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It is / was + N + who/that + verb phrase
(i) It is / was + N a&;
(ii) Sub: u vlqdk&if who eJUquf? vlr[kwf&if that eJYquf?
usefwJh verb phrase jyefa&;
e.g: (a) Min Min wins the first prize.
It is Min Min who wins the first prize.
(b) Miss Sullivan taught Helen language.
It was language that Miss Sullivan taught Helen.


(i) when jzKwf? (ii) when 0gusydkif;rS verb udk V-ing
(ii) Pronoun ESpfckqdk&if wpfckjzKwf
(iv) Noun ESifh Pronoun qdk&if Pronoun ae&m Noun a&;
e.g: (a) When he cycled to school, he whistled a song.
Cycling to school, he whistled a song.
(b) When Bo Bo had watered the plants, he took a rest.
Having watered the plants, Bo Bo took a rest.

As ......... As (Equal Comparision / Simile)
(i) adj: (adv) udk&Sm? (ii) adj: (adv)
a&SUaemuf as ...... as jznfh?
(iii) 'kwd,0gustprSonf like / what txdjzKwf?
(iv) equally jzKwf? 'kwd,0gusrS Sub: eJYwGJa&;?
e.g: (a) His face was white. It was like the wall behind him;
His face was as white as the wall behind him.
(b) They made themselves comfortable. It was what they could do.
They made themselves as comfortable as they could do.
(c) The scene is beautiful. A painting is equally beautiful.
The scene is as beautiful as a painting.

Note As ....... As (unequal Comparison)

(i) adj: (adv) udk&Sm? (ii) more / - er
jzKwf than jzKwf
(iii) not as + adj: (D - 1) + as eJYjyefa&;? (iv) a&SU N aemuf N
e.g: (a) Platinum is more expensive than gold.
Gold is not as expensive as platinum.
(b) This hotel is bigger than our house.
Our house is not as big as this hotel.
(c) U Bawga is wealthier than U Lawba.
U Lawba is not as welathy as U Bawga.


V + Adv: To Adj + N
(i) V udk - er / - or aygif; N ajymif;? (ii) Adv: udk Adj:
e.g: (a) He runs faster than his brogther.
He is a faster runner than his brother.
(b) Mother cooks better than Aunty Mya.
Mother is a better cook than Aunty Mya.


No other .............
(i) No other eJYp? aemufu N / N - phrase vkduf
(ii) Verb (-to-be) eJY as + adj: (D - 1) + as eJYa&;
(iii) rl&if;0gus Sub: udk 'k as eJYa&;
e.g: (a) Zaw Maw is the cleverest student in the class.
No other student in the class is as cleaver as Zaw Maw.
(b) Gold is the most desirable metal in the world.
No other metal in the world is as desirable as gold.
(c) The Nile is the longest river in the world.
No other river in the world is as long as the Nile.
There is no .........
(i) There is no pa&;? aemufu N / N - phrase vdkuf
(ii) D-3 udk as + adj: (D-1) + as / - er than ajymif;
(iii) 0gusxdyfqkH;rS Sub: udk 'kwd, as / than
e.g: (a) The Nile is the longest river in the world.
There is no river (in the world) as long as the Nile.
There is no river (in the world) longer than the Nile.
(b) The Shwedagon is the most famous pagoda in Myanmar.
There is no pagoda in Myanmar as famous as the Shwedagon.
There is no pagoda in Myanmar more famous than the Shwedagon.
very few ...... as ........ as
(i) Adj: (D2) / (D3) aemufu N / N-phrase udk Verb few
(ii) D2 / D3 udk as + D1 + as ajymif;
e.g: (a) Ngapali is more pleasant than most other beaches in Myanmar.
Very few beaches in Myanmar are as pleasant as Ngapali.
(b) Saya Myo is one of he most systematic persons in the department.
Very few persons in the department are as systematic as Saya Myo.


There is no ............ who/that .......... not
(i) Every/All jzKwf (ii) There is no aemufrSm Noum
(iii) Noun u vlqkd&if who vlr[kwf that eJYquf?
(iv) aemufu verb udk not eJYjiif;
e.g: (a) All girls want to look beautiful.
There is no girl who does not want to look beautiful.
(b) I have read all the books in this cupboard.
There is no book in this cupboard that I have not read.

