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TOTAL QUALITY

MANAGEMENT
ASSIGNMENT

Submitted By

GROUP 1
HIMANSHU SAGAR
KSHITIZ SINGHAL
NEHA SHEOKAND
SHIREENA JOSE

MBA CLASS OF 2016 - 18


SLOT 2, SEMESTER 3

SCHOOL OF BUSINESS, PUBLIC


POLICY AND SOCIAL
ENTREPRENEURSHIP

AMBEDKAR UNIVERSITY DELHI


Q1.
Sample 1 2 3 4 Range Mean
1 12 11.97 12.1 12.08 0.13 12.04
2 11.91 11.94 12.1 11.96 0.19 11.98
3 11.89 12.02 11.97 11.99 0.13 11.97
4 12.1 12.09 12.05 11.95 0.15 12.05
5 12.08 11.92 12.12 12.05 0.20 12.04
6 11.94 11.98 12.06 12.08 0.14 12.02
7 12.09 12 12 12.03 0.09 12.03
8 12.01 12.04 11.99 11.95 0.09 12.00
9 12 11.96 11.97 12.03 0.07 11.99
10 11.92 11.94 12.09 12 0.17 11.99
11 11.91 11.99 12.05 12.1 0.19 12.01
12 12.01 12 12.06 11.97 0.09 12.01
13 11.98 11.99 12.06 12.03 0.08 12.02
14 12.02 12 12.05 11.95 0.10 12.01
15 12 12.05 12.01 11.97 0.08 12.01
Average 0.13 12.01
R = 0.13, n = 4
UCLR D4 R 2.282(0.13) 0.2891
LCLR D3 R 0(0.13) 0

R Chart
0.35

0.30

0.25

0.20 Range
Range

0.15 R

0.10 UCL R
LCL R
0.05

0.00
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Sample Number

The range values are all between 0 and 0.2891, and therefore it can be concluded
that the range is in control.
CL X = 12.01

UCLX X A2 R 12.0 0.729(0.13) 11.9172

LCL X X A2 R 12.0 0.729(0.13) 12.1018

x-bar Chart

12.15

12.10

12.05 Mean
CL x-bar
12.00
Mean

LCL x-bar
11.95 UCL x-bar

11.90

11.85

11.80
1 2 3 4 5 6 7Sample
8 number
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

The x-bar values are all within 11.9172 and 12.1018. Hence the process is in
control.

Therefore, the process average and range are in statistical control.

Q2.
(a)
Tube number
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avg. Range
1 7.98 8.34 8.02 7.94 8.44 7.68 7.81 8.11 8.040 0.76
2 8.23 8.12 7.98 8.41 8.31 8.18 7.99 8.06 8.160 0.43
3 7.89 7.77 7.91 8.04 8.00 7.89 7.93 8.09 7.940 0.32
4 8.24 8.18 7.83 8.05 7.90 8.16 7.97 8.07 8.050 0.41
5 7.87 8.13 7.92 7.99 8.10 7.81 8.14 7.88 7.980 0.33
6 8.13 8.14 8.11 8.13 8.14 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.130 0.03
8.050 0.38
X = 8.050, R = 0.38, n = 8
UCLR D4 R 1.864(0.38) 0.708
LCLR D3 R 0.136(0.38) 0.052
UCLX X A2 R 8.050 0.373(0.38) 8.192

LCL X X A2 R 8.050 0.373(0.38) 7.908

R Chart
0.8 0.76

0.7

0.6

0.5 0.43 0.41


Range
Range

0.4 0.32 0.33


UCL R
0.3
LCL R
0.2 R
0.1 0.03
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sample Number

The range chart is out of control, as Sample 1 falls outside of the UCL and Sample
6 falls outside the LCL.

x-bar Chart
8.25
8.2 8.16
8.13
8.15
8.1 8.05
8.04
8.05
Average

7.98 Average
8
7.94 UCL X
7.95
7.9 LCL X

7.85 X
7.8
7.75
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sample Number

X Bar Chart showing that the process is in control.


Also, there is much variability in the process.

(b)
The sixth observation is deleted and recalculated the control limits. The ranges,
including the range for the first sample are now all within the revised control
limits, and the process average for the second sample now falls just inside of the
revised control limits.

