissueduponajudgmententeredagainstthedefendant,thesheriff'sdutywithrespectto
custodyanddispositionofpropertyacquiredbylevypursuanttoanorderofattachmentisthesameasifhehad
acquireditbylevypursuanttotheexecution.148

SubchapterC.ARREST
7.41.Groundsforarrest.

Anorderforarrestasaprovisionalremedymaybegrantedonlywheretheplaintiffhasdemanded,andwhere
thereisreasonablegroundforbelievingthathewouldbeentitledto

(a) Ajudgmentrequiringpaymentofasumofmoney,failuretosatisfywhichthroughexecutionwillsubject
thejudgmentdebtortoimprisonmentundersection44.71(2);
(b) Ajudgmentrequiringpaymentofasumofmoneyfailuretopaywhichmaybepunishableasacontempt
undersection44.71(3);or
(c) A judgment requiring the performance of an act, neglect or refusal to perform which would be
punishablebythecourtasacontemptundersection44.71(4);

andwherethedefendantisnotaresidentoftheRepublicorisabouttodeparttherefrom,byreasonofwhich
nonresidenceordeparturethereisdangerthatsuchjudgmentwillberenderedineffectual.149

7.42.Orderofarrest.

Anorderofarrestasaprovisionalremedymaybegranted,inthediscretionofthecourt,withoutnotice,before
orafterserviceofsummonsandatanytimebeforejudgment.Theordershallbeissuedbyajudgeofthecourt
inwhichtheactionispendingorisabouttobecommenced.Itshallspecifytheamountofbail.Pursuanttothe
order, the clerk shall issue a writ to the sheriff which shall be endorsed with the name and address of the
plaintiff'sattorneyandbedirectedtothesheriffofanycountyinwhichthedefendantmaybelocated.Thewrit
shallcommandthesherifftoarrestthedefendantforthwith,andbringhimbeforethecourtinthecountywhere
thearrestismade,forahearingwithinatimespecifiedintheorder,notexceedingfortyeighthours,exclusive
ofSundaysandpublicholidays.150

7.43.Papersnecessarytosecureorder.

148
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:730).
149
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:741);1956Code6:421;Rev.Stat.306;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
II,28,29,2Hub.1527.
150
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:742);1956Code6:421(lastsent.);Rev.Stat.311;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,tII,ch.II,28,29,2Hub.1527.
1.Affidavit.Onamotionforanorderofarrest,theplaintiffshallshow,byaffidavitandsuchotherevidenceas
may be submitted, that he has a valid claim, that he has demanded and that there is reasonable ground for
believing that he would be entitled to a judgment of the nature specified in section 7.41 and either that the
defendant is not a resident of the Republic or that he is about to depart therefrom, by reason of which
nonresidence or departure there is a danger that such judgment or order will be rendered ineffectual. The
plaintiffshallalsoshowsufficientfactsfromwhichtheamountofbailmaybedetermined.

2.Bondtobegivenbyplaintiff.Beforegrantinganorderofarrest,thecourtshallrequiretheplaintifftogivea
bondinanamountfixedbythecourtconditionedonpaymentbytheplaintifftothedefendantofalllegalcosts
anddamageswhichmaybesustainedbyreasonofthearrestifthedefendantrecoversjudgmentorifitisfinally
decidedthattheplaintiffwasnotentitledtoarrestthedefendant.151

7.44.Serviceofwrit;hearing.

Theclerkshalldelivertothesheriffthewritofarrest,acopyoftheaffidavitandotherpapersonwhichtheorder
ofarrestwasbased,andthesummonsandcomplaint,ifnotalreadyserved.Thesheriffshallservesuchpapers
uponthedefendantatthetimeofmakingthearrest.If,withinthetimespecifiedintheorder,thesheriffshall
nothavebroughtthedefendantbeforethecourtforahearing,heshallbeliabletothedefendantfordamages
fordelay.152

7.45.Releasebecauseofprivilegeorlackofgrounds.

Ifthecourtfindsatanytimeafterthearrestthatthedefendantisprivilegedfromarrest,itshalldischargehim
fromcustodyandvacatetheorderofarrest.Ifthecourtfindsatorafterthehearingthatthedefendantshould
notbecontinuedincustody,itmaydischargehimfromcustodyandvacatetheorderofarrest.153

7.46.Bail;releasefromcustody.

A defendant who has been arrested shall be given immediate opportunity to procure a bail bond or, if in
custody,shallbeallowedtogiveabailbondatanytimebeforecompliancewiththejudgment.Suchbondshall
beintheamountspecifiedasbailintheorderofarrestandshallbetotheeffectthatthedefendantwillpaythe
sumofmoneyorperformtheactrequiredbythejudgmentwhichmaybeenteredagainsthimintheactionor,
indefaultofsuchpaymentorperformance,thathewillatalltimesrenderhimselfamenabletoproceedingsto
punish him for default. In lieu of a bond the defendant may deposit with the sheriff the amount of money
specifiedasbailintheorderofarrest.Afterthedefendanthasdepositedtherequiredamountofmoneyorafter
hehasgiventhebailbondtothesheriffandithasreceivedtheexparteapprovalofthejudge,thesheriffshall
immediatelyreleasethedefendant,givehimareceiptforanymoneydeposited,and,ifabondwasfurnished,

151
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:743);1956Code6:423;Rev.Stat.312.
152
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:744);1956Code6:424;Rev.Stat.309;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
H,32,2Hub.1527.
153
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:745).
within three days serve a copy thereof upon the plaintiff, whereupon the sheriff shall be exonerated from all
liability. If the court does not approve the bond, the court shall remand the defendant to the custody of the
sheriff.Exceptasotherwiseprovidedinthissubchapter,theprovisionsofchapter63applytoacceptanceofbail
andjustificationofbailsurety.154

7.47.Actionagainstbailsurety.

An action shall not be commenced against a bail surety until after the return of execution wholly or partly
unsatisfiediftheorderofarrestwasgrantedundersection7.41(a).Inanactiontorecoveronabailbond,itshall
be a defense to the bail surety that the principal has died, that he has been legally discharged from the
obligation to perform the act to secure which the bail bond was given, that he is imprisoned on a criminal
charge,orthatthedefendanthassurrenderedhimselforbeensurrenderedtothesheriff.Suchdefensesshall
barrecoveryonthebondiftheyariseatanytimepriortorenditionofajudgmentthereon;butiftheyariseafter
thecommencementofactiononthebond,thecourtmayconditionajudgmentinfavorofthebailsuretyupon
suchtermsasjusticerequires.155

7.48.Liabilityofsheriffonbailbond.

Ifthesheriffallowsthepersonwhohasbeenarrestedtoescapeorifhefailstodepositasrequiredbysection
63.1anymoneyorothervaluablesgivenhimassecurityforthebailbond,heshallbeliableasbailsurety.The
sheriffshallbedischargedfromsuchliabilityupontheallowanceofbailgivenbyhimoruponrecaptureofthe
defendantatanytimebeforeheisfinallychargedassuchsurety.156

7.49.Vacatingorderofarrest;reducingbail.

Whetherornotheisinthesheriff'scustody,thedefendantmaymoveatanytimetovacateormodifytheorder
of arrest or to reduce bail. The court shall give the plaintiff a reasonable opportunity to comply with the
provisionsofthissubchapterortomakeanycorrectionoramendmentwhichwilltendtoupholdthevalidityof
thearrest.Thefailureoftheplaintiffdiligentlytoprosecutetheactioninwhichtheorderofarrestwasgranted
shallbeagroundforvacatingtheorderofarrest.157

SubchapterD.PRELIMINARYINJUNCTIONS
7.61.Groundsforpreliminaryinjunction.

154
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:746);1956Code6:426,427,429;Rev.Stat.313,314;OBB33,40,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.II,34;ch.III,4;2Hub.1527,1535.
155
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:747).
156
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:748);1956Code6:431;Rev.Stat.317.
157
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:749);1956Code6:428;Rev.Stat.319.
Apreliminaryinjunctionmaybegrantedinanyactionwhereitappearsthatthedefendantthreatensorisabout
todo,orisdoingorprocuringorsufferingtobedone,anactinviolationoftheplaintiff'srightsrespectingthe
subjectoftheaction,andtendingtorenderthejudgmentineffectual,orin anyactionwheretheplaintiffhas
demandedandwouldbeentitledtoajudgmentrestrainingthedefendantfromthecommissionorcontinuance
of an act which, if committed or continued during the pendency of the action, would produce injury to the
plaintiff.158

7.62.Noticerequired.

Apreliminaryinjunctionmaybegrantedonlyuponnoticetothedefendant.Noticeofthemotionmaybeserved
eitherpriortocommencementoftheactionoratanytimepriortojudgment.159

7.63.Procedureforsecuringpreliminaryinjunction.

1.Affidavitandotherevidence.Onamotionforapreliminaryinjunction,theplaintiffshallshowbyaffidavitand
such other evidence as may be submitted, that he has a claim against the defendant, and that one of the
groundsprovidedinsection7.61existsasabasisforissuanceoftherequestedorder.

2. Pleadings and service of writ of injunction. If on a motion for a preliminary injunction the complaint in an
actionhasnotyetbeenserved,itshallbefiledatthetimeofmakingthemotion.Ifapreliminaryinjunctionis
granted, the judge shall direct the issuance of a writ of injunction, specifying the acts restrained or to be
performed.Suchwritshallbeservedonthedefendantinthemannerofserviceofsummons.Ifananswerhas
notyetbeenservedintheaction,itshallbeservedwithintendaysafterserviceofthewritofinjunction.

3.Bond.Priortothegrantingofapreliminaryinjunction,theplaintiffshallgiveabondinanamounttobefixed
bythecourt,totheeffectthattheplaintiff,ifitisfinallydeterminedthathewasnotentitledtoaninjunction,
will pay all damages and costs which may be incurred by any party who is found to have been wrongfully
enjoined.160

7.64.Temporaryrestrainingorder.

1.Prerequisitesforissuance.If,onamotionforapreliminaryinjunction,theplaintiffshallshowthatimmediate
and irreparable injury, loss, or damages will result unless the defendant is restrained before a hearing can be
had, a temporary restraining order may be granted without notice. Prior to the granting of a motion for a
temporaryrestrainingorder,theplaintiffshallgiveabondinanamounttobefixedbythecourt,totheeffect
thattheplaintiff,ifitisfinallydeterminedthathewasnotentitledtoarestrainingorder,willpayalldamages
andcostswhichmaybeincurredbyanypartywhoisfoundtohavebeenwrongfullyrestrained.

158
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:761).
159
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:762).
160
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:763).
2.Contents;duration.Everytemporaryrestraining ordergrantedshallbeindorsedwith thedateandhourof
issuance,shallbefiledforthwithintheclerk'sofficeandenteredofrecord,shalldefinetheinjuryandstatewhy
itisirreparable,andshallexpirebyitstermswithinsuchtimeafterentry,nottoexceedtendays,asthecourt
fixes,unlesswithinthetimesofixedtheorder,forgoodcauseshown,isextendedforaperiodnottoexceedten
days, or unless the party against whom the order is directed consents that it may be extended for a longer
period.Thereasonsfortheextensionshallbeenteredofrecord.

3.Timeforhearingofpreliminaryinjunction.Uponthegrantingofatemporaryrestrainingorder,thecourtshall
setthehearingforthepreliminaryinjunctionattheearliestpossibletime.Suchhearingshalltakeprecedence
overallmattersexceptoldermattersofthesamecharacter.Thepartywhoobtainedthetemporaryrestraining
ordershallproceedwith theapplicationforapreliminaryinjunctionand,ifhedoesnot doso,thecourtshall
dissolvethetemporaryrestrainingorder.

4.Serviceoforder.Unlessthecourtordersotherwise,atemporaryrestrainingordertogetherwiththepapers
onwhichitwasbased,andanoticeofhearingforthepreliminaryinjunction,shallbepersonallyserveduponthe
defendantinthesamemannerasasummons.161

7.65.Vacatingormodifyingpreliminaryinjunctionortemporaryrestrainingorder.

1.Preliminaryinjunction.Adefendantenjoinedbyapreliminaryinjunctionmaymoveatanytimeonnoticeto
theplaintifftovacateormodifyit.

2. Temporary restraining order. On motion, without notice, made by a defendant enjoined by a temporary
restrainingorder,thejudgewhograntedit,orinhisabsenceordisability,anotherjudge,mayvacateormodify
the order. An order granted without notice and vacating or modifying a temporary restraining order shall be
effective when, together with the papers on which it is based, it is filed with the clerk and served upon the
plaintiff.

3.Bondasprerequisiteforvacatingormodifying.Asaconditiontograntinganordervacatingormodifyinga
preliminaryinjunctionoratemporaryrestrainingorder,acourtmayrequirethedefendanttogiveabond,inan
amounttobefixedbythecourt,thatthedefendantwillpaytotheplaintiffanylosssustainedbyreasonofthe
vacatingormodifyingorder.

4. Answer as prerequisite for vacating or modifyng. If, when a defendant moves to vacate or modify a
preliminaryinjunctionoratemporaryrestrainingorder,theanswerintheactionhasnotyetbeenfiled,itshall
befiledatthetimeofmakingthemotion.162

161
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:764);1956Code6:10801084;Rev.Stat.339342;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.II,3739,2Hub.1527.
162
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:765);1956Code6:1084;Rev.Stat.341,344;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,
t.II,ch.II,41,2Hub.1527.
SubchapterE.RECEIVERSHIP
7.81.Appointmentandpowersoftemporaryreceiver.

1. Appointment. Upon motion of a person having an apparent interest in property which is the subject of an
actioninacourtofrecordatemporaryreceiverofthepropertymaybeappointedatthetimeoforafterservice
ofsummonsandatanytimepriortojudgment,orduringthependencyofanappeal,wherethereisdangerthat
thepropertywillberemovedfromtheRepublic,orlost,materiallyinjured,ordestroyed.Amotionmadebya
personnotalreadyapartytotheactionconstitutesanappearanceintheactionandthepersonshallbejoined
asaparty.

2.Powers.Thecourtappointingareceivermayauthorizehimtotakeandholdrealandpersonalproperty,and
sue for, collect and sell debts or claims, upon such trusts and for such purposes as the court shall direct. A
receiver shall have no power to employ counsel unless expressly so authorized by order of the court. Upon
motion of the receiver or a party, power granted to a temporary receiver may be extended or limited or the
receivershipmaybeextendedtoanotheractioninvolvingthesameproperty.

3. Duration of receivership. A temporary receivership shall not continue after final judgment unless otherwise
directedbythecourt.163

7.82.Oath.

Atemporaryreceiver,beforeenteringuponhisduties,shallbeswornfaithfullyandfairlytodischargethetrust
committedtohim.Theoathmaybeadministeredbyanotarypublic.164

7.83.Bond.

Atemporaryreceivershallgiveabondinanamounttobefixedbythecourtmakingtheappointmentthathe
willfaithfullydischargehisduties.165

7.84.Accounts.

Atemporaryreceivershallkeepwrittenaccountsitemizingreceiptsandexpendituresandnamingthedepository
ofreceivershipfunds,whichshallbeopentoinspectionbyanypersoninterestedintheproperty.Uponmotion
of the receiver or of any person interested in the property, the court may require the keeping of particular
records or direct or limit inspection or require presentation of a temporary receivers accounts. Notice of a

163
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:781).
164
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:782).
165
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:783).
motionforthepresentationofatemporaryreceiver'saccountsshallbeserveduponthesuretiesonhisbondas
wellasuponeachpartynotindefaultforfailuretoappear.166

7.85.Removal.

Uponmotionofanypartyoruponitsowninitiative,thecourtwhichappointedareceivermayremovehimat
anytime.167

SubchapterF.NOTICEOFPENDENCY
7.91.Noticeofpendency.

AnoticeofpendencymaybefiledinanyactioninacourtoftheRepublicofLiberiainwhichthejudgmentor
orderdemandedwouldaffectthetitleto,orthepossession,use,orenjoymentof,realproperty.Thependency
of such an action is constructive notice, from the time of filing of the notice only, to a purchaser from, or
encumbrancer against, any defendant against whose name a notice of pendency is indexed. A person whose
conveyance orencumbranceisrecordedafterthe filingofthe noticeisboundbyallproceedingstakeninthe
actionaftersuchfilingtothesameextentasifhewereaparty.168

7.92.Filing,content,andindexingofnoticeofpendency.

1.Filing.Inacasespecifiedinsection7.91,thenoticeofpendencyshallbefiledatthetimeoforafterserviceof
summonsandpriortojudgmentintheofficeoftheclerkoftheCircuitCourtofthecountyinwhichthelandis
located.TheclerkoftheCircuitCourtshalltransmitacopyofsuchnoticeforfilingtotheclerkoftheprobate
courtofthe samecounty.Unlessthe complaint hasalreadybeenfiledinsuchoffice,itshallbefiledwiththe
noticeofpendency.

2. Content; designation of index. A notice of pendency shall state the names of the parties to the action, the
object of the action, and a description of the property affected. The notice of pendency shall contain a
designationofthenamesofeachdefendantagainstwhomthenoticeisdirectedtobeindexed.

3.Indexing.Theclerkoftheprobatecourtwithwhomanoticeofpendencyisfiledshallimmediatelyrecordit
and index it against the names designated. In an action for partition, a notice of pendency shall be indexed
againstthenamesofeachplaintiffandeachdefendant.169

7.93.Durationofnoticeofpendency.

166
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:784).
167
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:785).
168
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:791).
169
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:792).
Anoticeofpendencyshallbeeffectiveuntiltheexpirationofaperiodoftwoyearsfromthedateoffilingoruntil
judgment, whichever first occurs. Before expiration of a periodor extended period, the court upon motion of
the plaintiff and upon such notice as it may require, for good cause shown, may grant an extension for an
additional period not exceeding two years. An extension order shall be filed, recorded, and indexed before
expirationofthepriorperiod.170

7.94.Motionforcancellationofnoticeofpendency.

1. Mandatory cancellation. The court, upon motion of any person aggrieved and upon such notice as it may
require,shalldirectanyclerkofaprobatecourtwithwhomanoticeofpendencyhasbeenfiledtocancelsuch
notice if the action has been settled, discontinued, or abated; or if the time to appeal from a final judgment
againsttheplaintiffhasexpired.

2.Discretionarycancellation.Thecourt,uponmotionofanypersonaggrievedanduponsuchnoticeasitmay
require,maydirectanyclerkofaprobatecourtwithwhomanoticeofpendencyhasbeenfiledtocancelsuch
noticeiftheplaintiffhasnotprosecutedtheactioningoodfaith.

3.Costsandexpenses.Thecourt,inanordercancellinganoticeofpendencyunderthissection,maydirectthe
plaintifftopayanycostsandexpensesoccasionedbythefilingandcancellationinadditiontoanycostsofthe
action.171

7.95.Bondforcancellationofnoticeofpendency.

Uponmotionofanypersonaggrievedanduponsuchnoticeasitmayrequire,thecourtmaydirectanyclerkofa
probatecourtwithwhomanoticeofpendencyhasbeenfiledtocancelsuchnoticeuponsuchtermsasarejust,
ifthemovingpartyshallgiveabondinanamounttobefixedbythecourtandifthecourtfindsthatadequate
reliefcanbesecuredtotheplaintiffbythegivingofsuchabond.172

Chapter8.FORM,FILING,ANDSERVICEOFPAPERS
8.1. Formofpapers.
8.2. Filingofpapers.
8.3. Serviceofpapers.

8.1. Formofpapers.

170
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:793).
171
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:794).
172
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:795).
1. Quality, size, and legibility. Each paper served or filed shall be durable, white, and except for summonses,
subpoenas, and exhibits, of legal size. The writing, typewriting, or printing shall be legible and in black ink.
Beneatheachsignatureshallbeprintedthenamesigned.

2.Language.EachpaperservedorfiledshallbeintheEnglishlanguagewhich,wherepracticable,shallbeof
ordinaryusage.Whereanaffidavitorexhibitisinaforeignlanguage,thecertifiedcopyoftheoriginalshallbe
annexedtothepaperwithwhichitisservedorfiled,accompaniedbyanEnglishtranslationandanaffidavitby
thetranslatorstatinghisqualificationsandthatthetranslationisaccurate.

3.Caption.Eachpaperservedorfiledshallbeginwithacaptionsettingforththenameofthecourt,thevenue,
thetitleoftheaction,thenatureofthepaperandthefilenumberoftheactionifonehasbeenassigned.Ina
complaintorajudgmentthetitleoftheactionshallincludethenamesofalltheparties,butinallotherpapersit
shall be sufficient to state the name of the first party on each side with an appropriate indication of any
omissions.

4.Nameofattorneyorparty.Eachpaperservedorfiledshallbesignedbytheattorneyforthepartyservingor
filingthepaperandhisaddressshallbestatedthereon,orifthepartydoesnotappearbyattorney,thepaper
shall be signed by the party, whose address shall be stated thereon. The signature of an attorney or a party
constitutesacertificatebyhimthathehasreadthepaper;thattothebestofhisknowledge,information,and
beliefthereisgoodgroundtosupportit;andthatitisnotinterposedfordelay.

5.Copies.Unlessotherwisespecificallyprovided,copiesofallpapersandaffidavitsandexhibitsmaybeserved
andfiled.

6. Defects in form; waiver. A defect in form of a paper, if a substantial right of any party is not prejudiced
thereby, shall be disregarded by the court, and leave to correct shall be freely granted. The party on whom a
paperisservedshallbedeemedtohavewaivedobjectiontoanydefectinformunless,withintwodaysafterthe
receiptthereof,hereturnsthepapertothepartyservingitwithastatementofparticularobjections.173

8.2. Filingofpapers.

1.Requirement.Allpleadings,affidavits,andotherpapersrequiredtobeservedinanactionshallbefiled.Ifa
partyfailstocomplywiththisparagraph,thecourt,onmotionbyanyparty,mayorderanypapersnotfiledtobe
regardedasstricken.

2.Placeoffiling.Exceptasotherwiserequiredbylawororderofcourt,papersrequiredtobefiledshallbefiled
withtheclerkofthecourtinwhichtheactionispendingorwillbebrought.174

8.3. Serviceofpapers.

173
Priorlegislation:Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:801);1956Code6:254;Rev.Stat.286,289;L.191112,3,6.Par.4:L.
196364,ch.III(6:801);1956Code6:257.
174
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:802).
1.Generalrequirement.Everyorderrequiredtobeserved,everypleading,everywrittenmotionotherthanone
which may be heard ex parte and every written notice, appearance, demand, offer of judgment, and similar
paper shall be served upon each of the parties affected thereby; but no service need be made on parties in
defaultforfailuretoappearexceptasprovidedinsection9.2(2).

2.Personwhomayserve.Apersonwhomayserveasummonsundertheprovisionsofsection3.36mayserve
anyotherpaperrequiredbylawtobeserved.

3.Uponanattorney.Exceptasotherwiserequiredbylawororderofcourt,papersrequiredtobeservedupona
partyinapendingactionshallbeserveduponhisattorneybyoneofthefollowingmethods:

(a) Bydeliveringthepapertotheattorneypersonally;
(b) By mailing the paper to the attorney by registered mail at the address designated by him for that
purposeor,ifnoneisdesignated,athislastknownaddress;
(c) Iftheofficeoftheattorneyisopen,byleavingthepaperwithapersonincharge;
(d) ByleavingthepaperattheresidenceoftheattorneywithintheRepublicwithapersonofsuitableage
anddiscretion;providingthatthepersontowhomthepaperisdeliveredisthenresidingtherein.Service
uponanattorneyshallnotbemadeathisresidenceunlessserviceathisofficecannotbemade.Receipt
ofthepapermaybeprovedbyareceiptbythepartytowhomthepaperwasdelivered.

4.Uponaparty.Ifapartyhasnotappearedbyattorneyorhisattorneycannotbeserved,serviceshallbeupon
thepartyhimselfbyoneofthefollowingmethods:

(a) Bydeliveringthepapertothepartypersonally;
(b) Bymailingthepapertothepartyathislastknownaddressbyregisteredmail;
(c) ByleavingthepaperattheresidenceofthepartywithintheRepublicwithapersonofsuitableageand
discretion;providingthatthepersontowhomthepaperisdeliveredisthenresidingtherein.

5.Whenservicebymailiscomplete.Servicebymailshallbecompleteupondepositofthepaperinapostoffice
orofficialdepositoryofthepostofficewithinLiberia.Thedateofsuchdepositshallbeevidencedbythepost
officereceiptshowingthemailingofthepaperbyregisteredmailtotheaddresseeathislastknownaddress.175

Chapter9.PLEADINGS
9.1. Kindsofpleadings.
9.2. Serviceofpleadings.
9.3. Formofpleadings.

175
PriorlegislationPar.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:803);1956Code6:226;Rev.Stat.300.Pars.3,4,5:L.196364,ch.III(6:803);
1956Code6:227.
9.4. Verificationandsigningofpleadings.
9.5. Pleadingspecialmatters.
9.6. Alternativepleadings.
9.7. Claimsforrelief.
9.8. Defensesandobjections.
9.9. Counterclaims.
9.10.Amendedpleadings.
9.11.Procedureincaseofnewlydiscoveredevidencebeforetrial.
9.12.Constructionofpleadings;relieftobegranted.
9.13.Costsarisingoutofuntruestatementsinpleadings.

9.1. Kindsofpleadings.

1.Pleadingsrequired.Exceptasprovidedinparagraph2,thereshallbeacomplaintandananswer;andthere
shall be a reply to an answer which contains affirmative matter or a counterclaim. No other pleading shall be
allowed.

2.Whenanswernotrequired.Ifadefendantappearswithinthetimeprescribedbysection3.62,hisfailureto
interposeananswershallbedeemedageneraldenialofalltheallegationsinthecomplaint.Atthetrial,sucha
defendantmaycrossexamineplaintiffswitnessesandintroduceevidenceinsupportofhisdenialbuthemay
notintroduceevidenceinsupportofanyaffirmativematter.176

9.2. Serviceofpleadings.

1. Time of service of complaint. The complaint shall be served with the summons or, in case the summons is
servedbypublication,thecomplaintshallbemailedtothelastknownaddressofthedefendantwithacopyof
thepublicationcontainingthesummons.

2.Mannerofservice.Anypleadingassertingneworadditionalclaimsforreliefshallbeserveduponapartywho
hasnotappearedinthemannerprovidedforserviceofasummons.Inanyothercase,apleadingshallbeserved
inthemannerprovidedforserviceofpapersgenerally.

176
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:901);1956Code6:250;Rev.Stat.291,294,297;OBB46,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.VI,1,4,2Hub.1541.
3.Timeofserviceofresponsivepleading.Exceptasprovidedinsection11.3(10)serviceofananswerorreply
shallbemadewithintendaysofserviceofthepleadingtowhichitresponds.177

9.3. Formofpleadings.

1.Pleadingstobewritten.Allpleadingsshallbeinwriting,exceptthatinajustice'sormagistrate'scourt,the
pleadingsshallbeoralandthesubstanceoftheanswershallbewrittenonthebackofthesummons.

2. Technical form not required. Each averment of a pleading shall be simple, concise, and direct. No technical
forms of pleading are required. Pleading forms contained, in the appendix of forms are sufficient under the
requirementsofthistitleandareillustrativeofthedegreeofparticularityrequired.

3.Paragraphsandseparatelynumberedclaimsanddefenses.Allavermentsofclaimordefenseshallbemadein
numberedparagraphs.Eachparagraphshallbelimitedasfaraspracticabletoasinglesetofcircumstances.A
paragraph may be referred to by number in all succeeding pleadings. Each claim founded upon a separate
transaction or occurrence and each defense shall be separately stated and numbered whenever a separation
facilitatestheclearpresentationofthematterssetforth.

4.Adoptionbyreference;exhibits.Anystatementinapleadingmaybeadoptedbyreferenceinadifferentpart
ofthesamepleadingorinanotherpleadingorinamotion.Acopyofanywritteninstrumentwhichisanexhibit
toapleadingisapartthereofforallpurposes.178

9.4. Verificationandsigningofpleadings.

1.Verificationrequired.Everywrittenpleadingexceptonecontainingonlyissuesoflawshallbeverifiedonoath
or affirmation that the averments or denials are true upon the affiant's personal knowledge or upon his
informationandbelief.

2.Personrequiredtoverify.Theverificationshallbemadeby:

(a) the party serving the pleading, or, if there are two or more parties united in interest and pleading
togetherbyatleastoneofthem;or
(b) bytheattorneyofsuchparty;provided,however,thatthecomplaintinanactiontosecureaninjunction
orinaprohibitionproceedingshallineverycasebeverifiedbythepartyhimself.

3.Equityruleabolished.Theruleinequitythatavermentsofananswerunderoathmustbeovercomebythe
testimonyoftwowitnessesorofonewitnesssustainedbycorroboratingcircumstancesisabolished.

177
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:902);1956Code6:221,226,297,311;Rev.Stat.288,291,294,300,636;J.P.
Code23;OBB113,Judiciary,art.IV,11;OBB44,45,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.V,5;t.VI,1,2Hub.1540,
1541.
178
Priorlegislation:Par1:L.196364,ch.III(6:903);1956CodePar.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:903);1956Code6:251.Par.4:L.
196364,ch.III(6:903);1956Code6:256.
4.Signaturerequired;meaning.Everypleadingofapartyrepresentedbyanattorneyshallbesignedbyatleast
one attorney of record in his individual name. A party who is not represented by an attorney shall sign his
pleading.Thesignatureofanattorneyconstitutesacertificatebyhimthathehasreadthepleading,thattothe
bestofhisknowledge,information,andbelief,thereisgoodgroundtosupportit,andthatitisnotinterposed
fordelay.Thesignatureofapartyconstitutesacertificatebyhimthatthepleadingisnotinterposedfordelay.

5. Effect of improper verification or certification. If a pleading is not properly verified or certified, or if it is


verified or certified with intent to defeat the purpose of this section, it may be stricken, and the action may
proceedasthoughthepleadinghadnotbeenserved.

6.Discipliningthe attorney.Forawillfulviolationofthissectionanattorney maybesubjectedtoappropriate


disciplinaryaction.179

9.5. Pleadingspecialmatters.

1.Capacity.Itisnotnecessarytoaverthecapacityofapartytosueorbesuedortheauthorityofapartytosue
orbesuedinarepresentativecapacityorthelegalexistenceofanorganizedassociationofpersonsthatismade
a party, except to the extent required to show the jurisdiction of the court. When a party desires to raise an
issueastothelegalexistenceofanypartyorthecapacityofapartytosueorbesuedortheauthorityofaparty
tosueorbesuedinarepresentativecapacity,heshalldosobyspecificnegativeaverment,whichshallinclude
suchsupportingparticularsasarepeculiarlywithinthepleader'sknowledge.

2. Fraud, mistake, condition of mind. In all averments of fraud or mistake the circumstances constituting the
fraudormistakeshallbestatedwithparticularity.Malice,intent,knowledge,andotherconditionsofmindofa
personmaybeaverredgenerally.

3. Conditions precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent it is sufficient to


aver generally that all conditions precedent have been duly performed or have occurred. A denial of
performanceoroccurrenceshallbemadespecificallyandwithparticularity.

4. Official document or act. In pleading an official document or official act, it is sufficient to aver that the
documentwasissuedortheactdoneincompliancewithlaw.

5.Judgment.Inpleadingajudgmentordecisionofadomesticorforeigncourt,judicialorquasijudicialtribunal
or of a board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision without setting forth matter showing
jurisdictiontorenderit.

6. Time and place. For the purpose of testing the sufficiency of a pleading, averments of time and place are
materialandshallbeconsideredlikeallotheravermentsofmaterialmatter.

7.Specialdamages.Whenitemsofspecialdamageareclaimed,theyshallbespecificallystated.180

179
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:904);1956Code6:257;Acts1846,ActtoamendtheJudiciaryAct,8,2Hub.1652.
9.6. Alternativepleadings.

A party may set forth two or more statements of a claim or defense in the alternative. When two or more
statementsaremadeinthealternativeandoneofthemifmadeindependentlywouldbesufficient,thepleading
isnotmadeinsufficientbytheinsufficiencyofoneormoreofthealternativestatements.Allstatementsshallbe
madesubjecttotheobligationssetforthinsection9.4.181

9.7. Claimsforrelief.

Apleadingwhichsetsforthaclaimforrelief,whetheranoriginalclaimorcounterclaim,shallcontain(a)ashort
andplainstatementoftheclaimshowingthatthepleaderisentitledtorelief,and(b)ademandforjudgmentfor
the relief to which he deems himself entitled. Relief in the alternative or of several different types may be
demanded.182

9.8. Defensesandobjections.

1. Presentation of defenses in responsive pleading. Every defense, in law or fact, to a claim for relief in any
pleading, whether a claim or counterclaim, shall be asserted in the responsive pleading thereto if one is
required, except that the defenses enumerated in section 11.2 may at the option of the pleader be made by
motion.

2.Denials.Apartyshalldenythoseavermentsofanadversepartywhichareknownorbelievedbyhimtobe
untrue.Ifheiswithoutknowledgeorinformationsufficienttoformabeliefastothetruthofanaverment,he
shallsostateandthisshallhavetheeffectofadenial.Denialsshallfairlymeetthesubstanceoftheaverments
denied. When a pleader intends in good faith to deny only a part or a qualification of an averment, he shall
specifysomuchofitasistrueandmaterialandshalldenyonlytheremainder. Unlessthepleaderintends in
goodfaithtocontrovertalltheavermentsoftheprecedingpleading,heshallmakehisdenialsasspecificdenials
of designated averments or paragraphs, or he shall generally deny all the averments except such designated
avermentsorparagraphsasheexpresslyadmits;but,ifhedoessointendtocontrovertallitsaverments,hemay
dosobyageneraldenial.

3. Effect of failure to deny. Averments in a pleading to which a responsive pleading is required are admitted
when not denied in the responsive pleading. Averments in a pleading to which no responsive pleading is
requiredshallbetakenasdeniedoravoided.

4. Affirmative defenses. In pleading to a preceding pleading, a party shall set forth affirmatively accord and
satisfaction, arbitration and award, assumption of risk, contributory negligence, duress, estoppel, failure of

180
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:905);1956Code6:258.
181
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:906);1956Code6:25.1.
182
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:907);1956Code6:270;OBB41,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.II,3,5,2Hub.
1536;Acts1846,ActtoamendtheJudiciaryAct,8,2Hub.1653.
consideration,fraud,illegality,injurybyafellowservant,laches,license,payment,release,resjudicata,statute
offrauds,statuteoflimitations,waiver,andanyothermatterconstitutinganavoidanceoraffirmativedefense.

5.Objectioninresponsivepleadingtolackofdefinitenessandcertainty.Ifacomplaintoranswerissovagueor
ambiguousthataresponsivepleadingcannotbeframedwithcompleteunderstandingoftheallegationsofthe
precedingpleading,thepartymakingtheresponsivepleadingmayincludethereinanobjectiononthatground.
Anysuchobjectionshallincludeastatementofthedefectscomplainedofandtheclarificationdesired.Theparty
to whose pleading objection has been made may on trial introduce evidence to prove his allegations without
modifyingthemormaywithintwodaysaftertheserviceoftheobjectingpleadingserveanamendedpleading
calleda'betterwrit'tomeettheobjectionofhisopponent.Thelattermaythenamendhispleadinginresponse
totheallegationsofthebetterwrit.Neitherthebetterwritnorapleadingamendedbecauseofsuchwritshall
affecttherightofthepartyservingittoanamendmentwithintheprovisionsofsection9.10.

6. Objection to scandalous matter. A party may include in his answer or reply an objection to the pleading to
whichheisrespondingonthegroundthatitcontainsscandalousmatterunnecessarilyinserted,orhemaymove
withintendaysafterserviceofareplytostrikescandalousmatterunnecessarilyinsertedtherein.Thecourtmay
order any such matter stricken from a pleading either on the making of such an objection or motion by the
opposingpartyoronitsownmotion.183

9.9. Counterclaims.

1.Counterclaimspermitted.Apleadingmaystateasacounterclaimagainstanopposingpartyanyclaimtriable
inthecourtinwhichtheactionwasbroughtandbelongingtothesameclassastheclaimmadebytheopposing
party,asthoseclassesaredefinedbysection6.1ofthistitle.

2.Counterclaiminexcessofopposingclaim.Acounterclaimmayclaimreliefequaltoorinexcessoftheamount
soughtbytheopposingparty.

3. Counterclaim maturing or acquired after pleading. A claim which either matured or was acquired by the
pleader after serving his pleading may, with the permission of the court, be presented as a counterclaim by
supplementalpleading.

4. Omitted counterclaim. When a pleader fails to set up a counterclaim through oversight, inadvertence, or
excusableneglectorwhenjusticerequires,hemaysetupthecounterclaimbyamendmentundertheprovisions
ofsection9.10.

183
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:908);1956Code6:292,294,311;Rev.Stat.289,290,295;OBB44,45,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.V,3,8;ch.VI,12,2Hub.1540,1541.Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:908);1956Code
6:292;Rev.Stat.,290.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:908);1956Code6:296;Rev.Stat.,288,296,302;OBB44,Legal
Principlesandrules,t.H,ch.H,6,2hub.1540.Par.4:L.196364,ch.III(6:908);1956Code6:294;Rev.Stat.289,290;
OBB44,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.V,8,2Hub.1540.Par.5:L.196164,ch.III(6:908);1956Code6:260;Rev.Stat.
303.Par.6:L.196364,ch.III(6:908);1956Code6:259;Rev.Stat.301.

5.Bringinginadditionalparties.Whenthepresenceofpartiesotherthanthosetotheoriginalactionisrequired
for the granting of complete relief in the determination of a counterclaim, the court shall order them to be
broughtinasdefendantsasprovidedinthistitle,ifjurisdictionofthemcanbeobtained.

6.Separatejudgmentorcounterclaim. Ifthe courtordersseparatetrials,judgmentona counterclaim maybe


renderedwhenthecourthasjurisdictionsotodo,eveniftheclaimsoftheopposingpartyhavebeendismissed
orotherwisedisposedof.184

9.10.Amendedpleadings.

1.Amendmenttopleadingpermitted.Atanytimebeforetrialanypartymay,insofarasitdoesnotunreasonably
delaytrial,onceamendanypleadingmadebyhimby:

(a) Withdrawingitandanysubsequentpleadingmadebyhim;
(b) Paying all costs incurred by the opposing party in filing and serving pleadings subsequent to the
withdrawnpleading;and
(c) Substitutinganamendedpleading.

2.Pleadinginresponsetoamendedpleading.Thereshallbeananswerorreplytoanamendedpleadingifan
answer or reply is required to the pleading being amended. Service of such an answer or reply shall be made
withinthetimeremainingforresponsetotheoriginalpleadingorwithintendaysafterserviceoftheamended
pleading,whicheverperiodmaybethelonger,unlessthecourtotherwiseorders.

3. Amendment of pleading already filed in case of amendment of pleading to which it responds. If an


amendmentismadeinapleadingaftertheserviceofaresponsivepleading,anamendmentmaybemadewithin
tendaystotheresponsivepleadingifsuchamendmentisnecessitatedbythenewmatteraddedtotheopposing
pleading, and such amendment to the responsive pleading shall not affect the right of the party making it to
makeanotheramendmentunderparagraphIofthissection.

4.Relationbackofamendments.Whenevertheclaimordefenseassertedintheamendedpleadingaroseoutof
the conduct, transaction, or occurrence set forth or attempted to be set forth in the original pleading, the
amendmentisdeemedtohavebeeninterposedatthetimetheclaimsintheoriginalpleadingwereinterposed.

5.Methodofamending.Anamendedpleadinginacourtofrecordshallberewritten,retyped,orreprintedinits
entiretyandservedontheopposingpartyinaccordancewiththerequirementsofsection8.3.185

9.11.Procedureincaseofnewlydiscoveredevidencebeforetrial.

184
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:909);1956Code6:295;Rev.Stat.289,294,636;J.P.Code23.
185
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:910);1956Code6:320322;Rev.Stat.304,305,631(4);J.P.Code18(4);OBB
41,44,45,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.IV,23;ch.V,6;ch.VI,7,2Hub.1536,1540,1541.
Atanytimebeforesubmissionofthecasetothecourtorjury,thecourtmay,onmotionwithnotice,granttoa
partypermissiontointroducenewevidenceinadditiontotheallegationsofhispleading.Amotionunderthis
sectionshallbegrantedonlyifthemovingpartyshowstothesatisfactionofthecourtbyaffidavitthatatthe
timeofserviceofthepleadinghedidnotknowandcouldnotwithreasonablediligencehaveknownofthefacts
astowhichsuchevidenceisoffered.Ifthemotionisgranted,theformerpleadingshallbewithdrawnandanew
onefiledwhichshallconformtotheevidenceintroduced.186

9.12.Constructionofpleadings;relieftobegranted.

1.Constructiontodosubstantialjustice.Allpleadingsshallbesoconstruedastodosubstantialjustice.

2. Granting of justified relief. Except as to a party against whom a judgment is entered by default, every final
judgmentshallgranttherelieftowhichthepartyinwhosefavoritisrenderedisentitled,evenifthepartyhas
notdemandedsuchreliefinhispleadings.187

9.13.Costsarisingoutofuntruestatementsinpleadings.

Allegationsordenialsmadewithoutreasonablecauseandnotingoodfaithandfoundtobeuntrueshallsubject
the attorney pleading them to the payment of reasonable expenses actually incurred by the other party by
reasonofuntruepleading,togetherwithareasonableattorney'sfee,tobetaxedbytheopposingcounseland
approvedbythecourt.188

Chapter10.MOTIONSINGENERAL
10.1. Definitionandgeneralprocedure.
10.2. Judgemayhearmotion.
10.3. Wheremotiontobemade.
10.4. Motionpapers.
10.5. Incorrectdesignationnotgroundfordenial.
10.6. Reliefdemandedbyotherthanmovingparty.
10.7. Defaultonmotion.
10.8. Formoforder.
10.9. Entryandfilingoforder.
10.10. Serviceoforder.

186
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:911).
187
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:912);1956Code6:253.Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:912);1956Code6:841.
188
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:913).
10.11. Notingorderasjudgment.

10.1.Definitionandgeneralprocedure.

1.Motiondefined;whenandhowmade.Amotionisanapplicationforanordergrantingreliefincidentaltothe
mainreliefsoughtintheactionorproceedinginwhichthemotionisbrought.Awrittenmotionismadewhena
noticeofthemotionisserved.Unlessmadeduringahearingortrial,amotionshallbeinwritingandshallstate
withparticularitythegroundsthereforandshallsetforththerelieforordersought.Therequirementofwriting
isfulfilledifthemotionisstatedinawrittennoticeofthehearingofthemotion.

2.Applicationbymotion.Everyapplicationtothecourtforanordershallbemadebymotion.189

10.2.Judgemayhearmotion.

Exceptasotherwiseexpresslyprovidedbystatuteorruleofcourtanymotionmaybeheardbythecourtora
judgethereof.Astatuteprovidingthatamotionistobemadetoacourtorthatanordershallbegivenbya
courtshallbedeemedtorefertothecourtorajudgethereof.TheCircuitCourtofeachjudicialdistrictandeach
probate court may require by rule that motions be made before the court on particular days of the week or
timesofthemonth,butnoruleofcourtshallcontainanyprovisionpreventingapartyfrommakingamotion
before a judge of such court when the court cannot hear and determine the motion if the party will be
prejudicedbydelay.190

10.3.Wheremotiontobemade.

1.IntheCircuitCourt.AmotioninanactionorproceedingintheCircuitCourtshallbemadeintheCircuitCourt
orbeforetheresidentorassignedjudgeofthejudicialdistrictwheretheactionispendingorhasbeentried,or
inthecaseofanactionnotyetcommenced,inanyjudicialdistrictwherevenueisproper.

2. In Probate Court. A motion in an action or proceeding in the Monthly and Probate Court of Montserrado
Countyorinaprovisionalmonthlyandprobatecourtshallbemadebeforesuchcourtorbeforeajudgeofsuch
court.191

10.4.Motionpapers.

1. Notice of motion. A notice of motion shall specify the time and place of the hearing on the motion, the
supportingpapersuponwhichthemotionisbased,thereliefdemanded,andthegroundstherefor.Reliefinthe
alternativeorofseveraldifferenttypesmaybedemanded.

189
Priorlegislation:L.1963.64,ch.III(6:1001);1956Code6:360.
190
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1002).
191
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1003).
2.Affidavitforexpartemotion.Anexpartemotionshallbeaccompaniedbyanaffidavitstatingtheresultof
anypriormotionforsimilarrelief.

3.Furnishingpaperstothecourt.Themovingpartyshallfurnishatthehearingallpapersnotpreviouslyfiled
and necessary to the consideration of the questions involved. Where such papers are in the possession of an
adverseparty,theyshallbeproducedatthehearingbythelatteronnoticeservedwiththemotionpapers.Only
papersservedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthissectionshallbereadinsupportof,orinoppositiontothe
motion,unlessthecourtforgoodcauseshallotherwisedirect.192

10.5.Incorrectdesignationnotgroundfordenial.

Theincorrectdesignationofthekindofmotionappliedforshallnotbegroundforitsdenial.193

10.6.Reliefdemandedbyotherthanmovingparty.