Unless = If not (First Type)
(i) If ae&m unless jznfh do not / does not / did not jzKwf?
(ii) do not V-1 ajymif;? does not V-1 (s) ajymif;? (V-1 + s / es /
did not V-2 ajymif;? usefwJh H.V rsm; (cannot / will
not / have not / is not .....) rsm; not jzKwf jyefa&;
(iii) If 0guswGif not ygrygppf? not rygu
'kwd,0guswGif not jznfh
e.g: (a) If you do not do your homework, you won't pass your exam.
Unless you do your homework, you won't pass your exam.
(b) If he doesn't get up early, he will miss the train.
Unless he gets up early, he will miss he train.
(c) If she didn't take her umbrella, she would get wet.
Unless she took her umbrella, she would get wet.
(d) If he works hard, he will pass.
Unless he works hard, he will not pass.
(e) If she doesn't have classes to attend, she will visit me.
Unless she has classes to attend, she will visit me.
Unless = If not (Second Type)
(i) Sub: (you) jznhf (or) jzKwf? (ii) (or)
jzKwfwJhae&mwGif (,) xnfh
e.g: (a) Do as you are told or you will have no dinner.
Unless you do as you are told, you will have no dinner.
(b) Give the baby the milk bottle or you can't soothe his crying.
Unless you give the baby the milk bottle, you can't soothe his crying.


No sooner ....... than (First Type)
(i) No sooner pa&;? (ii) just eJU when jzKwf
(iii) had udkaSUxkwf just jzKwf? when tpm; than xm;
e.g: (a) We had just got off the bus when it bagan to rain.
No sooner had we got off the bus-than it bagan to rain.
(b) He had just gone to bed when somebody pounded the door.
No sooner had he gone to bed than somebody pounded the door.
No sooner ......... than (Second Type)
(i) As soon as jzKwf? (,) jzKwf
(ii) As soon as ae7m No sooner jznfh (,) ae&m than jznfh
(iii)a&SU0gusrS V-2 jzpfygu did + sub: + V-1 ajymif;
(did aSUxkwf V1vkyf aumfrmtpm; than xm;)
e.g: (a) As soon as she got home from school, she started cooking.
No sooner did she get home from school than she started cooking.
(b) As soon as U Wunna came, the meeting started.
No sooner did U Wunna come than the meeting started.


After + V-ing / Sub: + had + V-3
(i) (,) eJY then / and then jzKwf
(ii) a&SU0gusrS V udk V-ing ajymif;? V-1 + ing = V-ing
(iii) After aemufrSm Sub: ay;xm;&if had + V-3
(iv) Pronoun ae&m Noum jznfh/
e.g: (a) Ma Ma did the cooking; then she did the washing.
After doing the cooking Ma Ma did the washing.
(b) Aung Aung took a bath and then he had his lunch.
After taking a bath Aung Aung had his lunch.
(c) Toe Toe finished her homework and then she went out to play.
After she had finished her homework, Toe Toe went out to play.

In Spite of + V-ing
(i) (A1) ygaom0gusudk
though In spite of + V-ing
(ii) In spite of + V-ing / being + adj / N
e.g: (a) Although he is young he is very wise.
In spite of being young / his youth, he is very wise.
(b) Though he was ill for a long time he managed to pass the examination.
In spite of being ill for a long time, he managed to pass the
In spite of his long illness, he managed to pass the examination.

Without + V-ing / being + V3

(i) not (odkYr[kwf) negative t"dym,fygaom0gusrS verb
udk V-ing ajymif;
(ii) Active qkd&if without + V-ing
Passive qdk&if without + being + V3
e.g: (a) Mother went to the market. She forgot to take her purse.
Mother went to the market without taking her purse.
(b) Bo Bo sat for the exam but he did not study well.
Bo Bo sat for the exam without studying well.
(c) Min Min left the room. No one saw him.
Min Min left the room without being seen.


