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Unproven Methods of Cancer Treatment

The following statement conccrning Staphylococcus Phage Lysates (SPL), formerly known
as Liimcoln Bacteriophage Lysate8, proposed for the treatment of many diseases, including can
cer, by Robert E Lincoln, M.D. (deceased) and A. Ernest Mills, M.D., Medical Director, Del
mont Laboratories, Inc., was recently distributed to the 59 Divisions of the American Cancer
Society for their information.

StaphylococcusPhage Lysat.s or LincolnBacteriophage Lysates

After careful study of the literature and Lincoln Strain No. 7 (beta) from a
other information available to it, the Ameri patient with acute sinusitis and infec
can Cancer Society has found no evidence tious hepatitis. Both possess all the
that treatment with Staphylococcus Phage recognized characteristics of virulent
Lysates (SPL), formerly known as Lincoln toxigenic staphylococci. They are co
Bacteriophage Lysates, results in any objec agulase and phosphatase positive, fer
tive benefit in the treatment of cancer in ment mannitol and produce alpha and
human beings. beta hemolysins, exotoxins, entero
This is based on the following summary of toxins, hyaluronidase, polysaccha
information in the American Cancer Society rides, fibrinolysin, protease, lipase
files: and penicillinase.
TheDepartment of Bacteriology at
Therapy Boston University School of Medicine
The Lincoln Bacteriophage Lysates, derived made and supplied all the lysates used
from Staphylococcus aureus Alpha lincolnii and distributed by the Lincoln Foun
and S. aureus Beta lincolnii, were developed dation up to 1952. Since that time,
by Robert E. Lincoln, M.D., Founder of the routine production has been carried
Lincoln Foundation, Medford, Massachusetts, on regularly by experienced and com
who died in January 1954. They were first petent personnel, under the super
used in the treatment of cancer in 1948. Dur vision of Dr. Roos at the Lincoln
ing Dr. Lincoln's lifetime, Bacteriophage Foundation Laboratory in Swarth
H.S.A. (lincolnii) Beta was used in the initial more, Pennsylvania.
treatment of cancer, and Bacteriophage H.S.A. Three years later, in April 1958, the Lincoln
(lincolnii) Alpha was used in the initial Foundation was granted U.S. Government
treatment of many other diseases and in the License 299 for Bacterial Antigen-Staphylo
later treatment of cancer. A year after Dr. coccus Phage Lysates (Staphage Lysates
Lincoln's death, in 1955 A. Ernest Mills, M.D., T.M.).
who had been associated with him since 1951 In 1962, in response to an inquiry as to
and who became the Medical Director of the whether the current Lincoln preparation was
Foundation following his death, described in the same, or essentially the same, as that de
a letter published in the New England Journal scribed by Dr. Mills in 1955, Dr. Mills replied
of Medicine (253: 1090-1091, 1955) the origin that thepresent product is the same as I have
and identity of the bacteriophage as well as previously described; the method of adminis
the staphyloccal strains used in the prepara tration is by subcutaneous injection, nasal
tion of the lysates offered for clinical investi aerosol inhalation or nose drops, oral and topi
gation, as follows: cal application as indicated; in malignant dis
ease SPL is used to enhance the defensive
Thephage utilized by the Lincoln mechanisms of the body, particularly if ubiqui
Foundation Laboratory is identified
tous staphylococcal infection is a complica
as Gratia B 985, obtained from a col tion; . - - we have recently demonstrated that
lection prepared and maintained by
blood stream carriage is definite, to any part
Dr. Edna Follensby, an associate of
of the system; results to be expected in can
Dr. Sanford B. Hooker, of the Depart cer cases is an amelioration of pain, less need
ment of Bacteriology, Boston Univer
for narcotics, at least a temporary improve
sity School of Medicine. This particu
ment in strength and vigor, perhaps a slowing
lar strain was selected because of its down of metastatic spreadin other words,
marked polyvalency and high level of
Stapha@e Lysates are palliative.
lytic activity.
Dr. Lincoln reported that his interest in
Forthe propagation of this bacterial phage lysates as a treatment for cancer came
virus and for the preparation of the about incidentally in 1948 when he was evalu
lysates, two strains of pathogenic ating the bacteriophage lysate therapy in
Staphylococcu8 aureus (Micrococcus sinusitis and other respiratory tract infec
pyo genes var. aureus) were isolated tions. At the request of the family, he treated
by Dr. Follensby from specimens sub their son, an inoperable cancer patient, with
mitted by Dr. Lincoln; Lincoln Strain bacteriophage therapy. In a letter in 1963,
No. 1 (alpha) was taken from the Dr. Mills reported that CharlesToby (son of
nasal passages of a patient with acute Senator Charles W. Toby, deceased) was the
sinusitis and infectious diarrhea, and original patient aided by Staphage Lysates in