Papers served in resistance to a motion may include a demand for relief from the moving party. Relief in the
alternativeorofseveraldifferenttypesmaybedemanded;reliefneednotberesponsivetothatdemandedby
themovingparty.194

10.7.Defaultonmotion.

If the party making a motion fails to appear, the motion shall be denied provided the motion papers are
submittedtothecourt.Ifapartydoesnotappeartoopposeamotionorfailstofurnishthepapersdemanded
onduenotice,themotionshallbegrantedonproofofdueserviceofthenoticeandrequiredpapers.195

10.8.Formoforder.

Anorderdeterminingamotion,whethermadebyacourtorajudge,shallbeinwritingifmadeuponsupporting
papers.Itshallbesignedbythejudgewhomadeit,statethecourtofwhichheisjudgeandtheplaceanddate
ofthesignature,recitethepapersusedonthemotion,andgivethedeterminationordirectioninsuchdetailas
thejudgedeemsproper.196

10.9.Entryandfilingoforder.

An order determining a motion shall be entered and filed by the clerk of the court where the action or
proceedingistriable.197

192
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1004);1956Code6:360.
193
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1005).
194
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1006).
195
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1007).
196
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1008).
197
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1009).
10.10.Serviceoforder.

Serviceofanordermaybemadebyservingacopyoftheordercertifiedtobeatruecopybytheclerkoran
attorney.198

10.11.Notingorderasjudgment.

Theclerkshallnoteanorderdirectingthepaymentofmoney,including motioncosts,oraffectingthe titleto


realproperty,asajudgmentinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofsection41.4,attherequestofanyparty.199

Chapter11.PRETRIALMOTIONSANDPRACTICE
11.1.Demurrersabolished.
11.2.Motiontodismiss.
11.3.Motionforsummaryjudgment.
11.4.Motionorsupportingpapersinbadfaith.
11.5.Wantofprosecution.
11.6.Voluntarydiscontinuance.
11.7.Offertoallowjudgment.
11.8.Tender.

11.1.Demurrersabolished.

Demurrersareherebyabolished.Defensesandobjectionstothepleadingsshallbepresentedinthepleadings
orbymotion.200

11.2.Motiontodismiss.

1.Time;grounds.Atthetimeofserviceofhisresponsivepleading,apartymaymoveforjudgmentdismissing
one or more claims for relief asserted against him in a complaint or counterclaim on any of the following
grounds:

(a) Thatthecourthasnotjurisdictionofthesubjectmatteroftheaction;
(b) Thatthecourthasnotjurisdictionoftheperson;

198
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1010).
199
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1011).
200
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1101);1956Code6:293;Rev.Stat.291,293.
(c) Thatthecourthasnotjurisdictionofathinginvolvedintheaction;
(d) That there is another action pending between the same parties for the same cause in a court in the
RepublicofLiberia;
(e) Thatthepartyassertingtheclaimhasnotlegalcapacitytosue.

2. Deferring hearing permitted. A motion under this section shall be heard and determined before trial on
applicationofeitherparty,unlessthecourtforgoodcauseordersthatthehearinganddeterminationthereofbe
deferreduntilthetrial.

3.Evidence.Uponthehearingofthemotion,eitherpartymaysubmitaffidavits,depositions,admissions,and
documentaryevidencetobeconsideredbythecourtwiththepleadings.

4. Immediate trial permitted. The court may on hearing of the motion try and determine immediately any
disputed questions of fact upon affidavits and evidence offered by the parties unless the opposing party is
entitledtoandhasnotwaivedajurytrial.

5.Factsavailabletoopposingparty.Shoulditappearfromaffidavitssubmittedinoppositiontothemotionthat
factsessentialtooppositionmayexistbutcannotthenbeobtained,thecourtmaydeferhearingofthemotion
orgrantacontinuance.

6. Waiver. A party waives any defense enumerated in paragraph 1 of this section which he does not present
either by motion as hereinbefore provided or in his answer or reply, except that lack of jurisdiction over the
subject matter is not so waived; but no defense is waived because another defense is asserted in the same
motionorintheresponsivepleading.201

11.3.Motionforsummaryjudgment.

1.Timeformotion;grounds.Apartyseekingtorecoveruponaclaimortoobtainadeclaratoryjudgmentmay,
atanytimeaftertheexpirationoftendaysfromthecommencementoftheactionorafterserviceoftheanswer
iftheanswerisservedbeforetheexpirationofsuchperiodoftendaysorafterserviceofamotionforsummary
judgmentbytheadverseparty,movewithorwithoutsupportingaffidavitsforasummaryjudgmentinhisfavor
uponallorapartthereof.Apartyagainstwhomaclaimorcounterclaimissoughtmay,atanytime,movewith
orwithoutsupportingaffidavitsforsummaryjudgmentinhisfavorastoallorapartthereof.

2.Timeofhearingandservingresistingaffidavits.Thehearingshallbeheldatleastfivedaysafterserviceofthe
noticeofmotion.Theadversepartymayserveresistingaffidavitspriortothedayofthehearing.

3.Basisforgrantingsummaryjudgment.Thecourtshallgrantsummaryjudgmentifitissatisfiedthatthereisno
genuineissueastoanymaterialfactandthatthepartyinwhosefavorjudgmentisgrantedisentitledtoitasa
matter of law. When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this section, the

201
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1102);1956Code6:293;Rev.Stat.291,293.
adversepartymaynotrestonmereallegationsor denialsofhispleading,buthisresponsebyaffidavitsoras
otherwiseprovidedinthissectionmustsetforthspecificfactsshowingthatthereisagenuineissuefortrial;if
hedoesnotsorespond,summaryjudgment,ifappropriate,shallbeenteredagainsthim.

4.Judgmentforopposingpartywithoutcrossmotion.Ifitappearsthattheopposing,ratherthanthemoving,
party is entitled to summary judgment, the court may grant such judgment without the necessity of a cross
motion.

5.Summaryjudgmentnotavailableinmaritalactions.Amotionforsummaryjudgmentshallnotbemadeinan
actionforanannulmentordivorce.

6.Judgmentforlessthanallthereliefasked.Judgmentmaybegrantedastooneormoreclaimordefenses,or
astooneormoreofseveralpartiesplaintiffordefendanttotheextentwarranted,onsuchtermsasmaybejust.
Thecourtmayrenderasummaryjudgment,interlocutoryincharacter,ontheissueofliabilityalonealthough
thereisagenuineissueastotheamountofdamages.

7.Limitationofissuesoffactfortrial.Ifamotionforsummaryjudgmentisdeniedorisgrantedforlessthanall
thereliefasked,thecourt,byexaminingthepapersbeforeitandbyinterrogatingcounsel,shall,ifpracticable,
ascertain which facts are not in dispute and are incontrovertible. It shall thereupon make an order specifying
suchfactsandtheyshallbedeemedestablishedforallpurposesintheaction.Thecourtmaymakeanyorder
authorizedundersection12.5.

8. Materials considered on motion. The court shall consider the pleadings, affidavits, depositions, admissions,
and documentary evidence submitted by the parties. Supporting and resisting affidavits shall be made on
personalknowledge,shallsetforthsuchfactsaswouldbeadmissibleinevidence,andshallshowaffirmatively
thattheaffiantiscompetenttotestifytothemattersstatedtherein.Swornorcertifiedcopiesofallpapersor
parts thereof referred to in an affidavit shall be attached thereto or served therewith. The court may permit
affidavitstobesupportedoropposedbydepositionsorbyfurtheraffidavits.

9.Factsunavailabletoopposingparty.Shoulditappearfromaffidavitssubmittedinresistancetothemotion
thatfactsessentialtojustifyresistancemayexistbutcannotthenbeobtained,thecourtmaydeferthehearing
ofthemotionorgrantacontinuance.

10.Timeforanswerafterdenialofmotion.Themakingofamotionforsummaryjudgmentbeforearesponsive
pleadingisdueundertheprovisionsofsection9.2(3)postponesthetimewithinwhichsuchpleadingmustbe
servedafterdenialofthemotionuntilfivedaysafterserviceofnoticeofthecourt'saction.202

11.4.Motionorsupportingpapersinbadfaith.

202
Priorlegislation:L196364,ch.III(6:1103).
Ifthecourtdeterminesthatanymotionorsupportingpaperisemployedundersections11.2or11.3inbadfaith
orsolelyforthepurposeofdelay,itshallorderthepartyemployingittopaytotheotherpartiesthereasonable
expenseswhichthemotionorsupportingpapercausedthemtoincur,includingreasonableattorney'sfees,and
anyoffendingpartyorattorneymaybeadjudgedguiltyofcontempt.203

11.5.Wantofprosecution.

Where a claimant unreasonably neglects to proceed in the action against any party who may be liable to a
separatejudgment,thecourt,onitsownmotionorupontheapplicationofthatparty,onnotice,maydismiss
theclaimant'spleadingonterms.Unlesstheorderspecifiesotherwise,thedismissalisnotonthemerits.204

11.6.Voluntarydiscontinuance.

1.Withoutanorder.Exceptasotherwiseprovidedbylawanypartyassertingaclaimmaydiscontinueitwithout
anorder

(a) By serving upon all parties to the action a notice of discontinuance at any time before a responsive
pleadingoramotionforsummaryjudgmentisserved,whicheverfirstoccurs,andfilingthenoticewith
proofofservicewiththecourt;or
(b) Byfilingwiththecourtastipulationinwritingsignedbytheattorneysofrecordforallparties.

2. By order of court. Except as provided in paragraph 1, an action shall not be discontinued by the claimant
exceptuponorderofthecourtanduponsuchtermsandconditionsasthecourtdeemsproper.

3.Discontinuanceaftersubmission.Adiscontinuancemaynotbegrantedafterthecasehasbeensubmittedto
thecourtorjurytodeterminethefactsexceptuponthestipulationofallparties.

4. Effect of discontinuance. Unless otherwise stated in the notice, stipulation, or order of discontinuance, the
discontinuanceiswithoutprejudice,exceptthatadiscontinuancebymeansofnoticeunderparagraph1(a)of
thissectionoperatesasanadjudicationonthemeritsifthepartyhasoncebeforediscontinuedbyanymethod
anactionbasedonorincludingthesameclaimforreliefinacourtoftheRepublicofLiberia.

5.Costsofpreviouslydiscontinuedaction.Ifaplaintiffwhohasdiscontinuedanactioninanycourt,domesticor
foreign, commences another action based upon or including the same claim against the same defendant, the
court,uponmotionbythedefendant,maymakesuchorderforthepaymentofcostsoftheactionpreviously
discontinuedasitmaydeemproperandmaystaytheproceedingsinthesubsequentactionuntiltheplaintiff
hascompliedwiththeorder.205

203
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1104).
204
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1105);1956Code6:597;Rev,Stat.282,403,408;OBB67,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.XVI,3,2Hub.1565.
205
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1106);1956Code6:596.
11.7.Offertoallowjudgment.

Exceptinanactionforannulmentordivorce,anypartyagainstwhomaclaimisassertedandwhomaybeliable
toaseparatejudgmentmay,atanytimemorethantendaysbeforetrial,serveupontheclaimantawrittenoffer
toallowjudgmenttobetakenagainsthimforasumorpropertyortotheeffectthereinspecified,withcosts
then accrued. If within ten days thereafter, the defendant serves a written notice that he accepts the offer,
eitherpartymayfiletheoffer,withproofofacceptance,andthereuponthecourtshallhavejudgmententered
accordingly.Iftheofferisnotacceptedandtheclaimantfailstoobtainamorefavorablejudgment,heshallnot
recovercostsfromthetimeoftheoffer,butshallpaycosts,plusreasonableattorney'sfeesfixedbythecourt,
fordefendingtheactionfromthattime.Anofferofjudgmentshallnotbemadeknowntothejury.206

11.8.Tender.

1. Act of tender and payment into court. In any action based upon contract, express or implied, a defendant
who, before the action was commenced, tendered to the plaintiff or his agent an amount which he deemed
sufficienttopayhisobligationunderthecontract,maypaytheamounttenderedintocourtbeforeservinghis
answerandallegethetenderandpaymentintheanswer.

2.Effect.Withintendaysafterserviceoftheanswer,theplaintiffmaywithdrawtheamountdepositedupon
court order stating that the withdrawal is in satisfaction of the claim involved. The court shall have judgment
entereddismissingthecomplaintwithoutcostsuponproofofsuchwithdrawal.Wherethereisnowithdrawal,
theamountdeposited,otherthansuchsumasshallbeappliedtoanyjudgmentforplaintiff,shallberepaidto
thedefendantattheterminationoftheaction.Ifitbedetermineduponthetrialthatthetenderwasmadeas
allegedandwassufficienttohavesatisfiedtheobligationdueunderthecontract,theplaintiffshallnotrecover
interest from the date of the tender, nor costs of the action, but shall pay to the defendant costs, plus
reasonableattorney'sfeesfixedbythecourt,fordefendingtheaction.

3.Applicationtoalltypesofclaims.Apartyagainstwhomacounterclaimisassertedmayallegeatenderinthe
same cases and manner and with the same effect as in the case of a defendant pleading an answer to a
complaint.

4.Validityoftender.Thevalidityofatender,forthepurposeofthissection,isunaffectedbytheplacewhere
made,unlessaplaceforpaymentisspecifiedinthecontract,orbythedebtor'srequestforabillorreceiptfor
theamounttendered,butnotendermadebeforetheobligationhasbecomedueisvalidunderthissection.It
maybemadeinlegaltenderorbycertifiedcheckandiskeptgoodifthedebtorisable,duringtheentireperiod
betweenthetenderandthepaymentintocourt,topaythecreditoranequivalentsumofmoneyondemand.
Thepaymentintocourtmaybefromanyfundsavailabletothedebtor.Tenderandpaymentintocourtshallnot

206
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1107).
bedeemedanadmissionoftheclaiminvolvedandshallnotbemadeknowntothejury.Wheretheallegationof
tenderoritsvalidityisinquestion,theissueshallbedeterminedbythecourtoutsidethepresenceofthejury.207

Chapter12.PRETRIALCONFERENCES
12.1. Requirementforpretrialconference;scopeofhearing.
12.2. Timeandnoticeofhearing;calendar.
12.3. Conferenceofattorneysbeforepretrialconference.
12.4. Attendanceatconferencerequired.
12.5. Order.

12.1. Requirementforpretrialconference;scopeofhearing.

1. Purpose. The court may direct the attorneys for the parties to appear before it for a conference for the
followingpurposesineveryactioninwhichitappearslikelythatthetimeandexpenseofthelitigationwillbe
lessenedthereby:

(a) Simplificationoftheissues;
(b) Obtainingadmissionsoffactandofdocumentstoavoidunnecessaryproof;
(c) Limitationofthenumberofwitnesses;
(d) Dispositionofanypendingmotionsinthecase;
(e) Referencetoarefereeforfindingsonanyissueswhichitseemsadvisabletoreferinthismanner;
(f) Facilitationofthedispositionofthecasebyanyothermeansconsonantwithotherprovisionsofthelaw.

2. Settlement not to be discussed. Settlement shall not be discussed except upon the request of all the
parties.208

12.2.Timeandnoticeofhearing;calendar.

Assoonaspossibleafterthecasehasbeendocketed,theclerkofthecourtshall,ifdirectedbythecourt,serve
ontheattorneysanoticespecifyingthetimeandplaceforholdingapretrialconference.Thetimefixedforthe
conference shall be at least ten days after service of the notice. Upon motion of any party or upon its own
initiativethecourtmayontendays'noticetotheattorneys,orderearlierorsubsequentpretrialconferences.

207
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1108).
208
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1201).
The court shall establish a special calendar on which actions scheduled for pretrial conferences shall be
placed.209

12.3.Conferenceofattorneysbeforepretrialconference.

The attorneys shall confer before the date scheduled for the pretrial conference to reach agreement upon as
many matters as possible. Each attorney shall prepare and submit at the pretrial conference a memorandum
statementofthemattersagreeduponandofthefactualandlegalcontentionstobemadeonbehalfofhisclient
astotheissuesremainingindispute.210

12.4.Attendanceatconferencerequired.

1. Attendance by attorneys and parties. Attorneys who are thoroughly familiar with the action and are fully
authorizedtosettleitortomakebindingstipulationsandconcessionsshallattendthepretrialconference.The
partiesmayattendandthecourtmayrequiretheirattendance.

2.Penalty.Iftheattorneyforapartyfailstopreparefor,appearat,orparticipateinapretrialconference,the
courtmaytreatsuchfailureasacontemptandcompeltheappearanceoftheattorney.Ifapartyfailstoappear
whenordered,thecourtmayimposeafineandproceedwiththecase.211

12.5.Order.

At the conclusion of the conference the court shall make a pretrial order reciting the action taken at the
conference, including, but not restricted to, a statement of the issues for trial limiting them to those not
disposed of by admissions or agreements of counsel, any leave granted for disclosure procedures, any
dispositionofmotions,andanyagreementsbythepartieswithrespecttotheextentormannerofproofatthe
trial.Theordershallbesignedbythecourtandattorneysand,whenentered,itshallbecomepartoftherecord,
supersedingthepleadingsandcontrollingthesubsequentcourseoftheactionunlessmodifiedatorbeforetrial
topreventmanifestinjustice.212

Chapter13.DISCLOSURE
SubchapterA.Depositions
13.1. Depositionsbeforeactionorpendingappeal.
13.2. Testimonyofwitnessforactioninanotherjurisdiction.

209
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1202).
210
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1203).
211
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1204).
212
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1205).
13.3. Depositionspendingaction.
13.4. Securingattendanceofwitnesses.
13.5. Productionofthingsatthedeposition.
13.6. Failureofpartygivingnoticetoattendortoservesubpoenaonwitness.
13.7. Personsbeforewhomdepositionsmaybetaken.
13.8. Conductofexaminationandpreparationofdeposition.
13.9. Objectionstoerrorsandirregularitiesindepositions.
13.10. Useofdepositions.

SubchapterB.PhysicalorMentalorBloodExaminationofPersons
13.51. Orderforexamination.
13.52. Testimonyofexaminingphysician.
13.53. Examinationbeforecommencementofaction.

SubchapterC.Enforcement
13.71. Motiontocompelpartytoanswerquestion.
13.72. Penaltiesforfailuretocomplywithordertodisclose.

SubchapterA.DEPOSITIONS
13.1.Depositionsbeforeactionorpendingappeal.

1.Beforeaction.

(a) Petition.Apersonwhodesirestoperpetuatehisowntestimonyorthatofanotherpersonregardingany
matter that may be cognizable in any court of record of the Republic of Liberia may file a verified
petition in the Circuit Court of the county wherein such adverse party or one of such adverse parties
resides or can be served with process. If no adverse party resides or can be served with process in a
county,thepetitionmaybefiledinanyCircuitCourt.Thepetitionshallbeentitledinthenameofthe
petitionerandshallshow:(1)thatthepetitionerexpectstobeapartytoanactioncognizableinacourt
of the Republic of Liberia but is presently unable to bring it or cause it to be brought; (2) the subject
matter of the expected action and his interest therein; (3) his reasons for desiring to perpetuate such
evidence; (4) the names or a description of the persons he expects will be adverse parties and their
addresses so far as known; and (5) the names and addresses of the persons to be examined and the
substance of the testimony which he expects to elicit from each. The petition shall ask for an order
authorizingthepetitionertotakethedepositionsofthepersonstobeexaminednamedinthepetition
forthepurposeofperpetuatingsuchevidence.
(b) Noticeandservice.Thepetitionershallthereafterserveanoticeuponeachpersonnamedinthepetition
asanexpectedadverseparty,togetherwithacopyofthepetition,statingthatthepetitionerwillapply
tothecourt,atatimeandplacenamedtherein,fortheorderdescribedinthepetition.Atleasttendays
beforethedateofhearingthenoticeshallbeservedeitherwithinorwithouttheRepublicinthemanner
provided in chapter 3 for service of summons; but if such service cannot with due diligence be made
upon any expected adverse party named in the petition, the court may make such order as is just for
servicebypublicationorotherwise,andshallappoint,forpersonsnotservedinthemannerprovidedin
chapter3,anattorneywhoshallrepresentthem,and,incasetheyarenototherwiserepresented,shall
crossexaminethedeponentandotherwisecarryoutthepurposeoftheprocedure.
(c) Orderandexamination.Ifthecourtissatisfiedthattheperpetuationofevidencemaypreventafailure
ordelayofjustice,itshallmakeanorderdesignatingordescribingthepersonwhosedepositionmaybe
taken, and specify the subject matter of the examination. The depositions may then be taken or
evidence secured in accordance with this chapter. For the purpose of applying the provisions of this
chaptertodepositionsforperpetuatingtestimony,eachreferenceinsuchchaptertothecourtinwhich
the action is pending shall be deemed to refer to the court in which the petition to secure such
testimonyorotherevidencewasfiled.

2.Pendingappeal.IfanappealhasbeentakenfromajudgmentofaCircuitCourtorbeforetakingofanappealif
thetimethereforhasnotexpired,theCircuitCourtinwhichthejudgmentwasrenderedmayallowthetakingof
the depositions of witnesses to perpetuate the testimony or other evidence for use in the event of further
proceedingsintheCircuitCourt.Insuchcasethepartywhodesirestopreservetheevidencemaymakeamotion
intheCircuitCourtforleavetotakethedepositionsuponthesamenoticeandservicethereofasiftheaction
were pending in the Circuit Court. The motion shall show: (a) the names and addresses of the persons to be
examinedandthesubstanceofthetestimonywhichheexpectstoelicitfromeach;(b)thereasonfordesiringto
perpetuatesuchevidence.Ifthecourtfindsthattheperpetuationoftheevidenceispropertoavoidafailureor
delay of justice, the moving party may proceed in the same manner as specified in this chapter for taking of
depositionsorsecuringsuchotherevidenceinactionspendingintheCircuitCourt.

3.Actionabolished.AnactiontoperpetuatetestimonyishenceforthnotcognizableinthecourtsoftheRepublic
ofLiberia.213

13.2.Testimonyofwitnessforactioninanotherjurisdiction.

Whenunderanymandate,writing,orcommissionissuedoutofanycourtofrecordinanyotherstate,territory,
district,orforeignjurisdiction,orwheneveruponnoticeoragreement,itisrequiredtotakethetestimonyofa
witnessorwitnessesintheRepublicofLiberia,witnessesmaybecompelledtoappearandtestifyinthesame

213
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1301).
mannerandbythesameprocessasmaybeemployedforthepurposeoftalkingtestimonyinactionspendingin
Liberia.TheCircuitCourtshallmakeanyappropriateorderinaidoftakingsuchadeposition.214

13.3.Depositionspendingaction.

1.Oralorwrittenquestions.IfthedepositionistobetakenwithinLiberia,theexaminationshallbeconducted
onlybyoralquestions.IfthedepositionistobetakenoutsideLiberia,theexaminationshallbeconductedonly
bywrittenquestions.

2.Applicationtocourt.Ifanactionhasbeencommenced,anypartymayapplytothecourt,onnotice,forleave
totakethedepositionofapersontosecureevidenceinsupportofaclaimordefenseintheaction.

3. Procedure when deposition to be taken within Liberia. On the granting of an application made under
paragraph2forleavetotakeadepositionwithinLiberia,thecourt,actingundertheprovisionsofsection13.7,
shall appoint a commissioner to take the deposition. The moving party shall give to every other party in the
actionthreedays'noticeofthetakingofthedeposition,unlessthecourtpermitsashorterperiod.Thenotice
shallbeinwriting,statingthetimeandplacefortakingthedeposition,thenameandaddressofeachpersonto
be examined, if known, and, if any name is not known, a general description sufficient to identify him or the
particularclassorgrouptowhichhebelongs.

4.ProcedurewhendepositiontobetakenoutsideLiberia.IfthepersontobeexaminedisoutsideLiberia,the
partydesiringhisdepositionshall,atthetimeofapplyingforleaveofcourtinaccordancewithparagraph2,file
with the clerk of the court in which the action is pending written questions to be put to the deponent. On
grantingofanapplicationforleavetotakesuchadepositionthecourt,actingundertheprovisionsofsection
13.7, shall appoint a commissioner or issue letters rogatory. A magistrate or justice may not appoint a
commissionertotakeadepositionoutsideLiberiaorissuelettersrogatory.Inanactioninsuchacourt,aparty
desiring to secure a deposition outside Liberia shall apply to the Circuit Court to which an appeal from the
magistrate'sorjustice'scourtwouldlie,andsuchcourtmayissuethecommissionorlettersrogatoryandstay
theproceedingsinthecourtbelowuntilthedepositionhasbeensecured.Noticeofthetakingofthedeposition
togetherwithacopyofthewrittenquestionsshallbeservedoneveryotherpartytotheactionatleastfourteen
daysbeforethetakingistooccur.Thenoticeshallstatethenameandaddressofthepersontobeexamined,if
known,andifthenameisnotknown,ageneraldescriptionsufficienttoidentifyhimortheparticularclassor
group to which he belongs, and the name or descriptive title and address of the officer before whom the
deposition is to be taken. Within four days after receiving service of notice, a party may serve written cross
questionsuponeveryotherparty.Acopyofthenoticeandcopiesofallwrittenquestionsshallbedeliveredby
thepartytakingthedepositiontotheofficerdesignatedinthenotice:Theofficershallproceedpromptlytotake
thetestimonyofthewitnessinresponsetothewrittenquestionsandtopreparethedeposition.Thequestions

214
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1302).
shall not be revealed to the prospective deponent in advance of propounding them at the taking of the
deposition.215

13.4.Securingattendanceofwitnesses.

Where the person to be examined is not a party or a person who at the time of taking the deposition is an
officer,director,member,oremployeeofaparty,heshallbeservedwithasubpoena.Unlessthecourtorders
otherwise,suchsubpoenamustbeservedatleasttendaysbeforetheexamination.Proofofserviceofanotice
totakeadepositionasprovidedinsection13.3(3)or(4)constitutesasufficientauthorizationforissuancebythe
clerk of the court of a subpoena for the persons named or described therein and for production by them of
designatedbooks,papers,andportablethingsasauthorizedinsection13.5.216

13.5.Productionofthingsatthedeposition.

The notice or subpoena may require the production of books, papers, and portable things to be received in
evidenceatthedepositionorusedtorefreshawitness'smemory.217

13.6.Failureofpartygivingnoticetoattendortoservesubpoenaonwitness.

Ifthepartygivingnoticeofthetakingofadepositionuponoralexaminationfailstoattendandproceedwithout
informingallpartieswithinareasonabletimethathewillnotattend,orifhefailstoserveasubpoenaupona
witnessand thewitnessdoesnotattend,andanotherpartyattendsinpersonorbyattorneypursuanttothe
notice,thecourtmayorderthepartygivingthenoticetopaytosuchotherpartytheamountofthereasonable
expensesincurredbyhiminsoattending,includingreasonableattorney'sfees.218

13.7.Personsbeforewhomdepositionsmaybetaken.

1.WithinLiberia.WithinLiberia,depositionsshallbetakenbeforeanofficerauthorizedtoadministeroathsor
beforeapersonappointedforthepurposebythecourtinwhichtheactionispending.Apersonsoappointed
haspowertoadministeroathsandtaketestimony.

2.Inforeigncountries.Inaforeigncountrydepositionsshallbetaken(1)onnoticebeforeacharged'affaires,
secretaryofanembassyorlegation,consulgeneral,consul,viceconsulorconsularagentofLiberia,or(2)before
suchperson orofficerasmaybeappointedby commissionorunderlettersrogatory.Acommissionor letters
rogatoryshallbeissuedonlywhennecessaryorconvenientonapplicationandnotice,andonsuchterms,and
withsuchdirectionsasarejustandappropriate.Officersmaybedesignatedinnoticesorcommissionseitherby

215
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1303);1956Code6:490,491,761,762;Rev.Stat.363,364;J.P.Code12(6);
OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XII,2426,2Hub.1555.
216
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1304).
217
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1305).
218
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1306).
nameordescriptivetitleandlettersrogatorymaybeaddressed"TotheAppropriateJudicialAuthorityin(here
namethecountry)."

3. Disqualification for interest. No deposition shall be taken before a person who is a relative or employee or
attorneyorcounselofanyoftheparties,orisarelativeoremployeeofsuchattorneyorcounselorisfinancially
interestedintheaction.219

13.8.Conductofexaminationandpreparationofdeposition.

1.Oathofwitness;record,objections;continuousexamination.Theofficerbeforewhomthedepositionistobe
taken shall put the witness on oath and shall personally, or by someone acting under his direction and in his
presence,recordthetestimonyofthewitness.Thetestimonyshallbetakeninwriting.Allobjectionsmadeat
the time of the examination as to the qualifications of the officer taking the deposition, or to the manner of
taking it, or to the evidence presented, or to the conduct of any party, and any other objection to the
proceedings shall be noted by the officer upon the deposition and the deposition shall proceed. Evidence
objectedtoshallbetakensubjecttotheobjectionswhichmayberuleduponatthetrial.Alldepositionsshallbe
takencontinuouslyandwithoutunreasonableadjournmentunlessthecourtotherwiseordersorthepartiesand
thedeponentotherwisestipulate.

2. Examination and crossexamination. Examination and crossexamination of deponents shall proceed as


permittedinthetrialofactionsinopencourt.

3. Translation of questions and answers into foreign language. If the deponent to be examined does not
understand and speak the English language, the court shall appoint a translator to translate all questions and
answersintothelanguagewhichheunderstandsandspeaks.

4. Submission to witness; signing; changes. When the testimony is fully transcribed, the officer talking the
depositionshallrequirecounselonbothsidestocorrecttheminutes.Thedepositionshallbesubmittedtothe
witnessforexaminationandshallbereadtoorbyhim,unlesssuchexaminationandreadingarewaivedbythe
witnessandbytheparties.Anyimmaterialchangesinformorsubstancewhichthewitnessdesirestomakeshall
beentereduponthedepositionbytheofficerwithastatementofthereasonsgivenbythewitnessformaking
them.Thedepositionshallthenbesignedbythewitnessunlessthepartiesbystipulationwaivethesigning.If
thedepositionisnotsignedbythewitness,theofficershallsignitandstateontherecordthefactofthewaiver
orotherreason,ifany,whythewitnessdidnotsign;andthedepositionmaythenbeusedasfullyasthough
signed,unlessonamotiontosuppressundersection13.9thecourtholdsthatthereasonsgivenfortherefusal
tosignrequirerejectionofthedepositioninwholeorinpart.

5.Certificationandfilingbyofficer.Theofficershallcertifyonthedepositionthatthewitnesswasdulyswornby
himandthatthedepositionisatruerecordofthetestimonygivenbythewitness.Ifthedepositionwastaken

219
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1307);1956Code6:761;Rev.Stat.363,366;OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,
t.II,ch.XII,25,26,2Hub.1555.
under section 13.3(4) on written questions, he shall attach to it the copy of the notice and written questions
receivedbyhim.Heshallthensecurelysealthedepositioninanenvelopeindorsedwiththetitleoftheaction
andmarked"Depositionof[hereinsertnameofwitness]"andshallpromptlyfileitwiththecourtinwhichthe
action is pending or send it by registered mail to the clerk thereof for filing. He shall also send copies of the
depositiontoallparties.

6. Exhibits. The officer taking the deposition shall mark for identification any documentary evidence or other
exhibitsprovedoridentifiedbythewitness,andshallgivetothepartiesotherthanthepartyproducingsuch
evidenceanopportunitytocopyandinspectit.Theofficershallthenreturnittothepartyofferingitanditshall
beproducedinevidenceatthetrial.

7.Costsofdepositionandcopies.Unlessthecourtordersotherwise,thepartytakingthedepositionshallbear
thecostthereofandshallathisownexpensepromptlymakeacopyavailabletoanypartyrequestingit.220

13.9.Objectionstoerrorsandirregularitiesindepositions.

1.Whendepositionofferedinevidence.Subjecttotheotherprovisionsofthissection,objectionmaybemade
atthetrialorhearingtoreceivinginevidenceanydepositionorpartthereofforanyreasonwhichwouldrequire
theexclusionoftheevidenceifthewitnesswerethenpresentandtestifying.

2. To disqualification of person taking deposition. Objection to the taking of a deposition because of


disqualificationofthepersonbywhomitistobetakeniswaivedunlessmadebeforethetakingofthedeposi
tionbeginsorassoonthereafterasthedisqualificationbecomesknownorcouldbediscoveredwithreasonable
diligence.

3. To errors in manner of taking deposition. Errors and irregularities occurring at the oral examination in the
manneror taking thedeposition,intheformofthequestionoranswers,in theoathoraffirmation,orinthe
conduct of the parties, and errors of any kind which might be obviated or cured if promptly presented, are
waivedunlessseasonableobjectiontheretoismadeatthetakingofthedeposition.

4. To transcription, preparation, and filing. Errors and irregularities in the manner in which the testimony is
transcribed or the deposition is prepared, signed, certified, sealed, indorsed, transmitted, filed, or otherwise
dealtwithundersection13.8bythepersontakingthedepositionarewaivedunlessamotiontosuppressthe
depositionorsomepartthereofismadewithreasonablepromptnessaftersuchdefectis,orwithreasonable
diligencemighthavebeen,ascertained.221

13.10.Useofdepositions.

220
Priorlegislation:L.1961CA,ch.III(6:1308);1956Code6:761;Rev.Stat.363;OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,
ch.XII,26,2Hub.1555.
221
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1309);1956Code6:494.
1.Circumstancesunderwhichusable.Atthetrialoruponthehearingofamotionoraninterlocutoryproceeding,
anypartorallofadeposition,sofarasadmissibleundertherulesofevidence,maybeusedinaccordancewith
anyofthefollowingprovisions:

(a) Anydepositionmaybeusedbyanypartyforthepurposeofimpeachingthetestimonyofthedeponent
asawitness.
(b) Thedepositionofanadversepartyorofanyonewhoatthetimeoftalkingthedepositionwasanofficer,
director, member, or managing or authorized agent of an adverse party may be used against such
adversepartybyanyotherpartyforanypurpose.
(c) Thedepositionofawitness,whetherornotaparty,maybeusedbyanypartyforanypurposeagainst
anyotherpartywhowaspresentorrepresentedatthetakingofthedepositionorwhohadthenotice
requiredunderthistitleprovidedthecourtfinds:(1)thatthewitnessisdead;(2)thatthewitnessisout
oftheRepublicofLiberia,unlessitappearsthattheabsenceofthewitnesswasprocuredbytheparty
offering the deposition; or (3) that the witness is unable to attend or testify because of age, sickness,
infirmity,orimprisonment;or(4)thatthepartyofferingthedepositionhasbeenunabletoprocurethe
attendance of the witness by subpoena; or (5) upon application and notice, that such exceptional
circumstances exist as to make its use desirable, in the interest of justice and with due regard to the
importanceofpresentingthetestimonyofwitnessesorallyinopencourt.

2. Substitution of parties, prior actions. Substitution of parties does not affect the right to use depositions
previouslytaken.WhenanactionhasbeenbroughtinanycourtoftheRepublicofLiberiaandanotheraction
involving the same subject matter is afterward brought between the same parties or their representatives or
successorsininterest,alldepositionslawfullytakenanddulyfiledintheformeractionmaybeusedinthelatter
asiftakentherein.

3. Effect of using depositions. The introduction in evidence of a deposition or any part thereof makes the
deponentthewitnessofthepartyintroducingthedeposition,butthisshallnotapplytotheuseofadeposition
asdescribedinsubparagraphs(a)or(b)ofparagraph1ofthissection.222

SubchapterB.PHYSICALORMENTALORBLOODEXAMINATIONOF
PERSONS
13.51.Orderforexamination.

Aftercommencementofanactioninwhichthementalorphysicalconditionorthebloodrelationshipofaparty,
orofanagentorpersoninthecustodyorunderthelegalcontrolofaparty,isincontroversy,thecourtinwhich

222
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1310);1956Code6:493;Rev.Stat.363,366;OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XII,24,2Hub.1555.
theactionispendingmaygrantanorderthatsuchpartyorotherpersonshallsubmittoaphysicalormentalor
bloodexaminationbyaphysician.Suchanordershallbegrantedonlyonamotionforgoodcauseshownand
upon notice to the party to be examined and to all other parties, and shall specify the time, place, manner,
conditions,andscopeoftheexaminationandthepersonorpersonsbywhomitistobemade.223

13.52.Testimonyofexaminingphysician.

Aphysicianwhomakesanexaminationpursuanttotheprovisionsofsection13.51maybecalledatthetrialasa
witness by the party who caused the examination to be made and is thereupon subject to examination and
crossexaminationlikeanyotherwitness.224

13.53.Examinationbeforecommencementofaction.

Apersonwho,beforethecommencementofanactionorpendinganappealdesirestosecureadisclosuresuch
asthatobtainableundersection13.51maysecureanorderinaccordancewith,andsubjectto,theconditions
applicabletosection13.1.225

SubchapterC.ENFORCEMENT
13.71.Motiontocompelpartytoanswerquestion.

If a party fails to answer any question propounded upon oral or written deposition, the deposition shall be
completed on other matters or adjourned, as the proponent of the question may elect. Thereafter such
proponent may on reasonable notice to all persons affected apply to the court to compel the question to be
answered.Ifthemotionisgrantedandifthecourtfindsthattheotherpartyhaswithoutsubstantialjustification
failed to answer, the court shall require such party to pay to the examining party the reasonable expenses
incurred in obtaining the order, including reasonable attorney's fees. If the motion is denied and if the court
findsthatthemotionwasmadewithoutsubstantialjustification,itshallrequiretheexaminingpartytopayto
the other party the reasonable expenses incurred in opposing the motion, including reasonable attorney's
fees.226

13.72.Penaltiesforfailuretocomplywithordertodisclose.

Ifapartyfailstoobeyanordermadeundersection13.1or13.3toappearatanexaminationforquestioningor
ifapartyorhisagentorapersoninthecustodyorunderthelegalcontrolofapartyfailstoobeyanordermade
undersection13.51toappearforandsubmittoaphysicalormentalorbloodexamination,orifapartyfailsto

223
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1351).
224
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1352).
225
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1353).
226
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1371).
obeyanordermadeundersection13.71requiringhimtoansweradesignatedquestion,thecourtmaymake
suchorderswithregardtothefailureasarejust,amongthemthefollowing:

(a) anorderthattheissuestowhichtheinformationisrelevantshallbedeemedresolvedforpurposesof
theactioninaccordancewiththeclaimsofthepartyobtainingtheordertodisclose;
(b) anorderprohibitingthedisobedientpartyfromsupportingoropposingdesignatedclaimsordefenses,
fromproducinginevidencedesignatedthingsoritemsoftestimony,orfromintroducinganyevidenceof
thephysical,mentalorbloodconditionsoughttobedetermined,orfromusingcertainwitnesses;
(c) anorderstrikingoutpleadingsorpartsthereof,orstayingfurtherproceedingsuntiltheorderisobeyed,
ordismissingtheactionoranypartthereof,orrenderingajudgmentbydefaultagainstthedisobedient
party;or
(d) an order holding the disobedient party in contempt of court, except that no person may be held in
contemptforrefusaltosubmittoaphysicalormentalexamination.227

Chapter14.SUBPOENASANDOATHSANDAFFIRMATIONS
14.1. Scopeofsubpoena;form.
14.2. Authoritytoissue.
14.3. Serviceofsubpoena;paymentoffees.
14.4. Motiontoquash,fixconditions,ormodify.
14.5. Attendancepursuanttosubpoena.
14.6. Disobedienceofsubpoena.
14.7. Oathsandaffirmations.

14.1.Scopeofsubpoena;form.

Asubpoenamayrequiretheattendanceofapersontogivetestimonyortoproducebooks,documents,orother
thingsorboth.Asubpoenarequiringtheproductionofbooks,documents,orotherthingsisreferredtoherein
asasubpoenaducestecum.Everysubpoenashallbeissuedunderthesignatureofthejudgeorclerk andthe
sealofthecourt,shallstatethenameofthecourtandthetitleoftheaction,andshallcommandthepersonto
whom it is directed to attend and give testimony or to produce the books, documents, or other things
designatedortodobothatatimeandplacethereinspecified.228

227
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1372).
228
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1401);1956Code6:745.
14.2.Authoritytoissue.

1.Withoutcourtorder.Subpoenasmaybeissuedwithoutacourtorderbytheclerkofthecourtinwhichthe
actionisbroughtorajudgeofsuchcourtwherethereisnoclerk.

2. With court order. A court order is required to compel attendance of any person confined in prison or to
compel production of an original record or document where a certified transcript or copy is admissible in
evidence.229

14.3.Serviceofsubpoena;paymentoffees.

A subpoena shall be served by delivering a copy thereof to the person named therein. At the time of service,
mileageshallbetenderedortransportationprovided.230

14.4.Motiontoquash,fixconditions,ormodify.

Thecourtinwhichthesubpoenaisreturnablemayonmotionmadebeforethetimespecifiedinthesubpoena
for compliance therewith quash or modify the subpoena if it is unreasonable or oppressive, or the court may
imposereasonableconditionsuponthegrantordenialofamotiontoquashormodify.231

14.5.Attendancepursuanttosubpoena.

1.Whenpersontoattend.Asubpoenamayprovidethatthepersonsubpoenaedshallappearonthedatestated
andanyrecessedoradjourneddateofthetrial,hearing,orexamination.Ifheisgivenreasonablenoticeofsuch
recessoradjournment,nofurtherprocessshallberequiredtocompelhisattendanceontheadjourneddate.

2.Fee.Nowitnessshallbeallowedtodemandhisfeeaftercomingtothestand.Thismustbesettledbeforeor
afterhetestifies.

3. Attendance by substitute. Any person may comply with a subpoena duces tecum by having the requisite
books,documents,orthingsproducedbyapersonabletoidentifythemandtestifyconcerningthem.232

14.6.Disobedienceofsubpoena.

Failurebyapersonwithoutadequateexcusetocomplywithasubpoenaserveduponhimshallbepunishableas
contemptofcourt.Ifthepersonwhodisobeysasubpoenaisaparty,thecourtmayimposeanyofthepenalties
specifiedinsection13.72whichitdeemsappropriate.233

14.7.Oathsandaffirmations.

229
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1402);1956Code6:745.
230
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1403);1956Code6:746.
231
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1404);1956Code6:747.
232
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1405).
233
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1406);1956Code6:748.
Anoathoraffirmationshallbeadministeredintheformbestcalculatedtoawakentheconscienceandimpress
themindofthepersontakingitinaccordancewithhisreligiousorethicalbeliefs.234

Chapter15.CALENDARPRACTICE
15.1.Controlofcalendars.
15.2.Methodofcalendaring.
15.3.Trialpreferences.

15.1.Controlofcalendars.

The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court with the assistance of the Court Administrator shall formulate rules
regulatingthecalendarpracticeforallcourtsofrecord.235

15.2.Methodofcalendaring.

Immediatelyuponreceivingareturnshowingthatthedefendantordefendantsinanactionhavebeenproperly
servedwithsummons,theclerkshallplacethe case onthejuryornonjurycalendarforcivilcases,whichever
maybeappropriate,forthetermofcourtnextto open,exceptthatifalldefendantsinacasehavenotbeen
servedatleastfifteendaysbeforetheopeningofsuchtermofcourt,thecaseshallbeplacedonthecalendarfor
thetermaftertheonenexttoopen.Thecasesdocketedforatermofcourtshallbedocketedinorderofthe
date on which the clerk receives proof of service, except that cases entitled to preference shall be accorded
priorityoverothers.236

15.3.Trialpreferences.

Thefollowingtypesofcasesshallbeentitledtoapreferenceonthetrialcalendar:

(a) AnactionbroughtbyoragainsttheRepublicofLiberiaorapoliticalsubdivisionormunicipalcorporation
oftheRepublic,oranofficeroragencyoftheRepubliconapplicationofanysuchparty;
(b) Anactionforwhichapreferenceisprovidedbystatute;
(c) An action in which the interest of justice will be served by an early trial, including cases in which a
materialwitnessisabouttodepartfromthecountry.237

234
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1407);1956Code6:560,561;OBB61,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIII,I,2,
4.
235
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1501);1956Code6:593.
236
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1502).
237
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1503).

Chapter16.SPECIALPROCEEDINGS
SubchapterA.GeneralProcedure
16.1. Applicationofsubchapter.
16.2. Parties.
16.3. Commencementofspecialproceeding.
16.4. Citation;ordertoshowcause.
16.5. Pleadings.
16.6. Timeforreturn.
16.7. Severance.
16.8. Motions.
16.9. Hearing.
16.10. Trial.
16.11. Judgment.

SubchapterB.WritsofCertiorari,Mandamus,Prohibition,andError
16.21. Purposeofwrits.
16.22. Procedureinmandamusandprohibition.
16.23. Procedureincertiorari.
16.24. Procedureonapplicationandhearingofwritoferror.
16.25. Parties.
16.26. AppealtoSupremeCourtenbanc.
16.27. Limitationsonissuance.

SubchapterC.WritofQuoWarranto
16.31. Groundsforissuanceofwritofquowarranto.
16.32. Procedure.
16.33. Bondbyrelator.
16.34. Arrest.
16.35. Jurytrial.
16.36. Judgment.
16.37. AppealtoSupremeCourtenbanc.

