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05/03/2017

Lecture 3
Mechanical Properties of Metals

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Tensile Test

Objective
Evaluate the mechanical properties of materials

Load cell

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Tensile Test

Objective
Evaluate the mechanical properties of materials

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Typical Load-Displacement Curve of Metals

Y
Load (kN)

O
Displacement (mm)

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Typical Stress-Strain Curve of Metals

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Elastic and Plastic Deformations

= e + p

e : Elastic strain (Unitless)


p : Plastic strain (Unitless)

e = RS
p = OR

R S

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Elastic and Plastic Deformations

Elastic deformation
 Non-permanent, i.e. material returns to its initial shape after
the removal of load

Plastic deformation
 Permanent, i.e. material does not returns to its initial shape
after the removal of load

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Elastic and Plastic Deformations

Elastic deformation
 Non-permanent, i.e. material returns to its initial shape after
the removal of load
 Corresponds to the stretching of interatomic bonds, thus
involving only small changes in the interatomic spacing

Plastic deformation
 Permanent, i.e. material does not returns to its initial shape
after the removal of load
 Corresponds to the breaking of interatomic bonds, followed
by reforming bonds with new neighbors

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of elasticity (Youngs modulus)


Materials resistance (stiffness) to elastic deformation

Hookes law
= E
E : Modulus of elasticity (Pa)
E

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Mechanical Properties

Poissons ratio ()
Ratio between lateral and axial strains of materials

lateral
= : Poissons ratio (Unitless)
axial

Shear modulus (G)


Materials resistance (stiffness) to shear strain
For isotropic materials:

E
G= G : Shear modulus (Pa)
2(1 + )

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Mechanical Properties

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Mechanical Properties

Effect of temperature on the modulus of elasticity

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Example 1

Question
A tensile stress is to be applied along the long axis of a cylindrical brass rod
having a diameter of 10 mm. Determine the magnitude of the load required to
produce a 2.5 x 10-3 mm reduction in diameter if the deformation is entirely
elastic. The modulus of elasticity of brass is 100 GPa, Poissons ratio is 0.35.

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Mechanical Properties

Yield strength (y)


Stress level at which significant plastic deformation (yielding) occurs
(by convention at plastic deformation = 0.2%)

0.002

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Mechanical Properties

Tensile strength (TS)


Maximum engineering stress that can be sustained by a material in
tension. Beyond this stress, necking occurs (non-homogeneous deformation)

0.002

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Mechanical Properties

Ductility
Measure of materials ability to be deformed plastically without
fracture

Percent elongation
y
l l
% EL = f 0 100
l0

lf : Length at fracture (m)


E
l0 : Initial length (m)

0.002 % EL

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Mechanical Properties

Ductility
Measure of materials ability to be deformed plastically without
fracture

Percent area reduction


y
A Af
% AR = 0 100
A0

A f : Area at fracture (m2)


E
A0 : Initial area (m2)

0.002 % EL

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Mechanical Properties

Toughness (Kc)
Capacity of a material to absorb energy up to fracture. In other
word, it is simply the energy per unit volume required to break the
material.

K c = d
0

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Stress-Strain Curves for Selected Metals

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

Example 2

Question

The mechanical properties of certain materials are listed in the above table.
1. Which material will experience the greatest percent area reduction?
2. Which material is the strongest?
3. Which is the stiffest?

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

True Stress and True Strain

 Engineering stress increases up to


point M, then decreases
 The decline corresponds to a
reduction of load-bearing capacity Y

due to rapid decrease of cross- P


sectional area (necking)
 It does not indicate that the material
is weaker
 Engineering stress does not take into
account the diminution in cross- O
sectional area

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

True Stress and True Strain

True stress (t)


Force per unit area of the instantaneous cross-sectional area

F
t = Ai : Instantaneous area (m2)
Ai

True strain (t)


Sum of incremental strain

l
li
dl
t = = ln i = ln(1 + ) li : Instantaneous length (m)
l0
l l0

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

True Stress and True Strain

Incompressible materials (constant volume)

 True and engineering stresses are related through


t = (1 + )

 True strain are given by


l A
t = ln i = ln 0
l0 Ai

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

True Stress and True Strain

 True stress is greater than engineering stress


 True stress continues to rise past the tensile point M

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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05/03/2017

Example 3

Question
Compare the values of the engineering stress and strain with the true stress
and strain for the tensile test of a material using the following test data.
Assume that the volume remains constant during the test.
Load = 50 kN
Initial diameter = 10 mm
Diameter under 50 kN load = 9.5 mm

KQA 7007 / KXGB 6301 / KXGM 6310 Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Andriyana

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