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INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO NACIONAL

ESCUELA SUPERIOR DE INGENIERIA TEXTIL


ACADEMIA DE INGLES
Idalia Morales

basic grammar
Grammar: The rules that the language has to form words and join them in a sentence.
Pronoun: a word that is used instead of a noun or a noun phrase.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
SINGULAR PLURAL
I First person We First person

you Second person You Second person

He Third person They Third person

She
it Doesn’t exist in
Spanish

Exercise I Write the correct personal pronoun.

Apple ________________ Car ________________ table ________________


chair _________________ Brush _________________ Dorothy ________________
Helen _________________ Marco __________________ Restaurants ________________
a library __________________ the world _________________ Water ________________
a gas station __________________ Dorothy ___________________ Isabel ________________
Daniel __________________ Sandra ___________________ Money ________________
Coin __________________ Paris __________________ Susan _________________
a magazine __________________ Mexico City __________________ Coins __________________

a tape recorder and a cd _________________ all the students in the classroom _____________
the animals in the zoo ________________ My sister and his boyfriend _____________
an armchair and a sofa ________________ John and Mary ______________
my teacher and I ________________ all the students in the next classroom _____________
a lot of birds in a tree ________________ my girlfriend/boyfriend and I _____________
the kitchen and living room ________________ Claire and Mark ______________
VERB TO BE
The present Simple with the verb to be.
Function: Verb to be is used for descriptions: name, age, nationality, occupation, marital status, religion,
personality, physical description, locations and progressive tenses.

STRUCTURE

Affirmative: Subject am /is / are 


Negative: Subject am/is/are NOT 
Interrogative: am/is/are subject  ?

ARFFIRMATIVE FORM OF THE VERB TO BE

Complete form of the verb to be Contractions


I am a student. I´m a student.
You are a teacher. You´re a teacher.
He is a doctor. He´s a doctor.
She is a waitress. She´s a waitress.
It is a book. It´s a book.
We are mechanics. We´re mechanics.
You are pilots. You´re pilots.
They are policemen. They´re policemen.

Exercise I. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb to be.

1.- It ______________cold today.


2.- I _______________at home now.
3.- They ____________are Korean.
4.- There ____________ a pen on the desk.
5.- My name __________ Claudia.
6.- We _____________ from Ukraine.
7.- That ____________ right.
8.- I______________OK, thanks.
9.- Clara and Steve _______________ married.
10.- She ______________ an English teacher.
11.- I ______________ twenty - five years old.
12.- We _____________ from Venezuela.
13.- My name ___________ Anton and I _____________ a student.
14.- This ______________ my book.
15.- It_______________ a nice day today.
16.- Her brother´s name ________________ Paul.
17.- John _______________ an engineer.
18.- My sister´s name is _____________ Ursula.
19.- There _________________twelve students in my class.
20.- My address _______________ at the top of the letter.

Exercise II. Match the verbs with the subjects.

I are
You are
He is
She are
It am
We is
You is
They are
Exercise III. Fill in all the gaps.

My name María. I thirteen years old. I from Madrid. My father´s name


Pedro. He a Doctor. My mother Laura. She thirty-six years old. She
a housewife. They very nice. We very happy together.

NEGATIVE FORM OF THE VERB TO BE.


Negative Contractions
I am not a student. I´m not a student.
You are not a teacher. You aren´t a teacher.
He is not a doctor. He isn´t a doctor.
She is not a waitress. She isn´t a waitress.
It is not a book. It isn´t a book.
We are not mechanics. We aren´t mechanics.
You are not pilots. You aren´t pilots.
They are not policemen. They aren´t policemen.

Exercise I. Fill in the blanks with the correct negative form of the verb to be.

1.- These bags _______________heavy.


2.- I ______________ an engineer.
3.- She _______________ thirsty.
4.- He ________________ hungry.
5.- We ________________Russian.
6.- They _________________ doctors.
7.- My wife _______________ a nurse.
8.- My books ______________ on the table.
9.- It ________________ windy.
10.- You ________________ in England.
11.- I ___________________ not married.
12.-You ________________ French.
13.- Gloria _______________ at home.
14.- Linda and I ________________ happy about it.
15.- I ________________cruel.
16.- It ________________good.
17.- Samantha and Nigel _________________ angry.
18.- We ________________ happy on a Sunday afternoon.
19.- They ________________Scottish.
20.- I _______________ tired.

Exercise II. Change the positive sentences into negatives.


E.G..- I am a student. I am not a student

1.- I´m fine. ___________________________________

2.- This exercise is difficult. ___________________________________

3.- We´re from Spain. ___________________________________

4.-My grandmother´s name´s Elena. ___________________________________

5.-The kids are in the garden. ___________________________________

6.- You're English. ___________________________________


7.- My car is very expensive. ___________________________________

8.- This is my student´s notebook. ___________________________________

9.- These photographs are very nice. ___________________________________

10.- Alex is twenty-six years old. ___________________________________

INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE VERB TO BE

Questions
Am I......?
Are you……?
Is he…..?
Is she…..?
Is it…….?
Are you….?
Are we…?
Are they…..?

Exercise I. Fill in the blank with the correct form of the verb to be.
1.-____________you from Tokio?
2.-_______________Ricky Mexican?
3.- _______________ he married?
4.- _______________ you tired?
5.- __________________Jane and Alice sisters?
6.-___________________this car yours?
7.- ___________________ I your best friend?
8.- ___________________ the Smiths divorced?
9.- ___________________ you thirty years old?
10.- __________________I right?

Exercise II. Put in order the following sentences:

1.- hot? Are you. ___________________________________________________

2.- you Is this book? ___________________________________________________

3.- States? Is the from United Peters Mr. ___________________________________________________

4.- married? They Are ___________________________________________________

5.- Am wrong? or I right ___________________________________________________

6.- Is name your daughter’s Sandra? ___________________________________________________

7.- you and Jenkins? Are Mr. Mrs. ___________________________________________________

8.- Alice name ? Your is ___________________________________________________

9.- married? Sister is your ___________________________________________________

10.- old you? Are How ___________________________________________________