SubchapterD.HabeasCorpus
16.51. Writofhabeascorpusdefined.
16.52. Whoisentitledtowrit.
16.53. Procedureforobtainingwrit.
16.54. Jurisdictiontoissuewrit.
16.55. Whenwritmayissue.
16.56. Damagesforfailuretoissuewrit.
16.57. Formofwrit.
16.58. Serviceofwrit.
16.59. Dutyofcourtorjudge.
16.60. Dutyofdefendant.
16.61. Penaltyforfailuretoreturnwrit.
16.62. Penaltyforrefusaltoproducethebody.
16.63. Writofarrestinhabeascorpusproceeding.
16.64. Generalpowersofcourtorjudge.
16.65. Compulsorywritofhabeascorpus.
16.66. Citizenstoaidexecutionofcompulsorywrit.
16.67. Procedureathearing.
16.68. Damagesforobstruction.
16.69. Appealsfromhabeascorpusproceedingassupersedeas.

SubchapterE.CondemnationProceedings
16.71. Provisionoffundsforcondemnation.
16.72. Whencondemnationproceedingsarenecessary.
16.73. Petition.
16.74. Noticetobegiven.
16.75. Procedure.
16.76. Paymentofjudgment.

SubchapterF.SpecialProceedingsConcerningMentallyDisabledandLegallyIncompetentPersons
16.81. Definitions.
16.82. Jurisdiction.
16.83. Emergencyhospitalization.
16.84. Hospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodybycourtorder.
16.85. Proceduresforhospitalizationandcommitmenttocustodyareexclusive.
16.86. Judicialdischargeofpersonshospitalizedorcommittedtocustody.
16.87. Administrativereleaseofhospitalizedperson.
16.88. Habeascorpus.
16.89. Applicationtopersonsheretoforehospitalizedorcommittedtocustody.
16.90. Hospitalization,commitmenttocustody,andadjudicationofincompetency.
16.91. Adjudicationofincompetencyandappointmentofguardian.
16.92. Bond,powers,anddutiesofguardian.
16.93. Titletopropertyofadjudicatedincompetent.
16.94. Compensationofguardian.
16.95. Ancillaryguardianshipofnonresidentincompetent.
16.96. Restorationtolegalcapacityanddischargeofguardianofproperty.
16.97. Costsofproceedings.
16.98. SupportofmentallydisabledpersonsinGovernmentinstitutions.
16.99. Receiptforpersonhospitalizedandhispersonalproperty.
16.100. Representationbycounsel.
16.101. Appeals.

SubchapterA.GENERALPROCEDURE
16.1.Applicationofsubchapter.

Exceptasotherwiseprovidedbystatute,theprocedureinspecialproceedingsshallbeinaccordancewiththe
provisionsofthissubchapter.238

238
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1601).
16.2.Parties.

Thepartycommencingaspecialproceedingshallbestyledthepetitionerandanyadversepartytherespondent.
After a proceeding has commenced, no party shall be joined or interpleaded and no intervention shall be
allowedexceptbyleaveofcourt.239

16.3.Commencementofspecialproceeding.

Aspecialproceedingiscommencedbyfilingapetitionwiththeclerkandissuanceofacitation.240

16.4.Citation;ordertoshowcause.

1.Contentsofcitation.Acitationshallspecifythetimeandplaceofthehearingonthepetition,shallspecifythe
supportingaffidavits,ifany,accompanyingthepetition,andshalldirectthattherespondentshallappearandfile
areturn.

2.Serviceofcitation.Acitationshallbeservedinthesamemannerasasummonsinanaction.Thepetitionand
affidavitsspecified in the citationshallbeservedtherewithonanyadversepartyatany timespecified bythe
judgebeforethetimeatwhichthepetitionisnoticedtobeheard.

3.Ordertoshowcause.Thecourtmaygrantanordertoshowcausetobeserved,inlieuofacitation,atatime
andinamannerspecifiedintheorder.Thepetitionandsupportingaffidavitsshallbeservedwiththeorderto
showcause.241

16.5.Pleadings.

Thereshallbeapetition,whichshallcomplywiththerulesofacomplaintinanaction,andareturnifthereisan
adverse party. There may be such other pleadings as are authorized in an action. The petition shall be
accompaniedbyanaffidavitstatingtheresultofanypriorapplicationforasimilarrelief.242

16.6.Timeforreturn.

Areturnandsupportingaffidavits,ifany,shallbeservedatleastonedaybeforethetimeatwhichthepetitionis
noticedtobeheard.243

16.7.Severance.

239
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1602).
240
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1603);195758Supp.6:1254(1);L.195556,ch.XVIII,1,L.195455,ch..VIII,2.
241
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1604);195758Supp.6:1202,1211,1221,1254;L.195556,ch.XVIII,I;1956Code
6:1202,1211,1221,Rev.Stat.1388(2),1397(1),1399(1).
242
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1605);195758Supp.6:1201,1211,1221,1242;L.195556,ch.XVIII,I;1956Code
6:1201,1211,1221,1242;Rev.Stat.1388(1),1397(1),(2),1399(1),1400(1),(2).
243
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1606).
Thecourtmayatanytimeorderaseveranceofaparticularclaimorcounterclaim,orastoaparticularparty,and
order that, as to such claim or party, the special proceeding continue as an action or as a separate special
proceeding.244

16.8.Motions.

Motions in a special proceeding made before the time at which the petition is noticed to be heard, shall be
noticedtobeheardatthattime.245

16.9.Hearing.

1. Furnishing papers. The petitioner shall furnish at the hearing all papers not previously filed which are
necessary to the consideration of the questions involved. If such papers are in the possession of an adverse
party,theyshallbeproducedbysuchpartyatthehearingonnotice.Thecourtmayrequirethesubmissionof
additionalproof.Allpapersfurnishedtothecourtshallbefiledifnotfiledprevioustothehearing.

2. Summary determination. The court shall make a summary determination upon the pleadings, papers, and
admissionstotheextentthatnotriableissuesoffactareraised.Thecourtmaymakeanyorderspermittedona
motionforsummaryjudgmentunderparagraphs6and7ofsection11.3.246

16.10.Trial.

Iftriableissuesoffactareraisedonaspecialproceeding,theyshallbetriedforthwithandthecourtshallmakea
finaldeterminationthereon.Ifissuesaretriableofrightbyjury,thecourtshallgivethepartiesanopportunityto
demandajurytrialofsuchissues.Failuretomakesuchdemandwithinthetimelimitedbythecourt,or,ifno
suchtimeislimited,beforethetrialbegins,shallbedeemedawaiveroftherighttotrialbyjury.247

16.11.Judgment.

The court shall direct that a final judgment be entered determining the rights of the parties to the special
proceeding.248

244
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1607).
245
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1608).
246
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1609).
247
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III,6:1610;195758Supp.6:1212,1222,1233,1254(3);L.195556,ch.XVIII,3;1956
Code6:1212,1222,1233;Rev.Stat.1397(3),1399(2).
248
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1611);195758Supp.6:1212,1213,1222,1254(3);L.195556,ch.XVIII,1;1956
Code6:1212,1222,1233,1244;Rev.Stat.1397(3),1400(3).
SubchapterB.WRITSOFCERTIORARI,MANDAMUS,PROHIBITION,AND
ERROR
16.21.Purposeofwrits.

1. Certiorari. Certiorari is a special proceeding to review and correct decisions of officials, boards, or agencies
actinginajudicialcapacity,ortoreviewanintermediateorderorinterlocutoryjudgmentofacourt.

2.Mandamus.Mandamusisaspecialproceedingtoobtainawritrequiringtherespondenttoperformanofficial
duty.

3.Prohibition.Prohibitionisaspecialproceedingtoobtainawritorderingtherespondenttorefrainfromfurther
pursuingajudicialactionorproceedingspecifiedtherein.

4.Writoferror.AwritoferrorisawritbywhichtheSupremeCourtcallsupforreviewajudgmentofaninferior
courtfromwhichanappealwasnotannouncedonrenditionofjudgment.249

16.22.Procedureinmandamusandprohibition.

1.Citationoralternativewrit.Whenapetitionforawritofmandamusorprohibitionismadetoajusticeofthe
SupremeCourt,suchjusticeshallissueorcausetheclerktoissueacitationtothepartiesnamedasrespondents.
Iftheurgencyofthesituationwarrants,thejusticemayissueinlieuofacitationanalternativewritrequiringthe
respondents(a)todoanactortorefrainfrompursuingajudicialactionorproceedingspecifiedthereinuntila
hearing has been held on the writ, and (b) to show cause, on the date fixed therein, why a peremptory writ
shouldnotissue.

2. Time for appearance and hearing. A citation or alternative writ issued under this section shall require the
respondent to appear at a time to be specified by the justice. The justice shall commence the hearing at the
specifiedtimeandcontinueitwithoutinterruptionuntilthematterisdetermined.

3. Peremptory writ. At the conclusion of the hearing, the justice shall dismiss the citation or quash the
alternativewritifsuchawritwasissued,orissueaperemptorywritrequiringtherespondentinamandamus
proceedingtoperformthedutythereinspecified,orinaprohibitionproceeding,todesistfromcontinuanceof
theactionorproceedingintheinferiorcourt.250

16.23.Procedureincertiorari.

1.Contentsofpetition.Apetitionforawritofcertiorarishallcontainthefollowing:

249
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1621);195758Supp.6:1200,1210;1956Code6:1200,1210;Rev.Stat.1388,
1397.
250
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1622);195758Supp.1212,1222;L.195556,ch.XVIII,1;1956Code6:1212,1222;
Rev.Stat.1397,1399.
(a) Astatementthatthepetitionerisapartytoanactionorproceedingpendingbeforeacourtorjudgeor
anadministrativeboardoragency;
(b) A statement of the decision of the official, board, or agency that is alleged to be illegal or of the
intermediateorderorinterlocutoryjudgmentofwhichreviewissought;
(c) Certificationbytwomembersofthebarthatintheiropinionthecontentionofthepetitionerissoundin
law.

2. Necessary party. The party in whose favor the act or decision complained of has been rendered shall be
namedasrespondentandshallbeservedwithacopyofthepetition.

3.Paymentofaccruedcosts,bond.Thepetitionershallpayalltheaccruedcosts,andhemayberequiredtogive
abond,conditionedonpayingtherespondentsuchdamagesashemaysustainifthewritisdismissed.

4.Stay.Theissuanceofthewritshallactasastayofproceedingsbeforetheinferiortribunal.

5.Procedureafterissuanceofwrit.Thewrit,accompaniedbythepetition,shallbeservedontherespondentand
onthecourt,judge,administrator,oradministrativeboardoragencywhosedecisionoractioniscomplainedof.
Issuance of the writ shall commence the proceeding. The writ shall direct such court, judge, administrator, or
administrativeboardoragencytosendupwithinfivedaystothejusticewhoissuedthewritafullandcomplete
copyoftheproceedingsinthecauseatissuewithacertificateunderthesealofthecourt,judge,administrator,
oradministrativeboardoragencythatthesameisatruecopy;andthejusticewhoissuedthewritshallhavethe
powertocompelsuchreturnandtorequireittobeamendedandperfectedwhennecessary.

6. Determination of issue. If the issue is determined in favor of the petitioner, the justice who issued the writ
shall direct such order to the court, judge, administrator, or administrative board or agency below as may be
necessary to carry out the ends of substantial justice. If it is decided against the petitioner, the writ shall be
dismissed,andtheoriginalactionorproceedingshallcontinueinthecourt,board,oragencyorbeforethejudge
oradministratorinwhichorbeforewhomitwaspending.251

16.24.Procedureonapplicationandhearingofwritoferror.

1.Application.Apartyagainstwhomjudgmenthasbeentaken,whohasforgoodreasonfailedtomakeatimely
announcementofthetakingofanappealfromsuchjudgment,maywithinsixmonthsafteritsrenditionfilewith
theclerkoftheSupremeCourtanapplicationforleaveforareviewbytheSupremeCourtbywritoferror.Such
anapplicationshallcontainthefollowing:

(a) An assignment of error, similar in form and content to a bill of exceptions, which shall be verified by
affidavitstatingthattheapplicationhasnotbeenmadeforthemerepurposeofharassmentordelay;
(b) Astatementwhyanappealwasnottaken;

251
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1623);195758Supp.6:12011203;L.195556,ch.XVIII,1;1956Code6:1201
1203;Rev.Stat.1388.
(c) Anallegationthatexecutionofthejudgmenthasnotbeencompleted;and;
(d) AcertificateofacounselloroftheSupremeCourt,orofanyattorneyoftheCircuitCourtifnocounsellor
residesinthejurisdictionwherethetrialwasheld,thatintheopinionofsuchcounsellororattorneyreal
errorsareassigned.

Asaprerequisitetoissuanceofthewrit,thepersonapplyingforthewritoferror,tobeknownastheplaintiffin
error,shallberequiredtopayallaccruedcosts,andmayberequiredtofileabondinthemannerprescribedin
section 51.8. Such bond shall be conditioned on paying the costs, interest, and damages sustained by the
opposingpartyifthejudgmentcomplainedofisaffirmedorthewritoferrorisdismissed.

2.Issuanceofservice.TheSupremeCourtoranassignedjusticeshallgrantordenytheapplication.Assoonasan
applicationforawritoferrorisgranted,theclerk oftheSupremeCourtshallissuethewrit,acopyofwhich,
togetherwithacopyoftheassignmentoferror,shallbeservedbythemarshalonthepartyinwhosefavorthe
judgment is granted and on the judge who rendered the judgment in the lower court. Such parties shall be
knownasthedefendantsinerror.

3.Effectofissuanceofwrit.Proceedingstoenforcethejudgmentcomplainedofshallbestayedonissuanceof
thewritoferror.

4.Hearingandjudgment.Theassignmentoferrorshallbedealtwithinthesamemannerasabillofexceptions,
and the hearing on the writ shall be upon certified copies of the record transmitted by the trial court. The
SupremeCourthearingamatteronwritoferrormaygrantsuchjudgmentasitmaygrantonanappeal.Ifthe
judgment is affirmed, the court may, in addition to costs, award the defendants in error their reasonable
disbursementsmadeinconnectionwiththehearingofthewrit.252

16.25.Parties.

1.Joinderofpersoninwhosefavorabodyorofficerhasexceededjurisdiction.Whereaproceedingunderthis
subchapterisbroughttorestrainabodyorofficerfromproceedingwithoutorinexcessofjurisdictioninfavorof
anotherperson,thelattershallbejoinedasaparty.

2.Noticeandintervention.Thecourtmaydirectthatnoticeoftheproceedingbegiventoanyotherperson.It
mayallowotherinterestedpersonstointervene.253

16.26.AppealtoSupremeCourtenbanc.

A final decision by a Supreme Court justice in a proceeding in certiorari, mandamus, or prohibition may be
appealed totheSupremeCourtenbanc.Theappealshallbeheardanddeterminedimmediately,inoroutof
termtime.254

252
PriorlegislationL.196364,ch.III(6:1624);195758Supp.6:1211,1212;L.I95556,ch.XVIII,1;1956Code6:1211,
1212;Rev.Stat.1397.
253
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1625).
16.27.Limitationsonissuance.

Thefollowinglimitationsshallapplytotheissuanceofwritsofcertiorari,mandamus,prohibition,anderror:

(a) Nosuchwritshallissueasamatterofright;
(b) Nosuchwritshallissueinanycaseinwhichitappearsthatthepetitionisdevoidoflegalmeritandis
madesolelyforthepurposeofdelay;
(c) No peremptory writ shall issue before there has been an opportunity for arguments by all interested
partiestobeheard.255

SubchapterC.WRITOFQUOWARRANTO
16.31.Groundsforissuanceofwritofquowarranto.

Quowarrantoisaspecialproceedingwhichmaybeinstitutedonanyofthefollowinggrounds:

(a) Against a person who usurps, intrudes into, or unlawfully holds or exercises within the Republic a
franchiseorapublicofficeoranofficeinadomesticcorporation;
(b) Againstapublicofficerorofficerofacorporationwhohasdoneorpermittedanacttobedonewhichby
lawworksaforfeitureofhisoffice;
(c) Against one or more persons who act as a corporation within the Republic without being duly
incorporated,orexercisewithintheRepublicanycorporaterights,privileges,orfranchisesnotgranted
thembylaw;or
(d) Against a foreign corporation which exercises within the Republic any corporate rights, privileges, or
franchisesnotgrantedtoitbylaw.256

16.32.Procedure.

AproceedingunderthissubchaptershallbeinstitutedbytheMinisterofJusticebyhisfilingwithajusticeofthe
SupremeCourtapetitionrequestingissuanceofawritofquowarranto.Thepetitionshallbeaccompaniedbya
statement based on information of the Minister of Justice or on information given by another person
(hereinafter called the "relator"), which information shall state facts justifying issuance of the writ. If the
proceeding is brought against a person for usurping a public office, the Minister of Justice may include in his
petitionthenameofthepersonwhoinhisopinionisrightfullyentitledtotheofficealongwithastatementof
thefactsshowinghisrightthereto.AnypersonwhointheopinionoftheMinisterofJusticeisrightfullyentitled

254
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1626);195758Supp.6:1256;L.19551956,ch.XVIII,4;1956Code6:1254.
255
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1627);195758Supp.6:1253;L.195556,ch.XVIII,1,2,4.
256
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1631);1956Code6:1240,1241;Rev.Stat.1400.
to the office and who is not a relator shall be joined as a respondent in the proceeding, and, in addition, the
MinisterofJusticemayjoinasrespondentanyotherclaimanttotheoffice.257

16.33.Bondbyrelator.

Iftheproceedingisinitiatedontherelationofapersonwhohasaninterestintheoutcomeoftheproceeding,
the Minister of Justice may require, as a condition of instituting the proceeding, that the relator give a bond
securedinthemannerprovidedinsection63.1ofthistitletoindemnifytheRepublicforthecostsandexpenses
incurredintheproceeding.258

16.34.Arrest.

Inaproceedingforusurping,intrudinginto,orunlawfullyholdingorexercisingapublicoffice,therespondent
may be arrested subject to the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 7 of this title if the petitioner shows by
affidavitthattherespondentbymeansofsuchusurpation,intrusioninto,orunlawfulholdingorexercisingof
theofficereceivedfeesoremolumentstherefrom.259

16.35.Jurytrial.

Aproceedingbroughtasprescribedinthissubchapteristriableofrightbyajury.260

16.36.Judgment.

1. Ouster. In a proceeding under this subchapter, where the respondent is adjudged guilty of usurping or
intrudingintoorunlawfullyholdingorexercisinganoffice,franchise,orprivilege,afinaljudgmentinfavorofthe
petitionershallorderthattherespondentbeoustedandexcludedtherefrom.

2.Restraint ofexerciseofcorporaterights.Ina proceedingunderthissubchapterfor theunlawfulexerciseof


corporaterights,afinaljudgmentinfavorofthepetitionershallperpetuallyrestraintherespondentfromthe
commissionorcontinuanceoftheactscomplainedofandmaydecreeannulmentoftherespondent'scorporate
charter.

3.Otherclaimanttooffice;assumptionofduties.Ifaproceedingunderthissubchapterinvolvesaclaimtooffice
byapartywhoisnottheincumbent,judgmentmayberenderedupontherightofboththerespondentandthe
claimantorupontherightoftherespondentonly,asjusticemayrequire.Ifjudgmentisrenderedinfavorofthe
claimant,heshallbeentitledtoreceiveimmediatelyfromtherespondentallpropertyofeverykindappertaining

257
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1632);195758Supp.6:1242;L.195556,ch.XVIII,1;1956Code6:1242,1243;
Rev.Stat.1400.
258
Priorlegislation:L.1ch.III(6:1633);195758Supp.6:1242;L.195556,ch.XVIII,1;1956Code6:1242;Rev.Stat.
1400(1).
259
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1634);195758Supp.6:1242;1956Code6:1242;Rev.Stat.1400(2).
260
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1635).
totheofficeandtoassumeimmediatelythedutiesofofficeaftertakingtheoathofofficeandgivinganofficial
bond,asprescribedbylaw.

4. Damages in independent action. Where final judgment has been rendered upon the right and in favor of a
person entitled to an office, he may recover by an independent action against the respondent the damages
which he has sustained in consequence of the respondents usurpation, intrusion into, unlawful holding or
exerciseoftheoffice.

5. Fine. As a part of the final judgment in an action for usurping or intruding into or unlawfully holding or
exercisinganoffice,franchise,orprivilege,thecourtinitsdiscretionmayalsoadjudgethattherespondentshall
pay to the Republic a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars. The judgment for the fine may be noted as
providedinsection41.4andexecutionissuedthereuponinfavoroftheRepublic.261

16.37.AppealtoSupremeCourtenbanc.

AfinaldecisionbyaSupremeCourtjusticeinaproceedinginquowarrantomaybeappealedtotheSupreme
Courtenbanc.Theappealshallbeheardanddeterminedimmediately,inoroutoftermtime.262

SubchapterD.HABEASCORPUS
16.51.Writofhabeascorpusdefined.

The writ of habeas corpus is a writ directed to the sheriff or any other person (hereinafter referred to as the
"defendant) who has the custody of a person (hereinafter referred to as the "prisoner), directing the
defendant to bring the body of the prisoner before the court or judge so that inquiry may be made into the
causeoftheconfinementordetentionandsothatthedischargeoftheprisonermaybeorderedifitappears
propertodoso.263

16.52.Whoisentitledtowrit.

Anypersonwhoisrestrainedofhislibertywithoutdueprocessoflawisentitledtoawritofhabeascorpus.264

16.53.Procedureforobtainingwrit.

The writ shall be obtained upon presentation of a petition signed by the prisoner or by some person on his
behalf.Itmuststateinsubstance:

261
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1636);1956Code6:1244;Rev.Stat.1400(3).
262
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1637);195758Supp.6:1256;L.195556,ch.XVIII,4;1956Code6:1254.
263
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1651);1956Code6:1140;Rev.Stat.1394;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.XXIII,1,2Hub.1582.
264
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1652);1956Code6:1141;Rev.Stat.1394.
(a) Thatthepersononwhosebehalfthewritisappliedforisrestrainedofhisliberty,providedthatinthe
caseofanincompetentnoallegationofrestraintisnecessary;
(b) Theofficerorpersonbywhomheisrestrainedandtheplacewhereheisrestrained;
(c) The cause or pretended cause of such restraint according to the best knowledge or belief of the
applicant;and
(d) Theinterestwhichtheapplicanthasinthematter.

The applicant must satisfy the court or judge that the prisoner named in the writ is restrained of his liberty,
unlessbeisanincompetent.265

16.54.Jurisdictiontoissuewrit.

Everycourtofrecord,excepttheSupremeCourt,shallhavepowertoissuewritsofhabeascorpusinallcases
whatever;andeveryjudgeofanysuchcourtshallhavelikepower.266

16.55.Whenwritmayissue.

Thewritofhabeascorpusshallbeissuedasofrightwhenevertherequirementsofsection16.53aresatisfied.
Thewritshallnotissueifthecourtorjudgeknows,eitherfromtheproceedingshaduponawritrecentlyissued
orfromotherjudicialproceedingswithinthepersonalknowledgeofsuchcourtorjudge,thatsuchconfinement,
detention,orcustodyislegal.267

16.56.Damagesforfailuretoissuewrit.

Anactionofdamagesshalllieagainsteveryjudgewhorefusestoissueawritofhabeascorpuseitheratthesuit
ofthepersonapplyingforsuchwritoroftheprisoner,butnotofboth.Insuchactionitshallbenecessaryfor
theplaintifftoallegeandproveonlythatthepersonnamedasprisonerwasactuallyinconfinement,detention,
orcustodyandthatthejudgerefusedthewritorconsentedtotherefusalbythecourtafterreasonableproofof
thefactofrestrainthadbeenmade.Thedefendantinsuchactionmaythendefendhimselfonlybyallegingand
proving the existence of such judicial proceedings as might justify his conduct under the provisions of section
16.55. In every action of this nature the jury shall be the exclusive judge of what is reasonable evidence of
detention,confinement,orcustody.268

16.57.Formofwrit.

265
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1653);1956Code6:1142;Rev.Stat.1394;OB1382,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXXIII,1,2Hub.1582.
266
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1654);1956Code6:1143;Rev.Stat.1394(2);L.188990,14,2;OBB82,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,3,2Hub.1582.
267
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1655);1956Code6:1144;Rev.Stat.1394(3);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXIII,4,2Hub.1582.
268
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1656);1956Code6:1145;Rev.Stat.1394(4);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t
II,ch.XXIII,6,2Hub.1582.
A writ of habeas corpus shall be issued in duplicate and signed by the clerk of the court or by the judge who
issuesitwithhisnameandofficialtitle;iftheclerksignsit,heshallannexthesealofthecourt.Nopersonshall
be denied the right to a hearing under a writ of habeas corpus because of a defect of form; and no writ of
habeascorpusshallbequashedforanydefectofform,norshallanyadvantagebetakenorallowedonaccount
ofanysuchdefect.269

16.58.Serviceofwrit.

Awritofhabeascorpusshallbeservedbyleavingtheoriginalwiththedefendant.Thisservicemaybemadeby
any person. The duplicate copy shall be returned to the court or judge issuing it with an affidavit of service
attached.270

16.59.Dutyofcourtorjudge.

Upon reasonable notice it shall be the duty of the court or judge before whom the writ has been made
returnabletoattendattheplaceandtimeappointedforthereturnofthewrit,ortoprocuresomeotherjudge
todoso,forthepurposeofreceivingthereturnandhearingthematter;anditshallbethedutyofthejudge
who agrees to act for another judge in such case to keep his appointment. An action for damages may be
broughtagainstanyjudgewhoneglectshisdutyinahabeascorpusproceeding.271

16.60.Dutyofdefendant.

Itshallbethedutyofeverydefendantuponwhomawritofhabeascorpusisserved:

(a) Toattendahearingatthetimeandplacenamedinthewritifhehasreasonablenoticethereofandto
returnthewrittothecourtatsuchhearing;
(b) Toreportatthehearing(1)whetherhehastheprisonerinhiscustodyorunderhispowerorrestraint;
and(2)ifhehastheprisonerinhiscustodyminderhispowerorrestraint,theauthorityandtruecause
forsuchcustodyorrestraint;
(c) To deliver to such court or judge the originals of any documents relied on as justifying the detention,
confinement,orrestraint;and
(d) Toproducebeforethecourtorjudgethebodyoftheprisoner.

Thedefendant'sreportshallbesignedbyhimandverifiedbyhisoath.Ifthedefendantreportsunderoathto
thecourtorjudgethattheprisonernamedinthewritisnotinhiscustodyorpowertoproduceandwasnotso
at the time of the service of the writ, he shall be excused for not producing the prisoner unless the court or

269
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1657);1956Code6:1146;Rev.Stat.1394;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.XXIII,7,2Hub.1582.
270
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1658);1956Code6:1147;Rev.Stat.1394(5);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t
II,ch.XXIII,7,2Hub.1582.
271
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1659);1956Code6:1148;Rev.Stat.1394(6);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXIII,9,2Hub.1582.
judgeshall,onhearing,orderhimtoproducetheprisoner.Inthatcase,itshallbehisdutytocomplywiththe
order;andifhefailstodoso,heshallbedeemedguiltyofcontemptandpunishedaccordingly.272

16.61.Penaltyforfailuretoreturnwrit.

Ifanywritofhabeascorpusisnotreturnedatthetimeandplacespecifiedtherein,thecourtorjudgeshall,upon
productionoftheduplicatecopyandsufficientevidencethatithasbeenservedsoastogivereasonablenotice
tothedefendant,issueawritofarrestagainstthedefendant.Thecourtorjudgeshallhavethepowertoinquire
into and decide the issue of reasonable notice. When the defendant is brought before the court or judge, he
shallbepunishedbyfine,imprisonment,orothermeanstocompelhimtoproducethebodyoftheprisoner.It
shallalsobethedutyofthecourtorjudgetoissueacompulsorywritofhabeascorpusdirectedtothesheriffor
thedeputysheriff,asthecourtorjudgemaythinkproper.If,however,thecourtorjudgedeterminesthatthe
defendantdidnothavereasonablenoticeofthetimeandplaceofthehearing,itorheshallappointanother
time for the hearing at the same place and shall direct what notice thereof shall be given to the defendant.
Whenthedefendanthas beengivensuchnoticeinaccordance withtheinstructionsofthecourtorjudge,he
shallbeboundtoperformthedutieswhichwouldhavebeenrequiredofhimonthefirsthearingdateandbe
subjecttothesamepenaltiesforfailuretoperform.273

16.62.Penaltyforrefusaltoproducethebody.

Ifadefendantuponwhomawritofhabeascorpushasbeendulyservedrefusesorneglectstoproducethebody
andtomakeafullandsufficientreportatthetimeandplacenamedinthewritandoffersnosufficientexcuse
forsuchrefusalorneglect,thecourtorjudgebeforewhomthewritisreturnableshall,uponproofoftheservice
thereof, forthwith issue a writ of arrest against the defendant. The defendant shall immediately be brought
beforethecourtorjudgewhoissuedthewritandshallbebyitorhimcommittedtothejailofthecountyin
whichsuchcourtorjudgehasjurisdiction.Thedefendantshallnotbeallowedanylibertiesofthejail(suchas
receivingfoodorothercomfortsfromtheoutside)untilhemakesanadequatereportandcomplieswithallthe
ordersmadebythecourtorjudgeconcerningtheprisoner.Ifthedisobedienceisonthepartofthesheriff,the
writofarrestshallbedirectedtoadeputysheriffortosomeotherpersonwhoshallactassheriffduringthe
imprisonmentofthesheriff.274

16.63.Writofarrestinhabeascorpusproceeding.

Inanyproceedingoractionunderanyprovisionofthissubchapter,itshallbelawfulforthecourtinwhichthe
actionorproceedingisbroughtorforanyjudgethereoftoissueawritofarrestwithoutrequiringtheoathor
otherformalitiesrequiredinotheractions.Allwritsofarrestissuedunderthissubchaptershallbediscretionary

272
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1660);19%Code6:1149;Rev.Stat.1394(5),(8);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.XXIII,8,2Hub.1582.
273
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1661);1956Code6:1150;Rev.Stat.1394(6);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXIII,10,11,2Hub.1582.
274
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1662);1956Code6:1151;Rev.Stat.1394(9).
withthecourtorjudge,whomayrequirethattheordinaryproceduresbefollowedand,evenifsuchprocedures
arefollowed,refusethewrit.275

16.64.Generalpowersofcourtorjudge.

Everycourtorjudgetowhomanapplicationforawritofhabeascorpusismadeorbeforewhomitisreturnable
shall have the full power and authority at any time to inquire as to the situation of the prisoner and the
intentionsofthedefendant.Thecourtorjudgemayatanytimewhenitappearsproperissueacompulsorywrit
ofhabeascorpusdirectingthesameeithertothesherifforhisdeputy.276

16.65.Compulsorywritofhabeascorpus.

Thecompulsorywritofhabeascorpusdiffersfromanordinarywritinthefollowingparticulars:

(a) Itisaddressedtoaministerialofficerofthecourtinsteadofthedefendant;
(b) Itorderstheministerialofficertocompelthedefendanttohavetheprisonerbeforethecourt;and
(c) Itauthorizestheministerialofficertouseforceto carryoutits directionsandtorequire theaidofall
citizensinitsexecution;and
(d) It commands the person to whom it is directed to return the writ to the court at the time and place
specifiedwithareportastothemannerinwhichthewritwasexecuted.

Allprovisionsofthissubchaptergoverningtheordinarywritofhabeascorpusshallapplytothecompulsorywrit
exceptthatitneednotbeissuedinduplicate.277

16.66.Citizenstoaidexecutionofcompulsorywrit.

Whenever required, it shall be the duty of every male citizen over the age of sixteen years to give aid and
assistancetoasheriffinexecutingacompulsorywritofhabeascorpus.Itshallbethedutyofeverysheriffto
provideasufficientforcetosecuretheexecutionofeverywrit.278

16.67.Procedureathearing.

Whenever the defendant and the prisoner appear before any court or judge in pursuance of a writofhabeas
corpus,itshallbelawfulforthecourtorjudgetoexaminethemandanyotherpersonswithoutoathorupon
oath or affirmation as the case may require. The court or judge may discharge, admit to bail, or remand the

275
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1663);1956Code6:1152;Rev.Stat.1394(9);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXIII,18,2Hub.1582.
276
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1664);1956Code6:1153;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,12,2
Hub.1582.
277
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1665);1956Code6:1154;Rev.Stat.1394;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.H,
ch.XXIII,13,2Hub.1582.
278
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1666);1956Code6:1155;Rev.Stat.1394(5);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XXIII,14,2Hub.1582.
prisoner, as it appears proper, and may also commit or otherwise secure the defendant to answer for slave
tradingoranyothercrimeofwhichtheevidencegivesreasonablecausetosupposehimguilty.279

16.68.Damagesforobstruction.

Anactionofdamagesmaybemaintainedbythepersonapplyingforthewritofhabeascorpusorbytheperson
intendedtobebenefittedtherebyagainstanyofthefollowing:

(a) Asheriffordeputysheriffwhomakesafalsereportunderanywritissuedundertheprovisionsofthis
subchapter;
(b) Anypersonwhodoesanyacttendingtoobstructordefeatthefulleffectofanywritofhabeascorpus,
ordinaryorcompulsory;
(c) Anypersonwhofailsorrefusestoperformanyactwhichheisboundbylaworhaspromisedtodoand
which, if not omitted, would have tended to promote the execution or effect of any writ of habeas
corpus,ordinaryorcompulsory;and
(d) Anypersonwhoviolatesanydutyimposeduponhimbythissubchapter.

Ajuryshallnotawardlessthanthreehundreddollarstoanysuccessfulplaintiffinanyactionbroughtunderthe
provisionsofthissection;provided,however,thatitmayawardasmalleramountiftheinjuryconsistedsolelyof
an omission to act by a person other than a judge, sheriff, other public officer, or a defendant; and provided
further that if several actions are brought by several persons against the same person for the same act or
omission and the jury gives a verdict of three hundred dollars or more in the first tried action, it may in
subsequentactionsawardwhateverdamagesitdeemspropernotwithstandingtheprovisionsofthissection.280

16.69.Appealsfromhabeascorpusproceedingassupersedeas.

Anappealfromthejudgmentinahabeascorpusproceedingshallnotactasasupersedeasorsuspensionofsuch
judgment.281

SubchapterE.CONDEMNATIONPROCEEDINGS
16.71.Provisionoffundsforcondemnation.

Whenever the Legislature of Liberia by statute or joint resolution authorizes work of a public or quasipublic
naturetobedonewhollyorpartlyatpublicexpenseanddirectsthecondemnationofprivatepropertytherefor

279
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1667);1956Code6:1156;Rev.Stat.1395(10);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t
II,ch.XXIII,15,2Hub.1582.
280
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1668);1956Code6:1157;Rev.Stat.1394(11);OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,
t.II,ch.XXIII,16,17,19,20,2Hub.1582.
281
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1669);1956Code6:1158;L.189394,10(2nd),3.
ifnecessary,itshallinthesamestatuteorresolutionprovidethattherebeincludedintheannualbudgetasum
for the compensation of the owners of real property which is to be wholly or partly condemned in such
undertaking.282

16.72.Whencondemnationproceedingsarenecessary.

Whenlandisrequiredforpublicuseandtheownerorownersorsomeofthemwillnotconsenttosellittothe
government at the price offered by the government, condemnation proceedings shall be instituted and
prosecutedinthemannerprescribedinsection16.73through16.75.283

16.73.Petition.

TheMinisterofJusticeoracountyattorneyonbehalfoftheRepublic,acounty,oranyothersubdivisionofthe
Republic shall prepare a condemnation petition, and shall serve copies thereof on all owners of and all other
personswitharecordinterestinthepropertytobecondemned(allsuchownersandpersonsarehereinafter
referred to as "respondents") at least ten days before filing the petition in the circuit court of the county in
whichthelandislocated.Thepetitionshallcontainthefollowing:

(a) Acleardescriptionofthelandtobeacquired;
(b) Astatementoftheuseforwhichthelandistobeacquired;
(c) Astatementoftherightsofallthepersonsinterestedintheland;
(d) Astatementofthevalueofthelandtothebestofpetitioner'sknowledge;
(e) Astatementthatthegovernmentsrepresentativehasbeenunabletocometoanagreementwiththe
respondentseither(i)forthesurrenderofthepropertyor(ii)astotheamountofcompensationtobe
paidtherefor;and
(f) Aprayerforthecondemnationthereof.284

16.74.Noticetobegiven.

Whenthepetitionhasbeenfiled,thejudgesittinginchambersshallfixinwritingthetermatwhichthepetition
shall be heard. The petitioner shall be required forthwith to serve notice of the hearing date upon all
respondents.285

16.75.Procedure.

1. When part of realty taken. If the petitioner asks for only part of the realty and the part remaining will
thereafterbeofnopracticaluse, therespondentshallmakeaspecial plea tothat effect inhisanswer;andif

282
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1671);1956Code6:1180;L.193132,ch.IV,1.
283
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1672);1956Code6:1181;Rev.Stat.1385.
284
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1673);1956Code6:1182;L.193132,ch.IV,2;Rev.Stat.1385(1).
285
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1674);1956Code6:1183;L.193132,ch.IV,3;Rev.Stat.1385(2).
such allegation is sustained and the court approves the condemnation, it shall order the taking of the entire
propertyandthepaymentofcompensationfortheentirepropertytaken.

2.Righttojurytrial.Thepartiesshallbeentitledtoajurytrial,andtheproceedingsshallbeinaccordancewith
thelawsrelatingtoactionsfordamages.Thepartiesmaybymutualconsentwaivejurytrialofthevalueofthe
condemnedpropertyandhavethevalueappraisedbyarefereeappointedbythecourt.286

16.76.Paymentofjudgment.

Ifonthebasisofajuryverdictorthedecisionofarefereeajudgmentisgivenawardingcompensationtothe
respondentsoranyofthem,theclerkofthecourtshallforthwithsendacertifiedcopythereoftotheMinisterof
Finance.OnwarrantofthePresident,theMinistershallpaytheamountofthejudgmentovertothepersonor
personsinwhosefavorthejudgmentwasgiven.Intheeventthereisnoonetoreceivepayment,theMinister
shalldepositthemoneyinthenearestbanktothecreditofthejudgmentcreditor.287

SubchapterF.SPECIALPROCEEDINGSCONCERNINGMENTALLYDISABLED
ANDLEGALLYINCOMPETENTPERSONS
16.81.Definitions.

Asusedinthissubchapter,unlessthecontextclearlyindicatesotherwise:

(a) The term "mentally disabled person" means a person who, because of mental or emotional illness,
incapacity,ordeficiency,requireshospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodyforhisownwelfareorthe
protectionofothers.
(b) The term "hospitalization" means commitment of a mentally disabled person to a government or
governmentapprovedinstitutionwhichacceptssuchpersonsfortreatment.
(c) The term "commitment to custody" means commitment to the custody of a person or persons as
providedundersection16.84(11)(c).
(d) Theterm"superintendent"meansthechiefadministratorofaninstitutionorhisdeputy.
(e) The term "adjudicated incompetent" means a person judicially declared incapable of managing his
property.
(f) Theterm"physician"meansapsychiatrist.288

16.82.Jurisdiction.

286
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1675);1956Code6:1184;L.193132,ch.IV,46;Rev.Stat.1385(3).
287
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1676);1956Code1185;L.193132,ch.IV,7;Rev.Stat.1385(4).
288
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1681).
Jurisdiction over mentally disabled persons not charged with crime and over the property of adjudicated
incompetentsisvestedintheprobatecourtsoftheseveralcounties.289

16.83.Emergencyhospitalization.

1. Temporary custody. Any sheriff, police officer, or health officer who has reasonable cause to believe that a
person is mentally disabled and requires immediate hospitalization for his own welfare or the protection of
othersmaytakehimintotemporarycustodyforemergencyhospitalization.

2. Hospitalization. On such an officer's written application stating the circumstances in which the condition of
thepersonbelievedtobementallydisabledcametotheofficer'sattentionandthefactswhichledtheofficerto
believe that emergency hospitalization was required, the superintendent of a government or government
approved institution may hospitalize said person for a period of not more than five days, at the expiration of
whichsaidpersonmustbedischargedunlessacourthasorderedotherwiseasprovidedinthissubchapter.290

16.84.Hospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodybycourtorder.

1. Filing of petition. Any person, including the superintendent of an institution, may file in probate court a
petitionforhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodyofarespondentwithintheterritorialjurisdictionofthe
court.

2.Contentsofpetition.Thepetitionshallcontain:

(a) Astatementofthefactsonwhichthepetitionisbased;
(b) Thenamesandaddressesofwitnessesbywhomthefactsmaybeproved;
(c) Thenamesandaddressesoftherespondentandhisspouseornearestrelativeor,ifnotknown,asworn
statement describing the petitioner's diligent efforts to ascertain the names and addresses of the
respondent'sspouseandnearestrelative;
(d) Thenameandaddressofthepersonwithwhomtherespondentresidesorwhohascustodyorcontrol
oftherespondent,orofthesuperintendentofaninstitutionwhereintherespondentishospitalizedor
otherwiselocated;
(e) Arequestthattherespondentbehospitalizedorcommittedtocustodyasamentallydisabledperson;
and
(f) Astatementofreasonswhytherequestshouldbegranted.

3.Hearingonpetition.Uponthefilingofthepetitiontheclerkoftheprobatecourtshallimmediatelypresentit
to the judge of the court who shall set it down for hearing on a date not later than ten days after the filing
thereof.

289
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1682);1956Code6:1159,1160,1190,1191,1192;.18:512(b),530(h),531(h);Rev.
Stat.72,1268(8),1396;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
290
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1683);1956Code6:1159,1160,1191,1192;33:31;Rev.Stat.72,1396;OBB82,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1587,1588.
4.Noticeofhearing.Theordersettingthehearingonthepetitionshalldirectthatreasonablenoticethereof,
together with a copy of the petition, be served on the persons specified in paragraphs 2(c) and 2(d) of this
section.

5. Compulsory attendance of respondent. In the discretion of the court, the order setting the hearing on the
petitionmaydirectthatawritbeissuedtothesheriffofthecountyortothepersonhavingcustodyorcontrolof
therespondent,ortothesuperintendentofaninstitutionwhereintherespondentishospitalizedorotherwise
located,commandinghimtobringtherespondentbeforethecourtatthetimeandplacesetforthehearing.

6. Return of service. All notices and writs shall be returned to the office of the clerk who issued them at or
beforethetimesetforthehearingonthepetitionwiththetimeandmannerofservicethereofendorsedthere
upon.

7.Powersofcourtpendingdisposition.Uponthefilingofthepetitionthecourtshallhavethepowertomake
suchordersasmaybenecessarytoprovideformedicalorotherexaminationintotherespondent's condition
andtoprovidefortherespondent'smaintenance,care,treatmentordetentioninhisownhome,orinamental
institution,orinsuchotherplace,exclusiveofprison,aswillaffordaccesstomedicalorotherexaminationand
properprovisionfortherespondent'swelfareandtheprotectionofotherspendingdispositionofthematter.

8.Jurytrial.Therespondent,hisattorney,andanydulyauthorizedrepresentativeoftherespondent,shallhave
the right to demand that the question of whether the respondent is so mentally disabled as to require
hospitalization or commitment to custody be tried by a jury. If a jury trial is demanded, the matter shall be
referredtotheCircuitCourtwhichshallempanelajury.TheCircuitCourtshallconductajurytrialandtransmit
theverdictofthejurytotheprobatecourt;exceptthatiftheCircuitCourtfindstheverdictofthejurycontrary
totheweightoftheevidence,theCircuitCourtmaysettheverdictasideandorderanewjurytrial.

9.Hearingwithoutjury.Ifajurytrialisnotdemanded,theprobatecourtshallhearthematterwithoutajury.

10.Testimonyofphysician.Nopersonshallbehospitalizedorcommittedtocustodyunlessaphysiciantestifies
thatheismentallydisabled.

11.Determinationandorder.Inaccordancewiththeverdictofthejuryoruponthehearingwithoutajuryand
subjecttotheprovisionsofparagraph10ofthissection,theprobatecourtshalldetermineandorder:

(a) Thatthepetitionbedismissed;or
(b) That the respondent be hospitalized in such manner and under such conditions as the court finds
necessaryforthewelfareoftherespondentortheprotectionofothers;or
(c) Thattherespondentbecommittedtothecustodyofapersonorpersonswillingandableproperlyto
careforhimataplaceotherthanamentalinstitutioninsuchmannerandundersuchconditionsasthe
courtfindsnecessaryforthewelfareoftherespondentortheprotectionofothers.291

16.85.Proceduresforhospitalizationandcommitmenttocustodyareexclusive.

The procedures specified in this subchapter shall be the exclusive methods of instituting proceedings for
hospitalizationandcommitmenttocustodyofmentallydisabledpersons.292

16.86.Judicialdischargeofpersonshospitalizedorcommittedtocustody.

