Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

Logo

Capa de enlace y redes LAN


VLANs y Trunking

Fredy Campos A.
f.campos@ieee.org

Carrera de Ingeniera Electrnica y Telecomunicaciones


Universidad Nacional Tecnolgica del Cono Sur de Lima
http://www.untecs.edu.pe/portal/

ver 2.0

2011
Objetivos

Entendimiento y uso de VLAN's y trunking en las redes


de switches

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 2


Agenda

VLAN's
Trunking con 802.1Q

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 3


Agenda

VLAN's
Trunking con 802.1Q

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 4


VLAN's (1)
Consideraciones de diseo

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 5


VLAN's (2)
Overview
Definition

VLAN is a logical broadcast domain that can span multiple physical LAN segments

VLAN logically defined community of interest that limits a Broadcast domain

Virtual LANs are created on the software of Switch
Considerations

All devices in a VLAN are members of the same broadcast domain and receive all
broadcasts

The broadcasts, by default, are filtered from all ports on a switch that are not members
of the same VLAN.

Logical grouping of network users and resources connected to administratively
defined ports on a switch.

By default, no hosts in a specific VLAN can communicate with any other hosts that are
members of another VLAN

For Inter VLAN communication you need routers

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 6


VLAN's (3)
Overview

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 7


VLAN's (4)
Uso en las organizaciones
VLAN design must take into consideration the implementation
of a hierarchical network-addressing scheme.
Ease of management and troubleshooting
Fewer errors:

Minimize errors and duplicate address assignments
Reduced routing table entries

Fewer CPU cycles when recalculating a routing table or sorting
through the routing table entries to find a match

Reduced router memory requirements

Faster convergence after a change in the network

Easier troubleshooting
2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 8
VLAN's (5)
Uso en las organizaciones

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 9


VLAN's (6)
Uso en las organizaciones
Example: Network Design

Requirements
A business with approximately 250 employees wants to migrate to the
Cisco Enterprise Architecture.
Use network 10.0.0.0 as base address

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 10


VLAN's (7)
Uso en las organizaciones
Example: Network Design

Proposal with future growth
Building A is allocated 10.1.0.0/16, Building B is allocated 10.2.0.0/16, Building C
is allocated 10.3.0.0/16

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 11


VLAN's (8)
Uso en las organizaciones
Beneficios

Security
Sensitive data can be isolated to one VLAN, separating it from the rest of the network

Cost reduction
Cost savings result from less need for expensive network upgrades and more efficient use of
existing bandwidth and uplinks.

Higher performance
Dividing flat Layer 2 networks into multiple logical broadcast domains reduces unnecessary
traffic on the network and boosts performance.

Broadcast storm mitigation
VLAN segmentation prevents a broadcast storm from propagating throughout the entire
network.

Ease of management and troubleshooting:
A hierarchical addressing scheme groups network addresses contiguously. Because a
hierarchical IP addressing scheme makes problem components easier to locate, network
management and troubleshooting are more efficient.

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 12


VLAN's (9)
Consideraciones de trfico
Considerar para el despliegue de VLAN's los tipos de trfico existente en la
organizacin

Network management
Many different types of network management traffic can be present on the network, such as bridge protocol
data units (BPDUs), Cisco Discovery Protocol updates, Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
traffic, and Remote Monitoring (RMON) traffic.

IP telephony
There are two types of IP telephony traffic: signaling information between end devices and the data packets
of the voice conversation.
Designers often configure the data to and from the IP phones on a separate VLAN designated for voice
traffic so that they can apply quality of service measures to give high priority to voice traffic.

IP multicast
Multicast traffic can produce a large amount of data streaming across the network.

Normal data
Normal data traffic is typical application traffic that is related to file and print services, email, Internet
browsing, database access, and other shared network applications

Scavenger class
Scavenger class includes all traffic with protocols or patterns that exceed their normal data flows.

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 13


VLAN's (10)
Consideraciones de trfico

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 14


VLAN's (11)
Consideraciones de trfico

Voice VLAN

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 15


VLAN's (12)
Consideraciones de trfico

Voice VLAN

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 16


VLAN's (13)
Operacin

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 17


VLAN's (14)
Modos de pertenencia
Para un switch Cisco Catalyst

Esttico, Dinmico y de Voz

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 18


Agenda

VLAN's
Trunking con 802.1Q

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 19


Trunking con 802.1Q (1)
Overview de trunking

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 20


Trunking con 802.1Q (2)
Overview de trunking

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 21


Trunking con 802.1Q (3)
Overview de trunking

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 22


Trunking con 802.1Q (4)
Frame 802.1Q

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 23


Trunking con 802.1Q (5)
Comparaciones

ISL = Inter-Switch Link (Cisco propietary)


802.1Q = IEEE Standard

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 24


Trunking con 802.1Q (6)
VLAN Nativa

Every 802.1Q port is assigned to a


trunk, and all ports on a trunk are in a
native VLAN.
A native VLAN is used in IEEE
802.1Q to send untagged frames to
any non-802.1Q devices that might
exist on the segment.
Every 802.1Q port is assigned an
identifier value that is based on the
native VLAN ID (VID) of the port. (The
default is VLAN 1.)
All untagged frames are assigned to
the VLAN specified in this VID
parameter.

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 25


Trunking con 802.1Q (7)
Dyamic Trunking Protocol (DTP)

DTP is a Cisco proprietary protocol that negotiates the


status of trunk ports and trunk encapsulation.

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 26


Bibliografa

Stallings, William. Data and Computer Communications, 8th


Edition, Prentice Hall, 2009
Stephen McQuerry. Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices,
Part 1 (ICND1), 2nd Edition, Cisco Press, 2008

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 27


Fredy Campos A.
f.campos@ieee.org

Carrera Profesional de Ingeniera Electrnica y Telecomunicaciones


Universidad Nacional Tecnolgica del Cono Sur de Lima
http://www.untecs.edu.pe/portal/

2012 | Fredy Campos | f.campos@ieee.org VLANs y Trunkig @ F. Campos 28