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South China Sea Tensions

Top US Officer Pushes for
More Assertive Strategy
defensenews.com Page 8

April 11, 2016 Kuwait has ordered 28
Eurofighter Typhoons
equipped with an
electronically scanned
Carter Offers
radar. The deal includes
training, simulators and
infrastructure support.
Restrained DoD
Reform Plan

WASHINGTON For months, the

US defense community has watched
Alberto Pizzoli/AFP via Getty Images closely for signs of how Secretary of
Defense Ash Carter would attempt to
WEAPONS PURCHASE reform the Pentagon structure estab-
lished by the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols


Kuwait, Finmeccanica Sign legislation.
The answer, it appears, is largely in-
cremental leaving plenty of space
for congressional leadership to take
US Air Force begins
process to replace
venerable aircraft. 4
Deal for 28 Eurofighters aim at bigger shifts to the depart-
ments worldwide structure.
At an April 5 speech at the Center
for Strategic and International Stud-

AIR Experts: Accord is led by Finmeccanica.

In a statement, the Eurofighter consor-
tium said the deal covered 22 single-seat
ies (CSIS), Carter unveiled his version
of how the department should look
and made the case why Goldwater-
SPACE LAUNCHES Is Message To US and six twin-seat aircraft, all third
tranche standard.
Nichols, enacted in 1986 to meet the
threats of that era, must be updated.
Industry debates use BY TOM KINGTON The deal, which has been held up by Analysts agree that Carters sugges-
of ICBM motors. 10 tkington@defensenews.com contractual negotiations, is based on tions mainly picked around the edges
a government-to-government accord of known issues without making ma-
The Eurofighter program got a much- signed between Kuwait and Italy in jor changes.
needed shot in the arm and Italys Fin- September. Secretary Carter has picked the
meccanica its largest contract last week The Eurofighter deal approval was is- low-hanging fruit and found some-
when Kuwait signed a long-delayed deal sued April 4 and signed the next day, ac- thing to please most everyone with
to buy 28 of the European fighters. cording to a report released from the these recommendations, said Mac-
Kuwait has ordered its aircraft Kuwaiti Cabinet of Ministers. kenzie Eaglen of the American Enter-
equipped with an electronically scanned The report said the council discussed at prise Institute. She added that while
radar, which is being developed for the length the Kuwaiti Audit Bureaus report there are some solid ideas in Carters
aircraft but has yet to be adopted by Eu- and recommendations to complete the plan, others are squishy enough to be
rofighters operated by the four launch purchase of the fighters after they were mostly feel-good efforts that may or
partners on the program Italy, the UK, provided with the required cost break- may not yield much actual change in
Germany and Spain. down. departmental operations.
The radar is being developed by the Eu-
ropean EuroRADAR consortium, which See EUROFIGHTER, Page 16 See PENTAGON, Page 16

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SUB-HUNTER US Army Readiness at High Risk,
US NAVY IS DEVELOPING A Top Officer Tells Congress
132-FOOT UNMANNED VESSEL 13 Chief of Staff Gen. Mark Milley cited the ex-
ample of brigade combat teams, only a third of
which are ready to deploy.
AFGHANISTAN defensenews.com/land

Egypt to Purchase Weapons From France
The two countries expect to sign a deal for
WATCH DEFENSE NEWS TV fighter aircraft, navy vessels and a satellite
communication system, according to reports.
VETERANS PROTECT CHILDREN defensenews.com/policy-budget

Amber Corrin, C4ISR & Networks senior re-

porter, discusses cybersecurity threats and
the impact on the Pentagon and industrial
base. Former Army Sgt. Tom Block, left, talks
about his work in the HERO Corps, protect- Algeria Boosts Order of Mi-28 Helos
ing children from predators. The countrys air force increased its contract
from eight to 42 of the Russian-made aircraft.
Watch Sundays at 11 a.m. ET on WJLA-TV in defensenews.com/air-space
Washington, on American Forces Network
worldwide or at defensenews.com.

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April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 3

F-35 UK Debut:
US Air Force Moving Forward Is It A Warning
With A-10 Replacement Option
to Russia?
WASHINGTON The international
lseligman@defensenews.com debut of the F-35 joint strike fighter at
WASHINGTON The Air Force is two major air shows in the United
moving forward with a key step in de- Kingdom this year will send a pointed
veloping a dedicated close-air support warning to bad actors in the region,
plane to replace the A-10 Warthog, a top according to the commander of US Air
general said. Forces in Europe.
My requirements guys are in the Although he did not mention Russia
process of building a draft require- by name in the context of the F-35,
ments document for a follow-on CAS Gen. Frank Gorenc, NATO command-
airplane, Lt. Gen. Mike Holmes, the er and head of USAFE, said the JSFs
deputy chief of staff for strategic plans planned appearance at the Royal
and requirements, said. Its interesting International Air Tattoo and Farnbo-
work that at some point well be able to rough air shows this summer will
talk with you a little bit more. demonstrate the United States credi-
Defining the requirement is the first bility, capability and willingness to
concrete step toward potentially devel- retaliate against hostile forces.
oping a replacement for the close-air Senior Airman Corey Hook/US Air Force Fundamentally, deterrence is credi-
support mission, often dubbed A-X. The After years of controversy about Air Force plans to retire the A-10, Lt. Gen. Mike bility, capability and willingness,
Air Force has been studying the idea of Holmes, deputy chief of staff for strategic plans and requirements, says the service is Gorenc said during an April 5 Defense
a procuring single-role A-X for at least a developing requirements for a successor to the venerable close-air support plane. Writers Group event in Washington.
year, hosting a joint-service summit in That airplane is going to make what
March 2015 to work out options for the we do from the air and across the
close-air support, or CAS, mission. board it will in itself help boost
Speaking to reporters following a For an A-X, the general cautioned that multirole F-35 joint strike fighter will deterrence.
breakfast hosted by the Air Force Asso- a lot will depend on Congress and perform the CAS role after the A-10 re- A crucial part of Gorencs mission in
ciation on April 7, Holmes said the re- whether another round of mandatory tires, but the new push for an A-X seems recent years has been to soothe anxi-
quirements document will soon be budget cuts under sequestration occurs to indicate the service is bowing to ety among European allies facing a
given to Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. in fiscal years 18 and 19. pressure from the public and Congress resurgent Russia, an effort dubbed the
Mark Welsh for review. We are looking at what it could take to maintain a single-role aircraft to pro- European Reassurance Initiative.
That CAS replacement airplane, I to be able to do that, but the commit- tect soldiers on the ground. Russias development of increasingly
have seen a draft of it, its out for ment to go forward to do that is a long The Air Forces latest plan, reflected far-reaching weapons and radar con-
coordination. Itll go to the chief some- ways off in the planning process, in the fiscal 2017 budget request, is to tinues to pose challenges to the Euro-
time this spring and let the chief shape Holmes said. retire the A-10 by fiscal 2022. But in the pean theater, Gorenc said during the
it, hes our chief requirements officer Meanwhile, several existing and de- out-years, the F-35 can only partially fill event.
also in the Air Force, and then well fold velopment aircraft could meet the CAS the capability gap left by the A-10, offi- He said the F-35s appearance at the
that into the larger study were doing on mission, Holmes said, pointing to light cials have said UK air shows this summer is part of
the future of the combat air forces, he fighters like the A-29 Super Tucano at- I would never look at you and tell the deterrence equation.
said. tack plane, the AT-6 trainer aircraft and you, Hey, the replacement, one-for-one, The Lockheed Martins F-35 is set to
Once the requirement is firm, the next Textron AirLands Scorpion. for the A-10 is the F-35, said Air Force be the star of the show at both RIAT
step will be deciding the most cost- The Air Force will also look at poten- Vice Chief of Staff Gen. David Goldfein and Farnborough. The Pentagon plans
effective way to meet that need, tially re-purposing the T-X advanced last month. to send two Air Force F-35As and two
Holmes said. The Air Force will weigh trainer airframe for the CAS mission Still, as the Air Force looks to define US Marine Corps F-35Bs to the air
the capability and affordability of three down the road, Holmes said. Although the future of CAS, officials and analysts shows, where the jets will fly with
alternatives: building a new A-X, using officials do not expect to add new re- say the service must keep in mind that legacy warbirds and the Royal Air
existing aircraft to meet the CAS mis- quirements to the plane, which is in the the mission has changed drastically Force Red Arrows. The Marine Corps
sion, or extending the life of the A-10, early competition stages, the service since the A-10 was developed in the jets may even demonstrate a vertical
Holmes said. will incentivize bidders to include ex- 1970s. Today, the Air Force can perform landing, Defense News reported.
The question is exactly where is the cess power, cooling and space in their CAS with bombers and fighter jets like The F-35s appearance at RIAT and
sweet spot [is] between whats avail- proposals to allow for flexibility in fu- the F-15, F-35 and B-1. UAVs like the Farnborough, the jets first major
able now and what the optimum CAS ture, he said. MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper can international air show circuit, will
replacement would be, Holmes said. But for now the service is focused on also supplement the mission while reinforce the notion that the JSF is no
Were working along that continuum developing and procuring 350 T-X jets keeping pilots out of danger. DN longer a concept, but a real piece of
to see exactly what the requirement is to replace the services aging T-38 train- equipment, Gorenc said. To actually
that we can afford and the numbers that er fleet, Holmes stressed. Air Force Times reporter Phillip Swarts see it, I think, is an important step in
we need to do the mission. The Air Force has long stated that the contributed to this report. the procurement of that airplane. DN

4 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

The US Navys chief of naval
operations will disband a small,
influential study group

Norway shortlists DCNS and

ThyssenKrupp for sub program
Norway has narrowed the search for
a contractor to build a new fleet of sub-
marines down to DCNS of France and

2016 AUSA
Germanys ThyssenKrupp Marine Sys-
tems (TKMS), the Ministry of Defence
(MoD) said.
DCNS and TKMS are the largest
manufacturers of submarines in West-
ern Europe. They have extensive expe-
rience in building advanced
submarines and a large industrial ca-
pacity. The submarines offered by these
two companies will be a good starting
point for Norways future submarines, A Professional Development Forum
the MoD said in an April 7 statement.
Norway has been investigating the
options to replace its six Ula-class
boats for the last two years. The MoD 3-5 OCTOBER 2016
said that based on economic, industrial
Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC
and military assessments, the French
and German yards were the strongest
candidates should a decision be taken
to go ahead with the purchase.
Both companies have a decades-long
track record of supplying systems to
the Norwegian Navy.
In parallel to the shipyard selection,
Oslo is negotiating a cooperation deal
with several other nonsubmarine-build-
ing nations to see if a joint procurement
is possible.
Those talks, primarily with the Neth-
erlands and Poland, will continue, ac-
cording to the MoD.
Rheinmetall Denel Munition Factory
Opens in Saudi Arabia
South African defense equipment
manufacturer Rheinmetall Denel Muni-
tion (RDM) and Saudi Military Indus-
tries Corp. (SAMIC) have opened a joint
weapons factory that will produce mor-
tars, artillery shells and aircraft-borne
bombs weighing up to 2,000 pounds.
According to the Saudi Press Agency,
the facility, which is in the Al-Kharj mil-
itary industrial complex south of Ri-
yadh, was officially opened by South
African President Jacob Zuma and Sau-  Join more than 26,000 people from the worldwide defense community
di Arabia's Deputy Crown Prince Mo-  Network with key leaders from the Army, DoD, Congress and the defense industry
hamed bin Salman during his state visit
to the kingdom last week.  View more than 500 exhibits featuring the latest technology, products and services
According to SAMIC head Mohamed  Participate in panel discussions on the state of the Army and the future of national defense
Al-Mady, the factory complex was built
with the help of RDM and will specialize
in the production of 60mm, 81mm and
120mm mortars as well as 105mm and
155mm artillery shells, mainly for use
by the Saudi defense forces.
The factory has the capacity to pro- AUSAANNUALMEETING.ORG
duce 300 artillery shells and 600 mortar abrody@ausa.org | 703-907-2665
rounds per day. It was not immediately
clear if any of the weapons produced by
the partnership will be exported.