Because of + V-ing / N
(i) As ygaom0gusudk Because of + V-ing ajymif;
(ii) Because of + V-ing / being + adj: / N
e.g: (a) As he was ill he could not go to school.
Because of being ill be could not go to school.
Because of his illness he could not go to school.
(b) As old Mr.Earnshaw was weak he could not strike Hindley.
Because of being weak old Mr. Earnshaw could not strike Hindley.
(c) He arrived late as the traffic was heavy.
He arrived late because of the heavy traffic.
So ....... That (First Type)
(i) aemufrS0gus 'verb' jzKwf
because / as
(ii) very aemufrS adj: / adv: udk so + adj: / adv: that eJYjyefa&;
e.g: (a) Nobody heard him because he came in very silently.
He came in so silently that nobody heard him.
(b) As my father was very pleased, he bought me a new watch.
My father was so pleased that he bought me a new watch.
such .......... that
(i) It is / was such pa&;? (ii) a / an + adj: a&;
(iii) 0gusxdyfqkH;u Sub: udk adj: aemufydkY (iv)
e.g: (a) The night is so cold that nobody goes out.
It is such a cold night that nobody goes out.
(b) The food was so delicious that everyone praised the cook.
It was such a delicious food that everyone praised the cook.
So ......... That (Second Type)
(i) enough to jzKwf
(ii) so + adj: + that
(iii) that aemufu 0gustprSm Sub: jznfh
Mg Mg he
Khin Khin she
Thing it
(iv) V-1 can ajymif;
V-2 could ajymif;
e.g.: (a) Mg Mg was tired enough to sleep soundly all the night.
Mg Mg was so tired that he could sleep soundly all the night.
(b) Khin Khin is bright enough to solve this problem.
Khin Khin is so bright that she can solve this problem.
(c) The MP3 player is small enough to go into the pocket.
The MP3 player is so small it can go into the pocket.
So ......... That
(i) enough for ......... to jzKwf? (ii) so + adj: + that ajymif;
(iii) for aemufu Obj: udk that aemuf 0gustprSm Subj:
me I ajymif;? us we ajymif;
them they ajymif;? Mg Mg Mg Mg ajymif;
(iv) V-1 can ajymif;
V-2 could ajymif; (vdktyfygu) 'kwd,0gus V
aemufrSm Obj: jznfh
e.g: (a) The weather was fine enough for us to go on a picnic.
The weather was so fine that we could go on a picnic.
(b) The bag is cheap enough for her to buy.
The bag is so cheap that she can buy it.
(c) The problem was easy enough for me to solve.
The problem was so easy that I could solve it.
So ....... That (Third Type)
(i) It is / was such jzKwf? (ii) N a&SUu adj: udk so +
adj + that eJYa&;
(iii) usefwmjyeful;
e.g: (a) It is such a good restaurant that everyone wants to eat there.
The restaurant is so good that everyone wants to eat there.
(b) It was such a terrible nightmare that he was frightened greatly.
The nightmare was so terrible that he was frightened greatly.
Not + Opposite + Enough
(i) too jzKwf? (ii) too aemuf (adj:) udk not + opposite +
enough ajymif;?
e.g: (a) This house is too small for U Ba's family.
This house isn't large enough for U Ba's family.
(b) The man is too poor to send his children to school.
The man isn't rich enough to send his children to school.

Both .......... and
(i) and so jzKwf do/does/ did jzKwf? (ii) Both + N + and + N
(iii) Both + N + and + N + V-1 (P) P = Plural = trsm;udef;
e.g: (a) Hla Hla passed the examination and so did Mya Mya.
Both Hla Hla and Mya Mya passed the examination.
(b) Mu Mu sweeps the rooms and so does Thu Thu.
Both Mu Mu and Thu Thu sweep the rooms.
(c) Kyaw Kyaw is a medical student and so is Zaw Zaw.
Both Kyaw Kyaw and Zaw Zaw are medical students.
(d) She has done the homework and so has her sister.
Both she and her sister have done the homework.
Neither ......... nor (First Type)
(i) Both ......... and ae&m Neither ......... nor jznfh
(ii) H.V + not jzKwf? H.V udk (vkdtyfygu)V-1 (s) ajymif;
did not ajymif;? V-2 ajymif;? V-1 (s) wpfckudef; =
H.V = Helping verb =
e.g: (a) Both Mya Mya and Hla Hla were not there.
Neither Mya Mya nor Hla Hla was there.
(b) Both Zaw Zaw and Kyaw Kyaw do not like tea.
Neither Zaw Zaw nor Kyaw Kyaw likes tea.
(c) Both Si Si and Thi Thi did not bring the text book.
Neither Si Si nor Thi Thi brought the text book.
(d) Both Marlar and Thidar cannot solve the problem.
Neither Malar nor Thidar can solve the problem.
Neither .......... nor (Second Type)
(i) do not / does not / did not jzKwf? either jzKwf
(ii) do not V-1ajymif;? does not V-1 ajymif;? did not V-2
(iii) Neither + N + nor + N
e.g: (a) I don't like tea. My sister doesn't like, it either.
Neither I nor my sister likes tea. / Neither my sister nor I like tea.
(b) So Thu did not come to the stageshow. Kyaw Thu did not come there
Neither Soe Thu nor Kyaw Thu came to the stage show.

