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Q.1.

Discuss the or managements right question can be


importance of problem to manage may be answered by facts alone,
definition / discovery / important in the it might not be
identification for any decision. It may be researchable because our
business research. possible for many of procedures or techniques
Ans. Not all questions these questions of value are inadequate.
are researchable, and not to be transformed into
all research questions questions of fact. Q.2. Explain the
are answerable. To be Concerning fairness to scope of business
researchable, a question the workers, one might research in view of
must be one for which first gather information modern global
observation or other data from which to estimate business.
collection can provide the extent and degree to Ans. Research
the answer. Many which workers will be methods provide you
questions cannot be affected by a rule with the knowledge and
answered based on change; second, one skills you need to solve
information alone. could gather opinion the problems and meet
Questions of value and statements of the the challenges of a fast-
policy must often be workers about the paced decision-making
weighed in management fairness of seniority environment. Business
decisions. Management rules. Even so, research courses are a
may be asking, Should substantial value recognition that students
we hold out for a elements remain. Left in business, not-for-
liberalization of the unanswered are such profit, and public
seniority rules in our questions as Should we organizations in all
new labor negotiations? argue for a policy that functional areas need
While information can will adversely affect the training in the scientific
be brought to bear on security and well-being method and its
this question, such of older workers who application to decision
additional are least well equipped making. Two factors
considerations as to cope with this stimulate an interest in
fairness to the workers adversity? Even if a more scientific decision

1
making: (1) the macroeconomic savings need to be equipped
managers increased investment issues. with an understanding of
need for more and better The trend toward scientific methods and a
information and (2) the complexity has means of incorporating
availability of improved increased the risks them into decision
techniques and tools to associated with business making. You will need
meet this need. decisions, making it to know how to identify
During the last two more important to have good research and how
decades, we have a sound information to conduct it. This book
witnessed dramatic base. Increased addresses these needs.
changes in the business complexity means there As the complexity of the
environment. Emerging are more variables to business environment
from a historically consider. The has increased, there has
economic role, the competition is more been a commensurate,
business organization vigorous, with many increase in the number
has evolved in response business downsizing to and power of the tools to
to the social and make competitive gains. conduct research. There
political mandates of Workers, shareholders, is vastly more
national public policy, customers, and the knowledge in all fields
explosive technology public are better of management. We
growth, and continuing informed and more have begun to build
innovations in global sensitive to their self- better theories. The
communications. These interest. Government computer has given us a
changes have created continues to show quantum leap in the
new knowledge needs concern with all aspects ability to deal with
for the manager. Other of society. Each of these problems. New
knowledge demands factors demands that techniques of
have arisen from managers have more and quantitative analysis
problems with mergers, better information upon take advantage of this
trade policies, protected which to base decisions. power. Communication
markets, technology To do well in such an and measurement
transfers, and environment, you will techniques have also

2
been enhanced. These The Research that most researchers
trends reinforce each Questions come to recognize. Fine-
other and are having a Once the researcher has tuning the question is
massive impact on a clear statement of a precisely what a skillful
business management. managers question, he practitioner must do
must translate into a after the exploration
Q.3. Mention in research question: a stage. At this point, a
details the main fact-oriented, clearer picture of the
requirements of any information gathering problem begins to
Business Research questions. There are emerge. After a
Plan. probably many different preliminary review of
Ans. A management ways to address any the literature, a brief
question or decision management problem. exploratory study, or
triggers the need for This is the point at both, the project begins
information. In other which the insight and to crystallize in one of
situations, a controversy expertise of the two ways: (1) it is
arises, a major researcher come into apparent the question
commitment of play. It is also the point has been answered and
resources is called for, at which the managers the process is finished or
or conditions in the decision is most (2) a different question
environment signal the important. A choice of has appeared than the
need for a decision. wrong research for the one originally
Such events cause right problem can be addressed. The research
managers to reconsider dangerous. question does not have
their purposes or to be materially
objectives, define a QUESTION different, but it will have
problem for solution, or REVISION: evolved in some fashion.
develop strategies for FINE-TUNING This is not cause for
solutions they have The term fine-tuning discouragement. A
identified. might seem like rather refined question will
odd usage for research, have better focus and
but it creates an image move the research

3
forward with more should be employed? many records to inspect
clarity than the old one. Should the responses be and which ones. A
scaled or open-ended? sample is a part of the
DESIGNING THE How will reliability and whole population
STUDY validity be achieved? carefully selected to
The design of the study Will characteristics of represent that
is the blueprint for the interviewer influence population. When
fulfulling objectives and responses to the researchers undertake
answering questions. measurement questions? sampling studies, they
Selecting a design may What kind of training are interested in
be complicated by the should the data estimating one or more
availability of a large collectors receive? Is a population values and/or
variety of methods, sample or a census to be testing one or more
techniques, procedures, taken? What types of statistical hypotheses.
protocols, and sampling sampling should be
plans. For example, you considered? These RESOURCES
may decide on a questions represent only ALLOCATION
secondary data study, a few of the decisions AND BUDGETS
case study, survey, that have to be made Data collection requires
experiment, or when just one method is substantial resources but
simulation. If a survey is chosen. perhaps not as big a part
selected, should it be SAMPLING of the budget as clients
administered by mail, Another step in planning would expect.
computer, telephone, the design is to identify Employees must be
oral personal interview? the target population and paid, training and travel
Should all relevant data select the sample. We must be provided, and
be collected at one time must determine how other expenses are
of at regular intervals? many people to incurred, but this phase
What kind of structure interview and who they of the project often takes
will the questionnaire or will be; what events to no more than one-third
interview guide possess? observe and how many of the total research
What question wording there will be; or how budget. The geographic

4
scope and the number of questionnaire should characterized by their:
observations required do also be mailed. If the (1) abstractness, (2)
affect the cost, but much design calls for verifiability, (3)
of the cost is relatively observation by an elusiveness, and (4)
independent of the size unobtrusive researcher, closeness to the
of the data gathering this behavior should be phenomenon.
effort. Thus, a guide practiced. The size of Data are edited to ensure
might be that (1) project the pilot group may consistency across
planning, (2) data range from 25 to 100 respondents and to
gathering, and (3) subjects depending on locate emissions. In the
analysis, interpretation, the method to be tested, case of survey methods,
and reporting each share but the respondents do editing reduces errors in
about equally in the not have to be the recording, improves
budget. statistically selected. In legibility, and clarifies
very small populations unclear and
PILOT TESTING or special applications, inappropriate responses.
A pilot test is conducted pilot testing runs the risk
to detect weaknesses is of exhausting the supply ANALYSIS AND
design and of respondents and INTERPRETATI
instrumentation and sensitizing them to the ON
provide proxy data for purpose of the study. After collecting the data,
selection of probability This risk is generally we still need to analyze
sample. It should overshadowed by the it. Data analysis usually
therefore draw subjects improvements made to involves reducing
from the target the design by a trial run. accumulated data to a
population and simulate manageable size,
the procedures and DATA COLLECTION developing summaries,
protocols that have been Data as the facts looking for patterns, and
designated for data presented to the applying statistical
collection. If the study is researcher from the techniques. Scaled
a survey to be executed studys environment. responses on
by mail, the pilot Data may be further questionnaires and

5
experimental communication of the and secondary data for
instruments often results may cover a business research.
require the analyst to range of actions from a Ans.
derive various functions, conference call, a letter, TYPES OF
and relationships among a written report, or an SECONDARY
variables are frequently oral presentation and SOURCES
explored after that. sometimes all of them. Data sources may be
Further, we must Reports should be classified as either
interpret these findings developed from the internal (organizational)
in light of the clients clients perspective. The or external sources of
question, with theory- sophistication of the information.
building research, design and sampling
determine if the results plan or the esoteric
are consistent with out software used to analyze
hypotheses and theories. the data may have
helped to establish the
REPORTING THE researchers mind. Thus,
RESULTS the researcher must
Finally, it is necessary to accurately assess the
prepare a report and managers needs
transmit the findings and throughout the research
recommendations to the process and incorporate
client for the intended this understanding into
purpose of decision the final product.
making. The style and
organization of the
report will differ
according to the target
audience, the occasion, Q.4. Mention in the
and the purpose of the details the sources of
research. In applied collection of primary
research,

6
Internal Sources Internal sources of situation, and
organizational collection success
data are so varied depends on
that it is difficult knowing just
to provide where and how to
generalizations look. Sometimes
about their use. the information
Accounting and may exist in
management central files (i.e.,
information at headquarters),
systems create and in computer
store much of the database, or in
internal data. departmental
Research and chronological
development, files. In other
planning, and organizations, a
marketing central library
functions also keeps all relevant
contribute. information.
Examples are Systematic
departmental searches should be
reports, made through
production exploratory
summaries, interviews with
financial and everyone who
accounting handles the
reports, and information. Often
marketing and company
sales studies. The librarians, MIS.
collection methods PR/communicatio
used are unique to ns, or
the specific departmental

7
secretaries can computerized database. statements, speeches by
help in They are composed of prominent executives,
pinpointing interrelated data files. sales literature, product
critical data The files are sets of specifications, and many
sources. Internal records grouped together others. There are
data sources may for storage on some miscellaneous
be the only source medium. Access may be information sources
of information for through online search or consisting of the
many studies. CD-ROM. Online productions of various
databases are often trade, professional and
External Sources specialized and focus on other associations.
External sources are information about a These organizations
created outside the particular field. often publish statistical
organization and Major source of compilation, research
are more varied published information report, and proceeding
than internal consists of diverse of meeting. Finally,
sources. There are materials from special there are personal
also better defined collections. Within this document. These are
methods for category there are many used in historical and
finding them. This reference books, each a other social science
discussion is compendium of a range research, but less
restricted to of information. A second frequently in business
published sources, group includes studies.
although other university publications,
sources of of which there are Q.5. Explain Pure
information may masters theses, doctoral and Applied Research.
be useful. dissertations, and Ans.
Published sources of research records. A third In Research Always
data can be classified group includes company Problem Based?
into five categories. The publications such as Applied research has a
newest and fastest financial reports, practical problem-
growing one is company policy solving emphasis. It is