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 5



Using Big Data To Spot High Risks

lake there is personal information
based on elements such as credit cards,
Facebook and Twitter social media ac-
counts, and cellphones.
Data science seeks to spot high-risk

Firm: System profiles, he said. Once the data system

flags a traveler, border officials can

Uses Travelers
hold the suspect for questioning.
Frontex, the European Union border
management agency, said April 5 in its

Digital Markers 2016 risk analysis the three major chal-

lenges on the external borders were:
an unprecedented rise in migratory
BY PIERRE TRAN pressure, an increasing terrorist threat
ptran@defensenews.com and a steady rise in the number of reg-
PARIS Zettafox, a privately owned ular travelers.
consulting firm, is working on a system In a presentation to Frontex, the then
to mine big data to help border security Zettafox team within Deloitte set out
officers gauge travelers risk factors, a the huge scale facing the European
critical area following recent deadly as- Union border management agency.
saults in Brussels and Paris by Islamic Some 720 million air travelers are ex-
State terrorists. pected to be entering the Schengen
A grave concern about border control Thierry Monasse/AFP/Getty Images Area by 2030 compared to 400 million in
has risen as attackers crossed national Passengers queue in front of a tent temporarily used as the entrance to the Brussels 2011. There are 1,800 border crossing
borders before staging bomb attacks airport on April 4. The airport reopened the day before for the first time since two points and 7,721 kilometers of land bor-
that left dozens dead in the center of the Islamic State terrorists blew themselves up in the departure hall on March 22. ders in the EU.
two European capitals. The consultants see interest among
Border controls are so important that airlines, banks and insurance compa-
Britain performs a security-related newspaper. driven simulator to demonstrate to a nies.
check on all passport holders entering European border security and a lack European national border agency a Zettafox will be soon be seeking de-
the country, a former senior intelli- of sharing of national intelligence have smarter approach to raising the red velopment capital of a few million eu-
gence officer said. become sensitive political issues. flag, Atallah said. ros to keep up with a high-growth
The UK conducts security-related The Zettafox directors say they have Zerbib and Atallah developed the pre- market, Zerbib said. The venture capi-
checks on the passports of every single an algorithm that extends the predic- scriptive approach when they were tal would allow the company to speed
individual, including all (European tive to the prescriptive, extending the working with Deloitte, an auditing and up development and expand into new
Union) citizens, entering the UK from function of what might happen to rec- consulting firm, he said. markets.
continental Europe or elsewhere, Pau- ommending the best action to take. Such a border security system allows The company, which has offices in
line Neville-Jones former chair of the The consulting firm, founded by Pat- a profile of a potential risk to be Paris and Washington, has set a six-
Joint Intelligence Committee, said in a rick Zerbib and Marc Atallah, worked in drawn by processing overwhelming month target to sign up one or more fi-
March 25 article in the Guardian daily late 2013 and early 2014 on a software- big data, Zerbib said. In the vast data nancial and business partners. DN


France Seals Deal for Safran Patroller Drone

their interest in the Patroller, especially
in Asia and the Middle East.
Thales had pledged to boost French
content to 30 percent from 10 percent
BY PIERRE TRAN A ministerial investment committee suppliers, including mainly small and on the Watchkeeper, daily Le Monde re-
ptran@defensenews.com backed a pick in January by the Army medium-sized companies in the 25- ported. That tactical UAV is based on
PARIS France has signed a contract and DGA of the Sagem Patroller, which strong Patroller Cluster group, he said. the Elbit Hermes 450 and is built in Brit-
with Safran for 14 Patroller tactical beat a competing offer of the Watch- The program will create 300 highly qual- ain by a joint venture held 49 percent by
UAVs for the French Army, with entry keeper from Thales, a defense systems ified jobs, not only at Montluon but Thales and 51 percent by Elbit.
into service in 2018, the Defense Minis- company. also at other sites around the country. The contract includes two ground sta-
try and the aerospace and engines The competition was very strictly Job creation is a key issue, in view of tions and communications for flying
group said in separate statements. conducted jointly by DGA and the stubbornly high unemployment of the drones, two training stations, and
Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian Army, which I welcome, Le Drian said some 10 percent and presidential elec- support systems, the ministry said. The
attended during his visit to the Sagem in prepared remarks. Flying tests were tions due to be held next year. Montlu- UAV will be equipped to carry two
plant (Safran group) at Montluon the conducted in the summer to compare on is in the Auvergne region, central payloads on each flight, initially com-
contract signing for the tactical drone the two competing products. France, which contains the constituen- prising both an electro-optical/infrared/
system by the deputy director of the Di- Finally and without any doubt, it was cy of President Franois Hollande, who laser capability and a radar, followed
rection Gnrale de lArmement and the Patroller which showed itself better has pledged to cut the jobless rate. later by a signals intelligence system
the chief executive of Safran, the min- able to meet the Armys needs, partic- If the Patroller is sold in exports while taking off the radar.
istry said. ularly its electro-optical capability, en- and I believe certain countries have al- The UAV, capable of flying for 20
The contract for the Patroller UAV, in- durance and capacity to fly over ready shown interest other jobs will hours and up to 20,000 feet, is based on
cluding 12 years of maintenance, is domestic territory, he said. be created, Le Drian said. the ES-15 aircraft from German partner
worth some 300 million (US $341.7 mil- The Patroller is made in France, Sagem CEO Martin Sion said: Sever- Ecarys. There is to be capability for
lion), French media have reported. with 85 percent of content from French al countries have already expressed manned flight. DN

6 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

Worldwide military
spending increased 1
percent from 2014 to
2015, driven in part by
expenditures from

Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

thors expect both nations spending to

Global Military Spending Grows drop in 2016.

Regionally, spending in Asia and Oce-
ania rose 5.4 percent, at an estimated
$438 billion 49 percent of which
comes from China. Chinas spending

For First Time Since 2011

tures as current and capital spending
from each nations armed forces, in-
of $215 billion. However, the US did
drop by 2.4 percent from 2014 figures.
more than quadrupled that of India, the
regions second-largest military inves-
tor, and it continues a trend of major
growth in military spending in the re-
gion, which has increased by 64 per-
cent since 2006.
WASHINGTON Global military cluding peacekeeping forces; defense Saudi Arabia ($87.2 billion) moved European military spending in-
expenditures topped $1.6 trillion in ministries and other government agen- past Russia ($66.4 billion) for the third creased 1.7 percent in 2015 to $328 bil-
2015, an increase of about 1 percent cies that deal with de- spot, a move the researches attribute lion, driven largely by Eastern Europe,
from the previous year, according to a fense projects; to the falling cost of the ruble. Similar- which includes Russia and those na-
new report by the Stockholm Interna- Details on paramilitary forces, ly, the drop in value of the euro let the tions perturbed by Russias invasion of
tional Peace Research Institute (SI- the spending, when judged to be United Kingdom ($55.5 billion) flip Ukrainian territory in 2014. In fact,
PRI). PAGE 22 trained and equipped spots with France ($50.9 billion) at Eastern European spending increased
That represents the first increase in for military operations, fifth overall and seventh overall, re- by 90 percent from 2006.
global military spending since 2011, and military space activities. spectively. Military spending from Latin Ameri-
with growth coming from Asia and The data is based on open sources, The report highlights the impact of ca and the Caribbean actually dropped
Oceania, Central and Eastern Europe, including a questionnaire that is sent falling oil prices on defense spending, by 2.9 percent in 2015, to $67.0 billion,
and a few key Gulf powers, as well a out annually to governments; as a re- noting that it led to an abrupt reduc- while African expenditures fell by 5.3
slower defense drawdown in the US sult, some totals, most notably Chinas, tion in military spending in countries percent in 2015, with an estimated
than in previous years. are estimates rather than concrete fig- such as Angola, Chad, Ecuador, Ka- $37.0 billion.
SIPRIs military expenditure report is ures. zakhstan, Oman, South Sudan and Ven- The researchers decided not to pub-
released annually to track overall de- Unsurprisingly, the US remains the ezuela. Oil revenue-dependent giants lish a regional estimate for the Middle
fense spending on a global scale. top military spender at $596 billion, like Russia and Saudi Arabia bucked East, as data for 2015 is unavailable
The group defines military expendi- nearly tripling Chinas estimated total that trend in 2016, but the SIPRI au- for several countries. DN