Neither of ...........
(i) Both of / Both and jzKwf? Neither of aemufrSm N a&;
(ii) not jzKwf? not ryg&if adj / V udkk opposite ajymif;
(iii) verb (plu) udk singular (wpfckudef;) ajymif;
e.g: (a) Both of the brothers are not trusted.
Neither of the brothers is trusted.
(b) Both of the sisters are beautiful.
Neither of the sisters is ugly.
(c) Both my sister and I like tea.
Neither of us dislikes tea.

Noun in Apposition
(i) Noun wl&Sm
(ii) Noun wlrsm;udk (,) jcm;uyfa&;
(iii) 0gusa&SU^v,frSm (,) ESpfck?
0gusaemufqkH;rSm (,) wpfck
e.g: (a) U Maw will go to Singapore tomorrow. He is the owner of the
U Maw, the owner of the company, will go to Singapore tomorrow.
(b) I gave my application to U Min Din. He is the director of the
I gave my application to U Min Din, the director of the department.
The Parallel Structure
The more / less / -er, the more / less / -er
(i) Conjunction rsm;jzKwf? adj: / adv: udk&Sm D2 ajymif;
(ii) the D2, the D2 eJYa&;
(iii) D2 aemufrSm Noun Adj: yg&if twlwGJa&;
N.B. ESpfzufpvkH;rSm V-to-be ykHpHwl&if V-to-be
e.g: (a) When the goods are scarce, the demand for them is great.
The scarcer the goods (are), the greater the demand for them (is).
(b) If you read more books, you will gain more knowledge.
The more books you read, the more knowledge you will gain.
(c) If you take more exercise, you will feel less painful.
The more exercise you take, the less painful you will feel.

The Active Vice & Passive Voice

The active voice qkdonfrSm tjyKtrl (action) wpfckudk
vl (odkYr[kwf) t&m0wKwpfcku subject (uwm;)
tjzpf aqmif&GufaMumif;jyoaom Bud,m
The passive voice udk tjyKtrljyBud,maMumifh subject
(uwm;) tay: oufa&mufrI&SdaMumif;
jyovdkonfhtcg tokH;jyKonf/
Active: subject + verb + object
Passive: subject + verb (be + past participle) + (by + agent)
e.g: Active: (a) Mary helped the boy.
Passive (b) The boy was helped by Mary.
S V Agent
Passive voice jzifh a&;onfhtcg active voice rS object onf
subject jzpfvm rlv subject onf agent (jyKvkyfol) jzpfvmonf/
txufygom"uwGif 0gus (a) rS the boy onf
0gus (b) wGif subject jzpfvmonf/ odkYaomf 0gus (a)
ESifh (b) wkdY\ t"dym,frSm twlwlyif jzpfonf/
rSwfcsuf/ Passive 0gusjyefa&;&mwGif agent [kac:aom
jyKvkyfoludk tav;ay; azmfjyvkdaomtcg
Bud,m\aemufwGif by ESifhaygif;
jyefvnfazmfjy& rnf/
e.g: This table was made by my grandfather.
odkYaomf active 0gus\ subject (jyKvkyfol) onf
emrfpm;rsm;jzpfaom I/We/ He /She they rnfolrnf0g
wdwdusus azmfnTef;xm;jcif;r&Sdaom people, someone,
somebody wkdYjzpfvQif by ESifh if;wkdYudk
e.g: Active: People grow rice in India.
Possitive: Rice is grown in India.