8
conducted to reveal will find knowledge of declarative statement, a
answers to specific research methods to be hypothesis is of a
questions related to of value in many tentative and conjectural
action, performance, or situations. They may nature.
policy needs. In this need to conduct research Hypotheses have also
respect, all four either for themselves or been described as
examples appear to others. As buyers of statements in which we
qualify as applied research services, they assign variables to cases.
research. Pure or basic will need to be able to A case is defined in this
research is also problem judge research quality. sense as the entity or
solving, but in a Finally, they may thing the hypothesis
different sense. It aims become research talks about. The variable
to solve perplexing specialist themselves. is the characteristic,
questions (that is, Q.6. Explain trait, or attribute that, in
problems) of a Research the hypothesis, is
theoretical nature that Hypothesis. imputed to the case. For
have little direct impact Ans. The research example, we might form
on action, performance, literature contains the hypothesis,
or policy decisions. disagreements about the Executive Jones (case)
Thus, both applied and meanings of the terms has a higher than
pure research are proposition and average achievement
problem based, but hypothesis. We define a motivation (variable).
applied research is proposition as a If our hypothesis was
directed much more to statement about based on more than one
making decisions. concepts that may be case, it would be a
The managers of judged as true or false if generalization. For
tomorrow will need to it refers to observable example, Executives in
know more than any phenomena. When a Company Z (cases) have
managers in history. proposition is a higher than average
Research will be a major formulated for empirical achievement motivation
contributor to that testing, we call it a (variable). Both of
knowledge. Managers hypothesis. As a these hypotheses are

9
examples of descriptive approaches are 6. Street ethnography
hypotheses. adaptable for (to discover how a
exploratory cultural subgroup
Q.7. What are the investigations of describes and
various types of management questions: structures its world
business research 1. Indepth-interviewing at the street level).
methods? Discuss. (usually 7. Elite interviewing
Ans. conversational rather (for information
EXPLORATORY than structured). from influential or
STUDIES 2. Participant well-informed
Research Types / observation (to people in an
Methods perceive firsthand organization or
Exploration is what that community).
particularly useful when participants in the 8. Document analysis
researchers lack a clear setting experience). (to evaluate
idea of the problems 3. Films, photographs, historical or
they will meet during and videotape (to contemporary
the study. Through capture what that confidential or
exploration the participants in the public records,
researchers develop the setting experience). reports, government
concepts more clearly, 4. Projective documents, and
establish priorities, and techniques and opinions).
improve the final psychological testing 9. Proxemics and
research design. (such as a Thematic kinesics (to study of
Exploration may also Apperception Test, the use of space and
save time and money if projective measures, body motion
it is decided the problem games, or role-play). communication,
is not as important as 5. Case studies (for an respectively).
first thought. indepth contextual
When we consider the analysis of a few
scope of qualitative events or
research, several conditions).

10
DESCRIPTIVE Research Report
STUDIES Q.8. Importance of Reports may be defined
The objective of Decision Making. in terms of their degree
descriptive study is to Ans. Business of formality and design.
learn the who, what, research has an inherent The formal report
when, where, and how value to the extent that it follows a well-
of a topic. The study helps management in delineated and longer
may be simple or making decisions. format. This contrasts to
complex; it may be done Interesting information the more informal or
in many settings. about consumers, short reports.
The simplest descriptive employees, or
study concerns a competitors might be Short Reports
univariate question or pleasant to have, but its Short reports are
hypothesis in which we value is limited. If a appropriate when the
ask about, or state study does not help problem is well defined,
something about, the management select more of limited scope, and has
size, form, distribution, efficient, less risky, or a simple and
or existence of a more profitable straightforward
variable. In an account alternatives than methodology. Most
analysis at a savings and otherwise would be the informational, progress,
loan association, we case, its use should be and interim reports are
might be interested in questioned. The of this kind: a report of
developing a profile of important point is; cost-of-living changes
savers. We may want Applied research in a for upcoming labor
first to locate them in business environment negotiations or an
relation to the finds its justification in exploration of filing
association office. The the contribution it makes dumping charges
question might be, to the decision-makers against a foreign
What percent of the task. competitor.
savers live within a two-
mile radius of the Short reports are about
office? five pages. At the

11
beginning, there should report that other and is interested in
be a brief statement on researchers will want to results rather
the authorization for the see because it has the methodology. The major
study, the problem full story of what was communication medium
examined, and its done and how it was in this case is the
breadth and depth. Next done. management report. It is
are the conclusions and A technical report still helpful to have a
recommendations, should also include a technical report if the
followed by the findings full presentation and client later wishes to
that support them. analysis of significant have a technical
Section headings should data. Conclusions and appraisal of the study.
be used. recommendations The style of the report
should be clearly related should encourage rapid
Long Reports to specific findings. reading, quick
Long reports are of two Technical jargon should comprehension of major
types, the technical or be minimized but findings, and prompt
base report and the defined when used. understanding of the
management report. The There can be brief implication and
choice depends on the references to other conclusions. The report
audience and the research, theories, and tone is journalistic and
researchers objectives. techniques. While you must be accurate.
expect the reader to be Headlines and
The Technical Report familiar with these underlining for emphasis
This report should references, it is useful to is helpful; pictures and
include full include some short graphs often replace
documentation and explanations, perhaps as tables. Sentences and
detail. It will normally footnotes or end notes. paragraphs should be
survive all working short and direct.
papers and original data The Management Consider liberal use of
files and so will become Report white space and wide
the major source Sometimes the client has margins. It may be
document. It is the no research background

12
desirable to put a single quantitative or of research design. First,
finding on each page. qualitative? the design is a plan for
Research design is the selecting the sources and
Q.9. What is plan and structure of types of information
business research investigation so used to answer the
design? Explain its conceived as to obtain research question.
various requirements. answers to research Second, it is a
Ans. The research questions. The plan is framework for
design constitutes the the overall scheme or specifying the
blueprint for the program of the research. relationships among the
collection, It includes an outline of studys variables. Third,
measurement, and what the investigator it is a blueprint that
analysis of data. It aids will do from writing outlines each procedure
the scientist in the hypotheses and their from the hypotheses to
allocation of his limited operational implications the analysis of data. The
resources by posing to the final analysis of design provides answers
crucial choices: Is the data. A structure is the for such questions as:
blueprint to include framework, What technique will be
experiments, interviews, organization, or used to gather data?
observation, the analysis configuration of the What kind of sampling
of records, simulation, relations among will be used? How will
or some combination of variables of a study. A time and cost constrains
these? Are the methods research design express be dealt with?
of data collection and both the structure of the
the research situation to research problem and Classification of
be highly structured? Is the plan of investigation Designs
an intensive study of a used to obtain empirical Early in any research
small sample more evidence on relations of study, one faces the task
effective than a less the problem. of selecting the specific
intensive study of large These definitions differ design to use. A number
sample? Should the in detail, but together of different design
analysis be primarily they give the essentials approaches exist, but

13
unfortunately, no simple 5. The time dimension advanced scaling
classification system (research may be techniques, which are
defines all the variations cross-sectional or mostly used.
that must be considered. longitudinal). Ans. In measuring,
We can classify research 6. The topical scope one devises some form
design using at least breadth and depth of scale and then
eight different of the study (a case transfers the observation
perspectives. or statistical study). of property indicants
1. The degree to which 7. The research onto this scale. Several
the research problem environment (most type of scales are
has been crystallized business research is possible; the appropriate
(the study may be conducted in a field choice depends on what
either exploratory or setting, although you assume about the
formal). laboratory research mapping rules. Each
2. The method of data is not unusual; scale has its own set of
collection (studies simulation is another underlying assumptions
may be category). about how the numerals
observational or 8. The subjects correspond to real world
survey). perception of the observations.
3. The power of the research (do they
researcher to perceive deviations Nominal Scales
produce effects in from their everyday Nominal scales are the
the variables under routines). least powerful of the
study (the two major four types. They suggest
types of research are A brief discussion of no order or distance
the experimental and these perspectives relationship and have no
the ex post facto). illustrate their nature arithmetic origin. The
4. The purpose of the and contribution to scale wastes any
study (research research. information about
studies may be varying degree of the
descriptive or Q.10. What is scaled? property being
causal). Explain type of measures.

