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Application Note

Tribology and Mechanical Testing Unit

Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Superficial Hardness


of Metallic Materials Using the CETR-UMT 2, CETR-UMT 3, or CETR-APEX
per ASTM E18-05

Summary of Test Method:

This test method describes the setup and procedure for determining the Rockwell Hardness and the
Rockwell Superficial Hardness of materials using the CETR-UMT 2, CETR-UMT 3, or CETR-Apex
systems. The choice of hardness scale is based on the material to be tested.
The apparatus consists of either a conical tip diamond indenter or a tungsten carbide ball indenter mounted
under a force sensor on a motor-driven vertical positioning carriage. The specimen is mounted on either a
stationary table or a linear stage directly under the indenter. A capacitance displacement sensor is used to
measure the depth of penetration.

Rockwell Hardness:
For Rockwell Hardness measurements the carriage presses the indenter downward against the specimen to
apply a preliminary (minor) load of 10 kg for 3 seconds using the force sensor for feedback to control the
load. Then the carriage increases the load for 3 seconds to either 60 kg or 100 kg, depending on the scale
that is used. The hold time may be longer if the specimen shows time-dependent plasticity. The load is then
decreased to 10 kg. Load and displacement are recorded vs time.
The difference in displacements measured at the end of the first 10 kg load period and at the end of the last
10 kg load period is the total displacement. The Rockwell Hardness is :
HRx = E - e
where x is the scale, E is either 100 or 130 depending on scale (see Table 1), and e is the number of .002mm
units in the total displacement.

Table 1. Rockwell Hardness Scales


Priliminary Total Indenter and Holder
Scale Indenter E
Load kg Load kg CETR Part Numbers
A 10 60 Diamond Cone 100 BM372011/AM30B264C-1
B 10 100 1/16" ball 130 BM110016/AM30B276C-1
D 10 100 Diamond Cone 100 BM372011/AM30B264C-2
E 10 100 1/8" ball 130 BM110056/M30B271D-1
F 10 60 1/16" ball 130 BM110016/AM30B276C-1
H 10 60 1/8" ball 130 BM110056/M30B271D-1
L 10 60 1/4" ball 130 BM110055/AM30B263A
M 10 100 1/4" ball 130 BM110055/AM30B263A
R 10 60 1/2" ball 130 BM110054/AM30B1035
S 10 100 1/2" ball 130 BM110054/AM30B1035

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Application Note
Tribology and Mechanical Testing Unit

Rockwell Superficial Hardness:


For Rockwell Superficial Hardness measurements the carriage presses the indenter downward against the
specimen to apply a preliminary (minor) load of 3 kg for 3 seconds using the force sensor for feedback to
control the load. Then the carriage increases the load for 3 seconds to 15kg, 30 kg or 45 kg, depending on
which scale is used (see Table 2). The load is then decreased to 3 kg. Load and displacement are recorded vs
time.
The difference in displacements measured at the end of the first 3 kg load period and at the end of the last 3
kg load period is the total displacement. The Rockwell Superficial Hardness is :
HRx=100 - e
where x is the scale (see Table 2), and e is the number of .001mm units in the total displacement.

Table 2. Rockwell Superficial Hardness Scales


Priliminary Total Indenter and Holder
Scale Indenter
Load kg Load kg CETR Part Numbers
15N 3 15 Diamond Cone BM372011/AM30B264C-1
30N 3 30 Diamond Cone BM372011/AM30B264C-2
45N 3 45 Diamond Cone BM372011/AM30B264C-3
15T 3 15 1/16" ball BM110016/AM30B276C-1
30T 3 30 1/16" ball BM110016/AM30B276C-0
30W 3 30 1/8" ball BM110056/M30B271D-2
45W 3 45 1/8" ball BM110056/M30B271D-3
15X 3 15 1/4" ball BM110055/AM30B263A
30X 3 30 1/4" ball BM110055/AM30B263A
45X 3 45 1/4" ball BM110055/AM30B263A
15Y 3 15 1/2" ball BM110054/AM30B1035
30Y 3 30 1/2" ball BM110054/AM30B1035
45Y 3 45 1/2" ball BM110054/AM30B1035