1. Filing of petition. Any person hospitalized or committed to custody, or any other person on such person's
behalf, may file in the probate court of the county where such person is hospitalized or located, or in the
probatecourtofthe countyfromwhichsuch personwashospitalizedorcommitted tocustody,apetitionfor
dischargefromhospitalizationorfromcustody,orformodificationoramendmentoftheorderofhospitalization
orcommitmenttocustody.

2.Contentsofpetition.Thepetitionshallcontain:

(a) Astatementofthefactsonwhichthepetitionisbased;
(b) Thenamesandaddressesofwitnessesbywhomthefactsmaybeproved;
(c) Thenamesandaddressesofthepersonhospitalizedorcommittedtocustodyandofthesuperintendent
oftheinstitutionwhereinsaidpersonishospitalizedorofthepersonwhohascustodyorcontrolofsaid
person;
(d) Thenameofthecourtwhichissuedtheorderofhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodyandthedate
oftheorder;
(e) Arequestfordischargefromhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustody;and
(f) Astatementofreasonswhytherequestshouldbegranted.

3.Supportingaffidavits.Thepetitionermayfilewiththepetitionasupportingaffidavitofthesuperintendentof
theinstitutionwhereinthepersoninquestionishospitalizedorasupportingaffidavitoraffidavitsoftheperson
orpersonstowhosecustodysaidpersoninquestionwascommitted.

4.Ordergrantingpetitiononaffidavitsorsettinghearing.Uponthefilingofthepetitiontheclerkoftheprobate
court shall immediately present it to the judge of the court. If the petition is supported by an affidavit or
affidavits under paragraph three of this section the court may, in its discretion, without further notice or
hearing,orderthatthepetitionbegrantedandthatthepersoninquestionbedischargedfromhospitalizationor
custody,orthattheoriginalorderofhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodybemodifiedoramended.Ifthe

291
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1684);1956Code6:1159,1160,1191,1192;33:31,32;Rev.Stat.72,1396;OBB
82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
292
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1685);1956Code6:1159,1160,1192;33:31,32;Rev.Stat.72,1396;OBB82,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,tII,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
petitionisnotsogranted,thecourtshallsetitdownforhearingonadatenotlaterthantendaysafterthefiling
thereof.

5.Noticeofhearing.Theordersettingthehearingonthepetitionshalldirectthatreasonablenoticethereofbe
servedonthepetitionerandthatsuchnotice,togetherwithacopyofthepetition,beservedonthepersonin
questionifsaidpersonisotherthanthepetitioner,andonthesuperintendentoftheinstitutionwhereinsaid
personishospitalizedoronthepersonwhohascustodyorcontroloversaidperson.

6.Compulsoryattendanceofpersonhospitalizedorincustody.Inthediscretionofthecourt,theordersetting
thehearingonthepetitionmaydirectthatawritbeissuedtothesheriffofthecounty,ortothesuperintendent
oftheinstitutionwhereinthepersoninquestionishospitalizedorotherwiselocated,ortothepersonhaving
custodyorcontrolofsaidperson,commandinghimtobringsaidpersonbeforethecourtatthetimeandplace
setforthehearingonthepetition.

7. Return of service. All notices and writs shall be returned to the office of the clerk who issued them at or
beforethetimesetforthehearingonthepetitionwiththetimeandmannerofservicethereofendorsedthere
upon.

8. Procedure for hearing. Procedure for the hearing on the petition shall be the same as provided in section
16.84ofthissubchapteronapetitionforhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustody,includingtherightofthe
personinquestiontoajurytrial.

9.Testimonyofphysician.Nopetitionfiledpursuanttothissectionshallbegrantedunlessaqualifiedphysician
testifiesthatthepersonfilingsuchpetitionoronbehalfofwhomsuchpetitionisfiledisnotmentallydisabledor
that his condition warrants the requested modification of the order hospitalizing him or committing him to
custody.

10.Determinationandorder.Upontheverdictofthejuryoruponthehearingwithoutajuryandsubjecttothe
provisionsofparagraph9ofthissection,theprobatecourtshall:

(a) Determine and order that the person in question be discharged from hospitalization or custody
unconditionallyorundersuchconditionsasthecourtfindsnecessaryforthewelfareofsaidpersonor
theprotectionofothers;or
(b) Determineandorderthattheoriginalorderofhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustodybemodifiedor
amended as the court finds necessary for the welfare of the person in question or the protection of
others;or
(c) On a finding that the welfare of the person in question or the protection of others requires that the
originalorderremaininforce,dismissthepetitionandorderthatthereafternopetitionunderthissect
ionshallbefiledonbehalfofsaidpersonwithoutleaveofcourt.293

16.87.Administrativereleaseofhospitalizedperson.

Anyhospitalizedpersonmaybeconditionallyreleasedfromthehospitalbythesuperintendentoftheinstitution
whereinsuchpersonishospitalizedifintheopinionofthesuperintendentsuch persondoesnotatthattime
requirehospitalizationforhisownwelfareortheprotectionofothers.Suchreleaseshallbeonlyforsolongas
thepersondoesnotrequirehospitalizationandsubjecttosuchotherconditionsasthesuperintendentdeems
necessary to impose for the welfare of the person released or the protection of others. If the need for the
hospitalizationofsuchpersonagainbecomesapparent,orifaviolationofanyoftheconditionsimposedonhis
releaseoccurs,hisreturntothehospitalbyasheriff,policeofficer,orhealthofficerisauthorizedwithoutacourt
orderasrequiredbysection16.84ofthistitle.Thecourtwhichorderedtheoriginalhospitalizationofaperson
shall be notified by the superintendent of the hospital of the release of such person or his rehospitalization
pursuanttotheprovisionsofthissection.294

16.88.Habeascorpus.

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to deny the benefit of the writ of habeas corpus to any person
hospitalizedorcommittedtocustody.Shouldthecourtfindthatthepersonseekingthebenefitofthewritwas
illegally hospitalized or committed to custody, the court shall enter an order discharging said person from
hospitalization or from commitment to custody and shall transmit a certified copy of the order to the court
whichissuedtheoriginalorderofhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustody.Uponreceiptofthecertifiedcopy,
thecourtwhichissuedtheoriginalordershallenteranorderfindingthatsaidpersonhasbeendischargedfrom
hospitalizationorfromcommitmenttocustodybyorderofthecourtissuingthewrit.295

16.89.Applicationtopersonsheretoforehospitalizedorcommittedtocustody.

Sections16.86,16.87,16.88,and16.97ofthissubchaptershallapplytoanypersonnotchargedwithcrimewho
washospitalizedorcommittedtocustodypriortotheeffectivedateofthissubchapterbyreasonofmentalor
emotionalillness,incapacity,ordeficiency.296

16.90.Hospitalization,commitmenttocustody,andadjudicationofincompetency.

293
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1686);1956Code6:1191;33:31;Rev.Stat.72,1396;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.XXIII,21,2Hub.1582.
294
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1687).
295
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1688);1956Code6:1159,1160;Rev.Stat1394;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,tII,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
296
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1689).
An order or adjudication as to hospitalization or discharge therefrom, or as to commitment to custody or
discharge therefrom, shall not be construed as an order or adjudication as to incompetency or restoration to
legalcapacity.Apersonmaynot,byreasonofhospitalizationorcommitmenttocustody,bedeprivedofanycivil
rights,includingbutnotlimitedtotherightstovote,holdordisposeofproperty,enterintocontractsandother
legal relationships, or hold or renew any license, benefit, or privilege. However, in hearing and determining a
petitionundersection16.84orsection16.86ofthissubchapter,thecourtmay,inthesameproceeding,hear
anddetermineapetitionrespectingthesamepersonundersection16.91orsection16.96ofthissubchapter.297

16.91.Adjudicationofincompetencyandappointmentofguardian.

1. Filing of petition. Any person may file in probate court a petition for adjudication of incompetency and
appointment of a guardian of the property of a respondent residing or having property within the territorial
jurisdictionofthecourt.

2.Contentsofpetition.Thepetitionshallcontain:

(a) Astatementofthefactsonwhichthepetitionisbased;
(b) Thenamesandaddressesofwitnessesbywhomthefactsmaybeproved;
(c) Thenamesandaddressesoftherespondent,hisspouse,hisnearestknownnextofkin,heirsatlawand
distributees, and the person with whom he resides or who has control or custody over him or the
superintendentofaninstitutionwhereinbeishospitalizedorotherwiselocated;
(d) Arequestforadjudicationofincompetencyandappointmentofaguardianoftherespondentsproperty;
and
(e) Astatementofreasonswhytherequestshouldbegranted.

3.Hearingonpetition.Uponthefilingofthepetitiontheclerkoftheprobatecourtshallimmediatelypresentit
tothejudgeofthecourtwhoshallsetitdownforhearingonadatenotsoonerthanfivedaysnormorethan30
daysafterthefilingthereof.

4. Notice of hearing. The order setting the hearing on the petition shall direct that reasonable notice thereof,
togetherwithacopyofthepetition,beservedonthepersonsspecifiedinparagraph2(c)ofthissection.The
courtshalldirectsuchfurthernoticeofthehearingasmaybeproper.

5. Return of service. All notices and writs shall be returned to the office of the clerk who issued them at or
beforethetimesetforthehearingwiththetimeandmannerofservicethereofindorsedthereupon.

6. Guardian ad litem. Upon the filing of the petition the court may appoint a responsible person to act as
guardianadlitemoftherespondent.

297
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1690).
7.Jurytrial.Therespondentoranypersononwhomnoticeofthepetitionhasbeenservedshallhavetheright
todemandthatthequestionofwhethertherespondentisincapableofmanaginghisownpropertybetriedbya
jury. If a jury trial is demanded, the matter shall be referred to the Circuit Court which shall empanel a jury,
conductajurytrial,andtransmittheverdictofthejurytotheprobatecourt,exceptthatiftheCircuitCourtfinds
thattheverdictofthejuryiscontrarytotheweightoftheevidence,theCircuitCourtmaysettheverdictaside
andorderanewjurytrial.

8.Hearingwithoutjury.Ifajurytrialisnotdemanded,theprobatecourtshallhearthematterwithoutajury.

9.Determinationandorder.Upontheverdictofthejuryoruponthehearingwithoutajury,theprobatecourt
shall:

(a) Dismissthepetition;or
(b) Declare and adjudicate the respondent to be an incompetent person and appoint a guardian of the
respondent's property who shall have the charge and management thereof subject to the supervisory
powersoftheprobatecourtandpursuanttotheprovisionsofthissubchapter.298

16.92.Bond,powers,anddutiesofguardian.

1. Bond. Before entering on the discharge of his duties, the guardian of the property of an adjudicated
incompetent shall execute an undertaking with surety approved by the probate court in such amount as the
courtmayorder,conditionedonthefaithfulperformanceofsaidduties.

2.Powersandduties.Theguardianofthepropertyofanincompetentpersonshalltakepossessionof,maintain,
andadministeralltherealandpersonalpropertyofsuchperson,collectalldebtsduesuchperson,collectthe
rentsandincomefromsuchproperty,makeanyreasonableexpendituresnecessarytopreservesuchproperty,
andmaintainordefendanyactionwithrespecttosuchproperty,andmayleaseanyrealorpersonalpropertyof
theincompetentpersonforatermnotexceeding20yearsaftertheexecutionofsuchlease.Wheneveritshall
beproposedtocompromiseorsettleanyclaim,whetherinsuitornot,byoragainstanincompetentperson,or
tocompromiseorsettleanydisputeconcerningsuchperson'srealorpersonalproperty,theprobatecourt,on
petition of the guardian of such person's property, or of any party in interest setting forth all the facts and
circumstances,andaftersuchnoticeasthecourtshalldirect,aidedifnecessarybythereportofareferee,may
enteradecreeauthorizingthecompromiseorsettlementtobemade.

3.Distributionandaccounting.Theguardianofthepropertyofanincompetentpersonshallapplysuchpartof
theannualincomeandoftheprincipalofsuchperson'spropertyasthecourtauthorizestothesupportofsuch
personandthemaintenanceandeducationofsuchperson'sfamilyandchildren.Onceineachyear,oroftenerif
required by the court, such guardian shall settle and account for his trust under oath. He shall account for all
assets, profit and increase of the estate and the annual value thereof and shall be allowed credit for taxes,

298
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1691);1956Code6:112,1160,1190,1191,1192;18:512(h),530(h),531(h);Rev.
Stat.72,1393,1396;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
repairs, improvements, expenses, and commissions. He shall not be answerable for any loss or decrease
sustainedwithouthisfault.299

16.93.Titletopropertyofadjudicatedincompetent.

Legal title to all the real and personal property of an adjudicated incompetent shall remain in such person
subject, however, to all the inherent and statutory powers of the guardian of such person's property and to
ordersoftheprobatecourt.300

16.94.Compensationofguardian.

Theprobatecourtshallallowareasonablecompensationforservicesrenderedbytheguardianoftheproperty
of an adjudicated incompetent not to exceed (a) 2 1/2 percent on all amounts received by the guardian to
administer as the principal of the estate or received as income on the estate, plus (b) 2 1/2 percent on all
amountspaidoutoftheprincipalorincomeoftheestatefornecessaryexpensesortothepersondeclaredan
incompetentorhislegalrepresentative.301

16.95.Ancillaryguardianshipofnonresidentincompetent.

1. Petition for appointment. When an adjudicated incompetent who is not a resident of Liberia is entitled to
property or to maintain an action in Liberia, a guardian, committee, or conservator of such person's property
dulyappointedbylegalauthorityinthejurisdictionwheresaidpersonresidesmaypetitiontheprobatecourtof
anycountywhereinthenonresidentincompetentisentitledtopropertyortomaintainordefendanaction,for
appointmentasancillaryguardian.

2.Evidencetoaccompanypetition.Thepetitionshallbefiledwithevidenceofthepetitioner'squalificationsfor
ancillaryguardianshipundertheprovisionsofthissectionandwithanundertakingsufficienttoaccountforall
propertywhichmaybereceivedbyvirtueofsuchguardianship.

3.Appointmentofguardian.Onapetitionandevidencesatisfyingtherequirementsofthissection,theprobate
court may appoint the petitioner or a person nominated by him as ancillary guardian of the property of the
nonresident incompetent, with the powers, authority, responsibilities, and compensation of a guardian under
sections16.91,16.92,16.93,and16.94ofthistitle,andsuchadditionalpowersandresponsibilitiesasthecourt
mayfindnecessarytoprotecttheinterestsofthenonresidentincompetent.302

16.96.Restorationtolegalcapacityanddischargeofguardianofproperty.

299
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1692);1956Code6:91,112,1160,1190,1191,1192;18:512(h),530(h),531(h);Rev.
Stat.72,1393,1396;OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tII,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
300
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1693).
301
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1694).
302
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1695).
1.Filingofpetition.Anypersonwhohasbeenadjudicatedincompetent,oranyotherpersononhisbehalf,may
file in the probate court of the county where the person who has been adjudicated incompetent resides a
petitiontorestorehimtolegalcapacityanddischargetheguardianofhisproperty.

2.Contentsofpetition.Thepetitionshallcontain:

(a) Astatementofthefactsonwhichthepetitionisbased;
(b) Thenamesandaddressesofwitnessesbywhomthefactsmaybeproved;
(c) Thenamesandaddressesoftheadjudicatedincompetent,theguardianofhisproperty,hisspouse,his
nearestknownnextofkin,heirsatlawanddistributees,andthepersonwithwhomheresidesorthe
superintendentofaninstitutionwhereinheishospitalizedorotherwiselocated;
(d) The name of the court which rendered the adjudication of incompetency and the date of that
adjudication;
(e) Arequestforrestorationoftheadjudicatedincompetenttolegalcapacityanddischargeoftheguardian
ofhisproperty;and
(f) Astatementofreasonswhytherequestshouldbegranted.

3.Hearingonpetition.Uponthefilingofthepetition,theclerkoftheprobatecourtshallimmediatelypresentit
tothejudgeofthecourtwhoshallsetitdownforhearingonadatenotsoonerthanfivedaysnormorethan30
daysafterthefilingthereof.

4.Noticeofhearing.Theordersettingthehearingonthepetitionshalldirectthatreasonablenoticethereofbe
served on the petitioner and on the persons specified in paragraph 2(c) of this section. The court shall direct
suchfurthernoticeofthehearingasmaybeproper.

5.Compulsoryattendanceofincompetent.Inthediscretionofthecourt,theordersettingthehearingonthe
petitionmaydirectthatawritbeissuedtothesheriffofthecountyortothesuperintendentoftheinstitution
whereintheincompetentishospitalizedorotherwiselocated,ortothepersonhavingcustodyorcontrolofthe
incompetent commanding him to bring the incompetent before the court at the time and place set for the
hearingonthepetition.

6. Return of service. All notices and writs shall be returned to the office of the clerk who issued them at or
before the time set for the hearing on the petition with the time and manner of service thereof endorsed
thereupon.

7. Procedure for hearing. Procedure for the hearing on the petition shall be the same as provided in section
16.91 of this subchapter on the petition for adjudication of incompetency and appointment of a guardian,
includingtherightoftheincompetenttoajurytrial.

8.Determinationandorder.Inaccordancewiththeverdictofthejury,oruponthehearingwithoutajury,the
probatecourtshall:
(a) Orderthattheadjudicationofincompetencybevacatedandannulled;thattheincompetentberestored
tofulllegalcapacity;andthattheguardianofthepropertybedischargedonsuchtermsandconditions
asthecourtfindsequitable;or
(b) Onafindingthattheincompetentremainsincapableofmanaginghisproperty,dismissthepetitionand
order that thereafter no petition shall be filed on behalf of the same incompetent under this section
withoutleaveofcourt.303

16.97.Costsofproceedings.

1. When person hospitalized, committed to custody, or adjudicated incompetent. When any person is
hospitalized,committedtocustody,oradjudicatedincompetentinproceedingsunderthissubchapter,thecourt
shall assess the costs of such proceedings against such person or his estate. If such person is indigent or
otherwiseunabletodefraysuchcosts,theyshallbedefrayedbytheRepublic.

2.Ondismissalofpetition.Onthedismissalofapetitioninanyproceedingsunderthissubchapter,thecostsof
suchproceedingsshallbeassessedagainstthepetitionerorhisestate.

3.Fees.Feesforjuryservice,witnesses,andforserviceandexecutionofprocessshallbethesameasforsimilar
servicesincivilproceedings.304

16.98.SupportofmentallydisabledpersonsinGovernmentinstitutions.

A person hospitalized in a Government institution as mentally disabled shall not be a public charge unless his
estateorrelativeslegallyresponsibleforhissupportarefinanciallyunabletobearthenecessaryexpense.The
Government may sue to recover from the estate of such person, or if the estate is insufficient, from such
responsible relatives, amounts expended by the institution for the support of the mentally incompetent
person.305

16.99.Receiptforpersonhospitalizedandhispersonalproperty.

Uponthehospitalizationofanypersonorthegivingoverofanypersontothecustodyofotherpersonspursuant
toprovisionsofthissubchapter,thechiefadministratoroftheinstitutionwhereinsuchpersonishospitalizedor
thepersonorpersonstakingcustodyofsuchpersonshallfilewiththeclerkofthecourtwhichenteredtheorder
ofhospitalizationorcustodyareceiptforeachitemofhispersonalpropertyreceivedwithsuchperson.306

16.100.Representationbycounsel.

303
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1696);1956Code6:1191,1192;18:512(h),530(h),531(h);Rev.Stat.72,1396;
OBB82,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XXIII,21,22,2Hub.1582.
304
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1697).
305
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1698);1956Code33:32;Rev.Stat.73.
306
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1699).
1.Dutyofcourt.Atorpriortoanyhearingunderthissubchapter,exceptinproceedingsundersection16.94
thereof, it shall be the duty of the court to require and effectuate proper and adequate representation by
counselforanyallegedlymentallydisabledorallegedlyincompetentpartytosuchproceedings.Thecourtshall
inform such party of his right to counsel; ask whether he desires counsel of his choice to be summoned or
desires counsel to be appointed by the court; and summon or appoint such counsel as required. If the court
determines that any allegedly mentally disabled or allegedly incompetent party is indigent, the court shall
appointashiscounseltheCountyDefenseCounsel,ifavailable.IftheCountyDefenseCounselisunavailable,the
courtshallappointalicensedcounselloratlaw.

2. Rights of counsel. Counsel summoned, appointed, or retained under this section shall be allowed time for
adequate preparation and shall not be prevented from conferring with the allegedly mentally disabled or
allegedlyincompetentpartyatreasonabletimesorfrommakingreasonableinvestigationofmattersinissueand
presentingrelevantevidence.

3.Counselfees.Uponthefilingwiththecourtofastatementunderoathoflegalservicesrenderedbycounsel
appointed for an indigent party under paragraph 1 of this section, the court shall allow as counsel fees, and
orderthetreasureroftheRepublictopaytotheappointedcounsel,areasonablefeestatedintheorder,notto
exceed$75ifnojury,or$150wherethereisajurytrial.307

16.101.Appeals.

Appealsfromfinalorders,decrees,andjudgmentsmadeandenteredinproceedingsunderthissubchaptermay
be taken by any party, including any allegedly mentally disabled or allegedly incompetent party, in the same
mannerasinothercivilcases.308

PARTII
_________
TrialProcedure

Chapter21.GENERALPROVISIONSRELATINGTOTRIALS
21.1.Sequenceoftrial.
21.2.Adjournmentoftrialinjustice'sandmagistrate'scourt.
21.3.Exceptions.

307
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1700).
308
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:1701);1956Code6:1191;Rev.Stat.1396.
21.4.Employmentofinterpreters.
21.5.Adjournmentoftrialtoobtainwitnesses.
21.6.Witnessestobesworn.

21.1.Sequenceoftrial.

Thecourtmaydeterminethesequenceinwhichtheissuesinacaseshallbetried.309

21.2.Adjournmentoftrialinjustice'sandmagistrate'scourt.

A party to a case for which a date for trial has been fixed in a justice's or magistrate's court is entitled to an
adjournment of not more than a week upon a reasonable application on the return date or upon joinder of
issue;providedthatnomorethantwoadjournmentsshallbegranted.310

21.3.Exceptions.

Anexceptionshallbenotedbyapartyatthetimethecourtmakesanyorder,decision,ruling,orcommentto
whichheobjects.Failuretonoteanexceptiontoanysuchactionshallpreventassigningitaserroronreviewby
theappellatecourt.Thepartywhoexceptsisentitledtohavehisexceptionnotedintheminutesofthecourt.311

21.4.Employmentofinterpreters.

Whenever an action is between parties one or more of whom does not understand or speak English and
whenever it is necessary to examine as a witness any person who does not understand or speak English, the
court shall appoint an interpreter to interpret the testimony by or for such person. Before undertaking his
duties,theinterpretershallswearoraffirmthathewillfaithfullyperformthem.312

21.5.Adjournmentoftrialtoobtainwitnesses.

Nopostponementofatrialshallbeallowedtoobtainwitnessesunlessitisshowntothesatisfactionofthecourt
that(a)properandduediligencehasbeenemployedtosecuretheirattendance,and(b)theirtestimonywillbe
material,relevant,andcompetent.313

21.6.Witnessestobesworn.

309
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2101);1956Code6:620;Rev.Stat.639;OBB44,45,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.V,2;ch.VI,2,2Hub.1540,1541.
310
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2102);1956Code6:595;Rev.Stat.637;J.P.Code24.
311
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2103);1956Code6:624;Rev.Stat.390.
312
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2104);1956Code6:760;Rev.Stat.383,384,641,642;J.P.Code28,29;OBB
61,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIII,3,2Hub.1559.
313
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2105);1956Code6:749.
Everypersoncalledasawitnessshallswearoraffirmthathewilltestifytruthfullybeforebeingallowedtogive
evidenceinanyaction.314

Chapter22.TRIALBYJURY
22.1. Righttotrialbyjury.
22.2. Alternatejurors.
22.3. Selectionofjurors.
22.4. Summoningjurors.
22.5. Voirdireexamination.
22.6. Challenges.
22.7. Oathofjurors.
22.8. Conductandmaintenanceofjuryduringtrial.
22.9. Instructionstojury.
22.10. Summaryofevidencebythejudge.
22.11. Verdicts.
22.12. Reportofverdict;pollingthejury;entryofverdict.
22.13. Unanimousverdictrequired;newtrialondisagreement.
22.14. Specialjuries.

22.1.Righttotrialbyjury.

1. Right preserved. The right to trial by jury as declared by Chapter III, Article 20(a) of the Constitution or as
givenbystatuteshallbepreservedinviolate.

2.Demand.Anypartymaydemandatrialbyjuryofanyissuetriableofrightbyajurybyservingupontheother
partiesademandthereforinwritingatanytimeafterthecommencementoftheactionandnotlaterthanten
daysaftertheserviceofapleadingoranamendmentofapleadingdirectedtosuchissue.Suchdemandmaybe
indorseduponapleadingofaparty.Apartymaynotwithdrawademandfortrialbyjurywithouttheconsentof
allotherparties.

314
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2106);1956Code6:750;Rev.Stat.387,643;J.P.Code30;OBB61,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIII,1,2Hub.1560.
3.Specificationofissues.Inhisdemandapartymayspecifytheissueswhichhewishestriedbyjury;otherwise
heshallbedeemedtohavedemandedtrialbyjuryforalltheissuessotriable.Ifhehasdemandedtrialbyjury
foronlysomeoftheissues,anyotherpartywithintendaysafterserviceofthedemandmayserveademandfor
trialbyjuryofanyotheroralloftheissuesintheactionsotriable.

4.Waiver.Thefailureofapartytoserveademandfortrialbyjuryofanissueasrequiredbythissectionandto
fileitasrequiredbysection8.2constitutesawaiverbyhimoftrialbyjuryofsuchissueunlesssuchademand
has been served by another party. If a demand for trial by jury has been made under this section a party
neverthelesswaiveshisrighttotrialbyjuryby:

(a) Failingtoappearatthetrial;
(b) Filingawrittenwaiverwiththeclerk;or
(c) Orallyconsentinginopencourttotrialwithoutajury.

Apartyshallnotbedeemedtohavewaivedtherighttotrialbyjuryoftheissuesoffactarisinguponaclaimby
joiningitwithanotherclaimwithrespecttowhich thereisnorighttotrialbyjury,orofissuesoffactarising
uponacounterclaimbyinterposingitinanactioninwhichthereisnorighttotrialbyjury.

5. Relief for failure to make demand. Notwithstanding the failure of a party to demand a jury in an action in
whichsuchademandmighthavebeenmadeofright,thecourtinitsdiscretionuponmotionmayorderatrialby
juryofanyorallissues.

6.Issuestriablebyajuryrevealedattrial.Whenitappearsinthecourseofatrialbythecourtthattherelief
required,eventhoughnotoriginallydemandedbyaparty,entitlestheadversepartytoatrialbyjuryofcertain
issuesoffact,thecourtshallgivetheadversepartyanopportunitytodemandajurytrialofsuchissues.Failure
tomakesuchademandwithinthetimelimitedbythecourtshallbedeemedawaiveroftherighttotrialbyjury.
Uponsuchdemand,thecourtshallorderajurytrialofanyissuesoffactwhicharerequiredtobetriedbyjury.315

22.2.Alternatejurors.

Inadditiontotheregularpanelthreejurorsshallbecalledandempanelledtositasalternatejurors.Suchjurors
shallbedrawnatthesametime,fromthesamesource,inthesamemanner,andhavethesamequalifications
andshallbesubjecttothesameexaminationandchallengesastheregularjurors.Theyshallbeseatedwithand
treatedinthesamemannerastheregularjurors,exceptthatanalternatejurorwhodoesnotreplaceaprincipal
jurorshallbedischargedwhenthejuryretirestoconsideritsverdict.If,beforethefinalsubmissionofthecase,a
regular juror dies, or becomes ill, or for any other reason becomes unable to perform or is disqualified from
performinghisduty,thecourtmayorderhimtobedischargedanddrawthenameofanalternate,whoshall

315
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2201);1956Code6:590,591;Rev.Stat.354,355,374;OBB46,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.VII,3,2Hub.1542;OBB113,JudiciaryAct,artI,5;1828Code,Digest,art.XIII,2Hub.1272,1282,1824
Digest,13th,2Hub.1286.
replace the discharged juror in the jury box, and be treated as if he had been selected as one of the regular
jurors.316

22.3.Selectionofjurors.

The appropriate official of each commonwealth district, municipal district, city, and township shall submit
quarterlytotheclerkoftheCircuitCourtofthejudicialdistrictinwhichsuchofficialperformshisdutiesalistof
namesofanumberofpersonswhomhebelievestobequalifiedtoserveasjurorsinhisjudicialdistrict,tobe
nonexempt,andtobeintelligent,honest,fairminded,ofgoodreputation,andcapableofrenderingsatisfactory
service.TheclerkoftheCircuitCourtshallselectfromthelistsubmittedtohimthenamesoffortytwopersons
tocomposeavenireofgrandandpetitjurorsforthefollowingtermofcourt.Thenamesselectedbytheclerk
shallbethoseofpersonsfromthevariouscommonwealthdistricts,cities,municipaldistricts,andtownshipsin
thejudicialdistrictinproportiontothenumberofinhabitantsasnearlyascanbeestimated.Suchpersonsshall
besummonedtoattendattheopeningdayoftheterminaccordancewiththeprovisionsofsection22.4.Onthe
openingdayofcourt,thejudgeoftheCircuitCourtshalldesignatefifteenofthefortytwopersonscomposing
theveniretoserveasgrandjurors.Beforethetrialofeachcivilcaseduringtheterm,thenamesofeachofthe
remainingtwentysevenpersonscomposingthevenireshallbewrittenonaseparatepieceofpaperofthesame
sizeandappearanceasalloftheotherpieces.Eachpieceshallbefoldedtoconcealthenamethereonandshall
beplacedinabox,whichthesheriffshallshakeinordertomixtheslipsofpaperaswellaspossible.Thenames
shallbedrawnbythesheriffinthepresenceofthecourt.Thepersonswhosenamesaredrawnshallbesubject
toexaminationandchallengeasprovidedinsections22.5and22.6.Thetwelvepersonswhosenamesarefirst
drawnandwhoarefoundacceptableshallserveasjurorsandthethreepersonswhosenamesarenextdrawn
and who are found acceptable shall serve as alternates. The judge shall appoint the foreman. If the panel is
exhausted before sufficient jurors have been selected, the sheriff, on direction of the court, shall summon a
sufficientnumberofqualifiedpersonsastalesmenfromthebystanders.317

22.4.Summoningjurors.

Thefortytwopersonscomposingthevenireofgrandandpetitjurorsshallbesummonedtoattendcourtonthe
openingdayoftheterm.Thesummonsshallbeservedbythesherifftendaysprevioustotheopeningdayby
delivering a copy thereof to the person named therein or by mailing a copy to the person at his last known
addressbyregisteredmail.Ifserviceisbymail,theaddressee'sreceiptshallbeattachedtothereturn.318

22.5.Voirdireexamination.

316
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2202);1956Code6:530,18:300;L.195253,ch.X.
317
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6.2203);1956Code6:531,532;L.195253,ch.X;L.194849,ch.XXXI,1,2;L.
193334,ch.X,7;Rev.Stat.358,379;L.191213,13,1;L.190001,21(2nd);OBB49,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,
ch.IX,2,13,2Hub.1545.
318
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.HI(6:2204);1956Code6:531;L.194849,ch.XXXI,2;Rev.Stat.358;OBB49,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.H,ch.IX,13,2Hub.1545.
Thecourtmayconducttheexaminationofprospectivejurorsormaypermitthepartiesortheirattorneystodo
so. If the court conducts the examination, it shall permit the parties or their attorneys to supplement the
examination by such further inquiry as it deems proper or shall itself submit to the prospective jurors such
additionalquestionsofthepartiesortheirattorneysasitdeemsproper.319

22.6.Challenges.

1. Generally. An objection to the qualifications of a juror must be made by a challenge. A challenge may be
madeeithertotheentirepanelonthegroundthatitwasillegallydrawnortoanindividualjuror.

2.Challengesforcauseorfavor.Apartymaychallengeajuroronthegroundthatheisdisqualifiedunderthe
JudiciaryLaworbyreasonofanyinterestorbias.Thefactthatajurorisintheemployofapartytotheaction,
or, if a party to the action is a corporation, that he is a shareholder therein, shall constitute a ground for a
challengetothefavorastosuchjuror.

3.Waiverongroundofdisqualification.Failurebyapartytochallengethepanelortochallengeajurorunder
paragraph2ofthissectionshallbedeemedawaiveroftherighttoobjectandshallforeclosetherighttomove
for a new trial on such grounds; provided that a party may be entitled to a new trial if he shows that a juror
madefalseanswerstomaterialquestionsconcerninghisqualifications.

4.Rulingsuponchallenges.Achallengetoajurorortothepanelmustbeheardanddeterminedbythecourt
subjecttotherightoftheobjectingpartytosavehisobjection.

5.Peremptorychallenges.Eachpartyshallbeentitledtofourperemptorychallenges.320

22.7.Oathofjurors.

Immediatelyaftertheselectionofthejuryandbeforethecommencementofthetrial,allthejurorscomposing
the jury, including the alternates, shall take the following oath faithfully to try the cause and render a verdict
accordingtothelawandtheevidence:

"Youandeachofyoudosolemnlyswearthatyouwillwellandfaithfullytrythecausenowbeforethis
courtandatrueverdictrenderaccordingtothelawandtheevidence,sohelpyouGod."

Anyjurorwhohasconscientiousscruplesagainsttakinganoathmayinsteadgivehissolemnaffirmation.Inan
appropriatecaseajurormaybeswornaccordingtonativecustomarylaw.321

22.8.Conductandmaintenanceofjuryduringtrial.

319
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2205);1956Code6:532.
320
Priorlegislation:L.Ich.III(6:2206);1956Code6:533;Rev.Stat.360;OBB49,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.IX2,
6,7,8,2Hub.1545.
321
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2207);1956Code6:535;Rev.Stat.381,382;OBB49,61,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,ch.IX5;ch.XIII,214,2Hub.1545,1559.
All the regular jurors comprising a jury shall be kept together from the time it is sworn or affirmed until it
rendersaverdictandisdischarged;andthealternatejurorsshallbekeptwiththejuryuntiltheyaredischarged
as provided in section 22.2, provided that when a mixed jury is not engaged in hearing evidence or in
deliberation, a room shall be provided for the female jurors separate from that for the male jurors. No juror,
either regular or alternate, shall communicate with any person other than the constable or bailiff sworn to
attendthem.Thejudgeatthetrialmay,however,dispensewithanyoftheserequirements.322

22.9.Instructionstojury.

1.Priortoretirementofjury.Atthecloseoftheevidenceoratanyearliertimeduringthetrialanypartymay
requestinwritingthatthecourtinstructthejuryonthelawassetforthinhisrequests.Thecourtshallinform
counselofitsproposedactionupontherequestspriortotheirargumentstothejury,butthecourtshallinsuch
instanceinstructthejuryinwritingaftertheargumentsarecompleted.Thecourtshallinstructthejuryonevery
issueoflawarisingoutofthefactseventhoughnorequeststochargethereonhavebeensubmittedbycounsel.
Nopartymayassignaserrorthegivingorthefailuretogiveaninstructionunlessheobjectstheretobeforethe
jury retires to consider its verdict, stating distinctly the matter to which he objects and the grounds of his
objection.Opportunityshallbegiventomaketheobjectionoutofthehearingofthejury.

2.Afterretirementofthejury.Thejurymayatanytimeduringdeliberationsaskthecourtforinstructionson
anypoint,andthecourtshall,iftherequestisproper,givethejurysuchinstructions.323

22.10.Summaryofevidencebythejudge.

At the time of instructing the jury, the judge may sum up the evidence and instruct the jury that they are to
determinetheweightoftheevidenceandthecredittobegiventothewitnesses.324

22.11.Verdicts.

1.Ingeneral.Ageneralverdictisoneinwhichthejuryfindsinfavorofoneormoreparties.Aspecialverdictis
one in which the jury finds the facts only, leaving the court to determine which party is entitled to judgment
thereon.Ineverycasethecourtshalldirectthejurytoreturnageneralverdictunlessinhisopinionthefacts
adducedinevidencejustifythereturnofaspecialverdict.

2.Procedureinconnectionwithspecialverdicts.Whenthecourtrequiresajurytoreturnaspecialverdict,the
courtshallsubmittothejurywrittenquestionssusceptibleofcategoricalorotherbriefanswerorwrittenforms
oftheseveralfindingswhichmightproperlybemade,oritmayuseanyotherappropriatemethodofsubmitting
theissuesandrequiringwrittenfindingsthereon.Thecourtshallgivesufficientinstructiontoenablethejuryto

322
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2208);1956Code6:536;L.194849,ch.XXXI,3,4;Rev.Stat.393;OBB49,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.IX,10,2Hub.1545.
323
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2209);1956Code6:627,628,654;Rev.Stat.377,392;OBB46,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.VII,12,13,2Hub.1542.
324
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2210);1956Code6:627;Rev.Stat.392.
makeitsfindingsuponeachissue.Ifthecourtomitsanyissueoffactraisedbythepleadingsorevidence,each
party waives his right to a trial by jury of the issue so omitted unless before the jury retires he demands its
submissiontothejury.Astoanissueomittedwithoutdemand,thecourtmaymakeanexpressfindingorshall
bedeemedtohavemadeafindinginaccordancewiththejudgment.325

22.12.Reportofverdict;pollingthejury;entryofverdict.

Theforemanofthejuryshalldeliveritsverdict.Ondemandofapartyatanytimebeforethejuryisdischarged,
thejuryshallbepolledtodeterminewhetherallthejurorssubscribetotheverdict.Onrenditionoftheverdict,
theclerkshallmakeanentryinhisminutesspecifyingthetimeandplaceofthetrial,thenamesofthejurorsand
witnesses,thegeneralverdictifsuchaverdictwasrendered,thequestionsoranswersorotherwrittenfindings
constituting a special verdict, and the direction, if any, which the court gives with respect to subsequent
proceedings.326

22.13.Unanimousverdictrequired;newtrialondisagreement.

Theconsentofalljurorsisnecessarytoaverdict.If,afterthejuryhasbeenkepttogetherareasonabletime,the
courtissatisfiedthatthereisnoprospectthatthejurorswillagreeonaverdict,thecourtshalldischargethe
juryanddirectanewtrialbeforeanotherjury.327

22.14.Specialjuries.

AftertheconclusionofatermofaCircuitCourtwhencivilcasesremaintobetried,aCircuitCourtmayinits
discretion,attherequestofeitherparty,orderaspecialjuryempaneledtotryanycivilcase.Thejuryshallbe
selectedinthesamemannerasothertrialjuries.Immediatelyafterfinaljudgmenthasbeenrenderedinsucha
casetheclerkofthecourtshallcalculatethejuryfee,includingthecostsofselectingandempanelingthejury,
compensationofjurors,andotherincidentalexpensesinconnectionwiththejury.Thepartywhorequestedthe
specialjuryshallpaytheperdiemjuror'sfeesinadvance;butwhencostsareassessed,thelosingpartymustpay
suchfeetothesheriffwithinthreedaysorexecutionshallissue.328

Chapter23.TRIALBYTHECOURT
23.1. Issuestobedecidedbythecourt.

325
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2211);1956Code6:651,652;L.193334,ch.X,Rev.Stat.394,395.
326
Priorlegislation:L.193334,ch.III(6:2212);1956Code6:657;OBB49,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.IX,4,2Hub.
1545.
327
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2213);1956Code6:655;Rev.Stat.356;OBB49,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.IX,I,11,12,2Hub.1545.
328
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2214);1956Code6:537;L.1938,ch.XXII,2;L.193334,ch.X,2;L.193132,ch.
XVI.
23.2. Advisoryjury.
23.3. Decisionofthecourt.
23.4. Timefordecisionbycourt.

23.1.Issuestobedecidedbythecourt.

Thecourtshalldecideanyissuenotrequiredtobetriedbyajuryunlessitisreferredtoarefereetodetermine
pursuanttochapter24.329

23.2.Advisoryjury.

Uponthemotionofanypartyoronthecourtsowninitiative,thecourtmaysubmitanyissueoffactrequiredto
bedecidedbythecourttoanadvisoryjury.Anorderunderthissectionshallspecifytheissuestobesubmitted.
Thecourtmayconfirmorrejectinwholeorinparttheverdictofanyadvisoryjury,maymakenewfindingswith
orwithouttakingadditionaltestimony,ormayorderanewhearing.330

23.3.Decisionofthecourt.

1.Requestsforfindings.Inactionstrieduponthefactswithoutajuryorwithanadvisoryjury,thecourt,before
rendering its decision, shall afford the parties an opportunity to submit requests for findings of fact. Each
requestshallbenumberedandsophrasedthatthecourtmayconvenientlypassuponit.Requestsforfindings
arenotnecessary,however,forpurposesofreviewbytheappellatecourt.

2.Formofdecision.Inactionstrieduponfactswithoutajuryorwithanadvisoryjury,thecourtshallfindthe
factsspeciallyandstateseparatelyitsconclusionsoflawthereonanddirectentryoftheappropriatejudgment.
Ifanopinionormemorandumofdecisionisfileditwillbesufficientifthefindingsoffactandconclusionsoflaw
appeartherein.Thefindingsofareferee,totheextentthatthecourtadoptsthem,shallbeconsideredasthe
findingsofthecourt.331

23.4.Timefordecisionbycourt.

Thedecisionofthecourtshallberenderedwithinfifteendaysafterthecauseormatterisfinallysubmittedto
thecourt.332

329
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2301);1956Code6:592;Rev.Stat.373;OBB46,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.VII,1,7,2Hub.1542.
330
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2302).
331
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2303);1956Code6:659.
332
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2304).
Chapter24.TRIALBYREFEREE
24.1. Orderofreference.
24.2. Referenceonconsentofparties.
24.3. Qualificationsofreferees.
24.4. Meetings.
24.5. Witnesses.
24.6. Conductoftrial;powersofthereferee.
24.7. Reportbyreferee.
24.8. Fees.

24.1.Orderofreference.

In an action pending before a Circuit Court, the court may appoint, on motion of any party or on its own
initiative,arefereetotakeevidence,makefindings,anddeterminespecificissues,toreportissues,toperform
particular acts, or only to receive and report evidence. The order of reference may fix the time and place for
beginningandclosingthehearingsandforthefilingofthereferee'sreport.Areferencetoarefereeshallbethe
exceptionandnottherule.Inactionstobetriedbyajury,areferenceshallbemadeonlywhentheissuesare
complicated; in actions to be tried without a jury, a reference shall be made only to determine matters of
accountoruponashowingthatsomeexceptionalconditionrequiresit.333

24.2.Referenceonconsentofparties.

Thepartiesmayconsentthatanyorallissuesbereferredtoarefereefordetermination.Suchconsentshallbe
evidenced by a stipulation filed with the clerk. The stipulation may name the referee or the referee may be
designatedbythecourt,exceptthatinmatrimonialactionsonlythecourtmaydesignatethereferee.Afterfiling
ofthestipulationthecourtshallenteranorderofreference,butinamatrimonialaction,theentryofsuchan
ordershallbewithinthediscretionofthecourt.334

24.3.Qualificationsofreferees.

Exceptbyconsentoftheparties,nopersonshallbedesignatedasrefereeunlessheisanattorneyadmittedto
practiceintheRepublicandingoodstanding.Nopersonshallserveasrefereeinanactiontowhichheisaparty
orinwhichheisinterested.Nopersonshallserveasrefereewhoholdsthepositionofjudge,clerkofcourt,or

333
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2401);1956Code6:622;Rev.Stat1387(7);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XV,12,2Hub.1563.
334
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2402).
stenographer,orofsecretaryorclerktoajudge,orwhoisapartnerorclerkofanattorneyforanypartytothe
action,orwhooccupiesthesameofficewithsuchattorney.335

24.4.Meetings.

Upontheentryofanorderofreference,theclerkshallsendacopyoftheordertothereferee.Unlesstheorder
ofreferenceotherwiseprovides,therefereeshallforthwithnotifythepartiesofatimeandplaceforthefirst
hearingtobeheldwithintendaysafterthedateoftheorderorshallnotifythecourtthathedeclinestoserve.If
apartyfailstoappearatthetimeandplaceappointed,therefereemayproceedexparte,or,inhisdiscretion,
adjourntheproceedingstoafuturedaygivingnoticetotheabsentpartyoftheadjournment.Itisthedutyof
therefereetoproceedwithallreasonablediligence.Eitherparty,onnoticetothepartiesandthereferee,may
applytothecourtforanorderrequiringtherefereetospeedtheproceedingsandtomakehisreport.336

24.5.Witnesses.

The parties may procure the attendance of witnesses before the referee by the issuance and service of
subpoenasasprovidedin sections14.2and14.3.If withoutadequateexcuse awitnessfailstoappearorgive
evidence,hemaybepunishedasforacontemptandbesubjectedtotheconsequences,penalties,andremedies
providedinsection14.6.337

24.6.Conductoftrial;powersofthereferee.