14
Since the only its length. Thus, the real have an arbitrarily
quantification is the difference between determined zero point.
number count of cases in ranks 1 and 2 may more
each category, the or less than the different Ratio Scales
researcher is restricted between ranks 2 and 3. Ratio scales incorporate
to the use of the mode as all of the powers of the
the measure of central Interval Scales previous ones plus the
tendency. The interval scale has provision for absolute
the powers of nominal zero or origin. The ratio
Ordinal Scales and ordinal scales plus scale represents the
Ordinal scales include one additional strength: actual amount of a
the characteristics of the It incorporates the variable. Measures of
nominal scale plus an concept of equality of physical dimensions
indicator of order. interval (the distance such as weight, height,
Ordinal scales are between 1 and 2 equals distance, and area are
possible if the the distance between 2 examples. In the
transitivity postulate is and 3). Calendar time is behavioral sciences, few
fulfilled. This postulate such a scale. For situations satisfy the
states: If a is greater example, the elapsed requirements of the ratio
than b and b is greater time between 3 and 6 scale the area of
than c, then a is greater A.M. equals the time psychophysics offering
than c. The use of an between 4 and 7 A.M. some exception. In
ordinal scale implies a One cannot say, business research, we
statement of greater however, 6 A.M. is find ratio scales in many
than or less than (an twice as late as 3 A.M. area. There are money
equality statement is because zero time is values, population
also acceptable) without an arbitrary origin. counts, distances, return
stating how much Centigrade and rates, and amount of
greater or less. Like a Fahrenheit temperature time in a time-period
rubber yardstick, it can scales are other sense.
stretch varying amounts examples of classical
at different places along interval scales. Both

15
Q.11. Sampling unknown influences that Representation
Design in research. cause the scores to The members of a
Ans. The ultimate test lean in one direction sample are selected
of a sample design is more than another. It either on a probability
how well it represents has been observed that basis or by another
the characteristics of the homes on the corner of means. Probability
population it purports of the block are often sampling is based on the
represent. In larger and more valuable concept of random
measurements terms, the than those within blocks. selection a controlled
sample must be valid. Thus, a sample that procedure that assures
Validity of a sample selects corner homes that each population
depends upon two only will cause us to element is given a
considerations. overestimate home known nonzero chance
values in the area. of selection.
Accuracy In contrast,
First is the matter of Types of Sample nonprobability sampling
accuracy the degree to Design is nonrandom and
which bias is absent A variety of sampling subjective. That is, each
from the sample. An techniques is available. member does not have a
accurate (unbiased) The one selected known nonzero chance
sample is one in which depends on the of being included.
the underestimators and requirements of the Allowing interviewers to
the overestimators are project, its objectives, choose sample members
balances among the and funds, available. at random (meaning
members of the sample. The different approaches as they wish or wherever
There is no systematic may be classified by they find them) is not
variance with an their representation basis random sampling. Only
accurate sample. and the element probability samples
Systematic variance has selection techniques. provide estimates of
been defined as the precision.
variation in measures
due to some known or

16
Element Selection the study. A frequent
Sample may also be problem in research is
classified by whether the the proliferation of
elements are selected interesting information.
individually and directly Unless the urge to
from the population include additional
viewed as a single pool elements is curbed, a
or whether additional study can be diluted by
controls are placed on trivial concerns that do Q.13. What are the
element selection. When not answer the basic main components of
each sample element is questions posed. The written Research
drawn individually from virtue of the hypothesis Report? Which
the population at large, is that, if taken seriously, components are
it is an unrestricted it limits what shall be essential in long report.
sample. Restricted studied and what shall Ans. Reports may be
sampling covers all hypothesis is that, if defined in terms of their
other forms of sampling. taken seriously, it limits degree of formally and
what shall be studied design. The formal
Q.12. Why hypothesis and what shall not. It report follows a well-
is required for identifies facts that are delineated and longer
construction of theory? relevant and those that format. This contrasts to
Explain your answer are not; in so doing, it the more informal or
with a example. suggests which form of short report.
research design is likely
Ans. to be most appropriate. Short Reports
The Role of the A final role of the Short reports are
Hypothesis hypothesis is to provide appropriate when the
In research, a hypothesis a framework for problem is well defined,
serves several important organizing the of limited scope, and has
functions. The most conclusions that result. a simple and
important is that it straightforward
guides the direction of methodology. Most

17
information, progress, audience and the research, theories, and
and interim reports are researchers objectives. techniques. While you
of this kind: a report of expect the reader to be
cost-of-living changes The Technical Report familiar with these
for upcoming labor This report should references, it is useful to
negotiations or an include full include some short
exploration of filling documentation and explanations, perhaps as
dumping charges detail. It will normally footnotes or end notes.
against a foreign survive all working The Management
competitioner. papers and original data Report
Short reports are about files and so will become Sometimes the client has
give pages. At the the major source no research background
beginning, there should document. It is the and is interested in
be a brief statement on report that other results rather than
the authorization for the researchers will want to methodology. The major
study, the problem see because it has the communication medium
examined, and its full story of what was in this case is the
breadth and depth. Next done and how it was management report. It is
are the conclusions and done. still helpful to have a
recommendations, A technical report technical report if the
followed by the findings should also include a client later wishes to
that support them. full presentation and have a technical
Section headings should analysis of significant appraisal of the study.
be used. data. Conclusions and The style of the report
recommendations should encourage rapid
Long Reports should be clearly related reading, quick
Long reports are of two to specific findings. comprehension of major
types, the technical or Technical jargon should findings, and prompt
base report and the be minimized but understanding of the
management report. The defined when used. implication and
choice depends on the There can be brief conclusions. The report
references to other tone is journalistic and

18
must be accurate. generated for an outside An executive summary
Headlines and organization. can serve two purposes.
underlining for emphasis It may be a report in
is helpful; pictures and Title Page miniature covering all
graphs often replace The title page should the aspects in the body
tables. Sentences and include four items: the of the report in
paragraphs should be title of the report, the abbreviated form. Or it
short and direct. date, and for whom and could be a concise
Consider liberal use of by whom it was summary of the major
white space and wide prepared. The title findings and
margins. It may be should be brief but conclusions, including
desirable to put a single include the following of recommendations. Two
finding on each page. three elements: (1) the pages are generally
variables included in the sufficient for executive
Prefatory Items study, (2) the type of summaries.
Prefatory materials do relationship among the
not have direct bearing variables, and (3) the Table of Contents
on the research itself. population to which the As a rough guide, any
Instead, they assist the results may be applied. report of several
reader in using the sections that totals more
researcher report. Authorization Letter than 6 to 10 pages
When the report is sent should have a table of
Letter of Transmittal to a public organization, contents.
When the relationship it is common to include
between the researcher a letter of authorization Introduction
and the client is formal, showing the authority The introduction
a letter of transmittal for undertaking the prepares the reader for
should be included. This research. the report by describing
is appropriate when a the parts of the project:
report is for a specific the problem statement,
client (e.g., the company Executive Summary research objectives, and
president) and when it is background material. In

19
most projects, the results of exploration devices should be
introduction can be from an experience described.
taken from the research survey, focus group, or
proposal with minor another source. Data Collection
editing. Alternatively, it could be This part of the report
secondary data from the describes the specifies
Problem Statement literature review. A of gathering the data. Its
The problem statement traditional contents depend on the
contains the need for the organizational scheme is selected design. Survey
research project. The to think of the work generally uses a
problem is usually concentric circles of a team with field and
represented by a target. central supervision.
management question. It How many were
is followed by a more involved? What was
detailed set of Methodology their training? How
objectives. The methodology is an were they managed?
important section. It When were the data
Research Objectives contains at least five collected? How much
The research objectives parts. time did it take? What
address the purpose of were the conditions in
the project. These may Sampling Design the field? How were
be research question(s) The researcher explicitly irregularities handled.
and associated defines the target
investigative questions. population being studied Data Analysis
In correlational or casual and the sampling This section summarizes
studies, the hypothesis methods used. the methods used to
statements are included. analyze the data.
Research Design Describe data handling,
Background In an experimental preliminary analysis,
Background material study, the materials, statistical tests,
may be of two types. It tests, equipment, control computer programs, and
may be the preliminary conditions, and other other technical

20
information. The your hypotheses and usually be for
rationale for the choice those that support them. managerial action rather
of analysis approaches research action. The
should be clear. A brief Summary and writer may offer several
description or Conclusions alternatives with
commentary on The summary is a brief justifications.
assumptions and statement of the
appropriateness of use essential findings. Appendices
should be presented. Sectional summaries The appendices are the
may be used if there are place for complex
Findings many specific findings. tables, statistical tests,
This is generally the These may be combined supporting documents,
longest section of the into an overall summary. copies of forms and
report. The objective is In simple descriptive questionnaires, detailed
to explain the data rather research, a summary descriptions of the
than draw interpretations may complete the report, methodology,
or conclusions. When as conclusions and instructions to field
quantitative data can be recommendations may workers, and other
presented, this should be not be required. evidence important for
done as simply as later support.
possible with charts, Recommendations
graphics, and tables. There are usually a few Bibliography
The data need to include ideas about corrective The use of secondary
everything you have actions. In academic data requires a
collected. The criterion research, the bibliography. Proper
for inclusion is, Is this recommendations are citation, style, and
material important to the often further study formats are unique to the
readers understanding suggestions that broaden purpose of the report.
of the problem and the or test understanding of Style requirements are
findings? However, the subject area. In often specified by the
make sure to show applied research the instructor, program,
findings unfavorable to recommendations will institution, or client.