April 11, 2016 R1 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 7

Tension Builds Over Islands
4-star Admiral Wants to Confront have crossed the line into baiting the
Chinese into hard-line positions, sourc-
es said.
China; Not So Fast, White House Says Military leaders interpreted this as an
order to stay silent on Chinas assertive
BY DAVID LARTER They want to get out of office with a moves to control most of the South Chi-
dlarter@defensenews.com minimum of fuss and a maximum of co- na Sea, said both defense officials,
The US militarys top commander in operation with China, said Jerry Hen- prompting concern that the paltry US
the Pacific is arguing behind closed drix, a retired Navy captain and defense response may embolden the Chinese
doors for a more confrontational ap- strategy analyst with the Center for a and worry US allies in the region, like
proach to counter and reverse Chinas New American Security. Japan and the Philippines, who feel bul-
strategic gains in the South China Sea, The White House has sought to tamp lied.
appeals that have met resistance from down rhetoric from Harris and other China, which has been constructing
the White House at nearly every turn. military leaders, islands and airstrips atop reefs and
Adm. Harry Harris is proposing a who are warning rocky outcroppings in the Spratly Is-
muscular US response to Chinas is- that China is con- lands, sees the South China Sea as Chi-
land-building that may include launch- solidating its gains nese territory. President Xi told Obama
ing aircraft and conducting military to solidify sover- during their meeting at the nuclear
operations within 12 miles of these eignty claims to summit that China would not accept
man-made islands, as part of an effort most of the South any behavior in the disguise of freedom
to stop what he has called the Great China Sea. of navigation that violates its sovereign-
Wall of Sand before it extends within National Securi- ty, according to a Reuters report. The
140 miles of the Philippines capital, ty Adviser Susan two world leaders did agree to work to-
sources say. Rice imposed a gag gether on nuclear and cyber security is-
Harris and his US Pacific Command Harris order on military sues.
have been waging a persistent cam- leaders over the disputed South China Experts say administrations often di-
paign in public and in private over the Sea in the weeks running up to the high- rect military leaders to tone down their this article, Harris declined to comment
past several months to raise the profile level nuclear summit, according to two rhetoric ahead of major talks, but the through a spokesperson. A spokesman
of Chinas land grab, accusing China defense officials who asked for ano- current directive comes at a difficult for the chief of naval operations had no
outright in February of militarizing the nymity to discuss policy deliberations. juncture. US leaders are struggling to comment when asked about Harris
South China Sea. Chinas president, Xi Jinping, attended find an effective approach to stopping proposals and whether the CNO was
But the Obama administration, with the summit in Washington, and met pri- the island-building without triggering a supporting them.
just nine months left in office, is looking vately with President Barack Obama. confrontation. An administration official said the
to work with China on a host of other The order was part of the notes from The NSC frequently takes top-down Navys operations in the South China
issues from nuclear nonproliferation to a March 18 National Security Council control to send a coherent message, Sea are routine and that the administra-
an ambitious trade agenda, experts say, meeting and included a request from said Bryan Clark, a former senior aide tion often seeks to coordinate its mes-
and would prefer not to rock the South Rice to avoid public comments on Chi- to Adm. Jon Greenert, the recently re- sage.
China Sea boat, even going so far as to nas recent actions in the South China tired chief of naval operations. While While were not going to character-
muzzle Harris and other military lead- Sea, said a defense official familiar with serving as Greenerts aide, Clark said he ize the results of deliberative meetings,
ers in the run-up to a security summit. the meeting readout. was aware the NSC regularly vetted the its no secret that we coordinate mes-
In issuing the gag order, Rice intend- CNOs statements on China and the saging across the interagency on issues
ed to give Presidents Obama and Xi South China Sea. related to China as well as every other
Jinping maximum political maneuver- Critics say the administrations wait- priority under the sun, the official said.
Obama administraton ing space for their meeting during the and-see approach to the South China The gag order has had at least one in-
global nuclear summit March 31 Sea has failed, with the island-dredging tended effect. The amphibious assault
officials want to get through April 1, the official said. continuing in full force. ship Boxer and the dock landing ship
Sometimes its OK to talk about the The White Houses aversion to risk Harpers Ferry, both carrying the 13th
out of office with a facts and point out what China is doing, has resulted in an indecisive policy that Marine Expeditionary Unit, steamed
and other times its not, the official fa- has failed to deter Chinas pursuit of through the South China Sea in late
minimum of fuss and miliar with the memo said. Meanwhile, maritime hegemony while confusing March to little fanfare.
the Chinese have been absolutely con- and alarming our regional allies and
a maximum of sistent in their messaging. partners, said Sen. John McCain, R- Status Quo Has Changed
cooperation with The NSC dictum has had a chilling Ariz., chairman of the Senate Armed Meanwhile evidence is mounting that
effect within the Pentagon that dis- Services Committee, in a statement to China aims to build another island atop
China. couraged leaders from talking publicly Navy Times. Chinas increasingly coer- the Scarborough Shoal, an atoll 140
about the South China Sea at all, even cive challenge to the rules-based inter- miles off the coast of the Philippines
Jerry Hendrix, a retired US Navy beyond the presidential summit, ac- national order must be met with a capital of Manila and well within the
captain and defense strategy analyst cording to a second defense official determined response that demon- Philippines 200-mile economic exclu-
with the Center for a New American familiar with operational planning. strates Americas resolve and reassures sion zone, that would extend Chinas
Security Push-back from the NSC has become the region of our commitment. claims. Chinese missile batteries and
normal in cases where it thinks leaders When presented with the findings of air-search radars there would put US

8 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

For all the latest news about
the Pacific Rim, visit

facts, said a US official who spoke on

background to discuss internal deliber-

Irreversible Gains
Harris wants to double down on the
close island patrols but conduct them
on the assertion they are in interna-
tional water, sources who spoke to Na-
vy Times said.
Clark, now an analyst with the Center
for Strategic and Budgetary Assess-
ments who has followed Harris strate-
gy, said he thinks Harris is lobbying for
more assertive freedom of navigation
patrols that include military operations
such as helicopter flights and signals in-
telligence within 12 miles of Chinese-
claimed features. Such patrols, Clark
said, would make clear the Navy does
not acknowledge Chinese claims and
that the surrounding waters are inter-
MC2 Antonio Turretto Ramos/US Navy national.
Left, the US amphibious assault ship Boxer passed through the contested South China He wants to do real [freedom of navi-
Sea in late March. US military officials have been directed to avoid public comment gation operations], Clark said. He
on the dispute amid high-level negotiations between the US and China. Above, the US wants to drive through an area and do
littoral combat Fort Worth is currently deployed to the Pacific region. military operations.
Harris is not the only Navy expert
raising alarms. Capt. Sean Liedman, a
administration has yet to develop a de- The Lassen was the first US warship naval flight officer serving as a fellow at
MC3 Jesse Monford/US Navy terrence package that actually con- to pass within 12 miles of Chinas man- the Council on Foreign Relations,
vinced Beijing that going further on made islands in three years and was fol- called for the US to take a hard line.
forces in the Philippines at risk in a cri- some of these strategic-level issues like lowed by the destroyer Curtis Wilburs Failing to prevent the destruction
sis. Scarborough ... is not worth the costs. patrol of the disputed Paracel Islands in and Chinese occupation of Scarbor-
Harris and PACOM officials have Stepped-up patrols of the South Chi- January. But if the goal of those patrols ough Shoal would generate further irre-
been lobbying the National Security na Sea like the one conducted by the was to stop China from constructing versible environmental damage in the
Council, Capitol Hill and Pentagon carrier John C. Stennis and its escorts man-made islands, it has clearly failed, South China Sea and more impor-
leaders to send a clear message that in early March are part of the PACOM which was noted last month by the US tantly, further irreversible damage to
they wont tolerate continued bullying response to China, but freedom of navi- militarys top officer. the principles of international law,
of neighbors. Part of the approach in- gation patrols in close proximity to Chi- In the South China Sea, Chinese ac- Liedman wrote in a late March blog
cludes more aggressive, frequent and nas islands must be authorized by the tivity is destabilizing and could pose a post. It would further consolidate the
close patrols of Chinas artificial is- White House. threat to commercial trade routes, Ma- Chinese annexation and occupation of
lands, Navy Times has learned. The patrols to date have been confus- rine Gen. Joe Dunford, the chairman of the maritime features in the South Chi-
When it comes to the South China ing, critics argue, because they have the Joint Chiefs, said in a speech at the na Sea, which would be essentially irre-
Sea, I think the largest military concern been conducted under the right of in- Center for Strategic and International versible in any scenario short of a major
for [US] Pacific Command is what oper- nocent passage. For example, the de- Studies. And while our exercise of regional conflict.
ational situation will be left to the next stroyer Lassens October transit within freedom of navigation provides some Liedman said the Navy should consid-
commander or the commander after 12 nautical miles of Chinese man-made assurance to our allies and partners, it er taking military actions like disabling
that, said a Senate staffer familiar with islands in the disputed Spratly Islands hasnt stopped the Chinese from devel- Chinese dredging boats to steps to im-
the issues in the South China Sea. The chain was conducted in accordance oping military capabilities in the South pair the land-reclamation effort.
status quo is clearly being changed. Mil- with innocent passage rights. Some of- China Sea, to include on territories Failing to stop Chinas expansion in
itarization at Scarborough Shoal would ficials saw that as tacit acknowledg- where there is a contested claim of sov- the South China Sea into territory also
give [Chinas Peoples Liberation Army- ment that China did in fact own the ereignty. claimed by its neighbors is only height-
Navy] the ability to hold Subic Bay, Ma- islands and were entitled to a 12-mile Administration officials say theyve ening the chance of getting into an
nila Bay and the Luzon Strait at risk territorial sea around them. been tough on Chinas claims, support- armed confrontation, said Hendrix, the
with coastal defense cruise missiles or During innocent passage, warships ing military patrols by US Air Force retired captain.
track aviation assets moving in or out of are not supposed to fly aircraft, light off bombers and Navy ships, as well as The Obama administration has tend-
the northern Philippines. anti-air systems or shoot guns just sending high-tech military assets to the ed to take the least confrontational
The administration is negotiating ro- proceed expeditiously from point A region, including two more destroyers path but in doing so they created an en-
tational force presence in the Philip- to point B. All those activities are fair and the sophisticated X-band AN/TPY-2 vironment where its going to take a ma-
pines that would put the US in a game in international waters. missile defense radar system. The US is jor shock to reestablish the
position to counter Chinas moves in The lack of a more aggressive re- also negotiating rotational presence for international norms in the South China
the region but the focus on the big pic- sponse has only encouraged continued US troops on bases in the Philippines, Sea, he said. Ironically, theyve made
ture isnt changing Chinas gains in the expansion, critics say, including the right on Chinas doorstep. a situation where conflict is more in-
here and now, the staffer said. new Scarborough Shoal project, which The idea that we are somehow in- stead of less likely. DN
Force posture agreements and pres- China seized from the Philippines in consistent or that we are giving China a
ence operations are important, but the 2012. free pass just isnt supported by the David Larter is a reporter for Navy Times.