Forms of The Active Voice and Passive Voice

Tense Active Passive
1. Simple present V-s, - es am/is/are + past participle
e.g: Mary helps John. John is helped by Mary.
2. Present Progressive am/is/are + V-ing am/is/are + being
+ past participle
e.g: Mary is helping John. John is being helped by
3. Present Perfect has / have + past has / have + been + past
participle participle

4. Simple Past V (simple past) was /were + past participle

e.g: Mary helped John. John was helped by Mary.
5. Past Progressive was / were + V-ing was / were + being + past
e.g: Mary was helping John. John was being helped by
6. Past Perfect had + past participle had + been + past participle
John had been helped by
e.g: Mary had helped John. Mary.
7. Future will + V-inf will + be + past participle
am / is / are + going to am / is / are + going to + be
+ V-inf + past participle
e.g: Mary will help John. John will be helped by Mary.
Mary is going to help John is going to be helped
John. by Mary.
8. Modal Auxillaries can/must/should ........+ can/must/should ..... + be +
V-inf past participle
e.g: Mary should help John John should be helped by

Direct Speech & Indirect Speech

* Reported speech refers to using a noun clause to report what someone
has said.
pum;udkjyefvnfajymjyjcif;udk reported speech
* No question marks are used in reported speech.
reported speech wGif "?" (question mark) xnfh&efrvdkyg/
* There are changes in the pronouns and the verb forms in the reported
speech. Some expressions are also needed to be changed.
direct speech rS reported ajymif;&mwGif
pronouns, verb ESifhtcsKd;tokH; tEIef;rsm;udk
Bo Bo said, " I have a terrible headache."
Bo Bo said that he had a terrible headache.

Changes in the forms of pronouns.

* In the example, the pronoun in the direct speech is changed: "I" is
changed to "he".
txufygom"uwGif direct speech wGif&Sdaom
pronoun awGudk ajymif;ay;&r,f/
* In the reported speech the forms of
pronouns can be changed as follows:
reported speech wGif pronoun
Direct Speech Reported Speech
I / you (singular subject) he / she
me / you (singular object) him / her
my / your (singular progressive) his / her
we / you (plural subject) they
us / you (plural object) them
our / your (plural progressive) their
Change in the forms of verbs.
* As in the example, the form of verb is also changed in the reported
om"uwGifyg&Sdonfhtwkdif; direct speech
wGif&Sdaom Verb ykHpHrsm;udkvJ
* In the reported speech, the forms of verbs can also be changed as
wGif verb ykHpHrms;udk
follows: reported speech
atmufygtwkdif;ajymif; vJEdkifygonf/
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present simple Past simple
Past simple Past perfect
Present continuous Past continuous
Past continuous Past perfect continuous
Change in expression
* Certain words and expressions can also be changed as follows:
wGif tcsKd;tokH;tEIH;rsm;udk
reported speech
atmufygtwkdif; ajymif;vJEkdifygonf/

Direct Reported Speech

this that
these those
here there
now then
ago before
today that day
yesterday the day before / the previous day
tomorrow the next day / the following day
next + ......... the following + ..........
last + .......... the previous + ............

* We will discuss the following types of reported speech:

atmufygtwkdif; reported speech udk
1. statement (azmfjyajymqdkcsuf)
2. command and request (trdefYay;? arwm&yf)
3. question (ar;cGef;)

1. Statement
e.g: Direct speech: Sandy said, "I am going to Ngapali."
Indirect speech: Sandy said that she was going to Ngapali.
Direct speech: Sandy said to Than Htike, "I have been to Ngapali."
Indirect speech: Sandy told Than Htike that she had been to
* When a statement is changed into reported speech, either of two
reporting verbs, said and told, can be used.
(azmfjyajymqkdcsuf) udk reported speech
ajymif;onfhtcg reporting verbs rsm;jzpfaom said
ESifh told teufrSwpfckckudk okH;Edkifyg
* As in the examples, if the listener is not mentioned in the direct
speech, we use "said ......... that", and if it is mentioned, we use
"told .... that".
om"uwGif yg&Sdonfhtwkdif;
em;axmifolrygvQif "said ... that" udk
okH;&ygrnf/ em;axmifolygvQifrl "told ...... that"
udk okH;&ygrnf/

Speaker + said that + ...................

Speaker + told + Listener + that + .........................