Arefereeauthorizedtotaketestimonyortomakefindingsshallconductthetrialinthesamemannerasacourt
tryinganissuewithoutajury.Subjecttothespecificationsandlimitationsstatedintheorder,therefereehas
andshallexercisethepowertoregulateallproceedingsineveryhearingbeforehimandtodoallactsandtake
allmeasuresnecessaryorproperfortheefficientperformanceofhisdutiesundertheorder.Hemayrequirethe
productionbeforehimofevidenceuponallmattersembracedinthereference,includingtheproductionofall
books, papers, vouchers, documents, and writings applicable thereto. He may rule upon the admissibility of
evidenceunlessotherwisedirectedbytheorderofreference.Hehastheauthoritytoputwitnessesonoathand
mayhimselfexaminethemandmaycallthepartiestotheactionandexaminethemonoath.Arecordofthe
evidence offered and excluded shall be made in the same manner and subject to the same limitations as in a
courtsittingwithoutajury.Whenmattersofaccountingareinissuebeforethereferee,hemayprescribethe
form in which the accounts shall be submitted and in any proper case may require or receive in evidence a
statementbyanaccountantwhoiscalledasawitness.338

24.7.Reportbyreferee.

335
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2403).
336
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2404).
337
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2405).
338
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2406).
1.Contents andfiling.Therefereeshallprepareareportupon thematterssubmittedto himby theorderof
referenceand,ifrequiredtomakefindingsoffactandconclusionsoflaw,heshallsetthemforthinthereport.
Heshallfilethereportwiththeclerkofthecourtandinanactiontobetriedwithoutajury,unlessotherwise
directedbytheorderofreference,shallfilewithitatranscriptoftheproceedingsandoftheevidenceandthe
originalexhibits.Theclerkshallforthwithsendanoticeofthefilingtoallparties.

2.Effectofreportinnonjuryactions.Inanactiontobetriedwithoutajury,thecourtshallacceptthereferee's
findingsoffact,insofarastheyarebaseduponoraltestimony,unlessclearlyerroneous.Withinfivedaysafter
beingservedwithnoticeoffilingofthereportanypartymayservewrittenobjectionstheretoupontheother
parties.Applicationtothecourtforactionuponthereportanduponobjectionstheretoshallbebynoticeand
motionasprescribedinchapter10.Thecourtafterhearingmayadoptthereportormaymodifyitormayreject
itinwholeorinpartormayreceivefurtherevidenceormayrecommenditwithinstructions.

3.Effectofreportinjuryactions.Inanactiontobetriedbyajury,therefereeshallnotbedirectedtoreportthe
evidence. His findings upon the issues submitted to him are admissible as evidence of the matters found and
shallconstituteprimafacieproofofthefactsstated.Thefindingsmaybereadtothejury,subjecttotherulingof
thecourtuponanyobjectionsinpointoflawwhichmaybemadetothereport.Thepartiesmaynotintroduce
evidence not introduced at the hearing before the referee unless good cause for failure to introduce such
evidenceisshown.

4.Effectofreportwhenpartiesconsentedtoreference.Theeffectofareferee'sreportisthesamewhetheror
notthepartieshaveconsentedtothereference;but,whenthepartiesstipulatethatareferee'sfindingsoffact
shallbefinal,onlyquestionsoflawarisinguponthereportshallthereafterbeconsidered.

5.Submissionofdraftreporttocounsel.Beforefilinghisreportarefereemaysubmitadraftthereoftocounsel
forallpartiesforthepurposeofreceivingtheirsuggestions.339

24.8.Fees.

Thecompensationtobeallowedtoarefereeshallbefixedbythecourt,andshallbetaxedascostsunlessthe
courtordersotherwise.Therefereeshallnotretainhisreportassecurityforhiscompensation,butwhenthe
party ordered to pay the compensation allowed by the court does not pay it after notice and within the time
prescribedbythecourt,therefereeisentitledtoawritofexecutionagainstthedelinquentparty.340

Chapter25.EVIDENCE

339
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2407);1956Code6:622;Rev.Stat.1387(7);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
H,ch.XV,12,2Hub.1563.
340
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2408).
25.1. Judicialnoticeoflaw.
25.2. Judicialnoticeofhistoricalfacts.
25.3. Presumptions.
25.4. Relevance.
25.5. Burdenofproof.
25.6. Bestevidence.
25.7. Hearsayevidence.
25.8. Admissions.
25.9. Paroleevidence.
25.10. Proofofofficialrecord.
25.11. Admissibilityandconclusivenessofjudgments.
25.12. Foreignjudgments.
25.13. Proofofjurisdictionofcourt.
25.14. Willasevidence.
25.15. Letterstestamentaryandofadministrationasevidence.
25.16. Deedsandotherwritingsasevidence.
25.17. Proofofauthenticityofdocuments.
25.18. Competencyofwitnesses.
25.19. Impeachmentofcredibilityofwitness.
25.20. Witnesscompelledtoanswer.
25.21. Opiniontestimony.
25.22. Leadingquestions.
25.23. Scopeofcrossexamination.
25.24. Refreshingmemory.

25.1.Judicialnoticeoflaw.

1.PubliclawofLiberia.EverycourtoftheRepublicofLiberiashallwithoutrequesttakejudicialnoticeofthe
ConstitutionandofthepublicstatutesandcommonlawoftheRepublic.

2.PrivatelawofLiberiaandforeignlaw.Everycourtmaytakejudicialnoticewithoutrequestofprivateactsand
resolutions of the Liberian Legislature; ordinances and regulations of officers, agencies, or governmental
subdivisionsofLiberia;andthelawsofforeigncountriesortheirpoliticalsubdivisions.Ifthecourtdoesnottake
judicialnoticeofanysuchlaw,itshallbeanissuetobedecidedbythecourt,butthepartyrelyingonsuchlaw
shallgiveeachadversepartynoticeofhisintentiontorelyonit.Noticeshallbegiveninhispleadings,orator
before the pretrial conference, or at least ten days before trial when there is no pretrial conference; but the
courtmayrequireothernotice.Whetheralawisjudiciallynoticedorproofistaken,everymatterspecifiedin
thisparagraphshallbedeterminedbythejudgeorrefereeandincludedwithhisconclusionsoflaworcharged
tothejury.Suchfindingsorchargeshallbesubjecttoreviewonappealasafindingorchargeonamatterof
law.341

25.2.Judicialnoticeofhistoricalfacts.

Thejudgeshallofhisownmotiontakejudicialnoticeofpublichistoricalfactsthataresowellknownasnottobe
thesubjectofreasonabledispute.342

25.3.Presumptions.

1. Life and death. When a person is shown to have existed, continuing existence is presumed unless the
contrary is proved or is to be reasonably inferred from the circumstances. Death shall be presumed from a
continuous unexplained absence of seven years during which the absentee has not been heard of or from by
those who, if he had been alive, would naturally have heard of or from him; provided, however, that the
presumptiondoesnotarisewhenthereexistcircumstancesorfactswhichreasonablyaccountforhisnotbeing
heardoforwhenhisabsenceandfailuretocommunicatearereasonablyexplainedwithoutassuminghisdeath
orwhendiligentinquiryastowhetherheisaliveordeadhasnotbeenmade.

2.Legitimacy.Wheneveritisestablishedinanactionthatachildwasconceivedbyawomanwhileshewasthe
lawful wife of a specified man, the party asserting the illegitimacy of the child has the burden of producing
evidence and the burden of persuading the trier of fact beyond reasonable doubt that the man was not the
fatherofthechild.

3.Marriage.Personswholivetogetherashusbandandwifeandholdthemselvesoutassucharepresumedto
bemarried.

4. Sales in shops. If an article is sold in an office or shop where such articles are usually sold, the person for
whoseaccountthebusinessofsuchofficeorshopiscarriedonshallbepresumedtohavesoldsucharticle.

5.Ownership.Thepossessionofpropertyraisesapresumptionofownershipthereof.343

341
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2501);1956Code6:721,723(2);Rev.Stat.1375,1376;J.P.CodeW,86;OBB
51,54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,23;ch.XI,9,2Hub.1548,1550.
342
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2502);1956Code6:681;Rev.Stat.1369;J.P.Code83;OBB51,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.X,22,2Hub.1548.
343
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2503);1956Code6:682;Rev.Stat.1364,1365,1370,1371;OBB51,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,46,24,26,2Hub.1548.
25.4.Relevance.

Allevidencemustberelevanttotheissue;thatis,itmusthaveatendencytoestablishthetruthorfalsehoodof
theallegationsordenialsofthepartiesoritmustrelatetotheextentofthedamages.344

25.5.Burdenofproof.

1.Partyhavingburden.Theburdenofproofrestsonthepartywhoallegesafactexceptthatwhenthesubject
matterofanegativeavermentliespeculiarlywithintheknowledgeoftheotherparty,theavermentistakenas
trueunlessdisprovedbythatparty.

2.Quantumofevidence.Itissufficientifthepartywhohastheburdenofproofestablisheshisallegationsbya
preponderanceoftheevidence.345

25.6.Bestevidence.

1. In general. The best evidence which the case admits of must always be produced; that is, no evidence is
sufficientwhichsupposestheexistenceofbetterevidence.

2.Copiesofwritings.Acopyofawritingisnotadmissibleasevidenceunlesstheoriginalisprovedtobelostor
destroyedortobeinthepossessionoftheoppositepartywhohasreceivednoticetoproduceitorunlessitisa
copyofsomepublicrecordordocumentprovedasprovidedinsection25.10ofthischapter.

3.Evidenceofwritinginpossessionofadversary.Apartymaynotintroduceinevidenceacopyofawritingthe
originalofwhichisinthepossessionofhisadversaryortestifyconcerningthecontentsofsuchoriginaluntilhe
shall have served on the adversary reasonable notice to produce it and the adversary shall have neglected or
refusedtocomplywiththenotice.346

25.7.Hearsayevidence.

1.Generalrule.Hearsayevidenceisnotadmissibleexcepttotheextentandunderthecircumstancesstatedin
paragraphs2,3,and5ofthissectionandasotherwiseestablishedbylaw.

2. Family history. Declarations of deceased persons concerning family history of which they, from their
situations,werelikelytohaveknowledge,suchasmarriages,births,deaths,andpedigrees,maybereceivedin
evidence.

344
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2504);1956Code6:698;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,27,2Hub.
1548.
345
Priorlegislation:L.Ich.III(6:2505);1956Code6:683,684;Rev.Stat.1364;J.P.Code77,78;OBB51,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.X,1,3,7,2Hub.1548.
346
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:2506(1));1956Code6:685;Rev.Stat.1355;J.P.Code78;OBB51,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,9,2Hub.1548.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:2507(3));1956Code6:734737;Rev.Stat.
1373,1381;J.P.Code91,92;OBB54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,ch.XI,4,27,2931,2Hub.1550.
3.Entriesintheregularcourseofbusiness.Anywritingorrecording,whetherintheformofanentryinabook
or otherwise, made as a memorandum or record of any act, transaction, occurrence, or event, shall be
admissibleinevidenceinproofofsaidact,transaction,occurrence,orevent,ifthejudgeshallfindthatitwas
madeintheregularcourseofanybusiness,andthatitwastheregularcourseofsuchbusinesstomakesuch
memorandumorrecordatthetimeofsuchact,transaction,occurrence,orevent,orwithinareasonabletime
thereafter.Allothercircumstancesofthemakingofsuchwritingorrecord,includinglackofpersonalknowledge
bytheentrantormaker,maybeshowntoaffectitsweight,buttheyshallnotaffectitsadmissibility.Theterm
"business"shallincludeabusiness,profession,occupation,andcallingofeverykind.

4. Proof of fact that statement was made. Statements made out of court and offered in evidence through a
witnessorawritingnottoestablishthetruthofthematterstatedbuttoestablishthefactthatthestatement
wasmade,isnottobeexcludedashearsayunderparagraph1ofthissection.

5.Generalreputation.Aperson'scharacterorthathehasheldorholdsapublicofficeinwhichhehaspublicly
actedmaybeestablishedbyevidenceofgeneralreputation.347

25.8.Admissions.

1.Admissibilityingeneral.Alladmissionsmadebyapartyhimselforbyhisagentactingwithinthescopeofhis
authorityareadmissible.Everyagentfortheconductofacauseshallhaveauthoritytomakeadmissionsinthat
cause.Theadmissionsofeveryotheragentinanymatterunderhiscontrolasagentshallbeadmissible.

2.Jointinterest.Whenseveralpartieshaveajointinterestandsuchinteresthasbeenproved,theadmissionof
oneistheadmissionofall;butthejointinterestmaynotbeprovedbytheadmissionofoneormoreagainst
thosenotjoininginsuchadmission.

3.Admissionsofprivyintitle.Theadmissionsofadeceasedpersonconcerninghisrightinpropertymadewhile
theinterestofsuchpropertycontinuedshallhavethesameeffectwhenintroducedagainstapartyderivingtitle
tosuchpropertywhenrightsinthepropertyareindisputeasifmadebysuchparty.348

25.9.Parolevidence.

347
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364ch.III(6:2507(1));1956Code6:687;Rev.Stat.1366;J.P.Code79;OBB51,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,10,2Hub.1548.Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:2507(2));1956Code6:688;Rev.Stat.1366;J.
P.Code79;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,11,12,2Hub.1548.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:2507(3));1956
Code6:690;Rev.Stat.1380;J.P.Code90;OBB54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XI,26,2Hub.1550.Par.4:L.
196364,ch.III(6:2507(4));1956Code6:696;Rev.Stat.1368;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tIIch.X,20,2Hub.
1548.Par.5:L.196364,ch.III(6:2507(5));1956Code6:697;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,12,2Hub.
1548.
348
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:2508(1));1956Code6:691;Rev.Stat.1367;J.P.Code82;OBB51,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,1316,2Hub.1548.Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:2508(2));1956Code6:592;Rev.Stat.
1367;J.P.Code82;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,17,2Hub.1548.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:2508(3));
1956Code6:689;Rev.Stat.1367,1368;J.P.Code82;OBB51,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.X,21,2Hub.1548.
When any agreement or disposition of property has been reduced to the form of a document or series of
documents,noevidencemaybereceivedofthetermsofsuchagreementordispositionofpropertyexceptthe
documentitself,orsecondaryevidenceofitscontentsincasesinwhichsecondaryevidenceisadmissible;nor
maythecontentsofanysuchdocumentbecontradicted,altered,addedto,orvariedbyoralevidence;provided
thatanyofthefollowingmattersmaybeproved:

(a) Fraud,intimidation,illegality,wantofexecution,wantofcapacityofanycontractingparty,thefactthat
itiswronglydated,wantorfailureofconsideration,ormistakeinfactorlaw,oranyothermatterwhich,
ifproved,wouldproduceanyeffectuponthevalidityofanydocument,orofanypartytoit;
(b) Theexistenceofanyseparateoralagreementastoanymatteronwhichadocumentissilent,andwhich
isnotinconsistentwithitsterms,iffromthecircumstancesofthecasethecourtinfersthattheparties
did not intend the document to be a complete and final statement of the whole of the transaction
betweenthem;
(c) Theexistenceofanyseparateoralagreement,constitutingaconditionprecedenttotheattachingofany
obligationunderanysuchagreementordispositionofproperty;
(d) The existence of any distinct subsequent oral agreement to rescind or modify any such agreement or
disposition of property, provided that such agreement is not invalid under the statute of frauds, or
otherwise;
(e) Any usage or custom by which incidents not expressly mentioned in any agreement are annexed to
agreements of that description; unless the annexing of such incident to such agreement would be
inconsistentwithitsexpressterms;
(f) Oral evidence of a documentary memorandum if such memorandum was not intended to have legal
effectasanagreementordispositionofproperty;
(g) Oralevidenceoftheexistenceofalegalrelation,eventhoughsuchrelationwascreatedbyadocument,
when the fact to be proved is the existence of the relation, and not the terms on which it was
establishedoriscarriedon.349

25.10.Proofofofficialrecord.

1. Authentication of copy. An official record or an entry therein, when admissible for any purpose, may be
evidencedbyanofficialpublicationthereoforbyacopyattestedbytheofficerhavingthelegalcustodyofthe
record,orbyhisdeputy,andaccompaniedbyacertificatethatsuchofficerhasthecustody.Iftheofficeinwhich
therecordiskeptiswithintheRepublicofLiberia,thecertificatemaybemadebyaclerkofacourtofrecordof
thepoliticalsubdivisioninwhichtherecordiskept,authenticatedbythesealofthecourt,ormaybemadeby
anypublicofficerhavingasealofofficeandhavingofficialdutiesinthepoliticalsubdivisioninwhichtherecord
is kept, authenticated by the seal of his office. If the office in which the record is kept is in a foreign state or
country,thecertificatemaybemadebyasecretaryofembassyorlegation,aconsulgeneral,consul,viceconsul,

349
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2509);1956Code6:741743;Rev.Stat.1383;J.P.Code93;OBB54,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XI,38,39,2Hub.1550.
orconsularagentorbyanyofficerintheforeignserviceofLiberiastationedintheforeignstateorcountryin
which the record is kept, and authenticated by the seal of his office; or, if there is no Liberian diplomatic
representativeinsuchforeigncountry,therequiredcertificatemaybeissuedbyanotarypublicofthatcountry.

2.Proofoflackofrecord.Awrittenstatementsignedbyanofficerhavingthecustodyofanofficialrecordorby
hisdeputythatafterdiligentsearchnorecordorentryofaspecifiedtenorisfoundtoexistintherecordsofhis
office,accompaniedbyacertificateasprovidedinparagraph1,isadmissibleasevidencethattherecordsofhis
officecontainnosuchrecordorentry.

3.Otherproof.Thissectiondoesnotpreventtheproofofofficialrecordofentryorlackofentrythereinbyany
methodauthorizedbyanyapplicablestatuteorbytherulesofevidenceatcommonlaw.350

25.11.Admissibilityandconclusivenessofjudgments.

1.Againstwhomadmissible.Judgmentsshallbeadmissibleinevidence,subjecttotheotherprovisionsofthis
section,againstallpartiestheretoandagainstthoseclaimingunderthem.Theyshallnotgenerallybeadmissible
againstanyotherpersonsexceptforthepurposeofshowingtheirownexistence.Whenajudgmenthasbeen
rendered against any party in consequence of any act or omission of another person, such judgment shall be
evidence to prove its own existence and the amount of damages sustained in an action by the original party
defendantagainstsuchotherperson.

2.Admissibilityofverdictorjudgmentseparately.Averdictonwhichnojudgmenthasbeengivenshallnotbe
admissible;ajudgmentshallbeadmissiblealthoughnotfoundedonaverdict.351

25.12.Foreignjudgments.

A foreign judgment in a case in which the defendant did not appear although a party thereto shall not be
admissible against him; but if any person appeared on his behalf in the case, the foreign judgment shall be
admissibleunlessheshowsthattheappearancewaswithouthisauthority.Ajudgmentofaforeignprizecourtis
notconclusiveofanyactwhatsoever,butissomeevidence.352

25.13.Proofofjurisdictionofcourt.

350
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2510);1956Code6:722725;Rev.Stat.1373,1376;J.P.Code81,86;OBB54,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XI,2,3,10,2Hub.1550.
351
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2511);1956Code6:727,728;Rev.Stat.1376,1377;J.P.Code87;OBB54,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XI,1215,1921,2Hub.1550.
352
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2512);1956Code6:729;Rev.Stat.1376;OBB54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tII,
ch.XI,1618,2Hub.1550.
In all cases in which the judgment of a court of limited jurisdiction or of a foreign court is sought to be
introduced in evidence, the jurisdiction of such court must be proved to extend to the case in which the
judgmentwasgiven.353

25.14.Willasevidence.

A will regularly admitted to probate by a court having jurisdiction too do so is admissible against all mankind
exceptinaproceedingtosetasidesuchwillortheprobatethereof.354

25.15.Letterstestamentaryandofadministrationasevidence.

Letters testamentary and of administration may be introduced in evidence in all cases until they have been
regularlyrevoked.355

25.16.Deedsandotherwritingsasevidence.

Deeds and other writings shall be admissible against all parties to them and shall also be evidence against all
mankindofthetransferofalltitlesorrightstransferredbythem.356

25.17.Proofofauthenticityofdocuments.

1.Proofofhandwriting.Handwritingmaybeprovedbytheoathofapersonacquaintedwiththehandwritingof
the person whose it is alleged to be either from having seen him write or from having corresponded or
transactedbusinesswithhim;oritmaybeprovedbycomparisonwithundoubtedwritingsofthepersonproved
nottohavebeenwrittenafterthedisputearoseorundersuspiciouscircumstances.

2.Examinationofpartytoprovehishandwriting.Eitherpartymayexaminetheotherunderoathbeforeorat
the trial to determine whether any relevant document or signature is in his handwriting. If a party whose
signatureonadocumenttheotherpartyseekstoprove,refusesorneglectstoansweraninterrogationonthis
matter,exceptinpursuanceofhisconstitutionalrightnottobecompelledtogiveevidenceagainsthimself,it
shallbeconsideredanadmissionthatitishishandwriting.

3.Proofofsignatureofsubscribingparty.Ifanypartyshalldenythatthehandwritingishisandifthedocument
hasthenameofasubscribingwitnessannexedtoit,suchwitnessshallbeproducedorhisabsenceaccounted
for by showing his death or removal beyond the process of the court or other fact rendering his attendance

353
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2513);1956Code6:730;Rev.Stat.1376;OBB54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tII,
ch.XI,22,2Hub.1550.
354
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2514);1956Code6:731;Rev.Stat.1378;J.P.Code88;OBB54,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XI,23,2Hub.1550.
355
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2515);1956Code6:732;Rev.Stat.1378;J.P.Code88;OBB54,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XI,24,2Hub.1550.
356
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2516);1956Code6:733;Rev.Stat.1379;J.P.Code89;OBB54,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XI,25,2Hub.1550.
impracticable. In such a case if the witness cannot be produced, it shall be necessary to prove both his
handwritingandthatoftheparty.

4.Proofofauthenticityofdocumentunderwhichotherpartyclaim.Itshallbeunnecessaryforapartytoprove
thatadocumentwhichheseekstointroducewasexecutedbytheotherpartyifthelatterclaimsunderit.

5.Ancientdocuments.Itshallbeunnecessarytoprovetheexecutionofadocumentmorethanthirtyyearsold
which is proved to have been found in the possession of a person who may reasonably be supposed to have
possessionofitifitisgenuineandwhichisattendedbynocircumstancestendingtothrowsuspiciononit.357

25.18.Competencyofwitnesses.

1.Generalrule.Everywitnessshallbeconsideredcompetentwhocannotclearlybeshowntobeincompetent
undertheprovisionsofthissection.

2.Incompetencythroughdefectofunderstanding.Apersonisdisqualifiedtobeawitnessifthejudgefindsthat
theproposedpersonisincapableofunderstandingthedutyofawitnesstotellthetruth.Theincompetencyofa
witnessbyreasonofdefectofunderstandingmustbeprovedbyexaminationbeforethecourt.Itshallbethe
dutyofthecourttoexamineallchildrenundertwelveyearsofagebeforeadministeringtheoathoraffirmation
tothem.

3. Incompetency because of marital or family relation. A husband or wife shall not testify against his or her
spouse in any action; provided, however, that this provision shall not apply to actions between husband and
wife.Achildundertwelveyearsofageshallnottestifyagainsthisparentsoranypersonwithwhomheresides
exceptwhenthechild'sinterestisinvolved.358

25.19.Impeachmentofcredibilityofwitness.

1.Methodsofimpeachment.Thecredibilityofawitnessmaybeimpeachedbyattackinghisgeneralcharacter,
byshowinghisconvictionofparticularcrimes,orbyshowingthathehascontradictedhimselfeitherinoroutof
court.

2.Corroborationbywitnessimpeached.Whenthereisanattempttoimpeachthecredibilityofawitness,his
formerstatementsmaybegiveninevidencetocorroboratehistestimony.

3. Impeaching own witness. Except as to a hostile witness or as otherwise provided by law, a party may not
impeachthecredibilityofhisownwitnessalthoughhemaycontradicthimbythetestimonyofotherwitnesses
orbydocumentaryevidence.However,apartymayrequestthecourttodeclarehisownwitnesshostileifhis

357
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2517);1956Code6:738,740;Rev.Stat.1374,1381,1382;J.P.Code91,94;
OBB54,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XI,5,6,28,3336,2Hub.1550.
358
Priorlegislation:L.1963434,ch.III(6:2518);1956Code6:751,752,755;Rev.Stat.361;L.190708,31,1,2;OBB57,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XII,47,1015,17,18,20,21,2Hub.1555.
testimonyiscontrarytohisearlierstatements,inherentlyimpossible,irresponsible,orhostile,orshowsthathe
isbiasedagainstsuchparty;ifthecourtgrantshisrequest,hemaytheninterrogatesuchwitnessasifhehad
beencalledasawitnessfortheotherparty.359

25.20.Witnesscompelledtoanswer.

Awitnessmaybecompelledtoanswereveryquestionwhichisaskedhimatthetrialoratthetimeoftakinga
deposition unless he claims his constitutional right not to be compelled to give evidence against himself or a
specialexemptiongrantedbylaworunlessheistheconfidentialagentofoneofthepartiesinthecaseandthe
questionisonewhichthepartyhimselfcouldnotbecompelledtoanswerandaboutwhichthewitnesshasno
knowledge except that derived from the confidential communication of the party. A witness who refuses to
answerwithoutexcuseshallbedeemedguiltyofcontemptofcourt.360

25.21.Opiniontestimony.

Awitnessshalltestifyordeposetosuchfactsasarewithinhisownknowledgeandrecollection.Hemaytestify
tohisopiniononlyinthefollowingcases:

(a) If the witness is not testifying as an expert, and the judge finds that his opinion (1) may be rationally
basedontheperceptionofthewitness,and(2)ishelpfultoaclearunderstandingofhistestimonyorto
thedeterminationofthefactinissue;
(b) Ifthewitnessistestifyingasanexpert,andthejudgefindsthathisopinion(1)isbasedonfactsordata
perceivedbyorpersonallyknownormadeknowntothewitnessatthehearingand(2)withinthescope
ofthespecialknowledge,skill,experience,ortrainingpossessedbythewitness.361

25.22.Leadingquestions.

Exceptastoahostilewitnessassuchawitnessisdefinedbysection25.19(3),leadingquestions,thatis,those
which indicate what answer is desired, shall not be asked on direct examination, but they may be asked on
crossexamination. A witness shall not be asked irrelevant or hypothetical questions for the mere purpose of
entrappinghim.362

25.23.Scopeofcrossexamination.

359
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2519);1956Code6:756,757;OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XII,35
38,2Hub.1555.
360
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2520);1956Code6:763;Rev.Stat.362,365;L.190708,31,3;J.P.Code95
(5);OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XII,22,2Hub.1555.
361
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2521);1956Code6:764;Rev.Stat.369;J.P.Code95;OBB57,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.III,30,32,2Hub.1555.
362
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2522);1956Code6:765;Rev.Stat.367;J.P.Code95;OBB57,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XII,29,33,2Hub.1555.
Exceptasotherwiseprovidedbylaw,awitnessmaybecrossexaminedastoallmatterstouchingthecauseor
likelytodiscredithim.363

25.24.Refreshingmemory.

Awitnessmayrefreshhismemorybyreferencetoanywrittenmemorandum,document,book,record,paper,or
object. The adverse party may thereupon examine such memorandum, document, book, record, paper, or
object,andofferitinevidence.364

Chapter26.TRIALANDPOSTTRIALMOTIONS
26.1.Commonlawpracticesabolished.
26.2.Motionforjudgmentduringtrial.
26.3.Motionforcontinuanceornewtrialduringtrial.
26.4.Posttrialmotionfornewtrial.

26.1.Commonlawpracticesabolished.

Thedemurrertotheevidence,involuntarynonsuitsbecauseofinsufficientevidence,andmotionsforjudgment
nonobstanteveredicto,inarrestofjudgment,orforaveniredenovoareherebyabolished.Thereliefheretofore
grantedthroughsuchpracticesshallhenceforthbesoughtbymotionasprescribedinthischapter.365

26.2.Motionforjudgmentduringtrial.

Afterthecloseoftheevidencepresentedbyanopposingpartywithrespecttoaclaimorissue,oratanytimeon
thebasisofadmissions,anypartymaymoveforjudgmentwithrespecttosuchclaimorissueupontheground
thatthemovingpartyisentitledtojudgmentasamatteroflaw.Themotiondoesnotwaivetherighttotrialby
juryortopresentfurtherevidenceevenwhereitismadebyallparties.Ifthecourtgrantssuchamotioninan
actiontried byjury,itshalldirect thejurywhatverdict torender,andifthejurydisregardsthedirection,the
court may in its discretion grant a new trial. If the court grants such a motion in an action tried by the court
withoutajury,thecourtastrierofthefactsmaythendeterminethemandrenderjudgmentormaydeclineto

363
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2523);1956Code6:765;J.P.Code95;OBB57,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
XII,34,2Hub.1555.
364
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2524);1956Code6:766;Rev.Stat.368;J.P.Code95;OBB57,LegalPrinciples
andRules,tII,ch.XII,31,2Hub.1555.
365
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2601).
render any judgment until the close of all the evidence. In such a case if the court renders judgment on the
merits,thecourtshallmakefindingsasprovidedinsection23.3(2).366

26.3.Motionforcontinuanceornewtrialduringtrial.

Atanytime during the trial,thecourt,onmotionofanyparty,mayorderacontinuance oranewtrialinthe


interestofjusticeonsuchtermsasmaybeprescribed.367

26.4.Posttrialmotionfornewtrial.

Afteratrialbyjuryofaclaimorissue,uponthemotionofanyparty,thecourtmaysetasideaverdictandorder
anewtrialofaclaimorseparableissuewherethe verdictis contrarytothe weightoftheevidenceorinthe
interestofjustice.Amotionunderthissectionshallbemadewithinfourdaysafterverdict.Noextensionoftime
shallbegrantedformakingamotionunderthissection.368

366
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2602);1956Code6:623.
367
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2603).
368
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:2604);1956Code6:820823;Rev.Stat.397399;OBB46,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,tII,ch.VII,1619,2Hub.1542.
PARTIII
__________

Judgments:EnforcementofJudgmentsandOrders

Chapter41.JUDGMENTSINGENERAL
41.1. Definitions.
41.2. Renditionandentryofjudgment.
41.3. Recordingofjudgments.
41.4. Alphabeticalnotationofjudgments.
41.5. Filingdocumentofauthoritytoenforcejudgment.
41.6. Correctionofjudgmentororder.
41.7. Relieffromjudgment.
41.8. Satisfactionofjudgment.

41.1.Definitions.

Asusedinthispart,thetermsdefinedshallhavethefollowingmeanings:

(a) A money judgment is an interlocutory or final judgment or any part thereof, for a sum of money or
directingthepaymentofasumofmoney.
(b) Ajudgmentcreditorisapersoninwhosefavoramoneyjudgmentisenteredorapersonwhobecomes
entitledtoenforceit.
(c) Ajudgmentdebtorisapersonagainstwhomamoneyjudgmentisentered.
(d) Agarnisheeisapersonwhoowesadebttoajudgment debtor,orapersonotherthan thejudgment
debtorwhohaspropertyinhispossessionorcustodyinwhichthejudgmentdebtorhasaninterest.
(e) Realpropertyincludeschattelsreal.
(f) Except where the context indicates to the contrary, the term sheriff as used in this chapter shall be
deemed to include the ministerial officer of a court other than the Circuit Court when the provision
whereinitisusedisappliedtosuchacourt.369

41.2.Renditionandentryofjudgment.

369
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4101).
1.Timeandmannerofrendition.Alljudgmentsshallbeannouncedinopencourt.Thejudgmentinajurycase
shallnotbeannounceduntilfourdaysafterverdict.

2.Whatconstitutesentry.Ajudgmentisenteredwhenitisannouncedbythejudgeinopencourt.370

41.3.Recordingofjudgments.

The clerk of court shall keep a book in which he shall record all judgments. The judgment of a magistrate or
justiceofthepeaceshallbewrittenonthebackofthewritofsummonsunderthesummaryofthedefendants
answer.371

41.4.Alphabeticalnotationofjudgments.

Theclerkofacourtinwhichamoneyjudgmentorajudgmentaffectingthetitletorealpropertyisrendered
shall, in addition to recording the judgment as required by section 41.3, make a notation thereof in a book
reservedforsuchnotationsunderthesurnameofthejudgmentdebtoralphabeticallyarrangedinrelationtothe
namesofotherjudgmentdebtorsandconsistingofthefollowingdata:

(a) Thenameandlastknownaddressofthejudgmentdebtor,andhistradeorprofessionifstatedinthe
judgment;
(b) Thenameandlastknownaddressofthejudgmentcreditor;
(c) Thesumrecoveredordirectedtobepaidinfigures;
(d) Thedateandtimeoffiling;
(e) Thenameandaddressoftheattorneyforthejudgmentcreditor.372

41.5.Filingdocumentofauthoritytoenforcejudgment.

Apersonotherthanthepartyrecoveringajudgmentwhobecomesentitledtoenforceitshallfileintheofficeof
the clerk of the court where it was entered a copy of the instrument on which his authority is based,
acknowledgedintheformrequiredtoentitleadeedtoberecorded,or,ifhisauthorityisbasedonacourtorder,
a certified copy of the order. Upon such filing the clerk shall make an entry of the name and address of the
persononthenotationofthejudgmentmadeinaccordancewiththerequirementsofsection41.4.373

41.6.Correctionofjudgmentororder.

A judgment or order shall not be stayed, impaired, or affected by any mistake, defect, or irregularity in the
papers or procedures in the action not affecting a substantial right of the party. Such a mistake, defect, or

370
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4102);1956Code6:880;Rev.Stat.410;OBB69,LegalPrinciplesandRule,t.II,ch.
XVII,1,2Hub.1568.
371
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4103);1956Code6:911;Rev.Stat.636,655;J.P.Code23,42;OBB113,
Judiciary,art.I,2;1841Digest,pt.I,JudiciaryAct2,2Hub.1465.
372
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4104).
373
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4105).
irregularitymaybecorrectedonorderofthecourtinwhichthecasewastried,butintheperiodaftertheappeal
has been docketed and prior to remission of the mandate of the appellate court to the trial court, the
correctionsmaybemadeonlywithleaveoftheappellatecourt.374

41.7.Relieffromjudgment.

1. Common law writs to secure relief from judgment abolished. Writs of coram nobis, coram vobis, audita
querela,andbillsofreviewandbillsinthenatureofabillofreviewareabolishedforuseincivilproceedings,
andtheprocedureforobtaininganyrelieffromajudgmentshallbebymotionasprescribedinthissectionorby
anindependentaction.

2.Grounds.Onmotionanduponsuchtermsasarejustthecourtmayrelieveapartyorhislegalrepresentative
fromafinaljudgmentforthefollowingreasons:

(a) Mistake,inadvertence,surprise,orexcusableneglect;
(b) Newlydiscoveredevidencewhich,ifintroducedatthetrial,wouldprobablyhaveproducedadifferent
resultandwhichbyduediligencecouldnothavebeendiscoveredintimetomoveforanewtrialunder
theprovisionsofsection26.4ofthistitle;
(c) Fraud(whetherintrinsicorextrinsic),misrepresentation,orothermisconductofanadverseparty;
(d) Voidnessofthejudgment;or
(e) Satisfaction,release,ordischargeofthejudgmentorreversalorvacatingofapriorjudgmentororder
onwhichitisbased,orinequitablenessinallowingprospectiveapplicationtothejudgment.

3. Time for motion. A motion under this section shall be made within a reasonable time after judgment is
entered.

4. Effect of motion. A motion under this section does not affect the finality of a judgment or suspend its
operation.Thissectiondoesnotlimitthepowerofacourttoentertainanindependentactiontorelieveaparty
fromajudgmentortograntrelieftoadefendantundersection

5.Restitution.Whereajudgmentissetaside,thecourtmaydirectandenforcerestitutioninlikemannerand
subjecttothesameconditionsaswhereajudgmentisreversedormodifiedonappeal.375

41.8.Satisfactionofjudgment.

When a person entitled to enforce a judgment receives satisfaction or partial satisfaction thereof, he shall
execute and deliver to the judgment debtor an acknowledgment that the judgment has been satisfied or
partiallysatisfied,asthecasemaybe.Suchacknowledgmentshallbecertifiedbyanotary.Thejudgmentdebtor

374
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4106);1956Code6:890(1);Rev.Stat.411;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.II,47,2Hub.1527.
375
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4107);1956Code6:890(2),990.
mayfilethecertificateintheofficeoftheclerkofthecourtwhichrenderedthejudgment.Theclerkshallnote
thesatisfactionofthejudgmentinthebookrequiredtobekeptundertheprovisionsofsection41.4.376

Chapter42.DEFAULTJUDGMENTS
42.1. Rightofplaintiff.
42.2. Procedurebeforethecourt
42.3. Actionsagainstinfantsorincompetents.
42.4. Defaultnotenteredwithinoneyear.
42.5. Placeofapplicationtocourt.
42.6. Proof.
42.7. Notice.
42.8. Annulmentanddivorce.
42.9. Applicationofsection.

42.1.Rightofplaintiff.

Ifadefendanthasfailedtoappear,plead,orproceedtotrial,orifthecourtordersadefaultforanyotherfailure
toproceed,theplaintiffmayseekadefaultjudgmentagainsthim.377

42.2.Procedurebeforethecourt.

Iftheplaintiffsclaiminanactioninwhichthedefendanthasdefaultedisforasumcertainorforasumwhichby
computationcanbemadecertain,thecourt,uponsubmissionoftheproofrequiredbysection42.6,shalldirect
entryfortheamountdemandedinthecomplaintpluscostsandinterest.Iftheplaintiff'sclaimisnotforasum
certain or for a sum which by computation can be made certain, the court, upon submission of the proof
requiredbysection42.6,shalldetermineiftheplaintiffisentitledtojudgment.Ifthecourtdeemsitnecessary
or proper, it may conduct a hearing to determine the truth of any of the plaintiff's averments and if it is
necessarytodeterminetheamountofdamages,thecourtshallreferthequestiontoajuryorreferee,whose
decisionshallbebinding.Adefendantwhohasappearedisentitledtobeheardatthehearingontheamountof
damages.Exceptinanactionforanannulmentordivorce,nofindingoffactinwritingshallbenecessarytothe
rendition of a judgment on default. The judgment shall not exceed in amount or differ in type from that

376
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4108);1956Code6:902;Rev.Stat.415,658;J.P.Code45.
377
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4201);1956Code6:844,910;Rev.Stat.403,634;J.P.Code21;OBB67,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XVI,3,2Hub.1565.
demandedinthecomplaint.Inanactiontorecoverrealproperty,ahearingismandatory,andanyquestionof
factshallbetriedbyjury.378

42.3.Actionsagainstinfantsorincompetents.

No judgment by default shall be entered against an infant or incompetent person unless such person is
representedintheactionbyaguardian,committee,orothersuchrepresentativewhohasappearedtherein.379

42.4.Defaultnotenteredwithinoneyear.

If the plaintiff fails to take proceedings for the entry of judgment within one year after the default, the court
shallnotenterjudgmentbutshalldismissthecomplaintasabandoneduponitsownmotionoronapplication
bythedefendantoron plaintiff'sapplicationforentryofjudgment,unlesssufficient causeisshownwhythe
complaint should not be dismissed. An application by defendant under this section does not constitute an
appearanceintheaction.380

42.5.Placeofapplicationtocourt.

Anapplicationtothecourtunderthischaptermaybemadeatanyplaceatwhichtheactionistriable.381

42.6.Proof.

On an application for judgment by default, the applicant shall file proof of service of the summons and
complaint,andgiveproofofthefactsconstitutingtheclaim,thedefault,andtheamountdue.382

42.7.Notice.

1. When required. Notice is not required when the claim is for a sum certain or for a sum which can by
computation be made certain. If the plaintiff's claim is not for a sum certain or for a sum which can by
computationbemadecertainandifthedefendanthasappeared,orifmorethanoneyearhaselapsedsincethe
default, the defendant is entitled to at least five days' notice of the time and place of the application for
judgment.Wherenoticetoadefendantwhohasnotappearedisrequiredbythissection,suchnoticemaybe
dispensedwithupongoodcauseshown.

2. Demand for notice of reference to jury or referee. A defendant who has not appeared may serve on the
plaintiff'sattorneyatanytimebeforetheapplicationforjudgmentawrittendemandofnoticeoftheexecution

378
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4202);1956Code6:845,847;Rev.Stat.282,408;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,tII,ch.II,7,2Hub.1527.
379
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4203).
380
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4204).
381
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4205).
382
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4206);1956Code6:840;Rev.Stat.408;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.II,10,2Hub.1527.
of any reference to a jury or referee, which may be granted on the application for judgment. Such a demand
doesnotconstituteanappearanceintheaction.Thereuponatleastfivedays'noticeofthetimeandplaceof
executionofthereferenceshallbegiventothedefendantbyserviceonthepersonwhosenameissubscribedto
thedemand,inthemannerprescribedforserviceofapaperonanattorneyinanaction.383

42.8.Annulmentanddivorce.

The court shall deny an application for judgment by default in an action for annulment or divorce if the
allegationsofthecomplaintarenotprovedorifonconsiderationoftheproofsubmittedbytheplaintifforof
anypaperssubmittedbythedefendantbeforedefaultorifonahearingconductedtodeterminethetruthof
plaintiff's allegations as authorized by section 42.2, it appears that the divorce is barred under the Domestic
RelationsLaworifthereexistsanyotherdefensetotheaction.384

42.9.Applicationofsection.

The provisions of this chapter shall apply whether the judgment by default is sought by a plaintiff or
counterclaimant.385

Chapter43.DECLARATORYJUDGMENTS
43.1. Powerofcourtstorenderdeclaratoryjudgments.
43.2. Constructionofwritingsandstatutes.
43.3. Adjudicationofrights.
43.4. Enumerationnotexclusive.
43.5. Declaratoryjudgmenttoterminatecontroversy.
43.6. Otheradequateremedy.
43.7. Reviewallowed.
43.8. Supplementalrelief.
43.9. Jurytrial.
43.10. Construction.

43.1.Powerofcourtstorenderdeclaratoryjudgments.

Courtsofrecordwithintheirrespectivejurisdictionsshallhavepowertodeclarerights,status,andotherlegal
relationswhetherornotfurtherreliefisorcouldbeclaimed.Noactionorproceedingshallbeopentoobjection

383
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4207).
384
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4208).
385
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4209);1956Code6:846.
onthegroundthatadeclaratoryjudgmentisprayedfor.Thedeclarationmaybeeitheraffirmativeornegativein
formandeffect;andsuchdeclarationsshallhavetheforceandeffectofafinaljudgment.Thepowergrantedto
thecourtunderthissectionisdiscretionary.386

43.2.Constructionofwritingsandstatutes.

Any person interested under a deed, will, written contract, or other writing constituting a contract, or whose
rights,status,orotherlegalrelationsareaffectedbyastatute,municipalordinance,contract,orfranchise,may
have determined any question of construction or validity arising under the instrument, statute, ordinance,
contract,orfranchiseandobtainadeclarationofrights,status,orotherlegalrelationsthereunder.387

43.3.Adjudicationofrights.

Any person interested as or through an executor, administrator, trustee, guardian or other fiduciary, creditor,
devisee, legatee, heir, next of kin, or cestui que trust in the administration of a trust, or of the estate of a
decedent,aninfant,lunatic,orinsolvent,mayhaveadeclarationofrightsorlegalrelationsinrespectthereto:

(a) Toascertainanyclassofcreditors,devisees,legatees,heirs,nextofkinorothers;or
(b) Todirecttheexecutors,administrators,ortrusteestodoorabstainfromdoinganyparticularactintheir
fiduciarycapacity;or
(c) To determine any question arising in the administration of the estate or trust, including questions of
constructionofwillsandotherwritings.388

43.4.Enumerationnotexclusive.

Theenumerationinsections43.2and43.3doesnotlimitorrestricttheexerciseofthegeneralpowersconferred
in section 43.1 in any proceeding where declaratory relief is sought, in which a judgment will terminate the
controversyorremovetheuncertainty.389

43.5.Declaratoryjudgmenttoterminatecontroversy.

Thecourtmayrefusetorenderorenteradeclaratoryjudgmentwheresuchjudgment,ifrendered,wouldnot
terminatetheuncertaintyorcontroversygivingrisetotheproceeding.390

43.6.Otheradequateremedy.

Theexistenceofanotheradequateremedydoesnotprecludeajudgmentfordeclaratoryreliefincaseswhereit
isappropriate.391

386
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4301).
387
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4302).
388
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4303).
389
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4304).
390
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4305).
43.7.Reviewallowed.

Alljudgmentsunderthischaptermaybereviewedinthesamewayasotherjudgments.392

43.8.Supplementalrelief.

Furtherreliefbasedonadeclaratoryjudgmentmaybegrantedwhenevernecessaryorproper.Theapplication
thereforshallbebypetitiontoacourthavingjurisdictiontograntrelief.Iftheapplicationbedeemedsufficient,
the court shall, on reasonable notice, require any adverse party whose rights have been adjudicated by the
declaratoryjudgmenttoshowcausewhyfurtherreliefshouldnotbegrantedforthwith.393

43.9.Jurytrial.

Whenaproceedingunderthischapter involvesthedeterminationofanissueoffact,therighttotrialbyjury
maybedemandedunderthecircumstancesandinthemannerprovidedinchapter22ofthistitle.394

43.10.Construction.