21
so, to what sociological-
Q.14. Discuss Survey degree? demographic, and
Research. measurement. The latter
Ans. Communication Mode may be structured
Survey Research Surveys may be questions that present
Once the researcher conducted by personal the respondents with a
understands the interview, telephone, fixed set of choices,
connection between the mail, computer, or some often called closed
investigative questions combination of these. questions. Unstructured
and the potential The decision on which questions do not have a
measurement questions, method to use will affect limited set of responses
a strategy for the survey the design of the but do provide a frame
is the next logical step. instrument. In personal of reference for
This precedes getting interviewing, it is respondents answers.
down to the particulars possible to use graphics They are sometimes
of instrument design. and other questioning referred to as open-
Prominent among the tools more easily than ended questions.
strategic concerns are: by mail or phone.
1. What At the unstructured
communication Process Structure extreme, are in-depth
mode will be Questionnaires and interviews where the
used? interview schedules can interviewers task is to
2. How much vary from those that encourage the
structure should have a great deal of respondent to talk about
be placed on the structure to those that a set of topics. The in-
question-and- are essentially depth interview
answer unstructured. An encourages respondents
processes? interview schedule is the to share as much
3. Should the questionnaire used in an information as possible
questioning interview. It contains in an unconstrained
approach be three types of questions: environment. The
disguised and, if identification, interviewer uses a

22
minimum of prompts Hypothesis play an
and guiding questions. Q.16. ROLE OF important role in the
HYPOTHESIS: development of theory.
Q.15. HYPOTHESIS: The most important role While theory
When a proposition is of the hypothesis is that development has not to
formulated for empirical it guides the direction of date been an important
testing we call it a study a frequent aspect of business
hypothesis. problem in research research it is likely to
Descriptive hypothesis study is the proliferation become more so in the
:these are the of interesting future.
proposition that information, hypothesis THEORY :The tem
typically state the defines what shell be theory is often by the
existence size form or studied and what shell layman to mean the
distribution of some not, it provide a opposite of fact. In this
variables. e.g the framework for sense theory is viewed
current rate of organizing the as being speculative.
unemployment is 6 conclusions that result When you are too
percent of labor force from the study. theoretical it means that
means country is What is good your explanations or
experiencing budget hypothesiss good decision has no
difficulties. hypothesis should fulfill empirical value.
Relational Hypothesis: following conditions. Our ability to make
these are the statements 1- It should be adequate rational decisions as
that describe a for its purpose 2) It must well as to develop
relationship between be testable 3) It must be scientific knowledge is
two variable with better than its rivals measured by the degree
respect to some case. 4)The better hypos to which we combine
E.g foreign made cars thesis is the simple one fact and theory.
are perceived by requiring fewer In one sense theories are
American consumers to conditions or the generalizations we
be of better quality than assumptions. make about variables
domestic made cars and the relationship

23
among them. We may a map used represent a information with limited
define as a set of section of countryside is commentary, analysis,
systematically a model and so is a chart conclusions or
interrelated concepts used to represent recommendations. The
definitions and concurrent changes in research report contains
propositions that are fuel oil sales and findings analysis of
advanced to explain and temperature. Another these findings.
predict phenomena. We view is since the Interpretations
quote that the difference purpose of the model is conclusions and
between theory and the representation of sometimes
hypothesis is one of the relationship between or recommendations.
degree of complexity among concepts the Research reporting
and abstraction. At times prerequisite for any differs from writing
these may be confused model is a conceptual management reports in
but it should not make scheme. Models are not another way. Reports
much practical research substitutes for may also be defined in
difference. conceptual schemes terms of their degree of
principles hypothesis or formality and design.
Q.17. MODELS: the theories but rather are The formal report tends
term model has gained devices to depict their to be long and follows a
such popularity that it concepts and the well defined format.
threatens to become an relationship which are This contrasts to the
all purpose word for involved. more informal report
relationship among types which may be
concepts. Many writers Q.18. WRITTEN classed as short reports.
have attempted to define RESEARCH
the term more narrowly REPORT Q.19. SHORT
but with little success to Written reports may be REPORTS
date. Eg one writer classified as Short reports are
defines a mode as informational or appropriate for studies
anything used to research reports. The in which the problem is
represent something else former presents factual well defined of limited

24
scope require only examined and its includes full study
modest effort and for breadth and depth. Next documentations and
which methodologies may be conclusions and detail. It will be the
are simple and recommendations record which normally
straightforward. Most followed by the findings survives the working
information reports and that support the papers computer
progress and interim conclusions. printouts and original
reports are of this e.g documents. A technical
you may wish to write Q.20. LONG report should also
up an investigation into REPORTS include a full
cost of living changes Long reports are often presentation and
that is need for divided into two types exploration of
upcoming labor the technical or base significant data.
negotiations. Or you report and the popular
might report on a report. Which of these Q.22. POPULAR
preliminary look into the two to use depends REPORT
feasibility of filing chiefly on the audience The fact that the popular
dumping charges against and the researchers report is designed for a
a foreign competitor. objectives. While some nontechnical audience
Shorts reports usually researchers try to write a presents the researcher
are five pages or less but single report the with some special
may exceed ten pages. incorporates features of communication
They may or may not both this complicates the problems. Readers are
have section headings communication tasks. less concerned with
but should have liberal methodological details
margins and short Q.21. THE but more interested in
paragraphs. At the TECHNICAL learning quickly the
beginning of the report REPORT major conclusions.
there should be a brief There should be a Some time the report is
statement on the technical report for most developed for a single
authorization of the research studies. It is the manager and needs to be
study the problem basic vehicle that written with that persons

25
individual or an interview guide. they cannot be
characteristics and needs An interview guide is a combined. E.g might be
in mind. The style of the list of topic questions or where prior telephone
popular report should areas which the appointments or
encourage rapid reading interviewer uses merely screenings are made for
quick comprehension of as a prompter during the alter personal
major findings and interview .These interviews. There is
prompt understanding of responses may be some questions to
the implications and recorded in writing by whether prior
conclusions. tape recorder or in some telephoning improves or
other way. decreases the chances of
Q.23. securing and interview
COMMUNICATI Q.25. IMPERSONAL there is evidence for
ON MODES OF MODE: in this both sides of this
RESEARCH communication mode argument . Telephone
Communication the researcher typically screening to qualify
interactions between depends upon a printed respondents has been
researchers and instrument to carry the very effective.
respondent are either two way
personal ,impersonal or communication task. Q.27. SCALED OR
mixed in nature .Each of The impersonal mode of SCALING &
these will be briefly questioning makes it ADVANCED
defined as under: possible to use mail or SCALING
group administered TECHNIQUES
Q.24. PERSONAL surveys. In the social sciences the
MODE: this mode term scaling is applied
typically involves a one Q.26. MIXED MODE: to the procedures for
on one relationship While we think of attempting to determine
between interviewer and personal and impersonal quantitative measures of
interviewee. The approaches as subjective abstract
interviewer uses wither alternative methods concepts. Scaling is
and interview schedule there is no reason why defined as procedure for

26
the assignment of researcher should reasons for reading the
number for other analyze the readers report. Finally,
symbols to a property of needs carefully and managers, like everyone
objects in order to prepare a detailed else, prefer interesting
impart some of the outline prior to writing reports over dull ones.
characteristics of the first draft. The first With these facts in mind,
numbers to the draft should be a number of general
properties in question. considered just that-a guides are offered here.
thus we assign a first draft. Few of us
number scale to the write well enough to Focus on the Audience
various levels of heat produce a polished draft The only reason for
and cold and call it a the first time. The writer writing a research report
thermometer. Scales should plan on at least is to communicate
may be easy to construct one major rewrite. something to someone.
but it is difficult to The someone is the most
assure that they measure Several facts must be important aspect of the
reliably. kept in mind. First, communications
managers are extremely process. The entire
Q.28. You have been busy. Second, they are research project is
given a research report much less interested in performed to generate
written by a consulting the technical and logical information that will aid
firm for your aspects of a research one or more decision-
organization. You are problem than the makers. The research
asked to judge the researcher is. Third, they report must convey that
quality of the study. are seldom well versed information to those
What would you look in research techniques decision-makers.
for? and terminology. Fourth,
Ans. if there is more than one Focus on the Objective
Good research reports reader, and there usually of the Study
begin with clear is, they are likely to The research is initiated
thinking on the part of a differ in terms of to help make a decision.
researcher. The interests, training, and The report should be

27
built around the decision superior to alternative the concepts that
and how the resultant sampling plans, and so underlie these terms.
information is relevant on. Yet, few executives Three strategies are
to the decision. This is are interested in this available for dealing
what the manager is level of detail. However, with this problem. The
interested in. the research department term can be used,
Researchers are should keep such a followed by a brief
naturally interested in detailed report internally description or
the research problem to serve as a guide for explanation; the
and the methodology future studies, and to explanation can be
used to solve it. answer any question that provided first followed
Unfortunately, some might arise concerning by the term; or the
research reports reflect the methodology of the technical terms can be
the interest of the study. omitted altogether.
researcher rather than Which approach, or
the manager. Use Terminology That combination of
Matches the approaches, is best
Minimizing the Vocabulary of the depends upon the nature
Reporting of the Readers of the audience and the
Technical Aspects Few managers can message.
of the Project balance a research
Researchers have an report, a cup of coffee, Avoid Errors in
unfortunate, if natural, and a dictionary at the Grammar and
tendency to attempt to same time. Terms such Spelling
convince management as skewed distribution, One incorrect sentence
of their expertise and correlation coefficient, of misspelled word can
thoroughness in the or even significance undermine the
research report. This level are not necessarily credibility of the entire
leads to detailed familiar to all marketing research project, and it
discussions of the managers. In many can seriously harm your
sampling plan, research reports, it is career. Use a dictionary
explorations of why it is often necessary to utilize and grammar guide any

28
time that you are in relative sales by each organizations, and the
doubt. department. uncertainty if the
environment they face
Develop an Interesting Rounding of Numbers the management of
Writing Style Reporting data to organizational systems
Research reports should several significant digits has become one of
be interesting to read. is often unnecessary, constant troubleshooting
There is no inherent even when accurate. in the workplace. It
reason for a research would be helpful if
report to be dull, Q.29. Why is it managers could sense,
tedious, or boring. important for manager spot and deal with
to have knowledge of problems. Before they
Use Visual Aids research methodology? get out of hand.
Whenever Give examples. Knowledge of research
Practical Ans. and problem solving
As a general rule, a Managers And processes helps
sentence in the text of a Research managers to identify
report should contain no Since you will probably problem situations
more than two or three be bringing in before they get out of
numerical values. researchers to solve control. While minor
Sentences containing problems instead of problems can be fixed
more numbers than this doing the research by the manager, major
are difficult to read and yourself, you may problems would warrant
understand. The table in wonder why you should the hiring of outside
the exhibit is much bother to study of doing researchers or
easier to read than the the research. The consultants. The
sentence. However, the reasons become clear manager who is
pie chart contains the when one considers the knowledgeable about
same information and consequences of not research processes,
provides a quick, strong knowing about research. design and interpretation
impression of the With the ever-increasing of data also helps
complexity of modern managers to become