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 9


ICBM Motors For

Commercial Launches
Industry At
Its crazy that US
Odds Over Use allies and American
of US Assets companies cant
LARA SELIGMAN compete with
WASHINGTON As the arrival of
Russians that use
entrepreneurial startups like Elon ICBM assets...
Musks SpaceX and Jeff Bezos Blue Ori-
gin fuels a renewed interest in space, Barron Beneski, Orbital ATK
the aerospace industry is jockeying for
A revolution in creative ideas for commercial space launch. This move
space access has emerged over the last would create jobs at home and stem the
few years, from reusable rocket en- flow of US dollars to Russia, argued
gines to the proliferation of miniature Barron Beneski, company vice presi-
satellites or cubesats. This space dent of investor relations and corporate
boom is reinvigorating the industry, communications.
opening up new pockets of the market Thats the only way a US company is
to competition. going to be able to compete with the
One such pocket is small space Russians, Beneski said. Its crazy that
launch, where several new companies US allies and American companies
like Firefly and XCOR Aerospace are cant compete with Russians that use
cropping up to meet a growing demand ICBM assets when theres a whole store
for vehicles to launch small payloads. of them here in the United States that
But according to one aerospace compa- we cant have access to.
ny, there is still a void of domestic solu- But competitors argue that Orbital
tions to service the payload class on the ATK is the only company that has the
upper edge of what is defined as knowledge base to incorporate solid-
small, between 500 and 2,000 kilo- fuel ICBM rocket motors into a launch US Air Force

grams. vehicle. Orbital ATK already does this An unarmed Minuteman III ICBM shoots out of the silo during an operational test
In this payload class, Orbital ATK ar- with its Minotaur family of launch vehi- launch in 2012 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif.
gues that US companies are at a distinct cles, which have supported 25 Defense
disadvantage. The Russians are using Department satellite launches, Beneski
rocket motors from the nations decom- said. Currently, Minotaur is restricted have chosen liquid rocket technology However, DalBello argues releasing
missioned intercontinental ballistic to DoD missions. over solid technology, said DalBello. excess government assets into the com-
missiles to launch commercial pay- Newer companies generally use liq- Saying everyone could use these as- mercial launch marketplace is a bad
loads in this weight range at a much uid-fuel rocket technology, considered sets is like offering railroads and air- idea that kills innovation.
lower cost, according to Ed Fortunato, more cost-effective for certain mis- lines all the used boxcars they want. Every president since Ronald Rea-
Orbital ATKs senior vice president for sions. It only makes financial sense to The problem is that the airlines are not gan has made encouraging a robust
government relations. Meanwhile, build a commercial version of a launch in the boxcar business. commercial marketplace a key part of
companies in Europe and India are vehicle fueled by solid ICBM rocket Fortunato and Beneski argued that if their space policy. Current policy is
building launch vehicles for this weight motors if the US government pays the the government releases these ICBM that these excess assets can be used to
class using government funds, Fortuna- majority of the cost, argued Richard assets to industry, Orbital ATKs solu- meet government requirements but
to said in an April 4 interview. DalBello, Virgin Galactic vice president tion would not compete with the new they may not be used to compete with
Orbital ATK is arguing the US govern- for business development and govern- companies looking to launch very small commercial operators, DalBello said.
ment should allow US companies to ment affairs. satellites into space. There is no domes- We have no issue with companies us-
buy rocket motors from decommis- I have heard the argument that any- tic solution, existing or in development, ing this technology to compete just
sioned Air Force intercontinental bal- body could use these [ICBM] assets. that can launch payloads in the 500 to not using assets that the government
listic missiles at market price to use for But all new, efficient, launch companies 2,000 kilogram range, Fortunato said. paid for. DN

10 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

Follow Air Warfare
Reporter Lara Seligman
on Twitter @LaraSeligman


Israeli Minister: F-35 Will

Preserve Its Qualitative Edge
Jack Crisler, Lockheed
Martin vice president
for F-35 business
development and
strategy integration,
BY BARBARA OPALL-ROME Yaalon said he intends to attend the left, talks with Chief
bopallrome@defensenews.com rollout of the first F-35I in Fort Worth, Test Pilot Alan
HERZLIYA, Israel Defense Minis- Texas, this summer and that plans are Norman and Israeli
ter Moshe Bogey Yaalon told visiting on track to receive the first two aircraft Defense Minister
Lockheed Martin executives and test by the end of the year. Moshe Bogey
pilots on April 5 that Israels planned Yaalon.
F-35I force would allow it to preserve One of The First
the nations qualitative military edge In a conference on April 3, Brig. Gen.
(QME) against regional adversaries. Tal Kalman, the Israeli Air Force (IAF)
Following a briefing at Air Force chief of staff, said the service expects to
House in Herzliya, Israel, by Jack Cris- declare an initial operational capability
ler, F-35 vice president for business de- (IOC) the first of any nation other Courtesy of the Israeli Ministry of Defense

velopment and strategic integration, than the US at the end of 2017, less
and Chief Test Pilot Alan Norman, Yaa- than a year after taking receipt of the craft to Israel. Under the current agreement signed
lon said he heard all the comments first aircraft. But procurement beyond the three- in 2007, Israel will receive $30 billion
and criticisms of the big-ticket pro- Were happy to be one of the first squadron, 50-aircraft force will depend over a ten-year period. In the follow-on
gram, yet is confident the fifth genera- countries, one of the first air forces in on the top line amount of grant aid that agreement, which will extend through
tion fighter with Israeli-unique the world, to operate this aircraft. We the US is willing to offer Israel once the 2028, Israel wants to augment that
add-ons would serve Israel well for will render it operational not long after current security assistance package ex- amount well beyond $40 billion.
generations to come. it is received here, and we will continue pires in 2018, Yaalon said. Once the amount is determined,
This plane is already operational in to receive more and more aircraft over well know what well be able to budget
the US, and has flown not a few flight the years, Yaalon said. More F-35s? for in terms of the capabilities the US is
hours more than 50,000 during the Israel has signed on for 33 aircraft When asked whether Israel intended willing to release to us, Yaalon said.
test program, Yaalon said. We obvi- thus far: a first batch of 19 in 2010, and to procure additional F-35s or another The US is ready to release to us addi-
ously will add our own capabilities, our another tranche of 14 in February 2015. squadron of F-15Is, Yaalon referred to tional F-35 squadrons and also an addi-
knowledge and our experience to each A follow-on order for an additional 17 negotiations with Washington over the tional squadron of advanced F-15s, as
plane. Im very happy that well know planes expected later this year, pro- new 10-year aid package. Theres a well as additional capabilities. The
how to preserve the qualitative military vided the US and Israel conclude a new very important question as to what will question is whether the sum of security
edge of the Israel Defense Forces and of 10-year aid package would bring Isra- be the amount of American security as- assistance will enable us to fund not
the Israel Air Force through acquisition els committed number of F-35Is to 50. sistance from October 2018 and be- only these capabilities, but many others
of this important plane. Washington has preapproved 75 air- yond. This subject is still open, he said. as well. DN

aerodynamic design, electrification,
electronic, flight, weapons and commu-

Export License Key Issue in Turk Fighter Program nications systems as well as the manu-
facturing plan. It hopes to produce the
first prototype of the TFX, the planned
BY BURAK EGE BEKDIL for Defense Industries (SSM)], if Tur- be a government-to-government deal, first Turkish fighter aircraft, by 2023.
bbekdil@defensenews.com keys pre-contract negotiations with the official said. Since we consider this This will be an aircraft for the 2030s,
ANKARA The most critical issue in BAE Systems fail Ankara will launch as a strategic program the final deci- the aerospace official said. Turkey
Turkeys talks with BAE Systems for the the same negotiations with Airbus and sion will be political based on various plans to phase out its fleet of F-16 fight-
development of an indigenous Turkish Saab. other political and nonpolitical pa- ers by 2030.
fighter jet is whether the European side A senior procurement official familiar rameters. But some analysts are skeptical about
will agree to grant Ankara limitless with the program said Turkey also in- A senior Turkish aerospace official the target dates. It is likely that this
export licenses, senior Turkish officials sists on maximum technology transfer said Turkey also is negotiating with program may face delays or major de-
say. and full access to all source codes. BAE Systems full assignment of Turk- lays, said one London-based aero-
We want commitments that there In the future we want to be able to ish engineers and scientists in aerody- space specialist.
will be no limitations in export licenses. make every modification and modern- namic design, body and engine Last year Turkeys procurement au-
They [BAE Systems] pledged mini- ization as we wish. We also want to be production, all software, electronic, thorities ranked BAE Systems first in a
mum limitations and we rejected that independent in integrating new weap- weapons and communications systems three-way competition (with Airbus
proposal, said Ismail Demir, Turkeys ons systems, he said. as well as all flight tests. and Saab) to select a foreign partner in
top procurement official. Turkey has been having pre-contract According to a preliminary road map the TFX program. Turkish officials
According to Demir, head of the pro- negotiations with BAE Systems and Turkey hopes to complete 80 percent of hope to agree on terms with BAE Sys-
curement agency [the Undersecretariat British government officials. This will all program calculations regarding tems and sign a contract this year. DN

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 11


Unmanned Sub-Hunter To Begin Testing BY CHRISTOPHER P. CAVAS


WASHINGTON The cat-and-

mouse game of anti-submarine warfare
(ASW) is always characterized by en-
durance. How long can a crew hold
out? How long can a pursuer stay on
top? If its a non-nuclear sub, how long
can the undersea boats engines keep
Enter the unmanned vessel still re-
stricted by fuel, but unconstrained by
the need to support human operators.
While small unmanned surface and un-
derwater vehicles have been around
for decades, the US Navy is taking a sig-
nificant leap forward with the develop-
ment of the Anti-Submarine Warfare
Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel
Photos by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ACTUV), a 132-foot long vessel intend-
DARPA and ONR will test the concept of a high-endurance, unmanned submarine chaser using the Sea Hunter, seen running trials ed to search for submarines at sea as
in Oregon in February. long as three months at a time.
ACTUV pronounced active is
focused on providing a high degree of
autonomy, program manager Scott
Littlefield told reporters April 6. Its
not just a remote controlled boat.
Computers will drive and control the
ship, Littlefield said, but a human will
always be observing, able to take
charge if necessary. The concept,
called Sparse Supervisory Control,
means the human being is in control,
but not joy sticking the vessel around,
Littlefield said.
Prime contractor for the Defense Ad-
vanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) ACTUV program is Leidos,
and construction took place at the Vig-
or Shipyard in Portland, Oregon. Until a
merger in 2014, the yard was known as
the Oregon Iron Works, specializing in
the design and construction of exotic
special-mission craft.
Launched in January, the ACTUV ves-
sel, named Sea Hunter, has been run-
ning trials in the Portland area. The
vessel was commissioned today in a
ceremony at Portland, and in a couple
weeks will be sent to San Diego, where
DARPA and the Office of Naval Re-
search (ONR) will begin a two-year-
long trial period to test the concept and
various sensors that can be installed on
the 145-ton full load displacement ves-
sel. DARPA will conduct the initial
trials and turn the vessel over to ONR
later this year. The test phase will run