2. Command and request

e.g: Direct speech: Tun Tun said to Khine Zar, "Please explain this
lesson to me because I was absent yesterday."
Indirect speech: Tun Tun told Khine Zar to explain that lesson to
him because he had been absent the day before.
Direct speech: Nyein Nyein said to Thiha, "Don't make any noise
because I'm concentrating."
Indirect speech: Nyein Nyein told Thiha not to make any noise
because she was concentrating.
* When a command or a request is changed into reported speech,
"told", can be used as a reporting verb.
Command and (trdefYay;0gus?
yefMum0gus? apckdif;0gus) wkdYudk
reported speech ajymif;onfhtcg reporting verbs jzpfaom
"told" udkokH;Ekdifygonf/
* If the direct speech starts with in infinitive, we use "told ...... to" in
the reported speech and if the given one is in negative infinitive, we
use "told ....... not to".
om"uwGifawGU&onfhtwkdif; 0gusonf
(negative) infinitive ESifh tpysKd;xm; vQif "told .... not
to" udkokH;&ygrnf/

Speaker + told + Listener + to / not to ...............................

3. Question
e.g: Direct Speech: Tun Tun said to Khine Zar, "Will you explain this lesson to
me because I was absent yesterday?"
Indirect speech: Tun Tun asked Khine Zar if (whether) she would explain
that lesson to him because he had been absent the day
Direct speech: Htike Htike said to May Thu, "Where did you spend the
last summer holiday?"
Indirect speech: Htike Htike asked May Thu where she has spent the
previous summer holiday.
Direct speech: Nyein Chan said to Khine Khine, "Do you agree with me?"
Indirect speech: Nyein Chan wanted to know if Khine Khine agreed with
* When a question is changed into reported speech, we use "asked ...... if/
whether" if the direct speech is the questions beginning with auxiliary
verbs, and "asked ........ Wh " if the direct speech is the questions
beginning with Wh . Instead of using "asked" we can also use "wanted
to know".
* Question (tar;0gus) udk reported speech ajymif;onfhtcg
reporting verb jzpfaom "aksed" ESifh "wanted to know"
teufrS wpfckckudkokH;Ekdifygonf/
* "asked" udka&;onfhtcg okH;&rnfhykHpHrSm
"Speaker + asked + Listener + if / whether / Wh ........ " jzpfNyD;
"wanted to know" udka&;onfhtcg okH;&rnfh
ykHpHrSm "Speaker + wanted to know + if/whether / Wh .....
Listener ......." jzpfygonf/

Speaker + asked + Listener + if / whether / Wh ...........

Speaker + wanted to know + if / whether / Wh ..... Listener ..................


The First Calendar

The first calendar was the Egyptian Calendar. It was invented by Egyptian
scientists 2000 years ago. It was not scientific and exact but it showed a way to
caunt weeks and months. Egyptian scientists did not think of scientific facts like
how long the earth takes to travel around the sun. There were 360 days in the first
calendar but this did not make a full year. So scientists solved that problem by
adding a five-day holiday at the end of each year. This still did not make the
calendar right. The calendar needed 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds
to be exact. For a long time people did not know this. Therefore, they did not add
extra hours, minutes and seconds.

Modern Electric Clocks

As people began to go out more, they were more interested in knowing the
correct time. So clocks and watches were invented. Today, there are electric
clocks that keep the correct time and tell the correct time to a split second. Clocks
have faces but the most modern electric clocks do not have faces or hands. These
are called digital clocks. There are a set of numerals which appear in a small
window. Many modern electric clocks are combined with radios which can be set
to turn on automatically. Instead of an alarm, soft music wakes you up. This is
very pleasant. Some modern electric clocks can even start the coffee maker.

John Bishop
John Bishop worked as a policeman. His wife wanted diamond earrings
very much. One day he gave her diamond earrings. The earrings were in the form
of tiny icebergs in big gold prongs. Times became hard. Policemen were poorly
paid. His salary was further cut. So he had to pawn his wife's earrings. He told his
wife he would get them back. However, he was unable to do so.

How Advertisers Persuade People

Advertisers usually promise the people that their products are of good
quality. They know what people dream of. People, in general, dream of being
better educated, more successful, wealthier, better looking, and more adventurous.
Therefore, they assure people that their dreams will actually come true if they can
buy and use the articles advertised. The advertisers use popular actors and
actresses in their advertisements to draw the attention of people. Advertisements
aimed at men usually include a picture of a pretty girl for the purpose of attracting
men. Advertisements for home cleaning products try to convince ladies that they
can become perfect wives and mothers Only if they use these products.
Advertisements for teenagers emphasize that these products will make teenagers
more attractive, more up to date, and more socially successful. Advertisements for
men make them think that a man will be more attractive to women if he owns a
certain type of car or watch or clothes in certain style. Advertisers use different
-ways to make people believe that their dreams will come true by using attractive,
interesting and eye-catching advertisements in different media.