29
discriminating recipients grasp what the published necessary to help
of the research findings empirical research identify or react to a
presented, and to actually conveys, she or problem or opportunity,
determine whether or he is likely to err in such that the difference
not the recommended incorporating some of between the cost of
solutions are appropriate the suggestions such obtaining various levels
for implementations. publications offer. Such of accuracy and the
understanding also helps expected value of the
Another reason why managers, to handle information associated
todays professional their own problems at with each level of
manager need to know considerable savings of accuracy is maximized.
about research methods cost by reading the
is that they will become results of good Several aspects of this
more discriminating (discussed in next definition deserve
when sifting though chapter) published emphasis. First, research
information in business research which has design requires the
journals. Some journal addressed similar issues. specification of
articles are more procedures. These
scientific and objective Q.30. What is research procedures involve
than others. Even among design? Write down decisions on what
the scientific articles, the steps involved in information to generate,
some are more research the data collection
appropriate for process with examples. method, the
applications or Ans. measurement approach,
adaptation to particular The Nature of the object to be
organizations and Marketing measured, and the way
situations than others. Research Design in which the data are to
This is a function of the Marketing research be analyzed.
sampling design, the design is the
types of organizations is specification of Second, the data are to
able to assess how procedures for collecting be collected to help
scientific a study is and and analyzing the data identify or react to a

30
problem or opportunity. to generate the most specific characteristics
All data collected should valuable information in of the measurement
eventually relate to relation to the cost of instrument.
decisions faced by generating the
Step 1:Define the
management. Obviously, information.
Research
the efficient collection
Problem
of data relevant to a It should be noted that
decision requires a clear research design for Problem definition is the

definition of the purposes other than most critical part of the

problem/opportunity. solving applied business research process.

problems will have Research problem

A third implication of different characteristics. definition involves

the preceding definition For example, research specifying the

is that information has for use in court information needed by

value. Information proceedings will be management. Unless the

acquires value as it helps designed differently problem is properly

improve decisions. The from applied marketing defined, the information

fourth major implication research. produced by the

is that varying levels of research process is

accuracy of information Steps in the Research unlikely to have any

can be generated in Design Process value. Coca-Cola

response to the same The steps in the design Company researchers

problem. Information process interact and utilized a very sound

accuracy is affected by often occur research design to

the occurrence of a simultaneously. For collect information on

number of potential example, the design of a taste preferences.

errors. Finally, the goal measurement instrument Unfortunately for Coca-

of applied research is influenced by the type Cola, taste preferences

design is not to generate of analysis that will be are only part of what

the most accurate conducted. However, the drives the soft drink

information possible. type of analysis is also purchase decision.

Rather, the objective is influenced by the

31
Research problem stated management Step 2:Estimate the
definition involves four problem or opportunity. Value of the
interrelated steps: (1) The factors that have led Information
management problem / to the A decision maker
opportunity clarification, problem/opportunity normally approaches a
(2) situation analysis, (3) manifestations and the problem with some
model development, and factors that have led to information. If the
(4) specification of managements concern problem is, say, whether
information should be isolated. a new product should be
requirements. introduced, enough
A situation analysis of information will
The basis goal of the retail trade outflow normally have been
problem clarification is problem revealed, accumulated through
to ensure that the among other things, that past experience with
decision makers initial (1) the local population other decisions
description of the had grown 25 percent concerning the
management decision is over the previous five introduction of new
accurate and reflects the years, (2) buying power products and from
appropriate area of per capita appeared to be various other sources to
concern for research. If growing at the national allow some preliminary
the wrong management rate of 3 percent a year, judgments to be formed
problem is translated and (3) local retail sales about the desirability of
into a research problem, of nongrocery items had introducing the product
the probability of increased approximately in question. There will
providing management 20 percent over the past rarely be sufficient
with useful information five years. Thus, the confidence in these
is low. local retailers sales are judgments that
clearly not keeping pace additional information
Situation Analysis
with the potential in the relevant to the decision
The situation analysis area. would not be accepted if
focuses on the variables
it were available without
that have produced the
cost or delay. There

32
might be enough research: (1) ordered series of
confidence, however, questionnaires, (2) categories.
that there would be an attitude scales, (3)
unwillingness to pay observation, and (4) B. Composite Scales
very much or wait very depth interviews and require the respondents
long for the added projective techniques. to express a degree of
information. belief concerning
Primary Measurement various attributes of the
Step 3:Select the Data
Techniques object such that the
Collection
I. Questionnaire a attitude can be inferred
Approach
formalized instrument from the pattern of
There are three basic for asking information responses.
data collection directly from a
approaches in marketing respondent concerning C. Perceptual maps
research: (1) secondary behavior, demographic derive the components
data, (2) survey data, characteristics, level of or characteristics an
and (3) experimental knowledge, and/or individual uses in
data. Secondary data attitudes, beliefs, and comparing similar
were collected for some feelings. objects and provide a
purpose other than II. Attitude Scales a score for each object on
helping to solve the formalized instrument each characteristic.
current problem, for eliciting self-reports
whereas primary data of beliefs and feelings D. Conjoint analysis
are collected expressly concerning an object(s). derive the value an
to help solve the A. Rating Scales individual assigns to
problem at hand. require the respondent to various attributes of a
place the object being product.
Step 4:Select the
rated at some point
Measurement
along a numerically I. Observation the
Technique
valued continuum or in direct examination of
There are four basic
one of a numerically behavior, the results of
measurement techniques
used in marketing

33
behavior, or Step 5:Select the Step 7:Evaluate the
physiological changes. Sample Ethics of the
Most marketing studies Research
II. Projective Techniques involve a sample or It is essential that
and Depth Interview subgroup of the total marketing researchers
designed to gather population relevant to restrict their research
information that the problem, rather than activities to practices
respondents are either a census of the entire that are ethically sound.
unable or unwilling to group. Ethically sound research
provide in response to considers the interests of
direct questioning. Step 6: Select
the general public, the
the Model of
respondents, the client
A. Projective Analysis
and the research
Techniques allow It is imperative that the profession as well as
respondents to project or researcher select the those of the researcher.
express their own analytic techniques prior
feelings as a to collecting the data. Step 8:Estimate Time

characteristic of Once the analytic and Financial

someone or something techniques are selected, Requirements

else. the researcher should The program evaluation


generate fictional review technique
B. Depth Interviews responses (dummy data) (PERT) coupled with the
allow individuals to to the measurement critical path method
express themselves instrument. These (CPM) offers a useful
without any fear of dummy data are then aid for estimating the
disapproval, dispute, or analyzed by the analytic resources needed for a
advice from the techniques selected to project and clarifying
interviewer. ensure that the results of the planning and control
this analysis will process. PERT involves
provide the information dividing the total
required by the problem research project into its
at hand. smallest component

34
activities, determining written research Hence, such a design is
the sequence in which proposal should precede referred to as a quasi-
these activities must be any research project. experimental design.
performed, and The following two
attaching a time estimate Q. 31. What do you designs are quasi-
for each activity. These understand by experimental.
activities and time experimentation and
estimates are presented simulation? Pretest and Posttest
in the form of a flow Ans. Experimental
chart that allow a visual Some studies expose an Group Design
inspection of the overall experimental group to a An experimental group
process. The time treatment and measure (without a control
estimates allow one to its effects. Such an group) may be given a
determine the critical experimental design is pretest, exposed to a
path through the chart the weakest of all treatment, and then
that series of activities designs, and it does not given a posttest to
whose delay will hold measure the true cause measure the effects of
up the completion of the and effect relationship. the treatment.
project. This is because there is Posttests Only with
no comparison between Experimental
Step 9:Prepare the
groups nor any and Control
Research
recording of the status of Groups
Proposal
the dependent variable Some experimental
The research design as it was prior to the designs are set up with
process provides the experimental treatment an experimental and a
researcher with a and how it changed after control group, the
blueprint, or guide, for the treatment. In the former alone being
conducting and absence of such control, exposed to a treatment
controlling the research the study is of no and not the latter. The
project. The blueprint is scientific value in effects of the treatment
written in the form of a determining cause and are studied by assessing
research proposal. A effect relationships. the difference in the

35
outcomes that is, the simulation can be desks, chairs, cabinets,
posttest scores of the thought of as an telephones, and such.
experimental and control experiment conducted in Members will be
groups. a specially created randomly assigned the
setting that resembles roles of managers,
True Experimental the natural environment directors, clerks, and so
Designs in which activities are on, and specific stimuli
Experimental designs, usually carried on. In will be presented to
which include both the that sense, the them. Thus, the
treatment and control simulation lies researcher would retain
groups and record somewhere between a control over the
information both before lab and a field assignment and
and after the experiment, insofar as manipulation, but the
experimental group is the environment is subjects would be free to
exposed to the artificially created but operate as in a real
treatment, are known as not far different from office. In essence, some
post facto experimental reality. Participants factors will be build into
designs. are exposed to real- or incorporated in the
world experiences over simulated system and
Simulation a period of time, lasting others left free to vary
An alternative to lab and anywhere from several (participants behaviors,
field experimentation hours to several weeks, within the rules of the
currently being used in and they can be game). Data on the
business research is randomly assigned to dependent variable can
simulation. Simulation different treatment be obtained through
uses a model-building groups. If managerial observation,
technique to determine behavior as a function of videotaping, audio
the effects of changes, a specific treatment is to recording, interviews, or
and computer-based be studied, subjects will questionnaires.
simulations are be asked to operate in an
becoming popular in environment very much Causal relationships can
business research. A like an office, with be tested because both