12 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

Follow Naval Warfare Reporter
Christopher P. Cavas on
Twitter @CavasShips

In January, the Sea Hunter was will be on board throughout the test pe-
launched by crane at Vigor Shipyards of riod, for safety and backup, Little-
Portland, Oregon. field said. Well be there for a while
until we work through the reliability
ate waves up to about 6 and a half feet Like most DARPA projects, the Sea
high and winds up to 21 knots and be Hunter is not a prototype for an opera-
survivable through Sea State 7, consid- tional Navy platform, although it could
ered to be rough weather with seas up be. The overall goal, Littlefield said, is
to 20 feet high. to build something very affordable
The configuration of the composite- which could probably be acquired in
construction design resembles a Poly- large numbers.
nesian war canoe, with a long, slim hull As the first hull, Sea Hunter is a bit
supported by outboard pontoons more pricey than a potential follow-on
called Amas connected by outriggers. vessel.
The composite hull features a foam It looks were going to deliver the
core with a fiberglass skin, Littlefield first one for a construction cost of be-
said, while the outriggers are fabricat- tween $22 million and $23 million dol-
ed with higher stiffness. lars, Littlefield said. Were trying to
Sea Hunter will not carry weapons, get to a series cost of about $20 million
but will trail sensors designed to detect a copy not cheap, but not as expen-
and track submarines. The vessel, Lit- sive as a manned warship. The daily
tlefield said, could operate with Litto- operating cost is likely to be between
through September 2018. actual top speed is dependent on the ral Combat Ships, in essence becoming $15,000 and $20,000, he added.
Sea Hunter will carry about 40 tons sea state and how much fuel is on an extension of the LCS ASW module. The cost figures do not include pro-
of fuel. Top speed on trials was around board. The vessel is intended to be op- A removable operator control station gram costs, including development, de-
27 knots, Littlefield said, although the erational through Sea State 5 moder- is installed on the craft, and a person sign and software. DN

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 13


US Army Says Budget Cuts Are

Dulling Its Competitive Edge
BY MICHELLE TAN modernization against current and fu-
mtan@defensenews.com ture threats, and we have no current
WASHINGTON The US Army is Were having a major ground combat vehicle in devel-
being forced to sacrifice modernization opment, which is why the Armys
in favor of readiness even as Americas harder and harder Abrams tanks and Bradley Fighting Ve-
enemies become increasingly capable, hicles likely will remain in the Armys
senior leaders testified on Capitol Hill. time for the small inventory for the next 50 to 70 years,
Our competitive advantage weve force to keep pace even after theyre obsolete.
continually banked on is decreasing, Another critical area where the Army
[and] the Army risks losing its qualita- with the demand. is lagging is cyber and electronic war-
tive overmatch in future conflicts, said fare, McMaster said, citing the ongoing
Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, director of the Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster, director of conflict in Ukraine as a real wake-up ply cannot modernize the entire force
Army Capabilities Integration Center. the US Army Capabilities Integration call. with the most modern equipment, he
With the 74 percent decrease in Army Center The Armys fiscal 2017 budget request said. Therefore, we must do so selec-
modernization total obligation author- prioritizes readiness and assumes risks tively.
ity since 2008, the risk to mission and in modernization, said Lt. Gen. Michael The service also is continually mod-
soldiers is increasing. subcommittee. Williamson, the military deputy in the ifying equipment to extend its service
This risk is compounded by the grow- Were having a harder and harder Office of the Assistant Secretary of the life, including with the UH-60 Black
ing demand for land forces around the time for the small force to keep pace Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Hawk, AH-64 Apache and CH-47 heli-
world, McMaster told the Senate Armed with the demand, he said. Technology. copters, and the M109 Paladin, William-
Services Committees Airland He added that the Army is behind in Due to resource constraints, we sim- son said.
We cannot put our soldiers at risk
without the right equipment at the right
time in the right place to accomplish
their mission, he said.
To mitigate many of these challenges,
The International Forum for the Military Simulation, the Army needs long-term, sustained
and predictable funding, said Lt. Gen.
Training and Education Community Joseph Anderson, the deputy chief of
staff for operations (G-3).
An Enterprise Approach; Beyond Training. We assume risk by reducing end
strength, delaying modernization, he
said. These tradeoffs mortgage our fu-
IN 2016, EXPECT:
4 high-level briefings from 55 ture readiness.
stream conference 120 expert speakers countries represented Balancing end strength, readiness
and modernization is a fundamental is-
Enterprise Approach to Training and
Education (Enterprise & Procurement)
2,300 hundreds of networking
opportunities across 3 days sue for the Army, said Lt. Gen. John
visitors & exhibitors Murray, deputy chief of staff for Army
M&S Technologies and Architectures
Dual Use Training Applications programs (G-8).
Training and Education - 91%
of the 2015 delegates were very Its a balancing act, and Im more
satisfied with the conference*
Requirements to Solutions concerned about the cumulative risk
than I am with one budget, he said.
Register today for ITEC at www.itec.co.uk When asked about the size of the
Army the active Army is slated in
2018 to reach an end strength of
450,000, down from a wartime high of
570,000; and the overall total Army is
supposed to number 980,000 the gen-
erals all agreed that any move by Con-
For more information and to register for ITEC 2016, gress to stop the drawdown must be
please visit: www.itec.co.uk or contact the team on Platinum Sponsor Silver Sponsor Organised by accompanied by the appropriate fund-
+44 (0) 20 7384 7788 or +1 718 474 3817 ing.
Without the right funding, it could be
@ITEC2016 www.itec.co.uk/linkedin www.itec.co.uk/facebook * Internal survey conducted in June 2015. disastrous, McMaster said, adding that
it typically costs about $1 billion for ev-

14 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

Follow Land Warfare Reporter
Jen Judson on Twitter @JenJudson


Sgt. Grant Matthes/US Army

The US Army continuously updates its

CH-47 Chinook helicopters to extend its
service life, even as the service is
forced to cut is modernization budget.

ery 10,000 soldiers.

Such a move would force the Army to
choose between properly training and
equipping its soldiers with slowing
modernization even further, Murray
If you increase the number of sol-
diers without an increase in the top line,
we will ensure the readiness of our sol-
diers, so modernization will take anoth-
er hit, he said. It would slow down
production to the minimum sustain-
ment rate and further decrement [mil-
itary construction]. It makes the
problem we have right now even
It also is much easier to retain a capa-
bility than have to rebuild it, McMaster
When the Army grew its brigade com-
bat teams during the height of the Iraq
War, it was a 31-month ordeal to build
an armored brigade combat team from
scratch, Murray said.
The Army must be able to maintain
your company as
ready land forces that can deploy rap-
idly and transition quickly into con- a key player
ducting operations, McMaster said.
These land forces have to have mo-
bility, they have to have protection, they
have to have lethality, he said. A lot of
times youll hear the term light and
nimble. Well, Richard Simmons is light
and nimble, and we dont send him to go
do harm to somebody. DN www.eurosatory.com
Michelle Tan is a senior reporter for Army Times.

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 15

Calendar From Page One

TO PLACE A LISTING: 703.658.8365 or calendar@defensenews.com REFORM PROPOSAL

While the rationale appears to be
April 12-13, 2016 May 3-5, 2016 making the department more agile to
NDIA JOINT UNDERSEA NDIA 59th ANNUAL FUZE transregional and multiple threats, Car-
WARFARE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE ters plan still lacks a larger strategic
Charlston, SC coherence and multiple major bold,
SPRING CONFERENCE May 16-18, 2016 hard and new initiatives, Eaglen said.
Washington, DC www.ndia.org/meetings/6560
SEA-AIR-SPACE: THE NAVY A former defense official concurred,
May 9-11, 2016 LEAGUES GLOBAL MARITIME saying that compared to major reform
NDIA ANNUAL TACTICAL WHEELED EXPOSITION announcements by prior secretaries,
Gaylord Convention Center Carters Goldwater-Nichols proposal
National Harbor, MD list comes off as fairly limited, but add-
NDIA 32nd ANNUAL NATIONAL Reston, VA http://www.seaairspace.org ing overall, at this stage in the game,
LOGISTICS FORUM its probably for the better that Carter
Washington, DC Sea-Air-Space is the largest military kept his proposed basket of reforms
www.ndia.org/meetings/6730 May 9-13, 2016 maritime exposition in the U.S. and the limited.
29th INTERNATIONAL single largest professional development Andrew Hunter, a former Pentagon
SYMPOSIUM ON BALLISTICS platform for the U.S. Navy, Marine Corps official now with CSIS, agreed an incre-
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK and Coast Guard and their international mental approach was a smart one for
April 18-21, 2016 www.ndia.org/meetings/6210 allies annually. Gain access to 250+ Carter, saying, I think the incremental
DEFENCE SERVICES ASIA 2016 exhibitors and 20 military commands approach can be powerful. It gives you
(DSA 2016) Jointly organized by the International unveiling the latest technology and
a chance to course correct if you get
Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC) Ballistics Society & NDIA. Join ballistics something wrong.
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scientists and engineers at THE venue Arnold Punaro, a former Marine
www.dsaexhibition.com for int'l technical and scientific Corps major general and Senate Armed
exchange in the field of ballistics and Services Committee staff director, said
impact physics offering exposure to the May 17-19, 2016 the incremental approach needs to be
most current state-of-the-art technology ITEC understood in the context that 2016 is
April 19-20, 2016 London, UK very different from 1986.
in ballistics. Cultivate business interests
NDIA MEDICAL RESEARCH, First, the threats are fundamentally
and cooperative development. Take
DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION different than the Cold War with a
advantage of opportunities to exhibit and
IN SUPPORT OF THE WARFIGHTER share your scientific research and world that is now more unstable and
Ellicott City, MD unpredictable. Second, unlike 1986
development with a distinguished group May 17-19, 2016
www.ndia.org/meetings/6310 when there was total opposition in the
of professional ballisticians. AHS 72TH ANNUAL FORUM & Pentagon to any of the changes the
May 12, 2016 Palm Beach County Convention Center
April 25-28, 2016 NDIA ANNUAL AWARD DINNER & West Palm Beach, FL
Fredericksburg, VA Ritz Carlton Tysons Corner EUROFIGHTER FROM PAGE 1
www.ndia.org/meetings/6610 McLean, VA
www.ndia.org/meetings/6130 The Cabinet approved the purchase
May 18-20, 2016 of the 28 Eurofighters from Italy for
Award presented to entertainer and
MAY singer Trace Adkins.
BLACK SEA DEFENSE & 7.957 billion (US $9.062 billion).
AEROSPACE According to Abdullah al-Shayji, Ku-
May 2-5, 2016 Bucharest, Romania wait University political science profes-
www.bsda.ro sor and lecturer at the Mubarak
http://www.xponential.org Al-Abdullah Joint Staff Command Col-
New Orleans, LA lege, the Kuwaiti purchase is a clear
message to the US government.
May 23-26, 2016 This message clearly states that Ku-
XPONENTIAL 2016 is your opportunity to May 15-18, 2016 wait will not be waiting anymore for US
hear from industry leading experts across
'ss G
T 2
6 S
Tampa, FL
approvals, and other alternatives are
every domain--air, ground and maritime. Gaylord Palms Resort & Convention Center present, he said.
The event convenes the largest global
Orlando, FL Jean-Marc Rickli, assistant professor
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for unmanned systems education. Register today! Paris, France with Iran. This perception made them