UMT Hardware Configuration:

?
4 Mounting Block M30C366-2

?
Model DFH-100 Dual Friction/Load Sensor
range 1.0 to 100 kg

?
Rigid Adapter for type DFH sensors

?
Indentor and Holder (Ref. RH Tables 1 and 2)

?
Capacitance Sensor CAP-2

?
Capacitance Sensor Reference Plate M30B979-1

?
Stationary Specimen Table

?
Optional Additional Sensors
Mod. HT-100 Humidity and Temperature
Measurement & Recording

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Application Note
Tribology and Mechanical Testing Unit
UMT Software Test Setup for Rockwell Hardness:

UMT Options File: Load the options file which contains settings for the 100kg force/load sensor
and capacitance sensor.

Test Sequence: The Test Sequence should consist of 3 steps.


Step 1 asserts the 10-kg minor load for 3 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 3 sec.
Carriage - Force -10 kg
Spindle -Velocity is 0 revs/min. Slider idle.
Step 2 asserts the total (minor = Major) load for 3 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 3 sec.
Carriage - Force (See Table 1 for total force for selected scale)
Spindle Velocity is 0 revs/min, Slider idle.
Step 3 asserts the 10-kg minor load for 5 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 5 sec.
Carriage - Force -10 kg
Spindle -Velocity is 0 revs/min. Slider idle.

Data Collection: The following should be checked under DataFile:


Fz Normal Force
C1 - Capacitance Sensor
T Time
Z1 Carriage Position
Rh input - Relative Humidity (optional)
Te input Temperature (optional)
UMT Software Test Setup for Rockwell Superficial Hardness:

UMT Options File: Load the options file which contains settings for the 50kg force/load sensor
and capacitance sensor.

Test Sequence: The Test Sequence should consist of 3 steps.


Step 1 asserts the 3-kg minor load for 3 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 3 sec.
Carriage - Force -3 kg
Spindle -Velocity is 0 revs/min. Slider idle.
Step 2 asserts the total (minor = Major) load for 3 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 3 sec.
Carriage - Force (See Table 2 for total force for selected scale)
Spindle Velocity is 0 revs/min, Slider idle.
Step 3 asserts the 3-kg minor load for 5 seconds.
General - Controlled Carriage/Load, Constant Force(Fz), Duration 5 sec.
Carriage - Force -3 kg
Spindle -Velocity is 0 revs/min. Slider idle.
Data Collection: The following should be checked under DataFile:
Fz Normal Force
C1 - Capacitance Sensor
T Time
Z1 Carriage Position
Rh input - Relative Humidity (optional)
Te input Temperature (optional)

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Application Note
Tribology and Mechanical Testing Unit

Report:
Use the Viewer program to plot test results. Open the data file with the box checked for Open all data in
a single step. Check the Fz and C1 boxes under Parameters on the Viewer screen. Note the difference
on the C1 scale between the Initial Displacement and the Final Displacement. Divide that difference by
.002 for Rockwell Hardness or .001 for Rockwell Superficial Hardness to get e.
The Rockwell Hardness is : Hrx = E - e where x is the scale, E is either 100 or 130 depending on scale
(see Table 1.). The Rockwell Superficial Hardness is : Hrx = 100 - e.

Verification by Standardized Hardness Test Block:


The UMT or Apex machine should be checked each day that the machine is used for hardness testing. The
same test sequence that is used for hardness testing of normal test specimens is used for verification tests
on standardized test blocks. Make at least three hardness readings on the test block on the scale and at the
hardness level at which the machine is being used. If the mean of these values falls within the tolerances
marked on the block the machine is considered satisfactory. Table 3 list three standardized hardness
test blocks available from CETR.

Table 3. Test Blocks for Calibration Part Number


A Scale, Steel BM260036
A Scale, Brass BM260037
D Scale, Steel BM260038

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