36
manipulation and sampling. In probability Unrestricted or Simple
control are possible in sampling, the elements Random
simulations. Two types in the population have Sampling
of simulations can be some known chance or In the unrestricted
done: one in which the probability of being probability sampling
nature and timing of selected as sample design, more commonly
simulated events are subjects. In known as simple
totally determined by nonprobability random sampling, every
the researcher (called sampling, the elements element in the
experimental do not have a known or population has a known
simulation), and the predetermined chance of and equal chance of
other (called free being selected as being selected as a
simulation) where the subjects. subject. Let us say there
course of activities is at are 1,000 elements in
least partly governed by Probability Sampling the population, and we
the participants When elements in the need a sample of 100.
reactions to the various population have a Suppose we were to
stimuli as they interact known chance of being drop pieces of paper in a
among themselves. chosen as subjects in the hat, each bearing the
sample, we resort to a name of one of the
Q.32. Describe and probability sampling elements, and we were
discuss different design. Probability to draw 100 of those
sampling design in sampling can be either from the hat with our
detail. unrestricted (or simple eyes closed. We know
Ans. random sampling) or that each one of those
Probability And restricted (or complex elements has a
Nonprobability probability sampling) in 100/1,000 chance of
Sampling nature. being drawn. In other
There are two major words, we know that the
types of sampling probability of any one of
designs: probability and them being chosen as a
nonprobability subject is. 1, and we also

37
know that each single Systematic Sampling by random selection of
element in the hat has The systematic sampling subjects from each
the same or equal design involves drawing stratum. The population
probability of being every nth element in the is first divided into
chosen. population starting with mutually exclusive
a randomly chosen groups that are relevant,
Restricted or Complex
element between 1 and appropriate, and
Probability
n. The procedure is meaningful in the
Sampling
exemplified below. context of the study. For
As an alternative to the instance, if the president
If we want a sample of
simple random sampling of a company is
35 households from a
design, several complex concerned about low
total population of 260
probability sampling motivational levels or
houses in a particular
(restricted probability) high absentee rates
locality, then we could
designs can be used. among the employees, it
sample every seventh
These probability makes sense to stratify
house starting from a
sampling procedures the population of
random number from 1
offer a viable and organizational members
to 7. Let us say that the
sometimes more according to their job
random number is 7,
efficient alternative to levels. When the data
then houses numbered 7,
the unrestricted design are collected and the
14, 21, 28, and so on,
we just discussed. analysis done, we may
would be sampled until
Efficiency is improved find that contrary to
the 35 houses are
in that more information expectations, it is the
selected.
can be obtained for a middle-level managers
given sample size using Stratified Random who are not motivated.
some of the complex Sampling This information will
probability sampling Stratified random help the president to
procedures than the sampling, as its name focus on action at the
simple random sampling implies, involves a right level and devise
design. process of stratification better ways to motivate
of segregation, followed this group.

38
Proportionate and to include in the sample which may be thought of
Disproportionat 20 percent of members as influencing
e Stratified from each stratum. That perceptions, may range
Random is, members represented from elementary school
Sampling in the sample from each to masters degrees.
Once the population has stratum will be Here, more people will
been stratified in some proportionate to the total be sampled at the
meaningful way, a number of elements in supervisors level.
sample of members the respective stratum. Disproportionate
from each stratum can This would mean that 2 sampling is also
be drawn using either a from the top, 6 from the sometimes done when it
simple random sampling middle, and 10 from the is easier, simpler, and
or a systematic sampling lower levels of less expensive to collect
procedure. The subjects management will be data from one or more
drawn from each included in the sample. strata than from others.
stratum can be either In addition, 20
Cluster Sampling
proportionate or supervisors, 100 clerks,
and 4 secretaries will be Groups or chunks of
disproportionate to the
represented in the elements that, ideally,
number of elements in
sample. would have
the stratum. For
heterogeneity among the
instance, if an
Disproportionate members within each
organization employs 10
sampling decisions are group are chosen for
top managers, 30 middle
made either when some study in cluster
managers. 50 lower-
stratum strata are too sampling. This is in
level managers, 100
small or too large, or contrast to choosing
supervisors, 500 clerks,
when there is more some elements from the
and 20 secretaries and a
variability suspects population as in simple
stratified sample of
within a particular random sampling, or
about 140 people is
stratum. As an example, stratifying and then
needed for some
the educational levels choosing members from
scientific survey the
among supervisors, the strata as in stratified
researcher might decide

39
random sampling, or Single-Stage and third stage, banks within
choosing every nth Multistage each area would be
element in the Cluster chosen. In other words,
population as in Sampling multistage cluster
systematic sampling. We have thus far sampling involves a
When several groups discussed single-stage probability sampling of
with intragroup cluster sampling, which the primary sampling
heterogeneity and involves the division of units, from each of these
intergroup homogeneity the population into primary units, a
are found, then a convenient clusters, probability sample of
random sampling of the randomly choosing the the secondary sampling
clusters or groups can required number of units is then drawn; a
ideally be done and clusters as sample third level of probability
information gathered subjects, and sampling is done from
from each of the investigating all the each of these secondary
members in the elements in each of the units, and so on, until
randomly chosen randomly chosen we have reached the
clusters. Ad hoc clusters. Cluster final stage of break
organizational sampling can also be down for the sample
committees drawn from done in several stages, units, when we will
various departments to and is then called sample every member in
offer inputs to the multistage cluster those units.
company president, to sampling. If we were to
Area Sampling
enable him to make do a national survey of
decisions on product The area sampling
the average monthly
development, budget design constitutes
bank deposits, for
allocations, marketing geographic clusters; that
instance, cluster
strategies, and the like is, when the research
sampling would first be
are good examples of pertains to populations
used to select the urban,
different clusters. within identifiable
semiurban, and rural
geographic areas such as
geographical locations
countries, city blocks, or
would be chosen. At the

40
particular boundaries information has already Challenge contest was
within a locality, area been collected. A administered on a
sampling can be done. sampling where a convenience sampling
Thus, area sampling is a sample is used in a study basis. Such a contest,
form of cluster sampling to collect some with the purpose of
within as area. Sampling preliminary information determining whether
the needs of consumers of interest, a later a people prefer one
before opening a 24- subsample of this product to another,
hour convenience store primary sample is used might be held at a mall
in a particular part of the to examine the matter visited by many
town would involve area more detail, is called shoppers. Those inclined
sampling. Retail store double sampling. to take the test might
location plans, form the sample for the
advertisements focused Nonprobability study of how many
specifically on local Sampling people prefer Pepsi over
populations, and TV and The nonprobability Coke or product X over
radio programs beamed sampling designs, which product Y. Such a
at specific areas could fit into the broad sample is a convenience
all use an area sampling categories of sample.
design gather convenience sampling
Purposive Sampling
information on the and purposive sampling.
interests, attitudes, Instead of obtaining
Convenience Sampling information from those
predispositions, and
behaviors of the local As its name implies, who are most

area people. convenience sampling conveniently available,


involves collecting it might sometimes
Double Sampling information from become necessary to
This plan is restored to members of the obtain information from
when further population who are specific target groups.
information is needed conveniently available Here, the sampling is
from a subset of the to provide it. One would confined to specific
group from which some expect that the Pepsi types of people who can

41
provide the desired organizations. By virtue the quota fixed for each
information, either of having gone through subgroup is based on the
because they are the the experiences and total numbers of each
only ones who possess processes themselves, group in the population.
it, or conform to some they might be expected However, since this is a
criteria set by the to have expert nonprobability-sampling
researcher. This type of knowledge and might plan, the results are not
sampling judgment perhaps be able to generalizable to the
sampling and quota provide good data or population.
sampling will now be information to the Q.33. Discuss in
explained. researcher. Thus, the detail the steps in
judgment sampling sampling design.
Judgment Sampling
design is used when a THE SAMPLING
Judgment sampling limited number or PROCESS
involves the choice of category of people have
subjects who are in the Step 1:Define the
the information that is
best position to provide Population
sought. In such cases,
the information any type of probability A population must be
required. For instance, if sampling across a cross- defined in terms of
a researcher wants to section of the entire elements, sampling
find out what it takes for population is units, extent and time.
women managers to purposeless and useless. IN relation to these
make it to the top, the constituent parts, the
only people who can Quota Sampling population of purchasing
give firsthand Quota sampling, a agent is.
information are the second type of (element)
women who have risen purposive sampling, purchasing agents in
to the positions of ensures that certain (sampling unit)
presidents, vice groups are adequately companies and
presidents, and represented in the study governmental agencies
important top-level through the assignment that have
executives in work of a quota. Generally,

42
(extent) bought sampled and all sampling unit would be
any of our products households on each identical with the
(time) in the last three sample block given element. However, it
years instructions as to how to might be easier to select
take random walks households as the
Step 2:Specify the
from the intersection sampling unit and
Sampling
and select the interview all males over
Frame
households to be 13 years of age in each
If a probability sample is interviewed. household. Here the
to be taken, a sampling sampling unit and the
frame is required. A A perfect sampling population element are
sampling frame is a frame is one in which not the same.
means of representing every element of the
the elements of the population is The sampling unit
population. A sampling represented once but selected is often
frame maybe a only once. dependent upon the
telephone book, a city sampling frame. If a
directory, an employee Step 3:Specify
relatively complete and
roster, a listing of all Sampling Unit
accurate listing of
students attending a The sampling unit is the elements is available
university, or a list of all basic unit containing the register of purchasing
possible phone numbers. elements of the agents, for example
population to be one may well want to
Maps also serve sampled. It may be the sample them directly. If
frequently as sampling element itself or a unit no such register is
frames. A sample of in which the element is available, one may need
areas within a city may contained. For example, to sample companies as
be taken and another if one wanted a sample the basic sampling unit.
sample of households of males over 13 years
may then be taken of age, it might be
within each area. City possible to sample them
blocks are sometimes directly. In this case, the

