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with this topic. Once samanvaya is established, the second

task is to explain the advaitasiddhanta from a broader

perspective having regard to the other views on reality.2)

Avirodha Adhyaya

: Avirodha is translated as non-contradiction. In the first

chapter it isestablished that Brahma vidya is the topic of

Upanishads. In the second chapter he establishesthat Brahman

is free from contradictions. Contradiction is a defect in

teaching. He shows theteaching is defect free. Contradiction is

with what? There are three types of contradiction herefutes.

1)

Internal contradiction within the Veda itself. Paraspara

virodha is not there. Thatmeans the Vedic statements do not

contradict one another. They are not mutually contradictoryor

nullifying. Sruti virodha or sruteh paraspara virodha is not

there.

2)

Second contradiction iswith smriti. There are many smritis

like Gita, Manu, Mahabharata etc. There is no

contradictionwith them also.

3)

The contradiction between sruti and logic. It is not logically

contradictory. It isnot illogical. In this second chapter alone

Vyasa takes up all other nastika darsanams also

likeBhuddhism and jainism and other systems of philosophy

also like Nyaya and Vaiseshika whichheavily depend on

logic. So Brahma vidya is free from logical contradictions. On

the other handall other darsanas are full of logical

contradictions. These contradictions are shown in thatchapter.

Second chapter is heaviest portion.Thus the second chapter is

devoted to dismissing other doctrines again only to establish

thesamanvaya and show absence of any virodha Since Vedanta is a

..

treatise on moksha, the meansand nature of moksha require

consideration in line with the Vedanta. So3)

Sadhana Adhyaya

: The chapter discusses the means for moksha. Sadhana means

preparatorydisciplines required for gaining Brahma vidya. All

types of sadhanas are discussed here. Thosewhich are directly

connected with knowledge and those sadhanas which are

indirectly connectedlike karma etc. Rituals do not directly

give rise to knowledge. They are considered to beimportant as

they indirectly help by refining the mind. The importance of

upasanas and valuesare also discussed. In fact everything

connected with religion is useful. may be remotelyconnected,

but connected.

Phala Adhyaya

: It is the smallest adhyaya. The fourth chapter discusses the

result or fruits ofthe Brahma vidya. It is moksha. There are two

types of moksha discussed

1)

Krama

Mukti

2)

Sadyo

mukti.

Adhikaranam

(Called Topics chosen from Upansihads, especially ten. The

four topics alone aredivided into many topics.)Bharati Tirtha

one great acharya has done a beautiful work in verse form

called AdhikaranaRatnamala which summarises these 191 topics.

For each topic he has two verses and covers allthe topics. Vaiyasikya

Nyayamala also it is called. It deals with the reasoning given

byVyasacarya.The entire subject matter of the Brahma sutra is

divided into many topics for the purpose ofanalysis and each

topic is taken up for discussion in one section. Each section is

calledadhikaranam. There are 191 adhikaranas in the Brahma

sutras Since all the sutras are classifiedunder different

adhikaranas, we have to know what an adhikarana is.

divided into many topics for the purpose ofanalysis and each topic is taken up for discussion
26 “In a text, an adhikara¸a refers to the topics consisting of five elements: the subject

26

26 “In a text, an adhikara¸a refers to the topics consisting of five elements: the subject

“In a text, an

adhikara¸a

refers to the topics consisting of five elements: the subject

matter(wherein the Vedic

mantra

in question is presented); doubts (regarding the various

possiblemeanings of the

mantra

); an opponent’s interpretation (of the meaning, which is

logically

presented); an alternate viewpoint (which points out the

fallacies in the logic of the opponent);and ascertaining the

final meaning (of the

mantra

).”

Adhikaranam

It should consist of five factors.Subject matter. It is dealing

with Brahman or karma or what? Then what is the doubt in

thatsubject matter. If no doubt we need not make an inquiry.

If you break the coconut you will gettwo portions. It has no

doubt. Word Brahman has what meaning? It has many meaning.