If We Cannot Sleep
Sometimes we cannot sleep well. It may be because we feel hungry. If so,
we should take a cup of warm milk and some biscuits. But we should not eat more
than that. It is not good for us to take coffee, which contains caffeine, at night.
This is because coffee keeps us awake. Sometimes we cannot sleep well because,
we are worried. But we should not take sleeping pills. This is dangerous because
they will become habit-forming. We should think of something pleasant or read a
book until we feel sleepy. We should try to relax our mind and body. This is the
best way to fall asleep.

What Looking Good Means

It is natural that we care about the way we look. For example, from the
age of eleven our physical changes occur in our bodies. We grow taller and fuller
as our looks change. We have different ideas about beauty. We want to be good-
looking. But looking good does not mean to be good-looking. You can look good
by improving the way you look with right clothes, hairstyle, skin care and make-
up. You can diet to lose or gain weight and have a good figure. Physical looks are
not important. What kind of person you are is important. The key to looking good
and social success is to have a warm, kind heart and self-acceptance.

Dengue Fever: A Dangerous Illness

Dengue fever is a viral disease caused by mosquitoes. The disease occurs
mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is most common during the rainy
season, in areas infested with the infected mosquitoes. There are four major types
of dengue virus. This virus is transmitted to people from infected mosquitoes.
Symptoms start 5 to 6 days after being bitten by the infected mosquitoes. The
symptoms are fever, painful headaches, eye, joint, and muscle pain and rash. The
rash appears on the arms or legs about 3 to 4 days after fever starts. Bed rest,
common drugstore pain and fever medication are recommended treatment.

Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Darussalam is a country on the northwest coast of the island of
Borneo. It is composed of two enclaves. Bandar Sen Begawan, the capital offers
many sights to see. A special feature of the Hassanal Bolkiah Aquarium is the
colourful display of tropical fish. Traditional handicrafts are on sale at the Brunei
Arts and Handicraft Training Centre. The Brunei Museum features a display of
bronzeware, brassware, Chinese ceramics and jade. The attractive Omar Ali
Saifuddin Mosque on the water is situated in the centre of the capital. A wide
variety of tropical wildlife can be found in Temburong Zoo in the eastern part of
the country.

Beautiful Myanmar
Myanmar is a beautiful country which is famous for its glittering pagodas.
It has vast tracts of timber forests and huge mineral resources. Myanmar people
are very hospitable. The capital city is Yangon where the Shwedagon pagoda is
situated. Bagan is the ancient capital of Myanmar kings. There are thousands of
old pagodas in 1,200 years old city. They are the proof of Myanmar's rich cultural
heritage. It is also one of the archaeological treasure houses in Asia. Mount Popa
is an extinct volcano. It is a unique place where one can hike and trek in the
mountain. The Shan hills have cooler weather. It is a popular summer hliday
place. Inlay Lake is famous for its leg-rowers. Myanmar is also famous for long,
white, sandy and unspoilt beaches.

Biospheres are space colonies for people to live away from the earth. They
are complete, enclosed environments. People will live and die there without
returning to the earth. There must be perfect balance among everything in the
environment. There are two main reasons for building biospheres in space. The
first reason is to do research about our own environment in order to save the
environment on earth. The second reason is to send people to the satellites to
produce solar energy and send this energy back to the earth. Another reason is that
there will be a petroleum shortage on the earth in the near future. Now scientists
are designing biospheres to colonize other planets.

The Keller Family

The Keller family included Captain Arthur Keller, his wife Kate Keller,
and their daughter Helen. Helen was born in 1880, and she was attacked by a
strange illness in 1882. She did not die, but she became blind and deaf. Helen was
at first a happy and intelligent child. But now she became wild and
uncontrollable. So Captain Keller asked the director of the Perkins Institute for
the Blind for/to help Helen. The director sent Annie Sullivan, who was a young,
patient and understanding person to help Helen. Helen's parents gave the teacher
permission to have complete control of her. Annie taught Helen not only good
manners but also language. Gradually, Helen learnt some words and their
meanings. Later, she also learnt to speak, read and write. She graduated in 1904,
and became famous all over the world. Thus the Kellers were very happy.