43
Step 4:Selection of approach in the field. distinguish between
Sampling The reason for this is families and households
Method that traditional sampling in instances where two
The sampling method is theory generally ignores families and some
the way the sample units the concept of the cost distant relatives of one
are to be selected. Five versus the value of the of them are sharing the
basic choices must be information to be same apartment? How is
made in deciding on a provided by various the interviewer to be
sampling method: sized samples. instructed to take a

Probability versus Practitioners have been systematic sample of

nonprobability, forced to deal with the households on the

Single unit versus realities of sampling block? What should the

cluster of units, economics regardless of interviewer do when a

Unstratified versus whether theory housing unit selected is

stratified, recognizes them. vacant? What is the


callback procedure for
Equal unit Step 6:Specify the
households at which no
probability versus Sampling Plan
one is at home? What
unequal unit
The sampling plan age respondent speaking
probability, and
involves the for the household is
Single stage versus
specification of how acceptable?
multistage.
each of the decisions
made thus far is to be Step 7:Select the
Step 5:Determination
implemented. It may Sample
of the Sample
Size have been decided that The final step in the
the household will be sampling process is the
The determination of the
the element and the actual selection of the
proper sample size has
block the sampling unit. sample elements. This
traditionally been taught
How is a household requires a substantial
by one method in
defined operationally? amount of office and
statistics classes and
How is the interviewer fieldwork, particularly if
often practiced by an
to be instructed to
entirely different

44
personal interviews are sample is representative bias to enter the sample
involved. of the population from selection procedure and
which it is drawn. In to distort the findings of
Q.34. Under what addition, with the study. Also, we
kind of conditions probability sample cannot estimate any
would you recommend. designs, we can estimate range within which to
i) A probability an interval range within expect the population
sample? A non which the population parameter. Given the
probability sample? parameter is expected to technical advantages of
fall. Thus, we not only probability sampling
ii) A simple random can reduce the chance over nonprobability
sample? A clusser for sampling error but sampling, why would
sample? A stratified also can estimate the anyone choose the
sample? range of probable latter? These are some
sampling error present. practical reasons for
NON PROBABILITY
using these less precise
SAMPLING
With a subjective methods.
Any discussion of the approach like
relative merits of nonprobability
probability versus sampling, the Q.35. What is good
nonprobability sampling probability of selecting sample? Explain
clearly shows the population elements in considerations validity
technical superiority of unknown. There are a of a sample depends
the former. In variety of ways to on?
probability sampling, choose persons or cases
researchers use a to include in the sample. Representativeness of
random selection of Often we allow the Samples
elements to reduce or choice of subjects to be The need for choosing
eliminate sampling bias. made by field workers the right sample for a
Under such conditions, on the scene. Under research investigation
we can have substantial such conditions, there is cannot be
confidence that the greater opportunity for overemphasized. We

45
know that a sample will Q.36. What do we
rarely be the exact measure when we
replica of the population measure? What can we Employees:
from which it is drawn. measure about the (1) What is the number
For instance, very few four objects listed of employees who earn
sample means (X) are below: more than Rs. 15,000
likely to be exactly to (i) Laundry (2) What is the span of
the population means Detergent control of a lower
(). Nor is the standard (ii) Employees level supervisor?
deviation of the sample (iii) Job Satisfaction (3) How many
(S) going to be the same (iv) Factory Output employees are
as the standard deviation Ans. graduates?
of the population (). (4) What is the
However, if we choose Laundry Detergent: percentage of
the sample in a scientific (1) What is the absenteeism in each
way, we can be perception of our brand management level ?
reasonably sure that the among people?
sample statistic (e.g. X, (2) How do people find Job Satisfaction:
S, or S2) is fairly close to the price of our brand (1) Are employees
the population parameter compared to those of satisfied with their jobs?

(i.e., , , or 2). To put others? (2) Do employees

it differently, it is (3) Does our brand leave like routine work or

possible to choose the any smell? job rotation?

sample in such a way (4) To what extent our (3) How do

that it is representative brand cleans dirty employees

of the population. There clothes? acknowledge the

is always the slight (5) What type of stains fringe benefits they

probability, however, our brand is unable are receiving?

that sample values might to clean? (4) What is the

fall outside the (6) What rating people turnover rate?

population parameters. assign to our brand


among all the brands? Factory Output:

46
(1) What is the level of a dependent variable. or population from
productivity per labor / Experimental error which to collect data.
labour hour? occurs when the effect This is a potentially
(2) How does of experimental situation serious problem in both
productivity change itself is measured rather industrial and consumer
with respect to day than the effect of research. A firm wishing
and night shifts? independent variable. to learn the criteria that
(3) What has been For example , a retail are considered most
growth rate for last chain may increase the important in the
five years? price of selected items purchase of certain
(4) What is the constant in four similar machine tools might
percentage of wastage? outlets, in an attempt to conduct a survey among
discover the best pricing purchasing agents. Yet,
Q.37. What are major strategy. However, in many firms the
sources of unique weather patterns, purchasing agents dont
measurement error? traffic conditions, or determine or necessary
Illustrate by example. competitors activities even know the criteria
Ans. may affect the sales at behind brand selections.
Measurement Error one set of stores and not These decisions may be
Measurement error is the other. Thus, the made by the machine
caused by difference experimental result will operators, by committee
between the information reflect the impact of or high level executives.
desired by the researcher variables other than A study that focuses on
and the information price. the purchasing agent as
provided by the the person who decides
Population
measurement process. which brands to order
Specification
may be subject to
Experimental Error Error
population specification
Experiments are Population specification error.
designed to measure the error is caused by
impact of one or more selecting an
independent variables on inappropriate universe

47
Frame Error sample by means of a Obviously such practice
The sampling frame is probability sampling may introduce error in to
the list of population method. For example, a the survey results.
members from which random sample of 100 Selection error is a
the sample units are university students could major problem in
selected. An ideal frame produce a sample of all nonprobablity samples.
identifies each member families. Such a sample
Nonresponse Error
of the population once wouldnt be
representative of the Nonresponce error is
and only once. Frame
over all student body. caused by (1) failure to
error is caused by using
Yet it could occur in contact all members of a
inaccurate or incomplete
classic sampling sample, and /or
sampling frame.
technique. Sampling (2) the failure of some
For example, using the
error is the focal point of contacted members of
telephone directory as
concern in classical the sample to respond to
sampling frame for the
statistics. all or specific parts of
population of a
the measurement
community contains a
Selection Error instrument. Individuals
potential for frame error.
Selection error occurs who are difficult to
Those families who
when a contact or who are
dont have listed
nonrepresentative reluctant to cooperate
numbers, both
sample is obtained by will differ, on at least
voluntarily or
non probability some characteristics,
involuntarily, are likely
sampling methods. For from those who are
to differ from those with
example, one of the relatively easy to contact
listed numbers in such
authors talked with an or who readily
respects as income,
interviewer who is cooperate. If these
gender and mobility.
afraid of dogs. In differences include
Sampling Error surveys that allowed any variable of interest ,
Sampling error is caused freedom of choice, this nonresponse error has
by the generation of interviewer avoided occurred.
nonrepresentative home with dogs present.

48
For example, people
who are more likely to
respond to a survey on a
topic that interests them.
If a firm were to conduct
a mail survey to estimate
the incidences foot
among adults, non
response error would be
of major concern. Why?
Those most likely in
athletes foot, and thus
more likely to respond
to the survey, are current
or recent suffers of the
problem. If the firm
were to choose the
percentage of those
responding who report
having athletes foot as
an estimate of the total
population having
athletes foot, the
company would
probably overestimate
the extent of the
problem.

49
Q.38. Why are reliability respond in the desired are then compared and the
and validity important manner. Therefore, resulting degree of correspondence is
concept in measurements? error would be variable determined. The greater the
Explain the different forms of error. This type of error differences , the lower is the
reliability and validity. happens less frequently. reliability.
Ans.
Alternative Form Reliability
Reliability & Validity The term reliability is used
A number of errors tend to to refer the degree of Alternative-form reliability

influence a measurement. Thus, variable error in a estimates are obtained by

the general situation is: measurement. We define applying two equal forms of

reliability as the extent to measuring instrument to the

M=C + E, where E= errors. which a measurement is free same subjects. As in test-retest

of variable error. reliability, the results of the two

The smaller E is the percentage instruments are compared on an

of M, the more accurate is the Though validity includes item by item basis and the

measurement. both systematic and variable degree of similarity is

The terms validity, reliability error but we define validity determined. The basic logic is

and measurement accuracy are as the extent to which a the same as in test retest

often used interchangeably. measurement is free from approach.