This chapter is declared to be remedial; its purpose is to settle and to afford relief from uncertainty and
insecurity with respect to rights, status, and other legal relations; and it is to be liberally construed and
administered.395

Chapter44.ENFORCEMENTOFJUDGMENTSANDORDERS
SubchapterA.EnforcementGenerally
44.1. Imprisonmentfornonpaymentofmoneyjudgments.
44.2. Modificationorprotectiveorder.

SubchapterB.EnforcementbyExecutionandItsAdjuncts
44.21. Applicabilityofsubchapter.
44.22. Deferredpaymentofmoneyjudgments.
44.23. Kindofpropertyagainstwhichmoneyjudgmentmaybeenforced.
44.24. Lienuponrealproperty;priorities.
44.25. Prioritiesuponpersonalproperty.

391
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4306).
392
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4307).
393
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4308).
394
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4309).
395
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4310).
44.26. Releaseoflienorlevyuponappeal.
44.27. Personalpropertyexemptfromapplicationtomoneyjudgments.
44.28. Realpropertyexemptfromtheapplicationtosatisfactionofmoneyjudgments.
44.29. EnforcementinvolvingtheRepublic.
44.30. Enforcementafterdeathofjudgmentdebtor.
44.31. Courtwhereenforcementproceedingmaybeinstituted.
44.32. Restrainingnotice.
44.33. Compellingdisclosuretoaidenforcement.
44.34. Installmentpaymentorder.
44.35. Paymentordertogarnishee.
44.36. Propergarnisheeforparticularpropertyordebt.
44.37. Dischargeofgarnishee'sobligation.
44.38. Receivers.
44.39. Executions.
44.40. Levyuponpersonalproperty.
44.41. Saleofpersonalproperty.
44.42. Levyuponrealproperty.
44.43. Saleofrealproperty.
44.44. Dispositionofproceedsofsale.
44.45. Failureoftitletopropertysold.
44.46. Proceedingtodetermineadverseclaims.
44.47. Arrestofjudgmentdebtor.
44.48. Actsconstitutingcontempt.

SubchapterC.EnforcementofJudgmentsbyMeansOtherthanExecution
44.71. Methodsofenforcement.
44.72. Enforcementthroughreceivership.
44.73. Enforcementthroughcontemptproceedings.

SubchapterA.ENFORCEMENTGENERALLY
44.1.Imprisonmentfornonpaymentofmoneyjudgments.

A person shall not be arrested or imprisoned for disobedience of any money judgment or order requiring the
paymentofmoneyexceptforthosemoneyjudgmentsenforceablebypunishmentforcontemptundersection
44.71(3)orbyimprisonmentundersection44.71(2)ifexecutionisnotsatisfied.396

44.2.Modificationorprotectiveorder.

Thecourtmayatanytime,onitsowninitiativeorthemotionofanyinterestedperson,anduponsuchnoticeas
itmayrequire,makeanorderdenying,limiting,conditioning,regulating,extending,ormodifyingtheuseofany
enforcementprocedure.397

SubchapterB.ENFORCEMENTBYEXECUTIONANDITSADJUNCTS

44.21.Applicabilityofsubchapter.

Amoneyjudgmentororderdirectingthepaymentofmoneyoranypartofsuchjudgmentororder,includingan
ordertopaycosts,maybeenforcedasprescribedinthissubchapterexceptthatmoneyjudgmentsofthekind
specifiedinsection44.71(2)and(3)maybeenforcedasthereinprescribed.398

44.22.Deferredpaymentofmoneyjudgments.

Apersonagainstwhomajudgmentororderisenforceableunderthissubchaptermayapplytothecourtatany
time after judgment is entered and before judgment is satisfied for leave to pay the money due under the
judgmentininstallments.Thecourtshallgranttheapplicationif(a)itissatisfiedthattheapplicanthasnoassets
availableforimmediatepayment;(b)theapplicantpaystwentyfivepercentoftheamountdueonthejudgment
immediately;and(c)theapplicantfilesabondtotheeffectthathewillfaithfullycomplywiththeorderofthe
courttopaythejudgmentwithinthetimespecifiedandthathewillpayinterestontheunpaidbalanceatthe
rateofsixpercentperyear.Theordergrantingtheapplicationshallprovideforpaymentsoftheremainderof
thejudgmentinaccordancewiththefollowingschedule:

Onallsumsupto$100 2months
Onallsumsfrom$100$499.99 4months
Onallsumsfrom$500$999.99 6months
Onallsumsof$1000ormore 1year

Thesumsabovementionedshallincludecosts.Enforcementproceedingsshallnotbeinstitutedforpaymentof
anypartofajudgmentnotdueunderthetermsofanordergrantedpursuanttothissection.399

396
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttorepealanacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawwithrespecttoactionsofdebt;L.
196364,ch.XXII;L.196364,ch.III(6:4401);1956Code6:970,971;L.193940,ch.XII;L.193536,ch.XXIII,7;Rev.Stat.
419;OBB75,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIX,11,2Hub.1574;1828Code,Ord.No.V,3,2Hub.1271,1305.
397
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4402).
398
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4421).
44.23.Kindofpropertyagainstwhichmoneyjudgmentmaybeenforced.

1.Generally.Ajudgmentorordertowhichthissubchapterisapplicablemaybeenforcedagainstanyproperty
whichcouldbeassignedortransferred,whetheritconsistsofapresentorfuturerightorinterestandwhether
ornotitisvested,unlessitisexemptfromapplicationtothesatisfactionofthejudgment.Amoneyjudgment
entered upon a joint liability of two or more persons may be enforced against individual property of those
personssummonedandjointpropertyofsuchpersonswithanyother personsagainstwhomthejudgmentis
entered.

2.Debtsowingjudgmentdebtor.Ajudgmentorordertowhichthissubchapterisapplicablemaybeenforced
againstanydebtwhichisdueorpastdueorwhichisyettobecomeduetothejudgmentdebtor,certainlyor
upondemandofthejudgmentdebtor,whetheritwasincurredwithinorwithouttheRepublicofLiberia,toor
fromaresidentornonresident,unlessitisexemptfromapplicationtothesatisfactionofthejudgment.Adebt
mayconsistofaclaimwhichcouldbeassignedortransferredaccruingwithinorwithouttheRepublic.400

44.24.Lienuponrealproperty;priorities.

Notransferofaninterestofthejudgmentdebtorinrealpropertyagainstwhichpropertyajudgmentororder
maybeenforcedunderthissubchapteriseffectiveagainstthejudgmentcreditorfortenyearsfromthetimeof
theentryofthejudgmentexcept

(a) Atransferinsatisfactionofamortgagegiventosecurethepaymentofapurchasepriceofthejudgment
debtor'sinterestintheproperty;or
(b) Atransfertoapurchaserforvalueatajudicialsale;or
(c) Whenthejudgmentwasenteredagainstapartyafterhisdeath;or
(d) When the judgment debtor is the Republic of Liberia, or an officer or agency thereof, or a municipal
corporation.401

44.25.Prioritiesuponpersonalproperty.

Afteramoneyjudgmenthasbeenentered,notransferofadebtowedtothejudgmentdebtororofaninterest
ofthejudgmentdebtorinpersonalproperty,againstwhichdebtorpropertythejudgmentmaybeenforced,is
effectiveagainstthejudgmentcreditorexcept

(a) Atransfertoabonafidepurchaserforvalue;
(b) Whenthejudgmentwasenteredagainstapartyafterhisdeath;or

399
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4422);1956Code6:901;Rev.Stat.413,657;L.192324,ch.V;J.P.Code,44;L.
190405,18(2nd),1;L.188687,9,4;L.187980,9,4;OBB113,Judiciary,art.I,2;1841Digest,pt.I,JudiciaryAct,
2,2Hub.1464;Acts1841,ActsupplementarytoJudiciaryAct,7,8,2Hub.1421.
400
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4423);L.1959.60,ch.III(6:930,931A,931B,931C,931D,933,934);1956Code
6:930;Rev.Stat.416,660;J.P.Code47;OBB67,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XVIII,2,2Hub.1570.
401
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4494);L.195960,ch.XLVII(6:900);1956Code6:900;Rev.Stat.414.
(c) When the judgment debtor is the Republic of Liberia or an officer or agency thereof or a municipal
corporation.402

44.26.Releaseoflienorlevyuponappeal.

Uponmotionofthejudgmentdebtor,uponnoticetothejudgmentcreditorandthesuretiesupontheappeal
bond,thecourtmayorderthatthelienofamoneyjudgmentbereleasedastoallorspecifiedrealorpersonal
property.403

44.27.Personalpropertyexemptfromapplicationtomoneyjudgments.

1.Tangibleproperty.Thefollowingpersonalpropertyownedbyajudgmentdebtorisexemptfromapplication
to the satisfaction of a money judgment except where the judgment is for the purchase price of the exempt
asset.

(a) Allnecessaryhouseholdfurnitureandutensilstothevalueofonehundreddollars;
(b) ThefamilyBible,familypictures,andanybooksnotexceedinginvaluefiftydollarskeptandusedaspart
ofthefamilyorjudgmentdebtor'slibrary;
(c) Allfoodandprovisionsnecessaryforthesupportofthejudgmentdebtororhisfamilyforthirtydays;
(d) Wearingapparelofthejudgmentdebtortothevalueoftwohundreddollars;
(e) Aweddingringofthejudgmentdebtor;
(f) Work tools and implements, including those of a mechanic, farm machinery, farm animals, and
professionalinstruments,notexceedinginvaluefivehundreddollars,togetherwiththenecessaryfood
for farm animals for thirty days; provided, however, that the articles specified in this clause are
necessarytothecarryingonofthejudgmentdebtor'sprofessionorcalling.

Onapplicationofthejudgmentcreditor,thecourtmayallowexecutionuponanyspecificpersonalpropertyor
classofpersonalpropertyhereinlistedasexempt.

2. Income exemptions. The following personal property is exempt from application to the satisfaction of a
moneyjudgment,exceptsuchpartasacourtdeterminestobeunnecessaryforthereasonablerequirementsof
thejudgmentdebtorandhisdependents:

(a) Ninetypercentoftheincomeorotherpaymentsfromatrustforthejudgmentdebtorwherethetrust
hasbeencreatedbyapersonotherthanthejudgmentdebtor;
(b) Ninety percent of the earnings of the judgment debtor for his personal services rendered within sixty
daysbefore,andatanytimeafter,anincomeexecutionisdeliveredtothesherifforamotionismadeto
securetheapplicationofthejudgmentdebtor'searningstothesatisfactionofthejudgment;

402
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4425);L.1959M,ch.III,1,2(6:932A,932B).
403
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4426).
(c) Paymentspursuanttoanawardinamatrimonialactionforthesupportofawife,wherethewifeisthe
judgmentdebtor,orforthesupportofachild,wherethechildisthejudgmentdebtor.Wheretheaward
was made by a court of Liberia, determination of the extent to which the amount of the award is
unnecessaryshallbemadebythatcourt.404

44.28.Realpropertyexemptfromtheapplicationtosatisfactionofmoneyjudgments.

1. Exemption of homestead. The homestead of any family, comprising one town lot or one acre of farmland
upon which the house is located, together with all appurtenances and out dwellings of the same, shall be
exemptfromapplicationtothesatisfactionofamoneyjudgmentunlessthejudgmentwasrecoveredwhollyfor
adebtcontractedbeforethedesignationofthepropertyasrequiredbyparagraph2hereoforwhollyforthe
purchase money thereof. But no property designated as an exempt homestead shall be exempt from sale for
nonpaymentoftaxesorassessments.

2. Designation of exempt homestead. In order for the exemption provided by paragraph 1 of this section to
apply, the householder shall have probated a notice, formally executed and acknowledged, designating as a
homestead the property to be exempt from application to the satisfaction of a money judgment. Such notice
shallbeprobatedintheofficeoftheProbateClerkofthecountywherethepropertyislocated.Afterprobate,
thenoticeshallberegisteredintheofficeoftheRegistrarofDeeds.

3. Homestead exemption after owner's death. The homestead exemption continues after the death of the
personinwhosefavorthepropertywasexemptedforthebenefitofthesurvivingspouseandsurvivingchildren
namedbyhimintheexemptionuntilthedeathofthelastremainingchildsonamed.

4.Suspensionofoccupationasaffectinghomestead.Thehomesteadexemptionceasesifthepropertyceasesto
beoccupiedasaresidencebyapersonforwhosebenefititmaysocontinue,exceptwherethesuspensionof
occupationisforaperiodnotexceedingoneyear,andoccursinconsequenceofinjuryto,ordestructionof,the
dwellinghouseuponthepremises.

5.Exemptionofburyingground.Land,setapartasafamilyorprivateburyinggroundanddesignatedasherein
prescribed,isexemptfromapplicationtothesatisfactionofamoneyjudgment,uponthefollowingconditions:

(a) Aportionofitmustbeusedasaburyingground;
(b) Itmustnotexceedonefourthofanacre;
(c) It must not contain at the time of its designation or at any time thereafter any building or structure
exceptoneormorevaultsorotherplacesofdepositforthedeadormortuarymonuments.Inorderfor
the exemption provided by this paragraph to apply, the owner shall have probated a notice, formally
executed and acknowledged, stating that the property designated has been set apart as a burying

404
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4427);1956Code6:963;Rev.Stat.417,1395(9);OBB75,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,tII,ch.XIX,19,20,2Hub.1574;1828Code,Ord..No.V,2Hub.1272,1305.
ground.Suchnoticeshallbeprobatedintheofficeoftheprobateclerkofthecountywheretheproperty
islocated.Afterprobate,thenoticeshallberegisteredintheofficeoftheRegistrarofDeeds.

6.Cancellationofexemptionofrealproperty.Theownerofrealpropertyexemptedasprovidedinthissection
may subscribe a notice at any time and personally acknowledge the execution thereof, to the effect that he
cancels all exemptions from application of the property, or a particular part thereof, fully described, to the
satisfactionofamoneyjudgment.Thecancellationtakeseffectwhensuchanoticeisrecordedasprescribedin
thissectionforrecordinganoticetoeffecttheexemptionsocancelled.

7. Rights in homestead prior to effective date of statute. Any rights or estates in a property designated as a
homestead under this section which were created or accrued on the death of the owner before the effective
dateofthissectionshallinnowaybealteredoraffectedbythisenactment.405

44.29.EnforcementinvolvingtheRepublic.

None of the procedures for the enforcement of money judgments is applicable to a judgment against the
Republic, its agencies, officers sued in their official capacities, or any authorities wholly owned by the
Government. All procedures for the enforcement of money judgments against other judgment debtors are
applicable to the Republic, its agencies, officers, authorities, and subdivisions as a garnishee, except where
otherwiseprescribedbylaw,andexceptthatanorderinsuchaprocedureshallonlyprovideforthepaymentof
money not claimed by the Republic and no judgment shall be entered against the Republic, or any officer,
agencyorsubdivisionthereof,insuchaprocedure.IffinaljudgmentisenteredagainsttheRepublic,theclerkof
thecourtshalldelivertotheplaintiffacertifiedcopythereof.Whensuchcopyofthejudgmentispresentedto
the President, he shall endorse thereon an order to the Minister of Finance directing payment of the amount
namedtherein.Suchpaymentshallbemadeforthwith.406

44.30.Enforcementafterdeathofjudgmentdebtor.

Except where otherwise prescribed by law, after death of a judgment debtor, an execution upon a money
judgmentshallnotbelevieduponanydebtowedtohimoranypropertyinwhichhehadaninterest,norshall
anyotherenforcementprocedurebeundertakenwithrespecttosuchdebtorproperty,exceptuponleaveof
theprobatecourtwhichgrantedletterstestamentaryorlettersofadministrationupontheestate.Ifsuchletters
have not been granted within six months after the death, leave to issue such an execution or undertake such
enforcementproceduremaythereafterbegranted,uponmotionofthejudgmentcreditoruponsuchnoticeas

405
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4428);1956Code6:960,961;Rev.Stat.417,10951097;L.1,7(2nd);L.188889,
10(2nd);Acts1846,Actsecuringtofarmersacertainportionofland,2Hub.1660;1828Code,Ord..No.V,2Hub.1272,
1305.
406
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4429).
the court may require, by any court from which the execution could issue or in which the enforcement
procedurecouldbecommenced.407

44.31.Courtwhereenforcementproceedingmaybeinstituted.

1.Specialproceedingauthorizedbythischapter.Aspecialproceedingauthorizedbythischaptertoenforcea
judgmententeredinacourtofrecordornotofrecordinLiberiashallbeinstitutedeitherinthecountyinwhich
the respondent resides or is regularly employed or has his regular place of business, or, if there is no such
county,theninanycountyinwhichthejudgmentwasrendered.

2.Notices,subpoenas,andmotions.Anoticeorsubpoenaauthorizedbythischaptermaybeissuedfrom,anda
motionauthorizedbythischaptermaybemadein,thecourtinwhichthejudgmentsoughttobeenforcedwas
entered.Thepapersshallbecaptionedwiththetitleoftheactioninwhichthejudgmentwasrendered.408

44.32.Restrainingnotice.

1. Issuance; service. On application by a judgment creditor, a court which rendered a judgment may issue a
restrainingorderdirectedtoanypersonwhomthejudgmentcreditorbelievestobeinpossessionorcustodyof
propertyofthejudgmentdebtororowingadebttothejudgmentdebtor.Suchordershallbeservedpersonally
inthesamemannerasasummons.Itshallspecifyallofthepartiestotheaction,thedateofjudgment,thecourt
inwhichitwasentered,theamountofthejudgmentandtheamountthenduethereon,anditshallcontainthe
orderofrestraintauthorizedinparagraph2andstatethatdisobedienceispunishableasacontemptofcourt.

2.Effectofrestraint;duration.Ajudgmentdebtorservedwitharestrainingnoticeisforbiddentomakeorsuffer
any sale, assignment, transfer, or interference with any property in which he has an interest, except upon
directionofthesherifforpursuanttoanorderofthecourt,untilthejudgmentissatisfiedorvacatedorexpires.
A restraining notice served upon a person other than the judgment debtor is effective only if, at the time of
service,heowesadebttothejudgmentdebtororifheisinthepossessionorcustodyofpropertyinwhichhe
knowsorhasreasontobelievethejudgmentdebtorhasaninterestorifthejudgmentcreditorhasstatedinthe
noticethataspecifieddebtisowedtothejudgmentdebtorbythepersonservedorthatthejudgmentdebtor
hasaninterestinspecifiedpropertyinthepossessionorcustodyofthepersonserved.Allpropertyinwhichthe
judgmentdebtorisknownorbelievedtohaveaninteresttheninandthereaftercomingintothepossessionor
custody of such a person, including any specified in the notice, and all debts of such a person, including any
specified in the notice, then due and thereafter coming due to the judgment debtor, shall be subject to the
notice.

Suchapersonisforbiddentomakeorsufferanysale,assignment,ortransferof,oranyinterferencewith,any
suchproperty,orpayoverorotherwisedisposeofanysuchdebt,toanypersonotherthanthesheriff,except
upondirectionofthesherifforpursuant toanorderofthecourt,untilthe expirationofsixmonths afterthe

407
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4430).
408
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4431).
noticeisserveduponhim,oruntilthejudgmentissatisfiedorvacatedorexpires,whichevereventfirstoccurs.A
judgment creditor who has specified personal property or a debt in a restraining notice shall be liable to the
owner of the property or the person to whom the debt is owed, if other than the judgment debtor, for any
damagesustainedbyreasonoftherestraint.

Ifagarnisheeservedwitharestrainingnoticewhichdoesnotspecifyanypersonalpropertyordebtwithholds
thepaymentofmoneybelongingorowedtothejudgmentdebtorinanamountequaltotwicetheamountdue
onthejudgment,therestrainingnoticeisnoteffectiveastootherpropertyormoney.

3.Subsequentnotice.Thejudgmentcreditormayapplyforanotherrestrainingordertorestrainathirdpartyas
towhomapreviousonehasbeenissuedandexpiredorisabouttoexpire.Theneedforsuchanordershallbe
examinedbythecourtandtheapplicationgrantedinitsdiscretion.409

44.33.Compellingdisclosuretoaidenforcement.

1. Compelling disclosure authorized. At any time before a judgment is satisfied or vacated or expires, the
judgment creditormaycompeldisclosureofallmatterrelevanttothesatisfactionofthejudgmentby serving
uponanypersonasubpoenaconformingtotherequirementsofparagraph2.

2.Formofsubpoena;service.Thesubpoenaservedtocompeldisclosureunderthissectionshallspecifyallof
the parties to the action, the date of the judgment, the court in which it was entered, the amount of the
judgment and the amount then due thereon, and shall state that false swearing or failure to comply with the
subpoenaispunishableasacontemptofcourt.Anyorallofthefollowingkindsofsubpoenasmaybeserved:

(a) Asubpoenarequiringattendanceforthetakingofadepositionatatimeandplacenamedtherein;
(b) Asubpoenaducestecumrequiringtheproductionofbooksandpapersforexaminationatatimeand
placenamedtherein;
(c) An information subpoena, accompanied by a copy and original of written questions and a prepaid,
addressedreturnenvelope.

Serviceofaninformationsubpoenamaybemadebyregisteredmailreturnreceiptrequested.Answersshallbe
madeinwritingunderoathbythepersonuponwhomservedifanindividual,orbyanofficer,director,agent,or
employee having the information, if a corporation, partnership, or sole proprietorship. Each question shall be
answeredseparatelyandfullyandeachanswershallrefertothequestiontowhichitresponds.Answersshallbe
returnedtogetherwiththeoriginalofthequestionswithinsevendaysafterreceipt.

3.Fees.Ajudgmentdebtorservedwithasubpoenaunderthissectionshallnotbeentitledtoanyfee.Anyother
person served with a subpoena requiring attendance or the production of books and papers shall be paid or
tenderedinadvancemileageorauthorizedtravelingexpensesandawitnessfee.Anyotherpersonservedwith
aninformationsubpoenashallbepaidinadvancethesumoffiftycents.

409
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4432);L.195960,ch.LXIV(6:979E).
4. Notice of time of disclosure; person before whom taken. A deposition on oral or written questions or an
examinationofbooksandpapersmayproceedbeforeanypersonauthorizedbysection13.7uponnotlessthan
tendays'noticetothepersonsubpoenaedunlessthecourtordersshorternotice.

5. Conduct of examination. The examination shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of section
13.8(1),exceptthatadeponenthavingobjectionstotheproceedingsortotheconductoftheexaminationmay
refusetoanswer,andthetakingofthedepositionshallproceedorbeadjournedasthejudgmentcreditormay
elect.Thejudgmentcreditormaythenproceedtocompelthequestiontobeansweredinaccordancewiththe
procedureprovidedbysection13.71.

6.Physicalpreparationofthedeposition.Theprocedureprescribedbysection13.8(4)and(5)shallbefollowed
in preparing the deposition. The officer who takes the deposition shall then file it in the court where the
judgmentwasrendered.

7.Subsequentexamination.Leaveofcourtisrequiredtocompelajudgmentdebtortoappearforthetakingof
hisdepositionortocompeltheproductionbyhimofbooksandpaperswithinoneyearaftertheconclusionofa
previousexaminationofhimwithrespecttothesamejudgment.410

44.34.Installmentpaymentorder.

1. Proceeding against judgment debtor. Upon motion of the judgment creditor after notice to the judgment
debtor, where it is shown that the judgment debtor is receiving or will receive money from any source or is
attemptingtoimpedethejudgmentcreditorbyrenderingserviceswithoutcompensation,thecourtshallorder
thatthejudgmentdebtormakespecifiedinstallmentpaymentstothejudgmentcreditor.Noticeofthemotion
shallbeservedonthejudgmentdebtorinthesamemannerasasummonsorbyregisteredmail,returnreceipt
requested. In fixing the amount of the payments, the court shall take into consideration the reasonable
requirements of the judgment debtor and his dependents, any payments required to be made by him in
satisfactionofotherjudgmentsandwageassignments,theamountdueonthejudgment,theamountbeingor
tobereceived,or,ifthejudgmentdebtorisattemptingtoimpedethejudgmentcreditorbyrenderingservices
withoutadequatecompensation,thereasonablevalueoftheservicesrendered.

2.Orderagainstthirdperson.Aninstallmentordergrantedunderparagraph1shallprovidethatafteradefault
ofthejudgmentdebtor,theordermaybeserved,togetherwithanaffidavitoftheattorneyforthejudgment
creditor specifying the amount due on the judgment, upon any person from whom the judgment debtor is
receiving or will receive money, in the same manner as a summons or by registered mail, return receipt
requested.Serviceuponsuchpersonshallnotrelievethejudgmentdebtorofhisdefault.Apersonservedwith
aninstallmentordershallwithholdfrommoneythenorthereafterduetothejudgmentdebtor,astheybecome
due,theinstallmentsspecifiedintheorder,andpaythemovertothejudgmentcreditor.Ifsuchpersonshallfail

410
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4434);L.195960,ch.LXIV(6:975979Q).
tosopaythejudgmentcreditor,hemaybepunishedforacontemptofcourt,andthejudgmentcreditormay
maintainanactionagainsthimfortheaccruedinstallments.

3.Durationofinstallmentorderagainstthirdperson.Ifforninetyconsecutivedays,nomoneyshallbecomedue
to the judgment debtor from a person served with an installment order, the order shall thereafter be
ineffective.411

44.35.Paymentordertogarnishee.

1.Topayordelivermoneyorproperty.Uponaspecialproceedingcommencedbythejudgmentcreditoragainst
a person in possession or custody of money or other personal property capable of delivery in which the
judgmentdebtorhasaninterest,oragainstapersonwhoisatransfereeofmoneyorotherpersonalproperty
from the judgment debtor, where it is shown that the judgment debtor is entitled to the possession of such
propertyorthatthejudgmentcreditor'srightstothepropertyaresuperiortothoseofthetransferee,thecourt
shall order such person to pay the money, or so much of it as is sufficient to satisfy the judgment, to the
judgmentcreditorand,iftheamounttobesopaidisinsufficienttosatisfythejudgment,todeliveranyother
personalproperty,orsomuchofitasisofsufficientvaluetosatisfythejudgment,toadesignatedsheriff.Costs
oftheproceedingshallnotbeawardedagainstapersonwhodidnotdisputethejudgmentdebtor'sinterestor
righttopossession.

2.Topaydebtsowedtojudgmentdebtor.Uponaspecialproceedinginstitutedbythejudgmentcreditoragainst
anypersonwhoitisshownisorwillbecomeindebtedtothejudgmentdebtor,thecourtshallordersuchperson
topaytothejudgmentcreditorthedebtuponmaturityorsomuchofitasissufficienttosatisfythejudgment,
oritmaydirectthatajudgmentbeenteredagainstsuchpersoninfavorofthejudgmentcreditor.Costsofthe
proceedingshallnotbeawardedagainstapersonwhodidnotdisputetheindebtedness.

3. Notice of proceeding to judgment debtor. Notice of a special proceeding under paragraph 1 or 2 shall be
served on the judgment debtor in the same manner as a summons or by registered mail, return receipt
requested.

4. Intervention by judgment debtor and adverse claimants. The court may permit the judgment debtor to
interveneinaspecialproceedinginstitutedunderparagraph1or2.Itmayalsopermitanyadverseclaimantto
interveneinsuchaproceedinganddeterminehisrightsinaccordancewithsection44.46.

5. Documents to effect payment or delivery. The court may order any person to execute and deliver any
documentnecessarytoeffectpaymentordelivery.412

44.36.Propergarnisheeforparticularpropertyordebt.

411
Priorlegislation:L.19636.4,ch.III(6:4434);L.195960,ch.LXIV(6:979H).
412
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4435);L.195960,ch.LXIII(6:931B,931D).
1.Rightsnotrepresentedbynegotiableinstrumentorstockcertificate.Wherepropertyconsistsofarightor
shareinthestockofanassociationorcorporation,orinterests.orprofitstherein,forwhichacertificateorstock
or other negotiable instrument is not outstanding, the corporation, or the president or treasurer of the
associationonbehalfoftheassociation,shallbethegarnishee.

2.Rightindecedent'sestateortrustfund.Wherepropertyconsistsofarightorinteresttoorinadecedents
estate or any other property or fund held or controlled by a fiduciary, the executor or trustee under the will,
administrator,orotherfiduciaryshallbethegarnishee.

3.Interestinapartnership.Wherepropertyconsistsofaninterestinapartnership,anypartnerotherthanthe
judgmentdebtor,onbehalfofthepartnership,shallbethegarnishee.

4.Propertyevidencedbynegotiableinstrument,negotiabledocument,orstockcertificate.Wherepropertyora
debt is evidenced by a negotiable instrument for the payment of money, a negotiable document of title or a
certificateofstockofanassociationorcorporation,theinstrument,document,orcertificateshallbetreatedas
propertycapableofdelivery,andthepersonholdingitshallbethegarnishee.413

44.37.Dischargeofgarnishee'sobligation.

A person who, pursuant to an execution or order, pays or delivers to the judgment creditor or a sheriff or
receivermoneyorotherpersonalpropertyinwhichajudgmentdebtorhasorwillhaveaninterest,orsopaysa
debt he owes, is discharged from his obligation to the judgment debtor to the extent of the payment or
delivery.414

44.38.Receivers.

1.Appointment.Uponmotionofajudgmentcreditor,uponsuchnoticeasthecourtmayrequire,thecourtmay
appoint a receiver who may be authorized to administer, collect, improve, lease, repair, or sell any real or
personalpropertyinwhichthejudgmentdebtorhasaninterestortodoanyotheractsdesignedtosatisfythe
judgment.Asfaraspracticable,thecourtshallrequirethatnoticebegiventothejudgmentdebtorandtoany
other judgment creditors of the judgment debtor. The order of appointment shall specify the property to be
received,thedutiesofthereceiverandthemannerinwhichtheyaretobeperformed.Areceivershallhaveno
power to employ counsel unless expressly so authorized by order of the court. A receiver shall be entitled to
necessaryexpensesandtosuchcommissions,notexceedingfivepercentofthesumsreceivedanddisbursedby
him,asthecourtwhichappointedhimallows,butifajudgmentcreditorisappointedreceiver,heshallnotbe
entitled to compensation. If a receiver has been appointed, a court making an order directing payment or
delivery of property shall direct that payment or delivery be made to the receiver rather than to a sheriff.
Sections7.82,7.83,7.84,and7.85areapplicabletoreceiversappointedunderthissection.

413
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4436).
414
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4437).
2. Extension of receivership. Where a receiver has been appointed, the court, upon motion of a judgment
creditor,uponsuchnoticeasitmayrequire,shallextendthereceivershiptohisjudgment.415

44.39.Executions.

1.Form.Anexecutionshallspecifythedateofthejudgment,thecourtinwhichitwasentered,theamountof
the judgment, and the amount due thereon. Where one or more persons against whom the judgment was
recoveredarenotjudgmentdebtors,oraredeceased,theexecutionshallalsospecifyeachjudgmentdebtornot
deceasedanddirectthatonlypropertyinwhichsuchjudgmentdebtorhasaninterest,ordebtsowedtohim,be
levied upon or sold thereunder. Where the judgment was recovered for all or part of a mortgage debt, the
execution shall also describe the mortgaged property, specify the book and page where the mortgage is
recorded,anddirectthatnopartofthemortgagedpropertybelevieduponorsoldthereunder.

2. Issuance. After a judgment is entered unless a stay of execution takes effect under section 51.20 or
immediatelyafterpaymentisdueonsuchjudgmentorpartthereofundersection44.22,andbeforeajudgment
issatisfiedorvacatedorthetimelimitedforcommencinganactionuponthejudgmentexpires,anexecution
maybeissuedbytheclerkofthecourtinthecountyinwhichthejudgmentwasfirstenteredtothesheriffof
the county where judgment was rendered directing him to levy upon the real and personal property of the
judgmentdebtor.Ifalevyonrealpropertyistobemadeunderanexecutionissuedbyacourtnotofrecord,the
executionshallbedirectedtothesheriffandnottoaconstable.

3.Return.Anexecutionshallbereturnedtotheclerkofthecourtfromwhichitwasissuedwithinsixtydays
after issuance, except that in the case of an execution issued by a court not of record and directed under
paragraph2toasheriff,theexecutionshallbereturnedtotheclerkoftheCircuitCourtofthecountywherein
theexecutionwasissued.Thesheriffshallattachtotheexecutiononitsreturntothecourtascheduleofthe
propertyonwhichhehasleviedtogetherwithanitemizedappraisalofitsvalue.

4.Entryofalphabeticalnotationonreturnofexecution.Asheriffshallreturnanexecutiontotheclerkofthe
court from which the execution issued, endorsing thereon whether it is returned unsatisfied or wholly or
partiallysatisfied,andtheclerkshallmakeanappropriateentryinthebookrequiredtobekeptundersection
41.4. The sheriff shall also deliver to the person making the payment, upon request, a certified copy of the
executionandofthereturnofsatisfactionorpartialsatisfaction.416

44.40.Levyuponpersonalproperty.

415
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4438).
416
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364;ch.III(6:4439(1)).Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:4439(2));L.195960,ch.LXIII,1
(6:930);ch.XLIX(6:932);1956Code6:930932;L.193536,ch.XXIII,1;Rev.Stat.416,659,660;J.P.Code46,47;
OBB113,JudiciaryAct,art.1,2;OBB67,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XVIII,1,2,2Hub.1570.Par.3:L.196364,
ch.III(6:4439(3));L.195960,ch.LXIII,3(6:933);1956Code6:933;Rev.Stat.418,662;J.P.Code49;OBB67,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XVIII,3.,4,2Hub.1570.Par.4:L.196364,ch.III(6:4439(4)).
1.Levybyserviceofnotice.Thesheriffshalllevyuponanyinterestofthejudgmentdebtorinpersonalproperty
not capable of delivery, or upon any debt owed to the judgment debtor, by serving a copy of the execution
personallyuponthegarnishee,inthesamemannerasasummons,exceptthatsuchserviceshallnotbemadeby
deliveringacopytoapersonauthorizedtoreceivesummonssolelybyadesignationfiledpursuanttolaw.The
garnisheeshallforthwithtransfersuchinterestorpaysuchdebttothesheriff.

2.Levybyseizure.Thesheriffshalllevyuponanyinterestofthejudgmentdebtorinpersonalpropertycapable
of delivery by taking the property into his custody without interfering with lawful possession of pledgees and
lessees.Thesheriffshallforthwithserveacopyoftheexecutioninthemannerprescribedbyparagraph1upon
thepersonfromwhosepossessionorcustodythepropertywastaken.417

44.41.Saleofpersonalproperty.

1. Public auction. The interest of the judgment debtor in personal property obtained by a sheriff pursuant to
executionororder,otherthanlegaltenderoftheRepublicofLiberia,shallbesoldbythesherifftothehighest
bidderatpublicauctionatsuchtimeandplaceandasaunitorinsuchlotsorcombinationsthereof,asinhis
judgmentwillbringthehighestprice,butnosalemaybemadetothatsherifforhisdeputy.Thepropertyshall
bepresentandwithintheviewofthoseattendingthesaleunlessotherwiseorderedbythecourt.

2.Publicnotice.Aprintednoticeofthetimeandplaceofthesaleshallbepostedatleasttendaysbeforethe
saleinthreepublicplacesinthetownorcityinwhichthesaleistobeheld.Anomissiontosopostnotice,orthe
defacingorremovalofapostednotice,doesnotaffectthetitleofapurchaserwithoutnoticeoftheomissionor
offense.

3. Order for immediate sale or disposition. The court may direct immediate sale or other disposition of
perishablepropertywithorwithoutnoticeiftheurgencyofthecaserequires.418

44.42.Levyuponrealproperty.

Thesheriffshalllevyonrealproperty,pursuanttoanexecutionotherthanoneissueduponajudgmentforany
part of a mortgage debt upon the property, by posting notice of the execution in a prominent place on the
propertyandalsoonthedoorofthecourthouseofthecircuitwherethepropertyislocatedandintwoother
prominentpublicplacesinthecircuit.Thesheriffshallalsofileanoticeoftheexecutionwithreferencetosuch
realpropertyintheofficeoftheclerkoftheprobatecourtofthecountywherethepropertyislocated.Thefiling
ofsuchanoticeshallhavethesameeffectasthefilingofanoticeofpendency.419

44.43.Saleofrealproperty.

417
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4440);L.195960,ch.LXIII,4(6:934);1956Code6:934;L.193536,ch.XXII,2;
Rev.Stat.418,661;J.P.Code48;OBB113,JudiciaryAct,art.I,2;OBB67,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,ch.XVIII,
3,4,2Hub.1570;1828Code,Ord..No.5,2Hub.1271,1305.
418
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4441);L.195960,ch.LXIII,4(6:933);1956Code6:933.
419
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4442).
1. Time and manner of sale. At least eight weeks and not more than nine weeks after the delivery of an
execution to the sheriff, unless the time is extended by order, the interest of the judgment debtor in real
propertywhichhasbeenlevieduponthereunderorwhichwassubjecttothelienofthejudgmentatthetimeof
suchdeliveryshallbesoldbythesheriffpursuanttotheexecutionatpublicauctiontothehighestbidderatsuch
time and place within the county where the real property is situated and as a unit or in such parcels, or
combinationthereof,asinhisjudgmentwillbringthehighestprice,butnosalemaybemadetothatsheriffor
tohisdeputy.Ifthepropertyissituatedinmorethanonecounty,itmaybesoldinacountyinwhichanypartis
situated, unless the court orders otherwise. Nothing contained in this section shall be deemed to authorize a
constabletosellrealpropertyonanexecutionsale.

2. Sale of mortgaged properly. Real property which is mortgaged shall not be sold pursuant to an execution
issueduponajudgmentrecoveredforallorpartofthemortgagedebt.

3.Noticeofsale.Aprintednoticeofthetimeandplaceofthesalecontainingadescriptionofthepropertytobe
soldshallbepostedatleasteightweeksbeforethesaleinthreepublicplacesinthecityortownshipinwhich
thepropertyislocated,and,ifthesaleistobeheldinanothercityortownship,inthreepublicplacestherein.
Everyjudgmentcreditorhavingajudgmentwhichwasalienforatleasttwentydayspriortothetimefixedfor
thesaleupontherealpropertytobesoldshallbeservedwithacopyofthenoticepersonallyorbyregistered
mail,returnreceiptrequested,attheaddressshownuponthejudgmentdocket,atleasttendayspriortothe
timefixedforthesale.Ifanewspaperispublishedinthecountyinwhichthepropertyislocated,acopyofthe
notice shall be published therein at least once in each twoweek period during the eight successive weeks
precedingthetimefixedforthesale.Anomissiontogiveanynoticerequiredbythisparagraph,orthedefacing
or removal of a notice posted pursuant hereto, does not affect the title of a purchaser without notice of the
omissionoroffense.

4. Conveyance; proof of notice. Within ten days after the sale, the sheriff shall execute and deliver to the
purchaser proofs of publication, service, and posting of the notice of sale, and a deed which shall convey the
right,title,andinterestsold.SuchproofsmaybefiledandrecordedintheofficeoftheRegistrarofDeedsofthe
countywherethepropertyislocated.420

44.44.Dispositionofproceedsofsale.

Afterdeductionandpaymentoffeesandexpenses,thesheriffmakingasalepursuanttoanexecutionororder
shall distribute the proceeds pro rata to the judgment creditors who have delivered executions against the
judgmentdebtortothesheriffbeforethesale,whichexecutionshavenotbeenreturned.Ifthepropertysold
hadbeenlevieduponpursuanttoanorderofattachment,theattachmentcreditorshallshareintheproceeds

420
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4443);L.195960,ch.LXIII,4(6:933);1956Code6:933.
and his priority shall be determined from the date of the levy. Any excess shall be paid over to the judgment
debtor.421

44.45.Failureoftitletopropertysold.

The purchaser of property sold by a sheriff pursuant to execution may recover the purchase money from the
judgmentcreditorswhoreceivedtheproceedsifthepropertyisrecoveredfromsuchpurchaserinconsequence
ofanirregularityinthesaleoravacating,reversal,orsettingasideofthejudgmentuponwhichtheexecution
wasbased.Ifajudgmentforthepurchasemoneyissorecoveredagainstajudgmentcreditorinconsequenceof
anirregularityinthesale,suchjudgmentcreditormayenforcehisjudgmentasifnolevyorsalehadbeenmade,
and,forthatpurpose,hemaymovewithoutnoticeforanorderrestoringanylienorpriorityoramendingany
officialnotationaffectedbythesale.422

44.46.Proceedingtodetermineadverseclaims.

Prior to the application of property by a sheriff or receiver to the satisfaction of a judgment, any interested
person may institute a special proceeding against the judgment creditor to determine the rights of adverse
claimants to the property, by serving a notice of petition upon the sheriff or receiver and upon the judgment
creditorinthesamemannerasasummons.Theproceedingmaybeinstitutedinthecountywheretheproperty
wasleviedupon,orinacountyspecifiedinsection44.31.Thecourtmayvoidthelevy,directthedispositionof
the property, or direct that damages be awarded. Where there appear to be disputed questions of fact, the
courtshallorderatrial,indicatingthepersonwhoshallhavepossessionofthepropertypendingadecisionand
thebond,ifany,whichsuchpersonshallgive.Ifthecourtdeterminesthattheadverseclaimwasfraudulent,it
may require the claimant to pay the judgment creditor the reasonable expenses incurred in the proceeding,
includingreasonableattorney'sfees,andanyotherdamagessufferedbyreasonoftheclaim.423

44.47.Arrestofjudgmentdebtor.

Uponmotionofthejudgmentcreditorwithoutnotice,whereitisshownthatthejudgmentdebtorisaboutto
departfromtheRepublicorkeepshimselfconcealedtherein,andthatthereisreasontobelievethathehasin
his possession or control property in which he has an interest, the court may issue a warrant directed to the
sheriffofanycountyinwhichthejudgmentdebtormaybelocated.Thewarrantshallcommandthesheriffto
arrest the judgment debtor forthwith and bring him before the court. The sheriff shall serve a copy of the
warrantandthepapersuponwhichitwasbaseduponthejudgmentdebtorwhenhemakesthearrest.When
thejudgmentdebtorisbroughtbeforethecourt,thecourtmayorderthathegiveabond,inasumtobefixed

421
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4444);L.195960,ch.LXIII,2(6:931D(4));1956Code6:935;L.193536,ch.XXIII,
3.
422
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4445).
423
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4446);1956Code6:937;L.193536,ch.XXIII,4.
by the court, that he will attend before the court for examination and that he will obey the terms of any
restrainingnoticecontainedintheorder.424

44.48.Actsconstitutingcontempt.

Failureofanypersontocomplywithasubpoena,paymentorder,orrestrainingnoticeissuedpursuanttothis
chapter,falseswearinguponanexaminationorinansweringwrittenquestions,andwillfuldefacingorremoval
ofapostednoticeofsalebeforethetimefixedforthesaleshalleachbepunishableasacontemptofcourt.425

SubchapterC.ENFORCEMENTOFJUDGMENTSBYMEANSOTHERTHAN
EXECUTION
44.71.Methodsofenforcement.

1.Judgmentsawardingpossessionofrealorpersonalproperty.Ajudgmentororderorapartthereof,awarding
possession of real property or a chattel, may be enforced by execution, which shall particularly describe the
property and designate the party to whom the judgment or order awards its possession. The execution shall
complywiththeprovisionsofsection44.39,exceptthatitshalldirectthesherifftodeliverthepossessionofthe
propertytothepartydesignated.Inanactiontorecoverachattel,wherethejudgmentawardspossessionof
the chattel and in the alternative its value, the executive shall also direct the sheriff, if the chattel cannot be
foundinhiscounty,tolevyuponrealandpersonalproperty.

2.Judgmentsenforceablebyimprisonmentifexecutionnotsatisfied.Judgmentsinanyofthefollowingactions
shall be enforceable by execution, but if the judgment debtor cannot or will not pay the full amount of the
judgmenttogetherwithinterestandcosts,thesheriffshallarresthimandthecourtshallorderhimimprisoned
for a period sufficiently long to liquidate the full amount of the judgment, interest, and costs at the rate of
twentyfivedollarspermonth:

(a) Adultery;
(b) Seductionofwifeorchild;
(c) Illegallytakingawayorharboringawifeorchildorwardundertwentyoneyearsofage;
(d) Enticinganincompetentawayfromhislegallyappointedtrusteeorguardian;or
(e) Injurytothereputationwhenthewordsspokenorwrittenareactionableperse.

3. Money judgments enforceable by contempt. Any of the following money judgments may be enforced by
contemptproceedings:

424
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4447);L.195960,ch.LXIV(6:979B(1)).
425
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4448).
(a) Againstatrusteeorapersonactinginafiduciaryrelationshipforthepaymentofasumofmoneyfora
defaultorderelictionofhisduty;or
(b) Forthesupportofawife,child,orotherdependent.