16 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence R1 April 11, 2016

Congress was considering, todays asked. McCain said sure but wouldnt con-
Pentagon civilian and military leaders Another point Carter put forth was firm that meant consolidating some of
recognize the need to update this 30- giving the service chiefs a greater role Carters plan still those regional responsibilities.
years-old legislation and have stated in acquisition, something that Con- That could include going after the re-
they will work with the Congress; gress requested during its reform ef- lacks a larger gional COCOMs and combining some
third, the military is not broken as was forts last year. The secretary also of them, a popular debating point in
the case in 1986 so the revolutionary pledged to cut the size of the headquar- strategic coherence Washington military circles. There is
type changes required in 1986 are not ters staff in line with a 25 percent con- some consensus around elevating US
needed in some areas, Punaro said. gressionally ordered reduction. Both and multiple major Cyber Command from a sub-combat-
those are largely improvements or ant command to a full combatant com-
Chain of Command tweaks of previously legislated ac-
bold, hard and new mand, McCain said, and he expressed
Goldwater-Nichols streamlined the tions, the analysts agreed. initiatives. openness to giving the Joint Chiefs
military chain of command, running it More notable was a decision to win- chairman more involvement, in line
from the president through the defense now the number of four-star billets Mackenzie Eaglen with Carters remarks.
secretary to joint combatant com- down to the three-star level in order to American Enterprise Institute Carter, notably, did not comment
manders and largely bypassing the ser- avoid being, as Carter put it, too top- specifically on the issue of elevating
vice chiefs, whose focus became heavy. And perhaps the most practical CYBERCOM, but left the door open by
training and equipping personnel. In impact from the secretary could come saying we should consider changes to
his speech, Carter said he would not from a plan to change the requirement ther, Eaglen predicted. cybers role in DoDs Unified Com-
seek to add the chairman of the Joint that officers serve in joint roles as they I expect the Senates work on this to mand Plan.
Chiefs into the chain of command, but progress in their careers, calling the be much more hard-hitting, controver- The Senate and House Armed Ser-
would codify the chairman as the top current requirements more narrow sial and potentially significant in fun- vices committees are preparing to of-
military adviser to the secretary and and rigid than they need to be. damentally changing some depart- fer their own version of Goldwater-
president. Thats something Carter mental plans, processes and Nichols reform as part of the 2017
himself acknowledged is already hap- Congress Wants More operations, she said. National Defense Authorization Act,
pening, noting as a practical matter The Pentagon made a conscious ef- There will be overlap between the and the two sides of the Hill are work-
everyone knows I look to Gen. [Joe] fort to get out in front of Goldwater- SASC and Pentagon proposals, McCain ing together to craft a document.
Dunford to do that, but I think its Nichols reforms after falling behind said April 5, but he said his would go Punaro said he does not expect a
worth writing it down. Congress on acquisition reforms last much further than DoDs, adding that push to put the chairman directly into
The former defense official cau- year. As a result, Carter met with a there are a lot of things they wont the chain of command to come from
tioned that Carters terms were fairly number of former top Pentagon offi- like, but there are a lot of things we the Hill. But he indicated common-
vague and merit scrutiny. cials to gather their ideas on how best both like. sense changes to the joint-duty re-
Why, to use Carters words, do they to move forward with reforms. Pressed for details the next day, quirement, perhaps in line with what
merit writing down, given that he looks However, while Carter did not tackle McCain would say only that his sugges- Carter suggested, would likely come
to the chairman to play that role al- big changes to the COCOM structure, tions would be more comprehensive from the legislation, and also ex-
ready? Would this actually delegate the Hill, and in particular Senate and more controversial. pressed hope that the Hill will continue
new authority to the chairman or just Armed Services Chairman Sen. John Asked specifically if those changes to push to limit the size of headquarters
clarify his role? the former official McCain of Arizona, may look to go far- would involve the COCOM structure, personnel. DN

prone to be more proactive. The Saudi generation aircraft is very demanding, operational support and the training of Fallon said the deal would bolster long-
intervention in Yemen is a case in point, finding enough people with the right flight crews and ground personnel in co- term cooperation with the Gulf state.
Rickli said. skills among the local population will be operation with the Italian Air Force. Kuwaits decision to select Typhoon
These new contracts, Rickli said, a challenge, he said. The contract also provides for the up- represents a vote of confidence in this
should be seen as a result of US per- One way to offset these financial and grade of infrastructure in Kuwait, which world-class aircraft and will further
ceived disengagement toward the Gulf human capabilities challenges, he sug- will be used for Typhoon operations. strengthen our defense and security co-
states since the beginning of the Arab gested, would be to pull resources to- The Defense Ministry said in a state- operation over the years ahead, he said
Spring. gether so that certain states specialize ment that the first two Eurofighters will in a statement.
Weapons procurement has always be in specific niche capabilities. arrive in Kuwait in the fourth quarter of Describing the deal, Finmeccanica
a way to cultivate and diversify allies for However, as the NATO and EU exam- 2019 and final delivery occur by 2022. CEO Mauro Moretti said: This is Fin-
the Gulf countries. Since 2015, another ples demonstrate, this is very difficult to The statement also said the planes will meccanicas largest ever commercial
factor has been added: the impetus un- achieve because states are very reluc- remain operational until 2050. achievement, adding, It is an out-
der Saudi leadership for the Gulf states tant to share their sovereignty when it The Defense Ministry noted that the standing industrial success with signifi-
to guarantee their own security and comes to guaranteeing their security. agreement encompasses logistical and cant benefits, not only for our company
contribute to regional security. This re- This can only happen if they share a training support. The training support and the other Eurofighter consortium
quires new capabilities, he said. common threat assessment and have will include pilot training and technical partners, but also for the entire Italian
Furthermore, the question of the tim- common interests. Saudi Arabia is try- training where pilot instructors will also aerospace industry..
ing of such procurement is an issue in ing to push for this with its counter- be present in Kuwait; one full simulator Since it entered service in 2003, over
itself, he said, as the falling oil prices terrorism force initiative, but there is and two partial simulators will be pro- 470 Eurofighters have been delivered to
have put enormous strains on the Gulf still a very long way to go, he said. vided. the air forces of six countries and have
states budgets. As lead company on the contract, Fin- The Defense Ministry added that the flown over 330,000 hours, Finmeccani-
Beyond the financial burden that such meccanica signed the deal in Kuwait contract includes the construction of ca said. Some 599 aircraft have been or-
procurements represent, the issue of with the countrys Ministry of Defense operations buildings, maintenance dered by eight customers: Kuwait,
training new pilots is problematic. in the presence of Italian Defense Minis- buildings, and pilot and technician Saudi Arabia, Oman, Germany, Spain, It-
For each aircraft, you will need three ter Roberta Pinotti and her Kuwaiti training buildings in a new extension of aly, the UK and Austria. DN
to four pilots. In the case of Kuwait, this counterpart, Defense Minister Sheikh the Ali Al Salem Air Base to accommo-
means training about 100 new pilots. Khalid al-Jarrah al-Sabah. date the development of the aircraft Awad Mustafa from Dubai, United Arab Emirates,
Both Kuwait and Qatar are small states The contract involves the production through the creation of a new runway. and Andrew Chuter from London contributed to
with a small population. As flying fifth- of aircraft in Italy and covers logistics, British Defence Secretary Michael this story.

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 17

You found a lot of fraud, waste Sopkos government
and abuse in Afghanistan. Have experience includes more
you seen any efforts to rebuild than 20 years of service
the economy that work? on Capitol Hill. He served
I think sometimes small works bet- as chief counsel for over-
ter than large, so Id start with that as sight and Investigations
a principle. for the House Committee
Ive been briefed on numerous very on Energy and Commerce,
small projects, in particular some supervising several in-
womens projects on education and all vestigations focused on
that, that we havent audited. matters regulated by the
Other projects that have worked, I Food and Drug Admini-
think people have taken our recom- stration, Department of
mendations to heart. When US Forces Energy, Department of
Afghanistan Commander Gen. Joseph Commerce, Federal Com-
Dunford was running the show in munications Commission
Afghanistan ... we raised some con- and Federal Energy Regu-
cerns about construction in light of latory Commission.
the drawdown in troops and when
Dunford was commander there he Mike Morones/Staff

John Sopko
ordered a complete review of all the commission to try to recover that
major construction going on and said money.
do we need this since the troop level is
coming down? I think that saved al- Is there a timeline that Presi-
most half a billion dollars. dent Ghani's set for that?

Special Inspector General for

I think Combined Security Training My people are talking to his people
Command Afghanistan under the right now about getting access and
predecessor Maj. Gen. Todd Semonite, starting it so theres no timeline and
and now under the current one, but
definitely under Semonite, his ap- Afghanistan Reconstruction theres no guarantee well find the
money. It should have been done by
proach at putting conditions on the the prior regime, it wasnt, and it took
money we were giving to the Afghans, John Sopko is known as someone who does not sugar-coat the facts. a while to get this going so were hop-
thats worked. He even admitted to us ing the best for that recovery but he
that prior to 2013, DoD had never put Hes plainly highlighted waste, fraud and abuse in Afghanistan since he knows as well as we know the money
any conditions on the money they was sworn in to the position in 2012. Most recently hes delved into in- could have flown the coop.
gave to the Afghans, so he started
putting smart conditions on it. vestigations of questionable projects launched in Afghanistan by the Pen- Are there any other new investi-
tagons Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, created in 2010 gations youll conduct as a result
As of now, what are some of the of this trip?
problems that the unity govern- and closed in 2015, to address economic revitalization efforts. But revital- A couple things. Number one we
ment still has to solve? ize the Afghan economy, the TFBSO has not. Sopko uncovered such are going to do a major, full-blown
The security situation is deteriorat- audit on the Kajakai Dam and the
ing there. They recognize it too and TFBSO projects as a $43 million compressed natural gas station that construction of that.
theyre trying to work to get their serves about 100 taxi drivers. Other efforts include multimillion-dollar The Kajakai Dam is one of the long-
soldiers and their police up to fighting est running public works projects in
speed. There are many reasons for storage facilities never used, a $7.5 million program to increase sales of the history of the United States. We
that security problem training, hand-knotted carpets and the importation of nine male goats from Italy to started working on the Kajakai Dam in
illiteracy, the fact that you have mul- 1949-1950. Its to put turbines into it.
tiple terrorist groups operating in spur a cashmere industry. Moreover, the TFBSO managed to lose track of Its an important project. Its still not
Afghanistan. The other problem, those goats. Jen Judson sat down with Sopko after his latest trip to Af- done. Weve spent hundreds of mil-
and major problem President Ashraf lions of dollars, contractors have lost
Ghani is facing, is corruption. It's ghanistan to get the latest on the state of the country as it tries to rebuild. their lives, coalition soldiers have lost
endemic, its widespread. You have their lives trying to do it and after a
power sources very powerful peo- to the Kabul bank records to try to looted from the bank, all insider trad- briefing I got from the US Agency for
ple, monopolies, oligarchs, who are track down the money and recover it ing. It was basically a humongous International Development, I felt it's
siphoning money off of not only US for the Afghan government and the Ponzi scheme. Money was put in and time for us to do a full-blown audit
contracts but Afghan contracts and Afghan people. Thats a good sign they used the money go give loans and because I did not have a good feeling
Ghani is trying to do something about that the new unity government actu- buy property for the senior officials walking away from the briefing that
it. ally is trying to do something about and their friends and these monopo- were ever going to finish Kajakai Dam
Theres a success story there. One of corruption. lies and oligarchs that are around it. and, even when it is finished, what are
the things that came out of my meet- The [Kabul bank], it was the largest The prior administration didnt do we really going to accomplish?
ing with the president is that we bank in Afghanistan, the largest fraud anything about it. We made it a condi- The other thing that came out is that,
worked out an arrangement where he in Afghanistan. I think it amounted to tion that they do something but they again, based upon briefings I got from
is going to give my people full access almost close to a billion dollars stolen, still ignored it. Ghani has opened up a USAID, my office is still concerned