Each does have a specific systematic error.


meaning based on the type of Measurement accuracy is Two primary problems are

measurement error that is defied as the extent to which associated with this approach.

present. Measurement error can a measurement is free from The first is the extra time,

be either systematic or variable. systematic and variable expense and trouble involved in

A systematic error,also known error. obtaining two equivalent

as bias, is the one that occurs measures. The second and more

consistently. For example, a Types of Reliability important is the problem of

biased question will produce a constructing two truly


Test-Retest Reliability equivalent forms. Thus a low
measurement error. This type of
error will be a systematic error. Test-retest reliability degree of response similarity
estimates are obtained by may reflect either an unreliable

A variable error is the one that repeating the measurement instrument or non-equivalent

occurs randomly when using the same instrument forms.

something is measured. For under as nearly equivalent

instance, if a respondent is in a conditions as possible. The

bad mood, he/she will not results of two administrators

1
Internal Comparison level of sorer reliability, researchers should strive for
Reliability each scorer should have face validity.
Internal comparison reliability some of the items he or she
Criterion- Related Validity
is measured by intercorrelation scores judged independently
by another scorer. The It can be of two types: (1)
among the scores of the items
correlation between various Concurrent Validity (2)
on multiple item index. All
judges is a measure of Predictive Validity
items on the index must be
scorer reliability. Concurrent validity is the extent
designed to measure precisely
to which one measure of a
the same thing. For example;
Types of Validity variable can be used to estimate
measure of the store image
current score on a different
generally involve assessing a
Content Validity measure of the same or closely
number of specific dimensions
Content validity estimates related variable. For example, a
of the store such as price level,
are essentially systematic, researcher may be trying to
merchandise, service and
but subjective, evaluations relate social class to the use of
location. Because these are
of the appropriateness of the savings and loan associations.
somewhat independent, an
measuring instrument for In a pilot study researcher finds
internal comparison of
the task at hand. The term useful relationship between
reliability is not appropriate
face validity has a similar attitudes towars savings and
across dimensions. However it
meaning. However face loan associations and social
can be used within each
validity generally refers to class.
dimension if several items are
non-expert judgments of Predictive validity is the extent
used to measure each
the individuals completing to which an independents
dimension.
the instrument and / or future level on some variable
Scorer Reliability executives who must can be predicted by his/her
Marketing researchers approve its use. This doesnt performance on a current
frequently rely on judgment to mean that face validity is measurement of the same or
classify a consumers response. not important. Respondents different variable. Predictive
This occurs, for example, when may refuse to cooperate or validity is the primary concern
projective techniques, focus may fail to treat seriously of the applied marketing
groups, observations or open measurements that appear researcher. Some of the
ended questions are used. In irrelevant to them. predictive validity questions
these situations, the judges or Managers may refuse to that confront marketing
scorers may be unreliable, approve projects lacking in- researchers are: (10 Will
rather than the instrument or face validity. Therefore , to measure of attitudes predict
respondent. To estimate the the extent possible, future purchases?(2) Will a

2
measure of sales in a controlled and intuition (though these research may or may not be
store test predict future market may play a part in final generalized to other
share?(3) Will a measure of decision making), but is organizations, depending on the
initial sales predict future purposive and rigorous. extent to which differences exist
sales?. Because of the rigorous way in such factors as size, nature of
in which it is done, work, characteristics of the
Construct Validity
scientific research enables employees, and structure of the
Construct validity- all those who are interested organization. Nevertheless,
understanding the factors that in researching and learning applied research also has to be
underlie the obtained about the same or similar an organized and systemic
measurement- is the most issues, to do are research process where problems are
complex form of validity. It and come up with carefully identified, data
involves more than just comparable findings. scientifically gathered and
knowing how well a given Scientific research also analyzed and conclusions drawn
measure works; it also involves helps researchers to state in an objective manner for
knowing why it works. their findings with accuracy effective problem solving.
Construct validity requires that and confidence. This helps
the researcher have sound various other organizations Q.40. Deductive And
theory of the nature of the to apply those solutions Inductive Research
concept being measured and when they encounter similar Answers to issues can be found
how it relates to other concepts. problems. Furthermore, either by the process of
scientific investigations deduction or the process of
Q.39. Foundation Of Scientific tends to be more objective induction, or by a combination
Research than subjective, and helps of the two. Deduction is the
Ans. It is necessary to managers to highlight the process by which we arrive at a
understand what the term most critical factors at the reasoned conclusions by
scientific means. Scientific work place that nee specific logically generalized from a
research is focused on the goal attention so as to avoid, known fact. For example, we
of problem solving and pursues minimize or solve problems. know that all high performers
a step-by step logical, Scientific investigation and are highly proficient in their
organized, and rigorous method managerial decision making jobs. If jobs is high performer,
to identify problems, gather are integral aspects of we then conclude that he is
data, analyze them and draw effective problem solving. highly proficient in doing his
valid conclusions therefrom. The term specific, research job. Induction, on the other
Thus, scientific research is not applies to both basic and hand, is a process where
based oh hunches, experience applied research. Applied observe certain phenomena and
3
on this arrive at conclusions. In to deduce or conclude that better comprehend the nature of
other words, in induction we controlling the aversive the problem, since very few
logically establish a general noise does indeed help the studies might have been
proposition based on observed participants to improve their conducted in that area.
facts. For instance, we see that performance no mental Extensive interviews with many
the production processes are the puzzles. This method of people might have to be
prime features of factories or starting with a theoretical undertaken to get a handle on
manufacturing plants. We framework, formulating the situation and to understand
therefore conclude that factories hypothesis, and logically more rigorous research can
exist for production purposes. deducing form the results of proceed.
Both the deductive and the the study is known as the
inductive processes are applied hypothetico deductive Q.42. Descriptive Research
in scientific investigations. method. A descriptive study is
Theories based on deduction undertaken in order to ascertain
and induction help us to Q.41. Exploratory and be able to describe the
understand, explain or predict Research characteristics of the percentage
business phenomena. When An explanatory study is of members who are in their
research is designed to test undertaken when not much senior and junior years, sex
some specific hypothesized is known about the situation composition, age groupings,
outcomes, as for instance, to see at hand, or when no number of semesters until
if controlling aversive noise in information is available on action, and number of business
the environment increase the how similar problems or courses taken, can only be
performance of individuals in research issues have been considered as descriptive in
solving mental puzzles, the solved in the past. In such nature. Quite frequently,
following steps ensue. The cases, extensive preliminary descriptive studies are
investigator begins with the work needs to be done to undertaken in organizations in
theory that noise adversely gain familiarity with the order to learn about and
affects mental problem solving. phenomena in the situation, describe the characteristics of a
The hypothesis is then and understand what is group of employees, as for
generated that if the noise is occurring, before we example, the age, educational
controlled, mental puzzles can develop a model and set up level, job status, and length of
be solved more quickly and a rigorous design for service of Hispanics or Asians
correctly. Based on this, a comprehensive working in the system.
research project is designed to investigation. Descriptive studies are also
test the hypothesis. The results In essence, exploratory undertaken to understand the
of the study help the researcher studies are undertaken to characteristics of organizations
4
that follow certain common would have been make numbers serve as simple and
practices. without the benefit of the convenient category labels with
research information. In the no intrinsic value, other than to
Q.43. Causal Research remaining 40 percent of the assign respondents to one of
Studies that engage in cases, the research led to the two nonoverlapping or mutually
hypotheses testing usually correct decision. Using exclusive categories.
explain the nature of certain these data, he estimated that
relationships, or establish the the return on investment in Q.46. Ordinal Scale
differences among groups or the marketing research in this An ordinal scale not only
independence of two or more company was 351 percent categories the variables in such
factors in a situation. Examples for the year studied. a way as to denote differences
of such studies are given below. However, he acknowledges among the various categories, it
Hypothesis testing is undertaken the return on investment also rank-orders the categories
to explain the variance in the figure was inflated because in some meaningful way. With
dependent variable or to predict only the direct research any variable for which the
organizational outcomes. costs had been included. categories are to be ordered
This effort at cost-benefit according to some preference,
Q.44. Ex Post Facto analysis is commendable the ordinal scale would be used.
Evaluation even though the results The preferences would be
If there is any measurement of come too late to guide ranked (e.g., from best to worst:
the value of research, it is current research decision. first to last) and numbered 1, 2,
usually an after-the-fact event. Such analysis may sharpen and so on. For example,
Twedt reported on one such the............. respondents might be asked to
effort, an evaluation of indicate their preferences by
marketing research done at a Q.45. Nominal Scale ranking the importance they
major corporation. He secured A nominal scale is one that attach to five distinct
"an objective estimate of the allows the researcher to characteristics in a job that the
contribution of each project to assign subjects to certain researcher might be interested
corporate profitability." He categories or groups. For in studying.
reported that most studies were example, with respect to the
intended to help management variable of gender, Q.47. Interval Scale
determine which one of two (or respondents can be grouped An interval scale allows us to
more) alternatives was into two categories male perform certain arithmetical
preferable. He guessed that in and female. These two operations on the data collected
60 percent of the decision groups can be assigned code from the respondents. Whereas
situations, the correct decision numbers 1 and 2. These the nominal scale allows us only
5
to qualitatively distinguish are interesting and
groups by categorizing them challenging, the researcher
into mutually exclusive and might list 10 or 15
collectively exhaustive sets, and characteristics that might
the ordinal scale to rank-order seem interesting or
the preferences, the interval challenging in jobs and ask
scale allows us to measure the the respondent to rank the
distance between any two points first five among these. All
on the scale. This helps us to items in a questionnaire
compute the means and the using a nominal, ordinal, or
standard deviations of the Likert or ratio scale are
responses on the variable considered closed.

Q.48. Open-Ended versus


Closed Ended Questions
Open-ended questions allow
respondents to answer in any
way they choose. An example
of an open-ended question is
asking the respondent to state
five things that are interesting
and challenging in the job.
Another example is asking what
the respondents like about their
supervisors or their work
environment. A third example is
to invite their comments on the
investment portfolio of the firm.

A closed question, in contrast,


would ask the respondents to
make choices among a set of
alternatives given by the
researcher. For instance, instead
of asking the respondent to state
any five aspects of the job that
6