4.Otherjudgments.Any interlocutoryorfinaljudgmentororder,oranypartthereof,notenforceableunder
section44.21orparagraph1,2,or3ofthissectionmaybeenforcedbyoneofthefollowingmethods:

(a) Directingtheacttobedoneatthecostofthedisobedientpartybytheministerialofficerofthecourtor
bysomeotherpersonappointedbythecourt;andtheactwhensodoneshallhavethesameeffectasif
donebythedisobedientparty;or
(b) On application of the party entitled to performance, appointment of a receiver of property of the
disobedientpartyundersection44.72tocompelcompliancewiththejudgment;or
(c) Onjudgmentofacourtofrecord,ifrealpropertyiswithinthecounty,enteringajudgmentdivestingthe
title of any party and vesting it in another person in lieu of directing a conveyance thereof; and such
judgmentwhenprobatedintheofficeoftheclerkoftheprobatecourtandrecordedintheofficeofthe
RegistrarofDeedsshallhavetheeffectofaconveyanceexecutedindueformoflaw;or
(d) Adjudgingthedisobedientpartyincontemptandpunishinghimasprovidedinsection44.73.426

44.72.Enforcementthroughreceivership.

Acourt,beforeandafterjudgment,mayappointareceiverofpropertyofthepersonagainstwhomjudgment
was rendered, to carry the judgment into effect or to dispose of or administer the property according to its
directions. Unless the court otherwise orders, such a receivership shall be subject to the provisions of
subchapterEofchapter7insofarastheyareapplicable.427

44.73.Enforcementthroughcontemptproceedings.

1.Procedure.Acourthavingjurisdictiontopunishforanactofcivilcontempt,uponbeingsatisfiedbyaffidavit
ofthecommissionoftheoffense,shallissueanorderrequiringtheaccusedtoshowcausebeforeitatatime
and place therein specified, why he should not be punished for the alleged offense. The order to show cause
shall be served upon the accused in the manner of service of summons and the subsequent proceedings
thereuponshallbetakenintheaction,asuponamotionmadetherein.Ifitisdeterminedatthehearingonthe
order that the accused has committed the offense charged, and that it defeated, impaired, impeded, or
prejudicedtherightsorremediesofapartytotheaction,thecourtshallmakeafinalorderdirectingthathebe
punishedbyfineorimprisonmentorboth.Suchordermaybeenforced,ifnecessary,byarrestoftheaccused
underawarrantofarrest.

426
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:4471(1));1956Code6:972,980,981;OBB71,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.XVIII,14,16,2Hub.1570.Par.2:L.1,ch.III(6:4471(2));1956Code6:970,971;L.193940,ch.XII,1,2;L.196364,
ch.XXIII,7;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XIX11,2Hub.1574.Par.3:L.196364,ch.III(6:4471(3)).Par.4:
L.196364,ch.III(6:4471(4));1956Code6:981.
427
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4472).
2.Limitationofimprisonmentandfine.Ifthecontemptconsistedofanomissiontoperformanactwhichisyet
withinthepoweroftheoffendertoperform,hemaybeimprisonedonlyuntilhehasperformedit.Iftheactis
no longer in his power to perform, the offender may be imprisoned for a reasonable time not exceeding six
months, unless otherwise provided by statute. The order and the warrant of commitment shall specify the
duration of the imprisonment. If a fine is imposed, it shall not exceed an amount which will reasonably
indemnifythecomplainantforanylosshemayhavesufferedincludingcostsofthecontemptproceeding,or,in
the absence of a showing of loss, the fine shall not exceed two hundred fifty dollars and the costs of the
contemptproceeding.Thefineshallbepaidtothecomplainant.428

Chapter45.COSTSANDINTEREST
SubchapterA.CostsGenerally
45.1.Costsinanaction;generalrule.
45.2.Penaltyforbringingactioninahighercourt.
45.3.Costsuponappeal.
45.4.CostsagainstorinfavoroftheRepublic.
45.5.Taxationofcosts.
45.6.Enforcementofpaymentofcosts.

SubchapterB.Interest
45.61.Interesttoverdict,report,ordecision.
45.62.Interestuponmoneyjudgment.
45.63.Rateofinterest.

SubchapterA.COSTSGENERALLY
45.1.Costsinanaction;generalrule.

Thepartyinwhosefavorajudgmentisenteredisentitledtocostsintheaction,unlessotherwiseprovidedby
statute or rule or unless the court determines that so to allow costs would not be equitable under all of the
circumstances.429

428
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4473).
429
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4501);1956Code6:863;1841Acts,ActtosupplementJudiciaryAct,6,1421.
45.2.Penaltyforbringingactioninahighercourt.

Whenever an action is brought in a Circuit Court which could have been brought in a justice's or magistrate's
court,theplaintiffshallnotbeentitledtocosts.430

45.3.Costsuponappeal.

The party in whose favor an appeal is decided in whole or in part is entitled to costs in the action, unless
otherwiseprovidedbystatute,rule,ororderoftheappellatecourt.431

45.4.CostsagainstorinfavoroftheRepublic.

CostsshallnotbeimposedagainstorinfavoroftheRepublicofLiberia,itsofficerssuedorsuingintheirofficial
capacities,itsagencies,oranyauthoritieswhollyownedbytheGovernment.432

45.5.Taxationofcosts.

Afterfinaljudgment,theclerkofcourtshallprepareabillofcostswhichheshalltransmittotheattorneysforall
theparties.Thejudgeshallapprovethebilkofcostsagreeduponbytheattorneys,or,iftheycannotagree,he
shallsettlethedisputeditemsandapprovethebillassettled.433

45.6.Enforcementofpaymentofcosts.

Execution may be issued by the court in an amount to cover the costs in addition to the amount of the
judgment.Othermeansavailabletothejudgmentcreditorunderchapter44toenforceamoneyjudgmentmay
beemployedtosecurepaymentofcosts.434

SubchapterB.INTEREST
45.61.Interesttoverdict,report,ordecision.

1. Actions in which recoverable. Interest shall be recovered upon a sum awarded because of a breach of
performanceofacontract,orbecauseofanactoromissiondeprivingorotherwiseinterferingwithtitleto,or
possessionorenjoymentof,property.

430
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4502);1956Code6:864;Rev.Stat.1189(4);OBB113,Judiciary,art.I,7.
431
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4503).
432
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4504);1956Code6:863,1064;Rev.Stat.433;L.189394,10(2nd),3.
433
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4505).
434
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4506).
2.Datefromwhichcomputed.Interestshallbecomputedfromtheearliestascertainabledatetheclaimexisted,
exceptthatinterestupondamagesincurredthereaftershallbecomputedfromthedateincurred.

3.Decisionastowhenclaimarose.Ifthedatewhenaclaimaroseisinissueinajuryaction,thejurymayrender
aspecialverdictonsuchissue;butifnosuchverdictisrendered,ageneralverdictinfavorofapartyshallbe
deemedtoincludeafindinginfavorofthatpartywithregardtotheissueastowhentheclaimarose.435

45.62.Interestuponmoneyjudgment.

Everymoneyjudgmentshallbearinterestfromthedateofitsentry.436

45.63.Rateofinterest

Interest shall be at the rate of six percent per annum, except where otherwise prescribed by statute or by
agreementbetweentheparties.437

PARTIV
__________
AppellateProcedure

Chapter51.APPEALSFROMCOURTSOFRECORD
51.1. Applicationofchapter.
51.2. Judgmentssubjecttoreview.
51.3. Parties.
51.4. Requirementsforcompletionofanappeal.
51.5. Prerequisitestoappeal.
51.6. Announcementoftakingoftheappeal.
51.7. Filingofthebillofexceptions.

435
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4561).
436
Priorlegislation:L.196364ch.III(6:4562);1956Code6:862;Rev.Stat.862;OBB,LegalPrinciplesandRules,tIIch.
XVII,1820,2Hub.1568.
437
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:4563);1956Code6:862;Rev.Stat.412;OBB69,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.XVII,19,20,2Hub.1568.
51.8. Appealbond.
51.9. Noticeofcompletionofappeal.
51.10. Tollingoftimeforactsrequiredtocompleteappeal.
51.11. Recordonappeal.
51.12. Correctionormodificationoftherecord.
51.13. Ordertoinspectoriginalpapersandexhibits.
51.14. Briefs.
51.15. Scopeofreview.
51.16. Dismissalofappealforfailuretoproceed.
51.17. Dispositionofappeal.
51.18. Restitution.
51.19. Entryoforder;remittiturandfurtherproceedings.
51.20. Effectofappealasastay.

51.1.Applicationofchapter.

Thischaptershallbeapplicabletoappealsfromjudgmentsofallcourtsofrecord.438

51.2.Judgmentssubjecttoreview.

Everypersonagainstwhomanyfinaljudgmentisrenderedshallhavetherighttoappealfromthejudgmentof
the court except from that of the Supreme Court. The decision of the Supreme Court shall be absolute and
final.439

51.3.Parties.

An aggrieved party or a person substituted for him may appeal from any appealable judgment. He shall be
designatedastheappellantandtheadversepartyastheappellee.Anytwoormorepartiesinterestedjointlyor
severallyinajudgmentmayjoininanappealtherefrom;oranyoneormoreofthemmayappealseparately.440

51.4.Requirementsforcompletionofanappeal.

438
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5101).
439
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5102);1956Code6:1000;Rev.Stat.423,432,669;J.P.Code60;L.189394,10
(2nd),2;L.187879,19,2;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XX,I,2Hub.1578.
440
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5103);1956Code6:1002;Rev.Stat.423;OBB,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.
XX,7,2Hub.1578.
Thefollowingactsshallbenecessaryforthecompletionofanappeal:

(a) Announcementofthetakingoftheappeal;
(b) Filingofthebillofexceptions;
(c) Filingofanappealbond;
(d) Serviceandfilingofnoticeofcompletionoftheappeal.

Failure to comply with any of these requirements within the time allowed by statute shall be ground for
dismissaloftheappeal.441

51.5.Prerequisitestoappeal.

Beforeannouncingthetakingofanappeal,apartyinajurycaseshallmoveforanewtrialafteraverdict,and,in
anycase,shallexcepttothejudgment.442

51.6.Announcementoftakingoftheappeal.

An appeal shall be taken at the time of rendition of the judgment by oral announcement in open court. Such
announcement may be made by the party if he represents himself or by the attorney representing him, or, if
suchattorneyisnotpresent,byadeputyappointedbythecourtforthispurpose.443

51.7.Filingofthebillofexceptions.

Abillofexceptionsisaspecificationoftheexceptionsmadetothejudgment,decision,order,ruling,orother
matter excepted to on the trial and relied upon for the appeal together with a statement of the basis of the
exceptions.Theappellantshallpresentabillofexceptionssignedbyhimtothetrialjudgewithintendaysafter
renditionofthejudgment.Thejudgeshallsignthebillofexceptions,notingthereonsuchreservationsashemay
wishtomake.Thesignedbillofexceptionsshallbefiledwiththeclerkofthetrialcourt.444

51.8.Appealbond.

Every appellant shall give an appeal bond in an amount to be fixed by the court, with two or more legally
qualified sureties, to the effect that he will indemnify the appellee from all costs or injury arising from the
appeal,ifunsuccessful,andthathewillcomplywiththejudgmentoftheappellatecourtorofanyothercourtto
whichthecaseisremoved.Theappellantshallsecuretheapprovalofthebondbythetrialjudgeandshallfileit
withtheclerkofthecourtwithinsixtydaysafterrenditionofjudgment.Noticeofthefilingshallbeservedon
opposing counsel. A failure to file a sufficient appeal bond within the specified time shall be a ground for

441
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5104);1956Code6:10111013;Rev.Stat.425,426;L.189394,10(2nd),1;L.
187879,19,2;OBB113,JudiciaryAct,art.1,2;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XX,3,4,8,2Hub.1578.
442
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5105);1956Code6:1011.
443
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5106);1956Code6:1011.
444
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5107);1956Code6:1012;Rev.Stat.425;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.11,
ch.XX,3,4,2Hub.1578.
dismissaloftheappeal;provided,however,thataninsufficientbondmaybemadesufficientatanytimeduring
theperiodbeforethetrialcourtlosesjurisdictionoftheaction.445

51.9.Noticeofcompletionofappeal.

Afterthefilingofthebillofexceptionsandthefilingoftheappealbondasrequiredbysections51.7and51.8,
theclerkofthetrialcourtonapplicationoftheappellantshallissueanoticeofthecompletionoftheappeala
copyofwhichshallbeservedbytheappellantontheappellee.Theoriginalofsuchnoticeshallbefiledinthe
officeoftheclerkofthetrialcourt.446

51.10.Tollingoftimeforactsrequiredtocompleteappeal.

If, after an appeal is announced, the counsel for the appellant dies or becomes physically or mentally
incapacitatedorisdisbarredorsuspendedbeforetheexpirationofthetimeforfilingofabillofexceptionsoran
appeal bond, the time for the doing of such act shall commence to run anew from the date of the death,
incapacitation,disbarment,orsuspensionofsuchcounsel.Abillofexceptionsorappealbondshallnotbefiled
by a new attorney of record within the extended time allowed by this section until he has applied for and
receivedpermissionofthecourt.447

51.11.Recordonappeal.

Theclerkofthecourtfromwhichtheappealistakenshallmakeuparecordcontainingcertifiedcopiesofallthe
writs,returns,notices,pledges,motions,applications,certificates,minutes,verdicts,decisions,rulings,orders,
opinions,judgments,billsofexceptions,andallotherproceedingsinthecase.Heshalltransmitthisrecordwith
acopyoftheappealbondtotheappellatecourtwithinninetydaysafterrenditionofjudgment.Theclerkofthe
appellatecourtshalldockettherecordforthwithandforwardareceipttotheclerkwhotransmittedit.448

51.12.Correctionormodificationoftherecord.

Ifanymaterialmatteris,byerror,accident,ordesign,omittedfromtherecordonappealormisstatedtherein,
the party affected thereby or the parties by stipulation may apply to the appellate court to have the error or
misstatement corrected; or the appellate court may act on its own initiative. When necessary, the appellate
courtshallissueamandatetothetrialcourtrequiringthejudgethereoftohavetherecordcompletedandto
returnitforthwithortotransmittotheappellatecourtacertifiedsupplementaryrecord.449

51.13.Ordertoinspectoriginalpapersandexhibits.

445
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5108);1956Code6:1010,1013,1014;Rev.Stat.424426;L.189394,10(2nd),
1;L.187879,19,2;OBB113,JudiciaryAct,art.1,2;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XX,6,8,2Hub.1578.
446
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5109).
447
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5110).
448
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5111);1956Code6:1015;Rev.Stat.428;L.189394,10(2nd),1;OBB77,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XX,5,2Hub.1577.
449
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5112);1956Code6:1018;Rev.Stat.429;L.189394,10(2nd),3.
Whenevertheappellatecourtisoftheopinionthatitshouldinspecttheoriginalpapersorexhibitsinsteadof
copies,itshallmakeanappropriateorderthereforandforthesafekeeping,transportation,andreturnofsuch
originalsinsuchmannerasitdeemsproper.450

51.14.Briefs.

Immediatelyupontheassignmentofacaseforargument,sixcopiesofbriefsonbothsidesshallbefiledinthe
officeoftheclerkoftheSupremeCourt.Onecopyshallbekepttherewiththerecordofthecaseandtheothers
shall be distributed among the justices. Counsel for each party shall serve a copy of his brief on counsel for
opposingpartiesatthecallofthecaseorbefore.Thebriefsshallcontainastatementoftheissueandthepoints
tobearguedwithsupportinglegalauthorities.Sufficientquotationsfromthelattershallbeincludedtogivethe
Court a clear understanding of the purport of the authority cited. References to evidence shall include a
statementofthefolioorpagewhereitappearsintherecord.451

51.15.Scopeofreview.

1.Pointsoflawfirstraisedinappellatecourt.Theappellatecourtshallnotconsiderpointsoflawnotraisedin
the court below and argued in the briefs, except that it may in any case, in the interest of justice, base its
decisiononaplainerrorapparentintherecord.

2. No additional evidence. An appellate court shall examine a case upon the record only and shall hear no
additionalevidence.452

51.16.Dismissalofappealforfailuretoproceed.

Anappealmaybedismissedbythetrialcourtonmotionforfailureoftheappellanttofileabillofexceptions
withinthetimeallowedbystatute,andbytheappellatecourtafterfilingofthebillofexceptionsforfailureof
theappellanttoappearonthehearingoftheappeal,tofileanappealbond,ortoservenoticeofthecompletion
oftheappealasrequiredbystatute.453

51.17.Dispositionofappeal.

450
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5113);1956Code6:1019.
451
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5114).
452
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5115);1956Code6:1060;Rev.Stat.431,432;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,
t.II,ch.XX,10,2Hub.1578.
453
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5116);1956Code6:1020;L.194243,ch.I,1;L.1938,ch.HI,1;L.193536,ch.
VII;Rev.Stat.430;L.189394,.10(2nd),2.
Acourttowhichanappealistakenmayreverse,affirm,ormodify,whollyorinpart,anyjudgmentbeforeit,as
toanyparty.Thecourtshallrenderafinaldeterminationor,wherenecessaryorproper,remandtothelower
courtforfurtherproceedings.454

51.18.Restitution.

Acourtreversingormodifyingafinaljudgmentoraffirmingsuchareversalormodificationmayorderrestitution
ofpropertyorrightslostbythejudgment,exceptthatwherethetitleofapurchaseringoodfaithandforvalue
wouldbeaffected,thecourtmayorderthevalueorthepurchasepricerestoredordepositedincourt.455

51.19.Entryoforder;remittiturandfurtherproceedings.

1.Entryoforderinappellatecourt.Anorderofacourttowhichanappealistakenshallbeenteredintheoffice
oftheclerkofthatcourt.

2.Remittiturandfurtherproceedings.Acopyoftheorderofthecourttowhichanappealistakendetermining
theappeal,tobeknownasthemandate,shallberemittedtotheclerkofthelowercourt.Theentryofsuchcopy
shallbeauthorityforanyfurtherproceedingsinthetrialcourtanditshallbethedutyofthetrialcourttocarry
outthemandateoftheappellatecourt.Anyjudgmentdirectedbythemandateoftheappellatecourtshallbe
enteredbytheclerkofthetrialcourt.456

51.20.Effectofappealasastay.

Onannouncementofanappealbyadefendant,noexecutionshallissueonajudgmentagainsthimnorshallany
proceedings be taken for its enforcement until final judgment is rendered, except that on an appeal from an
orderdissolvinganordergrantingapreliminaryinjunction,suchpreliminaryinjunctionshallbeinforcepending
decisionontheappeal.457

Chapter52.APPEALSFROMCOURTSNOTOFRECORD
52.1. Applicabilityofprovisionsofchapter51.
52.2. Announcementoftakingofanappealfromacourtnotofrecord.
52.3. Filingofbond.
52.4. Transmissionofpaperstoappellatecourt.

454
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5117);1956Code6:1061,1062;Rev.Stat.432;OBB77,LegalPrinciplesandRules,
t.II,ch.XX,11,13,2Hub.1578.
455
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5118).
456
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5119).
457
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5120);1956Code6:991;Rev.Stat.422.
52.5. Trialdenovoinappellatecourt.

52.1.Applicabilityofprovisionsofchapter51.

The provisionsofsections51.3,51.5,51.10,5115,51.17,51.18,51.19,and 51.20shallapply toappealsfrom


judgmentsofmagistratesandjusticesofthepeace.Referencesinthosesectionstothe"trialcourt"shall,when
thesectionisappliedtoappealsfromthejudgmentofamagistrateorjusticeofthepeace,bedeemedtomean
thecourtofthemagistrateorjusticeofthepeace. Referencesinthosesectionstotheclerkofthetrialcourt
shall,whenthesectionisappliedtoappealsfromjudgmentsofmagistratesorjusticesofthepeace,bedeemed
tomeanthemagistrateorjusticeofthepeaceorhisclerkifhehasone.458

52.2.Announcementoftakingofanappealfromacourtnotofrecord.

Anappealshallbetakenatthetimeofrenditionofthejudgmentbyoralannouncementbeforethemagistrate
orjusticeofthepeace.459

52.3.Filingofbond.

Withinfifteendaysafterannouncementofthetakingofanappeal,theappellantshallsecuretheapprovalofthe
magistrateorjusticeofthepeacewhotriedthecasetoanappealbondandshallfileitwiththecourt.Noticeof
thefilingshallbeservedupontheopposingcounsel.Thebondshallbeinanamounttobefixedbythecourtand
shallbeconditionedoncompliancewiththefinaljudgmenttogetherwithcosts,interest,anddamagesfordelay.
Failuretofurnishabond asrequiredbythissectionshallbegroundfordismissal;provided,however,thatan
insufficientbondmaybemadesufficientatanytimebeforethetrialcourtlosesjurisdictionoftheaction.460

52.4.Transmissionofpaperstoappellatecourt.

Themagistrateorjusticeofthepeacefromwhosejudgmentanappealistaken,shall,withinfifteendaysafter
announcementoftheappeal,transmittotheappellatecourtandfilewiththeclerkthereofthecompletefileof
papersinthecase,includingthecopyofthesummons,thereturnshowingservice,anydocumentsintroducedin
evidenceonthetrial,thejudgment,andtheappealbond.461

52.5.Trialdenovoinappellatecourt.

458
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5201).
459
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5202).
460
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5203);1956Code6:1042;Rev.Stat.671;J.P.Code62.
461
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5204);1956Code6:1040;Rev.Stat.670;J.P.Code6;L.186263,3,3,4.
Thehearinguponanappealfromajudgmentofamagistrateorajusticeofthepeaceshallbeatrialdenovo,
exceptthatissuesoflawmaybedeterminedonoralargumentwithouttheintroductionofevidence.462

462
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:5205);1956Code6:1063;OBB113,Judiciary,art.I,5,8.
PARTV
________

SpecialMatters

Chapter61.ACTIONTORECOVERACHATTEL
61.1. Whenactionmaybebrought.
61.2. Titleinthirdpersonasdefense.
61.3. Alternativemethodsofproceeding.
61.4. Ordertoreplevy.
61.5. Seizureofchattelbysheriff;service.
61.6. Dispositionofchattelbysheriff.
61.7. Reclaimingofchattelbydefendant.
61.8. Intervention.
61.9. Seizingorreclaimingfewerthanallchattels.
61.10. Saleofperishableproperty.
61.11. Liabilityofsheriff.
61.12. Sheriffsreturn.
61.13. Judgment.
61.14. Uniquechattel.
61.15. Actiononbond.

61.1.Whenactionmaybebrought.

Anactionmaybebroughtpursuanttotheprovisionsofthischaptertorecoverachattelwrongfullydetained,
whetherornotwrongfullytaken,anddamagesforwrongfultakinganddetention.463

61.2.Titleinthirdpersonasdefense.

463
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6;6101);1956Code6:1101;Rev.Stat.346.
Thattitletothechattelsoughttoberecoveredisinathirdpersonwhoisnotprivytothedefendantisnota
defensetotheaction.464

61.3.Alternativemethodsofproceeding.

Aplaintiffinanactiontorecoverachattelmayproceedinthemannerprescribedinthischaptertoreplevythe
chattelpriortojudgment,orhemayproceedwithoutreplevyofthechatteland,ifjudgmentisrenderedinhis
favor,securepossessionthroughitsenforcement.465

61.4.Ordertoreplevy.

1.Issuance.Inanactiontorecoverachattel,theplaintiffmaycausethechatteltobetakenfromthepossession
or custody of the defendant at the time of service of the summons or after service of summons and before
judgment by securing from the court without notice an order to replevy. Before granting such an order, the
courtshallrequiretheplaintifftosubmitanaffidavitandfurnishabondcomplyingwiththerequirementsofthis
section.Theordershalldirecttheclerkofthecourttoissueawritofreplevintothesheriffdirectinghimtoseize
thechatteldescribedintheaffidavit.

2.Affidavit.Theaffidavitshallclearlyidentifythechatteltobeseizedandshallstate:

(a) Theparticularplacewherethechattelmaybefound;
(b) Thattheplaintiffisentitledtopossessionbyvirtueoffactssetforth;
(c) Thatthechatteliswrongfullyheldbythedefendantnamed;
(d) Whetheranactiontorecoverthechattelhasbeencommenced,andifso,thedefendantsserved,and
whethertheyareindefault;andiftheyhaveappeared,wherepapersmaybeserveduponthem;and
(e) Thevalueofeachchattelorclassofchattelsclaimed,andtheaggregatevalueofallchattelsclaimed;
(f) Thatthepropertyhasnotbeentakenforataxassessmentorfinepursuanttostatuteorseizedunderan
executionorattachmentor,ifsoseized,thatitisexemptfromsuchseizure.

3. Bond. The bond shall be executed by sufficient surety, acceptable to the court. The condition of the bond
shallbethatthesuretyisboundinaspecifiedamount,notlessthantwicethevalueofthechattelstatedinthe
plaintiff'saffidavit,forthereturnofthechatteltoanypersontowhompossessionisawardedbythejudgment,
andforpaymentofanysumawardedbythejudgmentagainstthepersongivingthebond.466

61.5.Seizureofchattelbysheriff;service.

Ongrantingoftheordertoreplevy,thesheriffshallwithoutdelayseizethechatteldescribedintheaffidavitand
shallserveuponthepersonfromwhosepossessionitisseizedacopyofthewrittoreplevy.Unlessthecourt

464
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6102).
465
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6103).
466
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6104);1956Code6:1102;Rev.Stat.348;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.II,42,2Hub.1527.
ordersotherwise,theaffidavit,bond,andcopyofthewrittoreplevyshallbepersonallyservedbythesheriffon
each defendant not in default in the same manner as a summons. If a defendant has appeared, he shall be
servedinthemannerprovidedforserviceofpapersgenerally.467

61.6.Dispositionofchattelbysheriff.

Unless the court orders otherwise, the sheriff shall retain custody of a replevied chattel for ten days after
seizure. At the end of that period, if there has not been served on the sheriff either a notice of exception to
plaintiff'ssureties,orpapersrequiredundersection61.7toreclaimthechattel,heshallmakeareturntothe
court stating that fact and his seizure of the chattel. The court shall then order the chattel delivered to the
plaintiff.Ifthedefendantexceptstoplaintiffssureties,andsuchsuretiesfailtojustify,thecourtshallorderthe
sherifftodeliverpossessionofthechatteltothepersonfromwhomitwasseized.468

61.7.Reclaimingofchattelbydefendant.

A chattel may be reclaimed by any person claiming the right to its possession by service upon the sheriff and
uponallpartiestotheactionofanoticethatthereclaimingpartyrequiresareturnofallorpartofthechattels
replevied;abondinanamountnotlessthantwicethevalueofthechattelreclaimedwithsuretiesacceptableto
thecourt;andanaffidavitstatingthatthereclaimingpartyisentitledtopossessionbyvirtueoffactssetforth.
Thesheriffshallretaincustodyofthechattelfortendaysaftersuchpapershavebeenserveduponhim.Atthe
expiration of such period, if there has not been served on the sheriff a notice of exception to sureties on the
bond, the sheriff shall make a return to the court stating that fact. The court shall then order the chattel
delivered to the person serving the notice of reclamation. If the plaintiff excepts to the sureties on the bond
given by the reclaiming party and such sureties fail to justify, the court shall order the sheriff to deliver
possessionofthechatteltotheplaintiff.469

61.8.Intervention.

Serviceuponthesheriffortheplaintiffofanoticeofreclamationorexceptiontosuretybyapersonnotaparty
totheactionmakessuchapersonapartytotheaction.Plaintiffshallserveacopyofthecomplaintuponsuch
personwithintendaysafterhebecomesaparty.Theprocedureprescribedbythissectionshallbeinlieuofa
motionforinterventionrequiredundersection5.63.470

61.9.Seizingorreclaimingfewerthanallchattels.

Wheretheseizingoftwoormorechattelsisrequiredbytheplaintiff,thesheriffshallseizethosechattelswhich
canbefound.Fewerthanalloftheseizedchattelsmaybereclaimed.Thestatementofthevalueofthechattels

467
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6105);1956Code6:1103;Rev.Stat.349;OBB33,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.II,44,2Hub.1527.
468
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6106);1956Code6:1105;Rev.Stat.351.
469
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6107);1956Code6:1105;Rev.Stat.351.
470
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6108).
intheaffidavitoftheplaintiffshallbetakenasthebasisforfixingtheamountofthebondbythedefendanton
reclaimingthechattel.471

61.10.Saleofperishableproperty.

Upon motion with such notice as the court may require, the court may order the sheriff to sell perishable
propertywhichhasbeenseized.Thecourtshallprescribethetimeandplaceofthesale,andthemannerand
timeinwhichnoticethereofshallbegiven.Unlessthecourtordersotherwise,thesheriff,afterdeductingthe
necessaryexpenses,shallholdtheproceedspendingdeterminationoftheaction.472

61.11.Liabilityofsheriff.

A sheriff is liable for damages caused by his unauthorized delivery or detention of a chattel seized under the
provisionsofthischapter.473

61.12.Sheriff'sreturn.

Thesheriffshallfilewiththeclerkareturnwithintwodaysafterhehasdeliveredachattel;itshallincludeall
papersdeliveredorservedonhimandastatementofallactiontakenbyhim.474

61.13.Judgment.

1. Generally. Damages for wrongful taking or detention or for injury to or depreciation of a chattel may be
awardedtoaparty.Exceptasprovidedinparagraph2,judgmentshallawardpossessionofeachchatteltothe
prevailingparty,or,iftheactionisdiscontinuedordismissed,tothepersonfromwhomitwasseized;andwhere
thepersonawardedpossessionisnotinpossessionwhenjudgmentisentered,itshall,ifthechattelcannotbe
found, award the value of each chattel at the time of trial, decreased by the value of the interest of an
unsuccessfulparty.

2.WhenvalueofchattelshouldnotbeawardedAjudgmentinfavorofthedefendantwherethechattelisin
possessionoftheplaintiffatthetimeitisrendered,shallnotawardthevalueofthechattelwhere

(a) Theplaintiffistheownerofthechattelbutitwasrightfullydistraineddoingdamage,andthevalueof
thechattelisgreaterthanthedamagessustainedbythedefendant;or
(b) Theplaintiffistheownerofthechattel,butthedefendanthadaspecialpropertytherein,thevalueof
whichislessthanthevalueofthechattel.

An execution shall direct the sheriff to deliver possession of the chattel to the defendant unless the party in
possession pays the sum awarded to the defendant with interest and sheriffs fees, and, in case the chattel

471
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6109).
472
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6110).
473
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6111).
474
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6112);1956Code6:1103.
cannot befoundwithinhiscounty,thentosatisfythatsumfromthepropertyofthepartyagainstwhomthe
judgmentisentered.Ifthechattelisinpossessionofthedefendant,itmayremaininhispossessionuntilthe
amountawardedispaid.475

61.14.Uniquechattel.

1. Injunction, temporary restraining order. Where the chattel is unique, the court may grant a preliminary
injunctionortemporaryrestrainingorderthatthechattelshallnotberemovedfromtheRepublic,transferred,
sold,pledged,assigned,orotherwisedisposedof,untilfurtherorderofthecourt.

2.Judgmentenforceablebycontempt.Wherethechattelsoughttoberecoveredisunique,thecourtmay,in
addition to granting a judgment under section 61.13, order a party in possession to deliver the chattel to the
partyentitledtosuchpossession.Disobedienceofsuchajudgmentmaybepunishedasacontemptofcourt.476

61.15.Actiononbond.

Anactiononabondgivenundertheprovisionsofthischaptercannotbemaintainedafterfinaljudgmentuntil
thereturn,whollyorpartlyunsatisfied,ofanexecutiononthejudgmentfordeliveryofpossessionofthechattel
orforpaymentofasumofmoneyinlieuofthechattel.477

Chapter62.ACTIONSTORECOVERPOSSESSIONOFREALPROPERTY
SubchapterA.Ejectment
62.1. Whenejectmentmaybebrought.
62.2. Whenpriornoticetovacatenecessary.
62.3. Claimfordamages.

SubchapterB.SummaryProceedingtoRecoverPossessionofRealProperty
62.21. Righttomaintainsummaryproceedingtorecoverrealproperty.
62.22. Rentdueanddamages.
62.23. Writofpossession.
62.24. Stay.

475
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6113).
476
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6114).
477
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6115).
SubchapterA.EJECTMENT
62.1.Whenejectmentmaybebrought.

Anypersonwhoisrightfullyentitledtothepossessionofrealpropertymaybringanactionofejectmentagainst
anypersonwhowrongfullywithholdspossessionthereof.Suchanactionmaybebroughtwhenthetitletoreal
propertyaswellastherighttopossessionthereofisdisputed.Awidowmayrecoverherdowerinejectment.478

62.2.Whenpriornoticetovacatenecessary.

A person rightfully entitled to the possession of real property may bring an action of ejectment without prior
noticetovacatewhen:

(a) Thereisunlawfuldispossession,ouster,trespass,ortortuousentrybyatenantatsufferanceonlyorbya
mereoccupantwithoutcolorofrightortitleaftertheexpirationofthetermofaleaseorofrightfulor
permissivepossession;or
(b) Thereisawrongfulentryorpossessionofameretrespasserorintruder.

An action of ejectment may be brought against a tenant at will who remains in possession after notice to
vacate.479

62.3.Claimfordamages.

Inacomplaintinanactionofejectment,theplaintiffmaydemanddamagesforwrongfuldetentionofthereal
propertyaswellasdeliveryofpossession.480

SubchapterB.SUMMARYPROCEEDINGTORECOVERPOSSESSIONOFREAL
PROPERTY
62.21.Righttomaintainsummaryproceedingtorecoverrealproperty.

Wheretitleisnotinissue,aspecialproceedingtorecoverpossessionofrealpropertymaybemaintainedina
CircuitCourtoracourtofajusticeofthepeaceoramagistrate.Thecourtofajusticeofthepeaceormagistrate

478
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6202);1956Code6:1120,1121;L.194546,ch.VIII,I,2;Rev.Stat.257,1391;
OBB30,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.I,13,2Hub.1524.
479
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6203);1956Code6:1121;L.194546,ch.VIII,2.
480
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6204);1956Code6:1126;OBB67,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XVI,14,15,
2Hub.1565.
shall have jurisdiction only of cases in which the amount of the judgment demanded does not exceed three
hundreddollars.481

62.22.Rentdueanddamages.

Thereliefgrantedbythecourtmayincludeajudgmentforrentdueandfordamagesforwrongfulentryonor
withholdingofthepropertywhichisthesubjectoftheactionifthecitationcontainsanoticethatademandfor
suchajudgmenthasbeenmade.482

62.23.Writofpossession.

Uponrenderingafinaljudgmentforpetitioner,thecourtshallissueawritofpossessiondirectedtothesheriff
ofthecountyinwhichpropertyissituated,describingthepropertyandcommandingtheofficertoremoveall
persons and to put the petitioner into full possession. The officer to whom the writ is directed and delivered
shallexecuteitbetweenthehoursofsunriseandsunset.483

62.24.Stay.

Ifanappealistakenfromajudgmentofacourtnotofrecordinfavorofaplaintiffinaproceedingunderthis
subchapter, the issuance and execution of a writ of possession shall be stayed pending rendition of final
judgment;butthetakingofanappealfromthejudgmentofaCircuitCourtinfavorofaplaintiffshallinnocase
arisingunderthissubchapteroperateasastayofenforcementproceedings.Aplaintiffinwhosefavorjudgment
isrenderedinaproceedingunderthissubchaptermaysecuretheissuanceandexecutionofawritofpossession
immediatelyifnoappealistaken.484

Chapter63.BONDSANDSECURITY
63.1. Securityforbonds.
63.2. Legallyqualifiedsureties.
63.3. Approvalbycourt;filing;service.
63.4. Waiverofbond.
63.5. Exceptiontosurety;allowancewherenoexceptiontaken.
63.6. Justificationofsurety.
63.7. Liabilityofsurety.

481
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6221);1956Code6:1123;L.194546,ch.VIII,2,3.
482
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6222).
483
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6.6223);1956Code6:1125;Rev.Stat.1391.
484
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6224);1956Code6:1127;L.194546,ch.VIII,5.
63.8. BondbyRepublic,municipalcorporation,orpublicofficer.
63.9. Motionforneworadditionalbond.

63.1.Securityforbonds.

Exceptasotherwiseprovidedbystatute,anybondgivenunderthistitleshallbesecuredbyoneormoreofthe
following:

(a) Cashtothevalueofthebond;orcashdepositedinthebanktothevalueofthebondasevidencedbya
bankcertificate;
(b) Unencumbered real property on which taxes have been paid and which is held in fee by the person
furnishingthebond;
(c) Valuablestotheamountofthebondwhichareeasilyconvertedintocash;or
(d) Suretieswhomeettherequirementsofsection63.2.

Thesheriffreceivingcash,abankcertificate,stocksorothernegotiablesecurities,orvaluablesshalldeposititor
them in the government depository or a reliable bank, and secure a receipt therefor showing the amount
depositedandthepurposeofthedepositandcontainingastatementthatthedepositwillbereleasedonlyupon
thewrittenorderofajudgeofthecourt.485

63.2.Legallyqualifiedsureties.

1. Who may be sureties. Unless the court orders otherwise, a surety on a bond shall be either two natural
personswhofulfilltherequirementsofthissectionoraninsurancecompanyauthorizedtoexecutesuretybonds
withintheRepublic.

2.Lienonrealpropertyassecurity.Abonduponwhichnaturalpersonsaresuretiesshallbesecuredbyoneor
more pieces of real property located in the Republic, which shall have an assessed value equal to the total
amountspecifiedinthebond,exclusiveofallencumbrances.Suchabondshallcreatealienontherealproperty
whenthepartyinwhosefavorthebondisgivenhasitrecordedinthedocketforsuretybondliensintheoffice
oftheclerkoftheCircuitCourtinthecountywherethepropertyislocated.Eachbondshallberecordedtherein
byanentryshowingthefollowing:

(a) Thenamesofthesuretiesinalphabeticalorder;
(b) Theamountofthebond;
(c) A description of the real property offered as security thereunder, sufficiently identified to clearly
establishthelienofthebond;
(d) Thedateofsuchrecording;

485
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6301);1956Code6:462,468;L.193940,ch.XVIII.
(e) Thetitleoftheaction,proceeding,orestate.

3.Affidavitofsureties.Thebondshallbeaccompaniedbyanaffidavitofthesuretiescontainingthefollowing:

(a) Astatementthatoneofthemistheownerorthatbothcombinedaretheownersoftherealproperty
offeredassecurity;
(b) Adescriptionoftheproperty,sufficientlyidentifiedtoestablishthelienofthebond;
(c) A statement of the total amount of the liens, unpaid taxes, and other encumbrances against each
propertyoffered;and
(d) Astatementoftheassessedvalueofeachpropertyoffered.

A duplicate original of the affidavit required by this section shall be filed in the office where the bond is
recorded.

4. Certificate of Ministry of Finance official. The bond shall also be accompanied by a certificate of a duly
authorizedofficialoftheMinistryofFinancethatthepropertyisownedbythesuretyorsuretiesclaimingtitleto
it in the affidavit and that it is of the assessed value therein stated, but such a certificate shall not be a
prerequisitetoapprovalbythejudge.

5.Releaseoflien.Whentheconditionofabondhasbeenfulfilled,acertificatetothateffectshallbeissuedby
theclerkofthecourtwherethebondisfiled.SuchcertificateshallbefiledintheofficeoftheclerkoftheCircuit
Courtwherethelienontherealpropertyhasbeenrecordedtoshowthatthelienhasbeenreleased.486

63.3.Approvalbycourt;filing;service.

Abondshallbecomeeffectivewhenapprovedbythecourt.Approvalmaybegrantedwhenthepartyfurnishing
thebondpresentsprimafacieevidencetoshowthatthesuretiesarequalifiedorthatthesecurityofferedonthe
bondisadequate,genuine,andasrepresentedbysuchparty.Anapprovedbondshallbefiledwiththeclerkof
the court in which the action is pending. A notice of the filing of the bond shall be served on the adverse
party.487

63.4.Waiverofbond.

Unlessthecourtordersotherwise,abondmaybewaivedbythewrittenconsentoftheparties.488

63.5.Exceptiontosurety;allowancewherenoexceptiontaken.

486
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6302);1956Code463;Rev.Stat.315.
487
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6303);1956Code6:462;L.193940,ch.XVIII,2.
488
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6304).
1.Exceptions.Apartymayexcepttothesufficiencyofasuretybywrittennoticeofexceptionsserveduponthe
adversepartywithinthreedaysafterreceiptofthenoticeoffilingofthebond.Exceptionsdeemedbythecourt
tohavebeentakenunnecessarily,orforvexationordelay,may,uponnotice,besetaside,withcosts.

2. Allowance where no exception taken. Where no exception to sureties is taken within three days or where
exceptionstakenaresetaside,thebondisallowed.489

63.6.Justificationofsurety.

1.Motiontojustify.Withinthreedaysafterserviceofnoticeofexception,thesuretyexceptedtoortheperson
onwhosebehalfthebondwasgivenshallmovetojustify,uponnoticetotheadverseparty.Thesuretyshallbe
presentuponthehearingofsuchmotiontobeexaminedunderoath.Ifthecourtfindsthesuretysufficient,it
shallmakeanappropriateendorsementonthebond.

2.Failuretojustify.Ifamotiontojustifyisnotmadewithinthreedaysafterthenoticeofexceptionisserved,or
ifthejudgefindsasuretyinsufficient,heshallrequireanothersuretyorsuretiesinplaceofanywhohavenot
justified.Anysuretywhohasnotjustifiedshallremainliableuntilanothersuretysignsthebondandthebondis
allowed.490

63.7.Liabilityofsurety.

Where two or more persons are surety on a bond, they shall be jointly and severally liable. The amount
recoverablefromasuretyshallnotexceedtheamountspecifiedinthebondexceptthatinterestinadditionto
this amount shall be awarded from the time of default by the surety. The remedy against a surety ona bond
shallbeanactionofdamagesforbreachofcontract.491

63.8.BondbyRepublic,municipalcorporation,orpublicofficer.

Anyprovisionofstatuteorruleofcourtauthorizingorrequiringabondtobegivenbyapartyshall,unlessthe
contraryisclearlyexpressed,beconstruedasexcludingtheRepublic,oradomesticmunicipalcorporation,ora
publicofficeroragencyinbehalfoftheRepublicorofsuchacorporation.492

63.9.Motionforneworadditionalbond.

Uponmotionofanyinterestedperson,uponnoticetothepartiesandthesureties,thecourtmayorderanewor
additional bond, a justification or rejustification of sureties, or new or additional sureties. Unless otherwise

489
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6305);1956Code6:464;Rev.Stat.316.
490
Priorlegislation:L.196344,ch.III(6:6306);1956Code6:464;Rev.Stat.316.
491
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6307);1956Code6:465;Rev.Stat.320;OBB40,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,
ch.III,5,7,2Hub.1535.
492
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6308).
providedbyorderofcourt,asuretyontheoriginalbondshallremainliableuntilsuchorderiscompliedwith,but
theoriginalbondshallbeotherwisewithouteffect.493

Chapter64.ARBITRATION

64.1. Validity,enforceability,andirrevocabilityofarbitrationagreements.
64.2. Proceedingstocompelorstayarbitrationproceedings.
64.3. Appointmentofarbitrators.
64.4. Majorityactionbythearbitrators.
64.5. Thehearing.
64.6. Oaths,witnesses,subpoenas,depositions.
64.7. Theaward.
64.8. Modification,correction,orclarificationofawardbyarbitrators.
64.9. Feesandexpensesofarbitration.
64.10. Confirmationofaward.
64.11. Vacatinganaward.
64.12. Modificationorcorrectionofawardbythecourt.
64.13. Judgmentordecreeonaward.
64.14. Paperstobefiledforjudgment;effectthereof.
64.15. Applicationstothecourt.
64.16. Court;jurisdiction.
64.17. Venue.
64.18. Appeals.

64.1.Validity,enforceability,andirrevocabilityofarbitrationagreements.

A written agreement to submit to arbitration any controversy existing at the time of the making of the
agreementoranycontroversythereafterarisingisvalid,enforceablewithoutregardtothejusticiablecharacter
ofthecontroversy,andirrevocableexceptuponsuchgroundsasexistfortherevocationofanycontract.494

493
Priorlegislation;L.196364,ch.III(6:6309).
64.2.Proceedingstocompelorstayarbitrationproceedings.

1. Proceedings to compel arbitration; grounds, form of hearing. A party making application to the court may
obtainanorderdirectingthepartiestoarbitratebyshowing:

(a) Theexistenceofanagreementdescribedinsection64.1;and
(b) Thatheisapartytosuchanagreement;and
(c) Thereferabilityofthecontroversytoarbitration;and
(d) Therefusalofanotherpartytotheagreementtoarbitratesuchcontroversy.

Wheresuchissuesareraised,thecourtshallproceedforthwithandsummarilytohearanddeterminetheissues
raisedupontheaffidavitssubmittedinsupportofandinoppositiontotheapplication,exceptthatthecourtmay
proceed to try the issues, with or without a jury, where it deems such procedure necessary, and shall order
arbitrationiftheissuesarefoundforthemovingparty.

2.Proceedingstostayarbitration;grounds,formofhearing,timelimitation.Onapplicationthecourtmaystay
anarbitrationproceedingcommencedorthreatenedonashowingbyanapplicantadverselyaffectedthereby
that:

(a) Thereisnoagreementasdescribedinsection64.1;or
(b) Heisnotapartytotheagreement;or
(c) Thecontroversyisnotreferabletoarbitration;or
(d) Theadversepartyisnotapartytotheagreement;or
(e) Therighttoproceedtoarbitrationhasbeenwaivedbytheadverseparty;or
(f) Theagreementhasbeenrevokedbyeitherparty.