18 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016

about a program that was announced Office raised some serious concerns Department of Defense, we then said
by the former administrator of USAID about TFBSO and basically I think this organization doesnt report to
called Promote to promote women were ignored by TFBSO. I do not want your normal reporting chain it
in Afghanistan. A noble effort, but to see Promote or any other program reports to the secretary of defense.
were very concerned about how it's in Afghanistan turn into a TFBSO. In Now, the secretary of defense, these
being carried out, so were going to all likelihood, well never recover a are brilliant people who have many
continue monitoring that. dollar that was wasted and in most of tasks, but youre assigning an opera-
the programs that have been imple- tional unit to report to the SECDEF,
What are the red flags there? mented, I doubt if any of them are and then it was the DEPSECDEF, and
What is raising your concern? going to be that successful. then it was the head of policy. Well,
The red flags are that it seems to be We were asked by the Senate Armed Im certain they are good at policy but
a very complicated program in Af- Services subcommittee to do a full- not on running specific operational
ghanistan. Right now when the securi- blown audit a program audit as well programs, so, in a way, this was a
ty situation is so difficult, why are you as a financial audit which were perfect storm.
announcing a $200 million, $300 mil- doing right now. We are uncovering And then you basically had no man-
lion program thats going to entail things as we start to review the rec- agement oversight and thats why I The security
trying to help women out in various ords which, if anything, they make think you have situations like this.
districts? It doesnt really seem that it things even look worse than what There are a lot of lessons learned. situation is
is being built with the interests of the weve found so far. This is like giving the Postal Service
Afghan women in mind and we want the mission to run our drones in Af- deteriorating there.
to just double check that and make Can you highlight any of those ghanistan. You at least want to brief
certain theyve talked to the Afghan new discoveries? them on it and get them prepared. The other problem,
women and found what the Afghan They spent almost 20 percent of There were a lot of people on the
women really need. their budget on these villas and the Hill, particularly in the House Armed
and major problem
We think if we can review it and security. Again, it may have been a Services Committee, who raised seri- President Ashraf
make suggestions for improvement great idea to be able to float around ous questions about this. There actu-
now, we can save money in the long Afghanistan and not be covered by ally was an attorney in the General Ghani is facing, is
run because this is a multiyear pro- military rules but you had to have Counsels Office of the Defense De-
gram and not all that much money has security guards and all this other stuff partment who said it was illegal and corruption. It's
been spent so far. and it cost overall $150 million. were trying to track him down.
Well, we found out that one of the There were alarm bells going off but endemic, its
So the goal going forward is to directors in 2011, basically as he was for some reason there were some
assess these programs early? leaving, ordered them to shut this all strong supporters here who kind of
widespread. You have
Yes and that is a valid complaint down because it wasnt working. ... ignored it and now the US taxpayer is power sources very
of all IGs. By the time we normally get Well, apparently, they ignored it and out about $800 million and the Af-
there, the program is over or the mon- they kept doing this. Were trying to ghans got nothing out of it or very powerful people,
ey has been wasted. Its just the way figure out who ignored it, why they little.
the process is. Our audits take six ignored it and why they didnt do it. monopolies,
months to a year and youve got to Thats an example of some of the How does US troop presence in
design them, youve got to coordinate problems. Afghanistan help your job? oligarchs, who are
them with everybody else and so by Were following up on the goat issue, Our access has decreased as the US
the time we show up with our audit God bless the goats. We found military and coalition forces have
siphoning money off
team, I like to make an analogy to some of them, but that is turning out decreased and thats equally applica- of not only US
these detective shows on TV. The body to be far worse. Weve actually talked ble to the DoD IG, State, USAID, ev-
is gone. Theres just a chalk outline of to a subject matter expert who was erybody at GAO. Its also applicable to contracts but Afghan
where the body was. We are trying hired and basically quit out of disgust the career foreign service officer who
... to get in early so you can actually because she even told them this was cant get around the country, or the contracts and Ghani
help save the money. going to take 20 years [to breed AID officer, or the US Corps of Engi-
enough for a cashmere industry]. neers contracting officer he cant is trying to do
Diving into the TFBSO the But TFBSO wanted to do it in two and get around. We all are affected by that
now-defunct DoD Task Force for it was just a total disaster. because the security situation has
something about it.
Business and Stability Operations deteriorated. John Sopko
youve uncovered countless How did TFBSO ever become a So what do you do? Were trying to
examples of waste, fraud and DoD program? think outside of the box. Were trying
poor decision making in an effort Somebody thought it was a great to use some technical means to do this
to boost the Afghan economy, idea. But if you are going to give a new but were also reaching out to and
from a fuel station not compat- mission to an agency, you have to be vetting some Afghan civil society
ible to anyones cars to fancy very careful and give them the appro- organizations to be our eyes and ears.
villas for the task force employ- priate management tools and give the Weve been pretty successful with that
ees. Is there any effort here that people who can oversee it. Its human and so were able to get some reports
could be saved or fixed? nature. If a kid has never driven a car, and vet those reports in certain areas
The money basically has been wast- you dont just give them the keys to so were slowly testing it and now it
ed. the Ferrari and say, Good luck! So looks like were going to be using a lot
The Government Accountability here, we created a new mission for the of it for some of our inspections. DN

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 19



Jill Aitoro Esteban Villarejo
Alex Neill Burak Ege Bekdil
ASSISTANT EDITOR Tel: 90.533.273.3673
Karen Small
Christopher P. Cavas Ashley Neth
Joe Gould Karan Batra,
PENTAGON Rachel Barth,
Aaron Mehta John Bretschneider,
AIR WARFARE John Harman,
Lara Seligman Betsy Moore
Ethan Miller/Getty Images
BUREAUS Jennifer Milbrett
ASIA MULTIMEDIA The Air Forces latest plan, reflected in the fiscal 2017 budget request, is to retire the A-10 by fiscal 2022.

Replacing, Not Just

Wendell Minnick
Tel: 886.922.428.572 Alan Lessig,
FRANCE Mike Morones,
Pierre Tran Lars Schwetje,
Daniel Woolfolk
A new aircraft
Vivek Raghuvanshi picdesk
dedicated to the CAS

Retiring, the A-10

Tel: @defensenews.com
Barbara Opall-Rome EXPERIENCE mission could take
Tel: 972.54.8040272 DIRECTOR
UNITED ARAB Jenn Rafael advantage of new
Awad Mustafa
Emily Cole,
Andrew Chuter Kathleen Curthoys, ne size fits all generally results platform in the long term.
Tel: 44.207.618.3470

Lindsey Wray
O in something that is ill-fitting,
at best. So it is with many
attempts built around the com-
The nature of close-air support has
evolved with ever-better sensors,
command and battle management
Nigel Pittaway Ken Chamberlain, mendable push for cost savings to systems, and precision weapons. A AirLands Scorpion.
BELGIUM/EU/NATO Chris Martin, field multirole weapons platforms. new aircraft dedicated to the CAS For an A-X, the general cautioned
Martin Banks Steve Weigand
EARLY BIRD EDITOR The push to retire the widely be- mission could take advantage of new that a lot will depend on Congress and
David Pugliese Jennifer-Leigh Oprihory loved A-10 Warthog and shift its close- technologies, including defense sys- whether another round of mandatory
Tel: 250.592.8354 air support mission to the F-35 joint tems to counter sophisticated anti- budget cuts under sequestration oc-
GERMANY SIGHTLINE strike fighter had many critics who aircraft defenses not encountered in curs in fiscal years 18 and 19. Mean-
Lars Hoffmann MEDIA GROUP charged that the shiny new toy did not the uncontested battle spaces of Af- while, A-10 supporters in Congress
Tom Kington Michael A. Reinstein have the capabilities to safeguard ghanistan and Iraq. want the planes kept in service, large-
Tel: 39.339.243.1819 PRESIDENT ground troops as does the battle- Setting the requirement is the first ly to guard installations in their dis-
JAPAN Peter Lundquist proven A-10. move toward developing a potential tricts from any future base closures.
Paul Kallender-Umezu VICE PRESIDENT & Last week, Lt. Gen. Mike Holmes, follow-on aircraft for the A-10, one Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Mark
Nick Lee-Frampton David Smith the deputy chief of staff for strategic dedicated to the close-air support Welsh will review the requirements
PAKISTAN ASSOCIATE plans and requirements, told reporters mission, often referred to as A-X. The documents this spring. The optimum
Usman Ansari PUBLISHER the Air Force is developing a require- Air Force has been studying the idea outcome will be an aircraft dedicated
POLAND David Steinhafel ments document for a dedicated CAS of procuring a single-role A-X for at to the CAS mission, one that sustains
Jaroslaw Adamowski PUBLISHER &
RUSSIA PRESIDENT EMERITUS; plane to replace the A-10 after its least a year now. the survivability and effectiveness of
Matthew Bodner ADVISORY BOARD retirement. This forward momentum Holmes said the Air Force will now the Warthog and utilizes new and
SCANDINAVIA E.G. Howard to build a direct A-10 replacement is a will weigh the capability and afforda- emerging technologies.
Gerard ODwyer HEADQUARTERS: sign the service is bowing to pressure bility of three alternatives: building a Wasteful spending, of course, can
Tel: 35.863.853.056 6883 Commercial Drive
SOUTH AMERICA Springfield, VA 22159 from the public and Congress to main- new A-X, using existing aircraft to never be tolerated. But neither should
Jos Higuera USA tain a single-role aircraft to protect meet the CAS mission, or extending cost savings for the sake of savings. It
SOUTH KOREA TELEPHONE: soldiers on the ground. the life of the A-10. He said several would be hard to find a mission more
Jung Sung-ki 703.642.7300 Thats the wisest, if belated move. current and development aircraft important that protecting the troops
Oscar Nkala While planes such as the B-1, F-16, or could meet the CAS mission, including on the ground. They deserve nothing
F-35 can perform the CAS mission, the the A-29 Super Tucano attack plane, less than an aircraft designed solely
best option is still a dedicated CAS the AT-6 trainer aircraft and Textron for that, with no corners cut.