Tube number
Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Avg. Range
1 7.98 8.34 8.02 7.94 8.44 7.68 7.81 8.11 8.040 0.76
2 8.23 8.12 7.98 8.41 8.31 8.18 7.99 8.06 8.160 0.43
3 7.89 7.77 7.91 8.04 8.00 7.89 7.93 8.09 7.940 0.32
4 8.24 8.18 7.83 8.05 7.90 8.16 7.97 8.07 8.050 0.41
5 7.87 8.13 7.92 7.99 8.10 7.81 8.14 7.88 7.980 0.33
8.034 0.45

(0.76 0.43 0.32 0.41 0.33)


R 0.45
5
8.040 8.160 7.940 8.050 7.980
X 8.034
5
UCLR D4 R 1.864(0.45) 0.839
LCLR D3 R 0.136(0.45) 0.061
UCLX X A2 R 8.034 0.373(0.45) 8.202
LCLX X A2 R 8.034 0.373(0.45) 7.866
R Chart
0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
Range
Range

UCL R
0.4
LCL R

0.3 R

0.2

0.1

0
1 2 3 4 5 6
Sample Number

X Bar Chart
8.3

8.2

8.1

8
Average

Average
UCL X
7.9
LCL X

7.8 X

7.7

7.6
1 2 3 4 5 6
Sample Number

The control charts indicate that the process is actually in control.


Q3.
Sample
proportion
Sample Tubes defective
1 3 0.021
2 5 0.035
3 3 0.021
4 4 0.028
5 2 0.014
6 4 0.028
7 2 0.014
8 6 0.042
9 4 0.028
10 9 0.063
11 2 0.014
12 6 0.042
13 5 0.035
14 1 0.007
15 5 0.035
16 0 0.000
17 2 0.014
18 6 0.042
19 2 0.014
20 1 0.007

n = 144,
72
p 0.025
20(144)
p(1 p) 0.025(1 0.025)
p 0.013
n 144
UCLp p z p 0.025 3(0.013) 0.064
LCL p p z p 0.025 3(0.013) 0.014 0

p Chart
0.07

0.06

0.05
Fraction defective

0.04 Sample proportion defective

0.03 UCL p
LCL p
0.02
p
0.01

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Sample

The highest proportion of defectives occurs in sample 10, but is still within control
limits: p10 9 / 144 0.0625 . Therefore, the process is in statistical control.
Q4.

( 6 5 0 4 6 4 1 6 5 0 9 2)
c 4
12
c c 4 2
UCLc c z c 4 (2)(2) 8
LCLc c z c 4 (2)(2) 0

c Chart
10
9
8
Number of defects

7
6
Lumps
5
c
4
3 UCL c
2 LCL c
1
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Sample

The eleventh tube has too many lumps (9), so the process is probably out of
control.
Q5.
Number of Number
Number of times of
times device Inspection Inspection
Months is used occurred units U bar UCL
Jan 2500 5 2.5 2 3.61
Feb 4000 4 4 1 3.14
Mar 1000 3 1 3 4.90
Apr 3500 5 3.5 1.43 3.26
May 3000 3 3 1 3.41
June 4500 6 4.5 1.33 3.04
July 2500 4 2.5 1.6 3.61
Aug 3500 2 3.5 0.57 3.26
Sep 2000 6 2 3 3.87
Oct 3250 3 3.25 0.92 3.33
Nov 3500 4 3.5 1.14 3.26
Dec 3000 5 3 1.67 3.41
Sum 50 36.25 1.38

Total Number of defects identified 50


u= = = 1.38
Total number of units inspected 36.25

This means that there is on average 1.38 infections per 1000 device days. The
control limits are then calculated for each subgroup since the each subgroup size
varies from month to month. The control limits must be calculated for each
subgroup size. For the first month, n=2.5. Thus,

u 1.38
UCL = u + 3 = 1.38 + = 3.61
n(i) 2.5
And so on the UCL for other subgroups are calculated above in the table.

u
LCL = u 3
n(i)
There is no LCL since it is less than zero.

The resulting control chart is shown below. As can be seen, the process is in
statistical control. This means that if we want to reduce the number of infections,
we will need to change the process fundamentally.
U chart
6
Infections per 1000 device days
5

3
U bar
2 UCL

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months