Wheresuchissuesareraised,thecourtshallproceedforthwithandsummarilytohearanddeterminetheissues
raisedupontheaffidavitssubmittedinsupportofandinoppositiontotheapplication,exceptthatthecourtmay
proceed to try the issues raised, with or without a jury, where it deems such procedure necessary. If the
determinationismadeinfavoroftheadversepartythecourtmayorderthepartiestoarbitrate.

3.Waiverofobjectionstoarbitration.Thefailuretoassertanyofthegroundsenumeratedinparagraphtwoof
thissectionwheneverthearbitrationproceedingisbeforethecourtonanyapplicationunderthischaptershall
constituteawaiverofsuchgrounds.

4.Stayofactionorproceedinginvolvinganissuereferabletoarbitration.Anyactionorproceedinginvolvingan
issuereferabletoarbitrationshallbestayedifanorderforarbitrationoranapplicationthereforhasbeenmade
under paragraphs one and two of this section or, if the issue is severable, the stay may be only with respect

494
Priorlegislation.L.196364,ch.III(6:6401);1956Code6:1270,1300;Rev.Stat.I387(1stpar.),(6);OBB65,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,1,16,2Hub.1563.
thereto.Wheretheapplicationismadeinsuchactionorproceeding,theorderforarbitrationshallincludesuch
stay.

5. Statute of limitations. If at the time that a demand for arbitration was made or notice of arbitration
proceedingswasserved,theclaimsoughttobearbitratedwouldhavebeenbarredbylimitationoftimehadit
been asserted in an action or proceeding, a party may assert the limitation as a bar to the arbitration on an
applicationtothecourtasprovidedinparagraphsoneandtwoofthissection.Thefailuretoassertsuchbaron
suchapplicationshallnotprecludeitsassertionbeforethearbitratorswhomay,intheirsolediscretion,applyor
notapplythebar.Exceptasprovidedinsection64.11(1)(c),suchexerciseofdiscretionbythearbitratorsshall
notbesubjecttoreviewbyacourtonanapplicationtoconfirm,vacate,modify,orcorrecttheaward.495

64.3.Appointmentofarbitrators.

Wherethepartieshavenamedthearbitratorsintheiragreementthehearingshallbebeforesucharbitrators.If
the agreement provides a method for the appointment of arbitrators such methods shall be followed. If the
agreementdoesnotsoprovide,thepartytotheagreementwhoseeksarbitrationandthepartyagainstwhom
arbitrationissoughtmayagreeonamethodofappointingarbitratorsandthatmethodshallbefollowed.The
court, on application of a party to the arbitration agreement showing the refusal of another party thereto to
appoint arbitrators in the manner agreed upon, shall appoint them in such manner. If the method of
appointment,orthedesignationofthearbitrators,isnotspecifiedintheagreementandcannotbeagreedupon
by the parties, the court, on application of a party to the arbitration agreement, is empowered to appoint an
arbitrator or arbitrators with qualifications commensurate with the nature of the controversy, except on
rehearing under section 64.11(3) where the court shall appoint an arbitrator or arbitrators with qualifications
approximatingasnearlyaspossiblethoseoftheoriginalarbitratororarbitrators.Whereanarbitratorfailsoris
unable to act, his successor shall be appointed in the same manner as the original appointment, and if the
partiescannotagreeonasuccessortobesoappointed,thecourt,onapplicationofapartytothearbitration
agreement, is empowered to appoint an arbitrator with qualifications commensurate with the nature of the
controversy.496

64.4.Majorityactionbythearbitrators.

The powers of the arbitrators may be exercised by a majority unless otherwise provided by the arbitration
agreement.497

495
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6402);1956Code6:1280;Rev.Stat.1387(1stpar.);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesand
Rules,t.II,ch.XV,1,2Hub.1563.
496
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6403);1956Code6:1280(2ndsent.);Rev.Stat.1387(1stpar.,2ndsent.);OBB65,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,2,2Hub.1563.
497
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6404);1956Code6:1280(lastsent.);Rev.Stat.1387(1stpar.,2ndsent.)(1,last
sent.)(6,1stsent.);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,5,16,2Hub.1563.
64.5.Thehearing.

Unlessotherwiseprovidedbytheagreementtheconductoftheproceedingsbeforethearbitratorsshallbeas
follows:

(a) Timeandplaceofhearing.Thearbitratorsshallappointatimeandplaceforthebearingandnotifythe
partiespersonallyorbyregisteredmailnotlessthanfifteendaysbeforethehearing.Appearanceatthe
hearingwaivessuchnotice.Thearbitratorsmayadjournthehearingfromtimetotimeupontheirown
motion and shall do so upon the motion of any party to the arbitration proceedings for good cause
shown, provided that no adjournment shall extend beyond the date set in the agreement for the
making of the award unless the parties consent to a later date. If the arbitrators fail to proceed
promptlywiththehearinganddeterminationofthecontroversy,applicationmaybemadetothecourt
byanypartytotheproceedingforanorderdirectingthearbitratorstoproceedpromptly.
(b) Evidence.Thepartiesareentitledtobeheard,topresentevidenceandtocrossexaminewitnesses.
(c) Hearing upon default. The arbitrators may hear and determine the controversy upon the evidence
produced,notwithstandingthefailureofanotherparty,dulynotified,toappearatthehearings.
(d) Awardbyconfession.Anawardbyconfessionmaybemadeatanytimebeforeanawardisotherwise
made. The award by confession shall be based upon a statement, verified by the oath of the parties,
containingauthorizationtomaketheaward,andifasumofmoneyistobeawarded,theamountofthe
sumorthemethodofascertainingit,andthefactsconstitutingliability.Theawardbyconfessionmay
bemadeatanytimewithinthreemonthsafterthestatementisverified.Theawardmaybemadeby
thearbitratorsorbytheagencynamedintheagreementtoappointthearbitrators.
(e) Representationbyattorney.Apartyhastherighttoberepresentedbyanattorneyatanyproceedingor
hearing under this chapter, and may claim such right at any time as to any part of the arbitrators'
hearingthathasnottakenplace.
(f) Determinationbymajorityofarbitrators.Thehearingshallbeconductedbyallofthearbitrators,buta
majoritymaydetermineanyquestionandmayrenderanaward.498

64.6.Oaths,witnesses,subpoenas,depositions.

1.Oaths,witnesses,andsubpoenas.Thearbitratorsshallhavethepowertoadministeroathsandmayrequest
the clerk of the appropriate Circuit Court to issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and for the
productionofbooks,records,documents,andotherevidence.Subpoenassoissuedshallbeserved,andupon
applicationtothecourtbyapartyorthearbitrators,enforced,inthemannerprovidedinchapter14ofthistitle.

2.Depositions.Onapplicationofaparty,thearbitrators,inthemanneranduponthetermsdesignatedbythem,
maypermitadepositiontobetakenofawitnesswhocannotbesubpoenaedorisunabletoattendthehearing,
foruseasevidence.Chapter13ofthistitleshallregulatetheprocedureforsecuringsuchdeposition.499

498
PriorLegislation:Par.6:L.196364,ch.III(6:6405(6));1956Code6:1280(lastsent.),1282;Rev.Stat.1387(1STpar.,
2ndsent.)(1,lastsent.)(2,1stsent.);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,5,2Hub.1563.
64.7.Theaward.

1.Formandcontentoftheaward.Exceptasprovidedinsection64.5(4)theawardshallbeinwritingandsigned
by the arbitrators joining in the award. It shall include a determination of all the issues submitted to the
arbitratorsthedecisionofwhichisnecessaryinordertodeterminethecontroversy.

2.Timewithinwhichtheawardmustbemade.Anawardshallbemadewithinthetimefixedbytheagreement
or,ifnotsofixed,withinfifteendaysfromthedateofthefinalsubmissionofthecontroversytothearbitrators,
unlessonapplicationofaparty,thecourtordersashorterorlongerlimitation.Thepartiesmayextendthetime
inwritingeitherbeforeoraftertheexpirationthereof.Apartywaivestheobjectionthatanawardwasnotmade
withinthetimerequiredunlesshenotifiesthearbitratorsofhisobjectionpriortothedeliveryoftheawardto
him.500

64.8.Modification,correction,orclarificationofawardbyarbitrators.

1.Scope.Onapplicationofapartytothearbitratorsor,ifanapplicationtothecourtispendingundersections
64.10, 64.11, or 64.12, on submission to the arbitrators by the court under such conditions as the court may
order,thearbitratorsmaymodifyorcorrecttheawarduponthegroundsstatedinsection64.12ormayamend
theawardforthepurposeofclarifyingit.

2.Applications;methodandtimelimitation.Theapplicationtothearbitratorsbyapartyshallbemadewithin
fivedaysafterserviceofasignedcopyoftheawardontheapplicant.Writtennoticeoftheapplicationshallbe
givenbythearbitratorsforthwithtotheotherpartiestothearbitration.Objectionstotheapplicationmustbein
writing and served on the arbitrators and the other parties to the arbitration within five days after receipt of
noticeoftheapplication.

3.Time,form,andserviceofmodified,corrected,orclarifiedaward.Thearbitrators,withoutarehearing,shall
eitherdenytheapplicationormodify,correctorclarifytheaward,andmustdosowithinfivedaysafterwritten
objectiontotheapplicationhasbeenserveduponthem,orwithinanotherfivedaysafterthetimeforserving
suchobjectionshasexpired.Thedenial,correction,modification,orclarificationshallbeinwritingandsignedby
thearbitratorsjoiningtherein.Itshallbeservedbythearbitratorsoneachpartytothearbitrationpersonally,or
byregisteredmail,unlessotherwiseprovidedintheagreement.Theawardsocorrected,modified,orclarifiedis
subjecttotheprovisionsofsections64.10,64.11,and64.12.

4.Exclusivejurisdictionofarbitratorsandcourttohearapplicationstomodify,correct,orclarifyaward.Unless
thereisapendingproceedingincourtasdescribedinparagraph1ofthissection,wheneveranapplicationto
thearbitratorsispendingunderthissectionallsubsequentproceedings undersections64.10,64.11,or64.12

499
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6406);1956Code6:1281;Rev.Stat.1387(1);OBB65,LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.
II,ch.XV,3,2Hub.1563.
500
Priorlegislation:Par.1:L.196364,ch.III(6:6407(1));1956Code6:1282;Rev.Stat.1387(2);OBB65,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XV,5,6,2Hub.1563.
are stayed until the determination by the arbitrators of the application under this section. Whenever an
applicationtothecourtispendingundersections64.10,64.11,or64.12,andnopriorapplicationhasbeenmade
tothearbitratorsunderthissection,noapplicationmaybemadetothearbitratorsunderthissection.501

64.9.Feesandexpensesofarbitration.

Unlessthearbitrationagreementotherwiseprovides,orthepartiestothearbitrationotherwiseagreepriorto
the commencement of the arbitration hearing, the arbitrators' fees and fees for the attendance of witnesses,
together with other expenses incurred in the conduct of the arbitration not including attorneys' fees,shall be
allowedandpaidasprovidedintheaward.Thecourt,onapplication,mayreduceordisallowanyfeeorexpense
itfindsexcessiveorallocateitasjusticerequires.502

64.10.Confirmationofaward.

Uponwrittenmotionofaparty,thecourtshallconfirmanawardunless,withinthetimelimitationshereinafter
imposed, grounds are urged for vacating, modifying, or correcting the award, or reasons are assigned for
clarifyingit,inwhichcasethecourtshallproceedasprovidedinsections64.11and64.12.503

64.11.Vacatinganaward.

1.Groundsforvacating.Uponwrittenmotionofapartythecourtshallvacateanawardwhere:

(a) Theawardwasprocuredbycorruption,fraud,orotherunduemeans;or
(b) Therewaspartialityinanarbitratorappointedasaneutral,exceptwheretheawardwasbyconfession;
ortherewascorruptionormisconductinanyofthearbitrators;or
(c) An arbitrator or the agency or person making the award exceeded his powers or rendered an award
contrarytopublicpolicy;or
(d) Thearbitratorsrefusedtopostponethehearinguponsufficientcausebeingshowntherefororrefused
to hear evidence material to the controversy, or otherwise conducted the hearing contrary to the
provisionsofsections64.5or64.6.

Thefactthatthereliefgrantedintheawardwassuchthatitcouldnotorwouldnotbegrantedbyacourtoflaw
orequityisnotagroundforvacatingorrefusingtoconfirmanaward.

2.Timeforapplication.Anapplicationunderthissectionshallbemadewithinthirtydaysafterdeliveryofacopy
of the award to the applicant except that if the application is predicated upon fraud, or corruption, or other
unduemeans,itshallbemadewithinthirtydaysaftersuchgroundsareknownorshouldhavebeenknown.

501
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6408).
502
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6409);1956Code6:1281(lastsent.);Rev.Stat.1387(1,4thsent.);OBB65,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,4,2Hub.1563.
503
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6410);1956Code6:1285;Rev.Stat.1387(3,4thsent.);OBB65,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.11,ch.XV,14,2Hub.1563.
3.Rehearing.Uponvacatinganaward,thecourtshallorderarehearinganddeterminationofalloranyofthe
issuesexceptwheretheawardwasvacateduponthegroundthatthedisputewasnotreferabletoarbitration.In
vacatingtheawardupongroundsurgedundersubparagraph1(b)ofthissectiontherehearingshallbebefore
newarbitratorsappointedinaccordancewithsection64.3.Arehearingshallbeconductedinthesamemanner
anduponthesametimelimitationforahearingunderthischapter.

4.Confirmationofawardondenialofapplicationtovacate.Iftheapplicationtovacateisdeniedandnomotion
tomodifyorcorrecttheawardispending,thecourtshallconfirmtheaward.504

64.12.Modificationorcorrectionofawardbythecourt.

1.Timelimitationandgroundsforapplication.Uponapplicationmadewithinthirtydaysafterdeliveryofacopy
oftheawardtotheapplicant,thecourtshallmodifyorcorrecttheawardwhere:

(a) Therewasanevidentmiscalculationoffigures,oranevidentmistakeinthedescriptionofanyperson,
thing,orpropertyreferredtointheaward;or
(b) The arbitrators have awarded upon a matter not submitted to them and the award may be corrected
withoutaffectingthemeritsofthedecisionupontheissuessubmitted;or
(c) Theawardisimperfectasamatterofformnotaffectingthemeritsofthecontroversy.

2.Confirmationofawardongrantingordenyingapplication.Iftheapplicationisgranted,thecourtshallmodify
orcorrecttheawardsoastoeffectitsintentandshallconfirmtheawardsomodifiedorcorrected.Otherwise
thecourtshallconfirmtheawardasmade.

3.Joiningofapplicationstovacate,modem,andcorrect.Anapplicationtomodifyorcorrectmaybejoinedin
thealternativewithanapplicationtovacatetheaward.505

64.13.Judgmentordecreeonaward.

Upon the confirmation of an award, judgment shall be entered in conformity therewith. The judgment so
enteredhasthesameforceandeffectas,andissubjecttoalltheprovisionsoflawrelatingto,ajudgmentina
civilaction,andmaybeenforcedasanyothersuchjudgment.506

64.14.Paperstobefiledforjudgment;effectthereof.

1.Paperstobefiled.Onentryofjudgmentthefollowingpapersanddocumentsshallbefiledwiththeclerk:

504
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6411);1956Code6:1283,1284,1285;Rev.Stat.1387(3),(4);OBB65,Legal
PrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,9,10,11,2Hub.1563.
505
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6412).
506
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6413);1956Code6:1286,1301;Rev.Stat.1387(5),(6,3rdand4thsents.);OBB65,
LegalPrinciplesandRules,t.II,ch.XV,6,7,15,17,18,19,2Hub.1563.
(a) Theagreementtoarbitrateoracopythereof,andeachwrittenextensionofthetimewithinwhichto
maketheawardasprovidedinsection64.7(2);and
(b) Thestatementrequiredbysection64.5(4)wheretheawardwasbyconfession;and
(c) Acopyoftheaward;and
(d) Acopyoftheorderorordersconfirming,modifying,orcorrectingtheawardandthepapersuponwhich
thesamewerebased;and
(e) Acopyofthejudgment.

2.Effectoffiling.Thejudgmentshallbefiledandhavethesameeffectasifrenderedinacivilaction.507

64.15.Applicationstothecourt.

Allapplicationstothecourtunderthischaptershallbebymotionandshallbeheardinthemannerandupon
thenoticeprovidedinchapter10ofthistitleorbyruleofcourtforthemakingandhearingofmotionsinactions
orspecialproceedings.Aspecialproceedingshallbeusedtobringbeforeacourtthefirstapplicationarisingout
ofanarbitralcontroversyunlessundersection64.17amotionisrequiredtobemadeinapendingactionina
CircuitCourtinwhichanarbitralcontroversyisinvolved.508

64.16.Court;jurisdiction.

The term "court" as used in this chapter means the Circuit Court. The making of an agreement described in
section64.1providingforarbitrationinthisRepublicconfersjurisdictiononthecourttoenforcetheagreement
underthischapterandtoenterjudgmentonanawardthereunder.509

64.17.Venue.

A first application shall be made to the Circuit Court of the county in which the agreement provides the
arbitration hearing shall be held, or, if the hearing has been held, then in the county in which it was held.
Otherwise,ifthereisanactionpendinginaCircuitCourtinwhichanarbitralcontroversyisinvolved,thefirst
application shall be made in the pending action; if there is no such action pending in a Circuit Court the first
application shall be made in the Circuit Court of the county in which one of the parties has a permanent
residenceorhasaregularplaceofbusinessor,ifhehasnosuchresidenceorregularplaceofbusinessinthe
Republic, to the Circuit Court of any county of the Republic. All subsequent applications shall be made to the
courthearingthefirstapplicationunlessthecourtotherwisedirects.510

64.18.Appeals.

507
Priorlegislation:Par.2:L.196364,ch.III(6:6414(2));1956Code6:1286;Rev.Stat.1387(5);OBB65,LegalPrinciples
andRules,t.II,ch.XV,6,2Hub.1563.
508
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6415).
509
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6416).
510
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6417).

1.Appealableordersandappealsfromjudgments.Anappealmaybetakenfrom:

(a) Anorderdenyingapplicationtocompelarbitrationmadeundersection64.2(1);or
(b) Anordergrantinganapplicationtostayarbitrationmadeundersection64.2(2);or
(c) Anorderdenyingconfirmationofanawardmadeundersection64.10;or
(d) Anordervacatinganawardmadewithoutdirectingarehearingundersection64.11(3);or
(e) Ajudgmententeredpursuanttotheprovisionsofthischapter.

2.Provisionsgoverningappeals.TheappealshallbegovernedbytheprovisionsofPartIVofthistitle.511

Chapter65.SUITSBYORAGAINSTINDIGENTPERSONS
65.1. Motionforpermissiontoproceedasindigentperson.
65.2. Privilegesofindigentpersons.
65.3. Distributionofrecoveryinfavorofindigentperson.

65.1.Motionforpermissiontoproceedasindigentperson.

Uponmotionofanyperson,thecourtinwhichanactionispendingorwillbebrought,ortowhichanappealhas
been or will be taken, may grant permission to proceed as an indigent person. The moving party shall file his
affidavit setting forth the amount and sources of his income and listing his property with its value; that he is
unable to pay the costs, fees, and expenses necessary to prosecute or defend the action or to maintain or
respondtotheappeal;thenatureoftheaction;sufficientotherfactssothatthemeritsofhiscontentionscanbe
ascertained;andwhetheranyotherpersonisbeneficiallyinterestedinanyrecoverysoughtand,ifso,whether
every such person is unable to pay such costs, fees, and expenses. An executor, administrator, or other
representativemaymoveforpermissiononbehalfofadeceased,infant,orincompetentindigentperson.Ifan
actionhasalreadybeencommenced,noticeofthemotionshallbeservedonallparties.512

65.2.Privilegesofindigentpersons.

1.Attorney.Thecourtinitsorderpermittingapersontoproceedasanindigentpersonshallassignanattorney.

511
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6.6418).
512
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6501).
2.Transcriptofrecordonappeal.Astenographictranscriptforpurposesofappealmaybefurnishedanindigent
personwithoutfeebyorderofthecourtbeforewhomtheactionwastried.

3.Costsandfees.Anindigentpersonshallnotbeliableforthepaymentofanycostsorfeesunlessarecoveryis
hadinhisfavor,inwhicheventthecourtmaydirecthimtopayoutoftherecoveryallorpartofthecostsand
fees, a reasonable sum for the services of his attorney, and any sum expended by the Government under
paragraph2.513

65.3.Distributionofrecoveryinfavorofindigentperson.

Any recovery had in favor of an indigent person shall be paid to the clerk of the court in which the order
permitting the person to proceed as an indigent person was entered, to await distribution pursuant to court
order.514

Chapter66.CLAIMSBEFOREPERMANENTCLAIMSCOMMISSION
66.1. Registrationofclaims;timelimit.
66.2. Howclaimsshallberegistered.
66.3. Governmentdepartmentstofurnishrecords.
66.4. Evidence.
66.5. Neglectorrefusaltobeexaminedregardingclaim.
66.6. Decisionasbartofurtherclaim.

66.1.Registrationofclaims;timelimit.

All claims which by provision of the Executive Law are subject to the jurisdiction of the Permanent Claims
Commission (hereinafter referred to as the "Commission") shall be filed and registered with such Commission
withinthreeyearsafterthedatewhentheclaimaroseorwhenthecauseofactionaccrued.Anysuchclaimnot
so filed and registered within the specified time shall be null and void, and prosecution thereof against the
LiberianGovernmentshallbeforeverbarred.515

66.2.Howclaimsshallberegistered.

513
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6502).
514
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6503).
515
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6601);1956Code6:1170;L.1929,ch.XII,art.4;Rev.Stat.1401;OBB209,art.1.
Any claim against the Government which is believed to be within the jurisdiction of the Commission shall be
addressedtotheMinisterofFinanceasChairmanoftheCommissionwitharequestforitsregistrationwiththe
Commission.AtitsnextsessiontheCommissionshalldeterminewhethertheclaimiswithinitsjurisdiction;ifit
findsintheaffirmative,theclaimshallberegisteredandtheclaimantnotifiedaccordingly.516

66.3.Governmentdepartmentstofurnishrecords.

WheneverrequiredbytheCommissioninitsinvestigationandexaminationofclaims,theheadsofgovernment
ministries or agencies are directed to forward to the Commission the records of any claim pending in their
officialfilesandtosupplyrelevantpapers,books,anddocumentsorcertifiedcopiesthereof.517

66.4.Evidence.

OralevidenceinregardtothevalidityofclaimswhichisintroducedbeforetheCommissionshallbereducedto
writing.IntheadmissionofevidencetheCommissionshallbegovernedbyexistingstatutesandtheusualrules
ofevidence;itshallbethesolejudgeinregardtotheadmissibilityofevidence.518

66.5.Neglectorrefusaltobeexaminedregardingclaim.

Ifaclaimantneglectstoattendforexaminationregardinghisclaimorrefusestobeexaminedconcerningit,the
Commission may in its discretion decline to take further action thereon or may declare that the claim is
disprovedforlackofevidence.Thelatterdecisionshallforeverbartheclaimantfromfurtherprosecutingsuch
claimagainsttheRepublicofLiberia.519

66.6.Decisionasbartofurtherclaim.

Any final decision against the claimant on any claim prosecuted before the Commission shall forever bar any
otherclaimordemandagainsttheRepublicofLiberiaarisingoutoftransactionsoroccurrencesconstitutingthe
subjectmatteroftheclaimdecidedbytheCommission.520

Chapter67.PROCEDUREFORCHANGINGTHENAMEOFANINDIVIDUAL
67.1. Petitionforchangeofname.
67.2. Contentsofpetition.
67.3. Noticeofpetitionforinfant.

516
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6602);1956Code6:1171;L.1929,ch.XII,art.9.
517
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6603);1956Code6:1172;L.1929,ch.XII,II,art.6.
518
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6604);1956Code6:1173;L.1929,ch.XII,art.7;II,art.7.
519
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6605);1956Code6:1174;L.1929,ch.XII,art.7.
520
Priorlegislation:L.196364,ch.III(6:6606);1956Code6:1175;L.1929,ch.XII,art.5(b).
67.4. Order.
67.5. Procedureexclusive.

67.1.Petitionforchangeofname.

ApetitionbyanindividualforleavetoassumeanothernamemaybemadetotheCircuitCourtofthecountyin
whichheresides.Thepetitiontochangethenameofaninfantmaybemadebytheinfantthrougheitherofhis
parentsorhisgeneralguardianorhisguardianadlitem.521

67.2.Contentsofpetition.

Thepetitionshallbeinwriting,signedbythepetitionerandverifiedinlikemannerasapleadinginacourtof
record,andshallspecifythegroundsoftheapplication,thename,dateandplaceofbirthifsuchareknown,and
theageandresidenceoftheindividualwhosenameisproposedtobechangedandthenamewhichheproposes
to assume. The petition shall also specify whether or not the petitioner has been convicted of a crime or
adjudicatedinsolventorbankrupt,andwhetherthereareanyjudgmentsorliensofrecordagainstthepetitioner
oractionsonproceedingspendingtowhichthepetitionerisaparty.Ifso,thepetitionershallgivedescriptive
detailsinconnectiontherewithsufficienttoreadilyidentifythematterreferredto.522

67.3.Noticeofpetitionforinfant.

Ifthepetitioneristochangethenameofaninfant,noticeofthetimewhenandplacewherethepetitionwillbe
presented shall be served, in like manner as a notice of motion upon an attorney in an action, upon (a) both
parentsoftheinfant,iftheyareliving,unlessthepetitionismadebyoneoftheparents,inwhichcasenotice
shall be served upon the other if he or she is living, and (b) the general guardian or guardian ad litem of the
infant, if one has been appointed. If any of the persons required to be given notice by this section resides
without Liberia, then the notice required by this section shall be sent by registered mail to the last known
address of the person to be served. If it appears to the satisfaction of the court that a person required to be
given notice by this section cannot be located with due diligence within Liberia, and that such person has no
knownaddresswithoutLiberia,thenthecourtmaydispensewithnoticeorrequirenoticetobegiventosuch
personsandinsuchmannerasthecourtthinksproper.523

67.4.Order.

521
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawtoprovideaprocedureforchangingthenameofan
individual.
522
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawtoprovideaprocedureforchangingthenameof
anindividual.
523
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawtoprovideaprocedureforchangingthenameofan
individual.
Ifthecourttowhichthepetitionispresentedissatisfiedthatthepetitionistrueandthatthereisnoreasonable
objection to the change of name proposed, and, if the petition is to change the name of an infant, that the
interestsoftheinfantwillbesubstantiallypromotedbythechange,thecourtshallmakeanorderauthorizing
thepetitionertoassumethenameproposedonadayspecifiedtherein,notlessthansevendaysafterentryof
theorder.Theordershallfurtherrecitethedateandplaceofbirthoftheapplicantifknown,andshallspecify
thenumberofhisbirthcertificateorthatnobirthcertificateisavailable.Thecourtshalldirecttheordertobe
entered and the papers on which it was granted to be filed within ten days thereafter in the office of the
Registrar of Deeds of the county in which the petitioner resides. Such order shall also direct the publication,
within20daysafteritsentry,ofacopythereofinadesignatednewspaperatleasttwice.524

67.5.Procedureexclusive.

Theprocedureprovidedbythissectionistheexclusivemethodbywhichanindividualmayofficiallychangehis
name, except that an alien may change his name on becoming naturalized as provided by the Aliens and
NationalityLaw.525

524
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawtoprovideaprocedureforchangingthenameofan
individual.
525
Priorlegislation:L.197172,AnacttoamendtheCivilProcedureLawtoprovideaprocedureforchangingthenameofan
individual.
APPENDIXI
____________

PleadingForms

Form1.COMPLAINTONAPROMISSORYNOTE

[First]JudicialCircuit,[MontserradoCounty]

[A.B.],Plaintiff )

v. )Complaint CivilAction,FileNo.[0001]

[C.D.],Defendant )

1. Defendant on or about [June 1, 1960], executed and delivered to plaintiff a promissory note for valuable
consideration in the following words and figures: [here set out the note verbatim]; a copy of which is hereto
annexedasexhibitA;wherebydefendantpromisedtopayplaintiffororderon[June1,1961],thesumof[ten
thousanddollars]withinterestthereonattherateof[six]percentperannum.

2. Defendant owes to plaintiff the amount of said note and interest. Wherefore plaintiff demands judgment
againstdefendantforthesumof[tenthousanddollars],interest,andcosts.

Signed:______________________

AttorneyforPlaintiff

[Verification] Address:____________________

Form2.COMPLAINTONANACCOUNT

CaptionasinForm1.

1.Defendantowesplaintiff[tenthousanddollars]accordingtotheaccountheretoannexedasexhibitA.
Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form3.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORBREACHOFCONTRACT

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.On[June1,1960],plaintiffanddefendantforavaluableconsiderationenteredintoacontractinwriting,a
copyofwhichisattachedheretoas[exhibitA],whereindefendantagreed[heresetouttermsofagreement].

2.Plaintiffhasdulyperformedalltheconditionsofsuchcontractonhispart.526

3.Defendanthasfailedandneglectedtoperformtheconditionsofthecontractonhispartinthathehasfailed
to pay to plaintiff the sum of [three thousand dollars] due to plaintiff under the contract on [July 1, 1960],
althoughplaintiffhasdemandedpaymentthereof.

4.Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form4.COMPLAINTFORGOODSSOLDANDDELIVERED527

[CaptionasinForm1]

1. Defendant owes plaintiff [ten thousand dollars] for goods sold and delivered by plaintiff to defendant
between[June1,1960],and[December1,1960].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form5.COMPLAINTFORMONEYLENT

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.Defendantowesplaintiff[tenthousanddollars]formoneylentbyplaintifftodefendanton[June1,19601.

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

526
Performanceofconditionsprecedentmaybeallegedgenerally.See9.5(3).a
527
Thisformmaybeusedwheretheactionisforanagreedpriceorforthereasonablevalueofgoods.
Form6.COMPLAINTFORMONEYPAIDBYMISTAKE

[CaptionasinForm1]

1. Defendant owes plaintiff [one thousand dollars] for money paid by mistake on [June 1, 1960], under the
followingcircumstances.528

2. [On June 1, 1960, plaintiff and defendant entered into an agreement in writing whereby the defendant
agreedtosellandtheplaintiffagreedtobuy129lotsownedbythedefendantasshownonblueprintsketch
attached to and made a part of the said agreement, on which sketch the property was designated as lots
numbers1toandincluding129.Thepriceprovidedforinthesaidagreementwasonethousanddollarsforeach
ofthesaidnumberedlots.]

3. In violation of the agreement entered into as aforesaid, and without the knowledge and consent of the
plaintiff,thedefendantconveyedlot129tosomeotherperson.

4.[OnJuly1,1960,defendantconveyedtotheplaintiffbydeed128ofthelotsshownonthemap.Defendantat
thetimeofsuchclosing,gavetoplaintiffastatementofwhatpurportedtobetheamountduetohim,inwhich
statementtherewasachargefor129lotsattherateofonethousanddollarsperlot.Theplaintiff,relyingonthe
truthofsaidstatement,paidtothedefendanttheamountspecified.]

5.Theplaintiffpaid[for129lots]underamistakeoffact.Defendantwasentitledtopayment[foronly128lots,
thenumberactuallyconveyedtoplaintiff].

6. The plaintiff immediately upon discovering his error notified the defendant thereof and demanded of the
defendantrepaymentofthesumof[onethousanddollars]whichdefendanthasnotpaid.

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form7.COMPLAINTFORMONEYHADANDRECEIVED

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.Defendantowesplaintiff[tenthousanddollars]formoneyhadandreceivedfrom[G.H.]on[June1,1960],to
bepaidbydefendanttoplaintiff.

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

528
Mistakeshallbestatedwithparticularity.See9.5(2).

Form8.COMPLAINTFORNEGLIGENCE

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.On[June1,1960],in[apublichighwaycalledAshmunStreet],in[Monrovia],defendantnegligently[drovea
motorvehicleagainstplaintiffwhowasthencrossingsaidhighway].

2. As a result plaintiff was [thrown down and had his leg broken] and was otherwise injured, was prevented
from transacting his business, suffered great pain of body and mind, and incurred expenses for medical
treatmentandhospitalizationinthesumof[onethousanddollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form9.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORDAMAGESFORASSAULTANDBATTERY

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.On[June1,1960],thedefendantwillfullyandmaliciously[assaultedandshottheplaintiffinthefootwitha
gun].

2.Asaresultplaintiffwaspreventedfromtransactinghisbusiness,sufferedgreatpainofbodyandmind,and
incurredexpensesformedicaltreatmentandhospitalizationinthesumof[onethousanddollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form10.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORLIBELWHERESTATEMENTISNOTLIBELOUSPERSE

[CaptionasinForm1]

1. At all times mentioned herein defendant was and still is the publisher [of a daily newspaper] of general
circulation,publishedinthe[CityofMonrovia]andknownas[nameofpublication].

2. On [June 1, 1960], defendant maliciously published in the said [newspaper] concerning the plaintiff the
followingmatter:[heresetforthmatterallegedtobelibelous.

3.Themattersopublishedisuntrueanddefamatory.
4. Prior to the publication of said libelous matter concerning the plaintiff, [he was about to enter into an
agreementwithC.D.wherebyC.D.wastoemployplaintiffandwouldhaveemployedhimasclerkatasalaryof
$40permonthtocommenceonJune5,1960],hadnotthislibelousmatterbeenpublished.Asaresultofsuch
publication[C.D.refusedtoemployplaintiffanduptothepresenttimeplaintiffhasbeenunabletoobtainother
employment] and has otherwise been greatly injured in his credit and reputation and suffered great pain and
mentalanguish,toplaintiffsdamageinthesumof[tenthousanddollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form11.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORFALSEIMPRISONMENT

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.[Atallthetimeshereinaftermentionedthedefendantwasandstillistheownerandincontrolofthestore
knownas(heregivedetailsofnameandplace).]

2. [On June 1, 1960, plaintiff was lawfully in defendant's store as a customer for the purpose of purchasing
goodsandwasconductinghimselfinapropermanner.]

3. At such time and without any just cause an employee of defendant, acting as agent and in behalf of
defendant within the scope of his authority, seized plaintiff and charged him with having stolen goods from
defendant.Plaintiffwasforcedbysuchemployeetogointoaroomintherearofdefendant'sstore,wasthere
detained for about one hour, and was forced to submit to a search of his person by employees of the
defendant.]

4.Plaintiffhadnot[stolenanygoodsfromdefendant]andwasnotguiltyofanycrimewhatever.

5. As a result of the foregoing, plaintiff was deprived of his liberty for about [one hour] and was greatly
humiliated and subjected to great mental and bodily distress, all to his damage in the sum of [one thousand
dollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form12.COMPLAINTFORDAMAGESFORFRAUD

[CaptionasinForm1]
1.[OnJune1,1960,defendantandplaintiffwerenegotiatingconcerningthepurchasebyplaintiffofcertainreal
propertyownedbydefendant,moreparticularlydescribedasfollows:(heresetforthdetaileddescription).]

2.Atthetimeabovementioneddefendantfalselyandfraudulentlyrepresentedtoplaintiff[thatthesaidland
contained valuable deposits of iron; that with an investment in equipment of no more than $ _____ plaintiff
wouldbeabletorealizeatleast$____ayearfromtheminingofsaidiron;thatthelandwasworth$____and
thatthedefendantwaswillingtosellitonlybecausehewasinneedofcash].

3.Therepresentationssomadebythedefendantwerefalseandfraudulent,andintruth[thesaidlandcontains
onlynegligibledepositsofiron,insufficienttoyieldanyprofitoverthecostofextractingthem.Thesaidlandis
unfitforagriculturaloranyotherprofitableuseandisworthnomorethan$____.

4.Thesaidrepresentationswereknownbythedefendanttobefalsewhenmadeandweremadewithintentto
deceiveplaintiffandtoinduceplaintifftopurchasethesaidproperty.

5.Plaintiffatthetimetherepresentationsweremadebelievedthemandinreliancethereonwasinducedto
[purchasethesaidlandfromdefendantforaconsiderationof$____]

6.Byreasonofthefactssetforthaboveplaintiffhasbeendamagedinthesumof$____.

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form13.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORCONVERSION

[CaptionasinForm1]

1. On or about [June 1, 19601, defendant converted to his own use [ten bonds of the Jones Company (here
insert brief identification as by number and issue)] of the value of [ten thousand dollars], the property of
plaintiff.

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form14.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORTRESPASS

[CaptionasinForm1]
1. Plaintiff is the owner of a certain [tract of land] in [Montserrado County], more particularly described as
follows:(heresetforthdescription).

2. The defendant entered upon plaintiffs [tract of land] during the [month of June, 1960], without plaintiffs
knowledgeorconsent,[cutanddestroyedalargequantityoftimberonsuchtract,andremovedittherefrom]to
plaintiffsdamageinthesumof[onethousanddollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form15.COMPLAINTINACTIONOFEJECTMENTANDMESNEPROFITS

[CaptionasinForm1]

1. On [June 1, 1960], plaintiff owned and possessed a certain [tract of land] in [Montserrado County], more
particularlydescribedasfollows:[heresetforthdescription].

2.Thedefendant,onsaidday,wrongfullyentered[onsaidland],anddispossessedtheplaintiff,andstillkeeps
himoutofpossession,deprivinghimoftherentsandprofits,toplaintiffsdamageinthesumof[onethousand
dollars].

Wherefore[etc.,asinForm1].

Form16.COMPLAINTINACTIONFORDAMAGESANDTOENJOINNUISANCE

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.[TheplaintiffsareresidentsofthevillageofJohnstown,MontserradoCounty,andownrealestateconsisting
ofparcelsorplotsoflandwithhousesandotherbuildingserectedthereon.Plaintiffspropertiesarelocatedon
GreenStreetinsaidvillage,whichisaresidentialstreetandsectioninsaidvillage.]

2.[Thedefendantowns,occupiesandusesatractoflandlocatedinsaidvillageandinawesterlydirectionfrom
the homes of the plaintiffs. Upon such land of the defendant is erected a sawmill, which is operated by
defendantinsawinglumber.]

3.[Foruseinitsmill,defendanthaserectedandmaintainsasmokestackwhichemitsalargequantityofsmoke,
soot,andpartiallyburnedcinders.Theprevailingwindsinthevicinityofsaidpropertycarryuponplaintiffs'land
and buildings and into their homes such smoke, soot, and cinders, to the great damage and discomfort of
plaintiffsandtheirfamilies.]

4.Thismanner[ofoperationofitsmill]whichthedefendantthreatenstocontinue,isandhasbeenacontinuing
nuisance, and the enjoyment of plaintiffs' property is greatly interfered with, and its rental value greatly
depreciated,tothedamageofeachplaintiffinthesumof[tenthousanddollars].

5. The plaintiffs have repeatedly requested the defendant to discontinue and abate said nuisance, but it has
refusedtodoso,andthesamehascontinuedfor[five]yearspast.

Wherefore,plaintiffsdemandjudgment:

1.Thatthedefendantbeforeverenjoinedandrestrainedfromcontinuingthesaidnuisanceandfrom[casting
orpermittingtobecastuponplaintiffs'premisessaidsmoke,soot,andcinders].

2.Thattheplaintiffseachrecoverdamagesinthesumof[tenthousanddollars]andcosts.

[SignatureofAttorneysandverificationasinForm1.]

Form17.COMPLAINTFORSPECIFICPERFORMANCEOFCONTRACT

[CaptionasinForm1]

1.Onorabout[June1,1960],plaintiffanddefendantenteredintoanagreementinwriting,acopyofwhichis
heretoannexedas[exhibitA].

2. In accord with the provisions of said agreement plaintiff tendered to defendant the purchase price and
requested a conveyance [of the land], but defendant refused to accept the tender and refused to make the
conveyance.

3.Plaintiffnowofferstopaythepurchaseprice.

Whereforeplaintiffdemands(1)thatdefendantberequiredspecificallytoperformsaidagreement,(2)damages
inthesumof[onethousanddollars],and(3)thatifspecificperformanceisnotgrantedplaintiffhavejudgment
againstdefendantinthesumof[tenthousanddollars].

[SignatureofattorneysandverificationasinForm1]

Form18.ANSWERCONTAININGDENIALS

[First]JudicialCircuit,[MontserradoCounty]

[A.B.],Plaintiff )

v. )Answer CivilAction,FileNo.[000]

[C.D.],Defendant )

1.Defendantdeniesalltheallegationscontainedin[paragraph1]oftheplaintiff'scomplaint.

2. Defendant admits that he [employed Jones as manager of his business] and denies every other allegation
containedin[paragraph2]ofplaintiff'scomplaint.

3.Defendantallegesthatheiswithoutknowledgeorinformationsufficienttoformabeliefastothetruthof
allegationscontainedin[paragraph3]ofthecomplaint.

Whereforedefendantdemandsjudgmentandthathehavehiscostsanddisbursementsintheaction.

Signed:_____________________

AttorneyforDefendant

[Verification] Address:_______________

Form19.DEFENSEOFACCORDANDSATISFACTION

After the making of the contract and the alleged breach thereof, on [June 1, 1960], defendant delivered to
plaintiff and plaintiff accepted and received from defendant [five hundred dollars] in full satisfaction of the
damagesmentionedinthecomplaintandofallthedamagessustainedbyplaintiffbyreasonoftheactstherein
alleged.

Form20.DEFENSEOFASSUMPTIONOFRISK
Plaintiffhadknowledgeofandassumedtherisksincidenttohisemploymentassetforthinthecomplaint.The
injuriesallegedbyplaintiffwerecausedbyandaroseoutofsuchrisks.

Form21.DEFENSEOFCONTRIBUTORYNEGLIGENCE

Plaintiffwasguiltyofnegligencewhichwasacontributingcauseoftheaccidentinthatplaintiffwasnegligently
[operatinghisautomobileatthetimeitcollidedwithdefendant'sautomobile].

Form22.DEFENSEOFPAYMENT

Priortothecommencementofthisaction,on[June1,1960],defendantdulydischargedtheallegedclaimofthe
plaintiffsetforthinthecomplainthereinbypaymenttoplaintiffofthefullsumof[fivehundreddollars].

Form23.DEFENSEOFRESJUDICATA

On [June 1, 1960], in an action in the [Third] Judicial Circuit of [Sinoe County] by the plaintiff against the
defendantforthesameclaimassetforthinplaintiff'scomplaintherein,plaintiffrecoveredajudgmentagainst
defendantuponthesameclaimfor[fivehundreddollars].

Form24.DEFENSEOFANOTHERACTIONPENDING

On [June 1, 1960], plaintiff commenced an action in the Circuit Court of the [Third] Judicial Circuit of [Sinoe
County]againstdefendantonthesameclaimasthatsetforthinthecomplaintherein.Thepartiestosuchaction
arethesameasthepartiestothisactionandsuchactionisnowpendingandundisposedof.

Form25.REPLYTOANSWER
[First]JudicialCircuit,[MontserradoCounty]

[A.B.],Plaintiff )

v. )ReplytoAnswer CivilAction,FileNo.[000]

[C.D.],Defendant )

Plaintiff,replyingtodefendant'sanswer,

1.Deniesalltheallegationscontainedin[paragraphs1and2]ofthedefendant'sanswer;

2. Alleges that plaintiff refused the tender of payment alleged by defendant in [paragraph 3] of the answer
because[fivehundreddollars]wasduetoplaintiffanddefendanttenderedonly[fourhundredandfiftydollars]
infullpaymentoftheamountdueunderthecontract.

Whereforeplaintiffdemandsjudgmentasprayedforinthecomplaint.

Signed:_____________________

AttorneyforPlaintiff

[Verification] Address:____________________


APPENDIXII

Form1.SUMMONSON.SERVICEBYPUBLICATION

CircuitCourtofthe[SecondJudicialCircuit,GrandBassaCounty].

[AlbertDoe],Plaintiff,against[CharlesRoe],DefendantSUMMONSAction[torecoverfordebt,ortorecovera
chattel,ortoannulamarriage,ortorecoverdamagesfornegligence,orotherobjectofaction].

To the above named defendant: YOU ARE HEREBY SUMMONED to answer the complaint in this action or to
appear within ten days after the service of this summons, exclusive of the day of service; and in case of your
failure to answer or appear, judgment will be taken against you by default for the relief demanded in the
complaint.

Dated:[June2,1961].

[FredWelton],AttorneyforPlaintiff,[OfficeandPostOfficeAddress,BroadStreetMonrovia].

To: [Charles Roe]. The foregoing summons is served upon you by publication, pursuant to an order of Hon.
[HenryAshton],JudgeoftheCircuitCourtoftheRepublicofLiberia,dated[May26,1961],andfiledwiththe
complaintintheofficeoftheClerkoftheCircuitCourtof[GrandBassaCounty],at[Buchanan].

[FredWelton],AttorneyforPlaintiff