Brahmin,om, Brahman, Veda? Purva paksha. Uttaram or

Vedantic conclusions. You have to refute all ofthose views

logically and also showing our conclusion is free from logical

defect. So it is called Nyaya sastra. Sangati, the connection

between previous topic and the present topic.An Adhikarana

is that wich has the above five limbs. We can illustrate these

features as follows.Suppose there is a statement like Atma is

identical with Brahman is presented for discussion andanalysis.

The vishaya here is identity between atma and Brahman. There may

be a doubt withreference to this subject matter as to whether

atma is really identical to Brahman since ourexperience

proves different. So one may come up and say that Atma is

not identical to Brahmanas atma is subject to limitations and

death. This contention is called purvapaksha. The personwho

presented the subject called siddhanti refutes the objections

thereby Siddhanta stays. Sangatiis the connection between the

sutras, between topics, between chapters and between the text

andSruti. The various connections are as follows:With every

sangati you have to add sutranam sruteh saha, sutranam sastrena

saha, sutranamadhyayena saha etc.Sruti sangatih (The connection

between the sutras and the Sruti)Sariraka mimamsa sastram

enquires into Vedanta vakyas. So the vishaya of vicara is

Vedantasentences. These sentences depend on the sutras for

the ascertainment of their meaning. It doesnot mean that

without these sutras they can not be understood. But the

meaning cannot beascertained. That is, it is not possible to do

nirupanam of their meaning. For the nirupanam of theartha

one has to do vicara in line with the adhikarana angas and by

applying the shad lingas. Thusthe sutras do such analysis and

ascertain that this is the tatparya of such and such sruti

vakyas.

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(Those which need the artha nirnaya)

Sastra Sangatih - is the connection between the sutras and the

text in which they exist viz.Brhmasutra here.

27 This sastram shows the method of enquiry into the nature of Brahma svarupa with the

27

This sastram shows the method of enquiry into the nature of

Brahma svarupa with the help ofsruti sentences. The sutras

explain the nyayas that will ascertain the tatparya of

Upanishadvakyas and thus the nature of Brahman.

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Adhyaya Sangatih ( the connection between the sutras and the

chapter in which the sutraappears.)For example every sutra in

the first chapter analyses specific sruti vakyas with

proper yuktis andascertains that those vakyas have tatparya only in

revealing the identity of jiva and BrahmanSimilarly in the second

chapter it has been proved that there is no contradiction

between theVedanta vakyas and yukti. In the third chapter

sravana mananadi sadhana are established throughthe various

sutras in that chapter. In the last chapter there is an enqiury

into the nature of moksha.

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Pada sangatih (Connection between the sutras anmd the padas

like sutras in the first pada of firstchapter and the first pada.)In

this pada those Vedanta sentences are taken for analysis

which clearly reveal Brahman. So allsutras are dealing with

spashta brahmalinga vakyas. This is the connection. Like

jagatkaranatvam cannot lie in jiva. It is a clear nature

of brahman. So srishti karana vakya is discussedin third sutra.

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1

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Adhikarana sangatiThis is the connection between the sutras

in a given adhikaranam and the relevatn adhikaranamor the

connection between one adhikaranam and the other. For first

adhikaranam there is nosangati of this type. So the entire

sastra is connected like a chain. The sangati can be in

the formof objection, (Akshepiki sangati), counter

example (pratyudaharana sangati), incidental(prasanga

sangatih) and so on.Sutra Sangati - is the connection between

two sutras.Thus anyone sutra is connected to the whole sastra

and the sruti. All the above five features of anahdikarana have

to be pointed out and maintained in every adhiakrana of the

Brahma sutra. Thereare more than one sutra in many

adhikaranas. and the sutras the constitute such adhikaranas

have been ascertained and grouped by commentators. Then w

e identify the purvapaksha sutras andsiddhanta sutras. Then

vishaya becomes clear. Generally if an adhikarana has more

than onesutra, the first sutra is the chief one and the others are

subordinate or guna.The first four sutras form first

four adhikaranams.

Catussutri

The first four sutras form first four adhikaranams. Together

they are well known as catussutri.They contain the essence of

the whole text. Sankara Bhashya on Brahma sutra called

Sutras

1

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