20 | defensenews.com Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence April 11, 2016


Recapitalizing Joint STARS: Small is Beautiful

ecall the movie Jaws, when aircraft. Lets see. ROBERT HAFFA is JSTARS capabilities while reducing

R Police Chief Martin Brody

warns shark-hunter Quint that
Were gonna need a bigger boat.
As the cost of operating the current
JSTARS continued to rise, Air Force
leaders conducted an analysis of al-
principal of Haffa
Defense Consulting in
Naples, Florida. He is
SWAP requirements. Computers,
digital radars and processors have
improved while the weight of those
That, essentially, is the argument that ternatives seeking a more affordable a retired Air Force systems decreased. Thus, rather than
some defense industry analysts are and effective aircraft. They concluded colonel, a former SWAP requirements increasing over an
making regarding the selection of an a new JSTARS could take advantage of director of the aircrafts life cycle, the aircraft has
aircraft to house the next Joint Sur- advances in information technology by Northrop Grumman become lighter: The current JSTARS
veillance Target Attack Radar System hosting the radar and mission systems Analysis Center, and aircraft weighs 3,500 pounds less than
(JSTARS). on a smaller, long-range business jet. an adjunct professor when it was first deployed. As the next
The thrust of their argument is that, Rapidly replacing the aging 707s with a at the Johns Hopkins generation of microprocessors is
as the US Air Force modernizes the fuel-efficient and low-maintenance University in Washington, D.C. fielded, SWAP requirements are likely
existing system, it should select an aircraft, when coupled with the ever- to decline.
aircraft bigger than a business jet to increasing demand for constant air-to- Finally, the cost of a new JSTARS
hedge against future mission require- ground surveillance and battle man- argument? Does the Air Force need to matters. The program is being
ments that might demand greater agement, promises huge dividends in buy more capacity in the JSTARS jet to squeezed by budgetary forces as the
aircraft capacity. If the Air Force buys operating costs over the life of the ensure it will be able to adapt to future Air Force tries to fund its top three
that argument, it would rule out a system. mission requirements? This discussion priorities: the B-21, F-35 and KC-46A. It
business class-sized aircraft for a Hosting the JSTARS mission on a goes to what aeronautical engineers would be poor stewardship of scarce
recapitalized JSTARS. business jet also means the Air Force refer to as SWAP: the size, weight resources to invest in an aircraft larger
However, carrying out the important can gain operational advantages over and power of the aircraft needed to than needed with diminished mission
mission of finding and tracking mobile larger commercial aircraft: operating drive the systems components. effectiveness, particularly one that will
ground targets in the future in a cost- at higher altitudes to give the radar a Over the past 212 decades, advances prove more costly to acquire, operate
effective manner may not require a better look angle and doubling the in radar and computer processing and maintain. JSTARS recapitalization
bigger boat but, rather, a smaller, number of potential operating loca- technology have allowed the Air Force does not need a bigger boat. In this
more affordable and more effective tions. But what about the bigger boat to make dramatic improvements to case, small is beautiful. DN

Nukes, ICBMs, and unreasonable fears of false alarms

alifornia Gov. Jerry Brown and PETER HUESSY is with which to respond to a massive But Perrys remaining nuclear triad

C former US Defense Secretary

William Perry came to Washing-
ton on March 30 to warn woefully
president of his own
defense consulting
firm, GeoStrategic
Soviet attack. The United States
does not rely on its capability for
launch on warning or launch under
would rest largely on technological
assumption. And that is a Russian or
Chinese scientific breakthrough,
uninformed Americans of looming Analysis, and senior attack to ensure the credibility of our being able to find our submarines at
nuclear dangers particularly that the defense consultant at deterrent. sea, is never going to happen. If
United States will lead a new arms the Air Force Perrys claim is not uncommon. wrong, Perrys gamble would obviate
race by unnecessarily modernizing its Association. Over the past three decades, every our nuclear deterrent, hardly a move
nuclear deterrent. senior nuclear commander has told in the direction of limiting nuclear
In particular, Perry said that the me no American ICBM will ever be dangers.
United States was in danger of mis- launched without a presidential order. And for the record, the United
takenly launching our interconti- In all the years in all the crises since States maintains an assured retalia-
nental ballistic missile nuclear weap- marines and bombers, which he as- America first put ICBMs on alert, we tory survivable deterrent of some
ons against Russia because our sured us had plenty of weapons to have never reacted in any way that hundreds of warheads, not the 10,000
deterrent policy depends on launch deter any potential adversary. Brown risked a launch on false warning, claimed by Brown.
on warning. He complained the pecu- echoed the former secretary and one explained. Further, it is the Russians who are
liar characteristic of land-based complained the US deploys upward In addition, if a false alarm could modernizing and increasing their
missiles was that a false alarm of a of 10,000 nuclear weapons, far more lead to the US launching its ICBMs, nuclear forces, including an entire
coming attack could trigger their than necessary. then getting rid of them doesnt new force of submarines, bombers
automatic use. Does the US rely on launch on change the fact that Russian ICBMs and ICBMs by 2022, nearly a decade
And given Russian President Putins warning? In 1989, Secretary of De- would have the same problem. When prior to the United States fielding a
current recklessness, such an actual fense Frank Carlucci told Congress: asked what Russia is doing about single new nuclear weapon platform.
missile attack is more conceivable We have not spent billions of dollars launch on warning, Perry admitted As Perry lamented, he has gotten
today than during the Cold War. to modernize and increase the capa- the Russians have no interest in get- nowhere with his proposal to kill
Perrys solution? Unilaterally get bilities of the bomber and sea-based ting rid of their land-based missiles, Americas ICBMs. Well, there is a
rid of all 450 Minuteman missiles and legs of the nuclear triad only to leave and thus no worries about launch on reason. It doesnt make any
rely solely on our remaining sub- the President with a single option warning. sense. DN

April 11, 2016 Celebrating 30 Years of Excellence defensenews.com | 21

Last Word
World military expenditure 1988-2015
More Bucks, More Bang: (constant 2014 US$ in trillions)

Military Spending Grows 1.5

World militaries last year doled out by such oil-dependent nations to drop
enough dollars, rubles, euros, pounds, this year.
riyals and other currencies to drive the Also notable is that global military
first increase in global defense expendi- outlays increased despite that the
tures in five years. worlds most lavish military spender
Though the $1.6 trillion spent amount- the US cut spending by 2.4 percent 1.0
ed to just a 1 percent gain over the previ- from the previous year. Still, the $596
ous year, it was enough to mark the first billion the US paid out was nearly three
increase in five years. times the estimated total of China, at
And that was tallied despite falling oil $215 billion. And China spent more than
prices that led to steep cutbacks in mil- four times what India spent, though to-
itary spending in countries such as gether they have contributed to a whop- 0.5
South Sudan, Venezuela, Ecuador, ping 64 percent growth in military
Chad and others. spending over the past decade.
Russia and Saudi Arabia still man- The bottom line is that while some de-
aged to increase military spending but fense businesses had a rocky year, over-
analysts with the Stockholm Interna- all, a lot of them made a whole lot of 0
tional Peace Research Institute money in whatever currency. DN 88 90 * 92 94 96 98 00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14
which conducted the military spend-
ing study say they expect spending Aaron Mehta *The totals are based on 172 nations in the SIPRI Military Expenditure Database. The absence of reliable data
for the former Soviet Union in 1991 means that no data can be calculated for that year.

Military spending by country

Change World as a share USA: 36% China: 13%
Rank* Spending 2006-15 share of GDP**
2015 2014 Country 2015 ($ Billions) (%) 2015 (%) 2015 2006
1 1 USA $596 -3.9% 36% 3.3% 3.8% Saudi Arabia: 5.2%
2 2 China [215] [132] [13] [1.9] [2.0]
3 4 Saudi Arabia 87.2 97 5.2 13.7 7.8
4 3 Russia 66.4 91 4.0 5.4 3.5 Russia: 4.0%
5 6 UK 55.5 -7.2 3.3 2.0 2.2
6 7 India 51.3 43 3.1 2.3 2.5
Share of
UK: 3.3%
7 5 France 50.9 -5.9 3.0 2.1 2.3
2015 global
8 9 Japan 40.9 -0.5 2.4 1.0 1.0
military India: 3.1%
9 8 Germany 39.4 2.8 2.4 1.2 1.3
10 10 South Korea 36.4 37 2.2 2.6 2.5 France: 3.0%
11 11 Brazil 24.6 38 1.5 1.4 1.5 Japan: 2.4%
12 12 Italy 23.8 -30 1.4 1.3 1.7
13 13 Australia 23.6 32 1.4 1.9 1.8 Germany: 2.4%
Others: 19%
14 14 UAE*** [22.8] [136] [1.4] [5.7] [3.2] South Korea: 2.2%
15 15 Israel 16.1 2.6 1.0 5.4 7.5
Total of top 15: $1.35 trillion 81% Brazil: 1.5%
World total: $1.68 trillion 19% 100% 2.3% 2.3% The share of world
military expenditure of the 15 Italy: 1.4%
[ ] = SIPRI estimate; GDP = gross domestic product; UAE = United Arab Emirates.
states with the highest spending in 2015:
* Rankings for 2014 are based on updated military expenditure gures for 2014 in the current edition of the Australia: 1.4%
SIPRI Military Expenditure Database. They may therefore differ from the rankings for 2014 given in the SIPRI
Yearbook 2015 and in other SIPRI publications in 2015. UAE: 1.4%
** The gures for military expenditure as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) are based on estimates of
2015 GDP from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Economic Outlook Database, Oct. 2015. Israel: 1.0%
*** The gures for the UAE are for 2014, as no data is available for 2015. Change is from 2006 to 2014.
Source: SIPRI fact sheet Staff

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