his bout with recticulum cell sarcoma and vania, became President. In 1963, Dr. Mills
that he is alive and well and still taking reported that the Lincoln Foundation had
booster therapy with SPL. Cases treated by been disbanded some time before.
Dr. Lincoln included breast cancer, leukemia, The first time the Delmont Laboratories,
cancer of the sigmoid and of the rectum, Inc., in Swarthmore, were mentioned as a
Hodgkin's disease and lung cancer. He is said source of the Staphylococcus Bacteriophage
to have stated that he could cure any disease, Lysates was in the above-cited statement of
the cause for which is unknown, including Dr. Mills. In 1963, a letterhead showed A.
tuberculosis, cancer, multiple sclerosis, sinu Ernest Mills, M.D., as Medical Director of the
sitis, infectious hepatitis, infectious diarrhea, Delmont Laboratories, Inc,Division of Clini
and others. cal Research, 76 Boston Avenue, West Med
In a statement titled StaphageLysates, ford 55, Massachusetts. At that time, according
by Dr. Mills identified as Reprintedfrom MD to Dr. Mills, Dr. P. Bartel, microbiologist with
Medical News Magazine Vol. 2, No. 8, p. 17, the Harrison Reseach Unit of the University
August 1958, a copy of which is sent to all of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, was Labo
physicians making inquiry concerning the use ratory Director of Delmont Laboratories, Inc.,
of Staphylococcus Phage Lysates (SPL) for in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania.
the treatment of cancer, Dr. Mills states: During Dr. Lincoln's lifetime, physicians
trained in the administration of bacteriophage
Thepalliative effects obtained by
lysates were called Research Fellows. Follow
many physicians with Staphage Ly
ing his death, advertisements were published
sates as adjunctive therapy to specific
in The Defender Magazine by doctors offering
measures applicable to the individ
Lincoln bacteriophage treatment in California,
ual case may be explained in part by a
Iowa, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Wash
decrease of superimposed, toxic staph
ington. California and Texas each had sev
ylococcal infection so often found
eral. In correspondence since Dr. Lincoln's
in enervating diseases, by the stimu
death, Dr. Mills has deplored Dr. Lincoln's
lation of the non-specific properdin
fight against organized medicine, and has
system of immunity (magnesium as a
catalyst) afforded by the vascularity stated that after a careful review of the quali
fications of physicians using the bacterio
of the nasal mucous membranes, or
by the support of nature's own anti phage lysates, they had dropped from their
list certain physicians whowe felt were
biotic-bacteriophageone of the
body's controls against microbic inva doing the therapy harm.
sion. All I am sure of is that we are
able to prolong life more comfortably,
slow down the rate of growth of some Investigations
cancer (never an exacerbation), and In March 1952, a report on an investigation
we do have evidence of a few ap by the Massachusetts Medical Society of Dr
parent cures. We do not claim a can Lincoln's theories stated:
cer cure, only a worthwhile pallia
No scientifically valid evidence has
been presented, nor has the Commit
tee been able to obtain data which
Proponents would substantiate claims of any
Robert E. Lincoln was born in 1899, re definite organic changes in cancer
ceived an M.D. degree from Boston University which are attributable to Dr. Lin
School of Medicine in 1926 and was licensed coln's bacteriophage therapy. Cases
to practice medicine in Massachusetts the same of marked symptomatic improvement
year. He died from an acute heart condition have, however, been encountered.
January 31, 1954. These are explainable to experienced
A. Ernest Mills was born in 1899, and re observers as manifestations of the
ceived an M.D. degree from the Tufts Uni tremendous force of faith and hope
versity School of Medicine in 1924. He was which has been offered where none
licensed to practice medicine in Massachusetts has existed before.
in 1924. In the American Medical Association
TheCommittee's honest and con
Directory, 1963, he is listed as a specialist in
sidered opinion, based on all the avail
internal medicine who does some general prac
able evidence, is that no proof has
tice, and is also listed as a member of his
been presented nor was any able to
county medical society and of the American
be obtained which has shown that
Medical Association.
beneficial organic changes have oc
In February 1950, the Lincoln Foundation curred in disease processes treated by
was created as a nonprofit trust under the
Dr. Lincoln's therapy which have
laws of New Hampshire. Headquarters were
been due to that therapy and to that
maintained through 1959 at 76 Boston Ave
nue, West Medford. Following Dr. Lincoln's
death in 1954, A. Ernest Mills, M.D., became Dr. Lincoln was found guilty of violating
Medical Director of the Foundation in West the Code of Ethics of the Massachusetts Medi
Medford, and Charles E. Lincoln, Robert's cal Society and was asked to resign. As of
brother, who lived in Swarthmore, Pennsyl 1952, he was no longer a member of the So

ciety. In April 1953, he sued the Massachusetts following use of the bacteriophage
Medical Society and seven doctors for $250,000 therapy alone -
for libelous statements he claimed were made
Onthe basis of the 24 case records
in the Society's report. The suit, however, had presented for review, the Committee
not come to trial at the time of Dr. Lincoln's
does not consider that clinical trials
In 1954, after two and a half years of un
of the bacteriophage therapy for can
cer under the Committee's auspices
successful negotiations with Dr. Lincoln and
are warranted, nor does it advise
with clinical investigators, which were ter
the sponsoring agencies to support
minated by Dr. Lincoln, the Committee on
Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy of the Na
further trials.
tional Research Council reported: A report on a study of Treatment of Can
cer with the Lincoln Agent by the Cancer
Theformulation of an opinion on
Advisory Council of the California Depart
the value of a therapeutic procedure
ment of Public Health, issued in 1963, stated
must be based on documented obser
in its Conclusion:
vations of objective response to the
therapy, in patients with proven can Basedupon its investigation and
cer. Because the Committee did not consideration of the Lincoln remedy
receive any supply of therapeutic as set forth in this report,
agents or any scientific data on ob
Cancer Advisory Council Here
jective benefits following the treat
by Finds as Fact - . . that the said
ment of cancer with these agents, it Lincoln Staphage Lysate treatment
has not been possible to undertake
clinical trials or to evaluate scientific
of cancer or any substantially similar
agent is of no value in the diagnosis,
evidence on the response of cancer
treatment, alleviation or cure of can
patients to the bacteriophage therapy cer.
proposed by Dr. Lincoln.
It further recommends that all persons,
A report in 1955 on a subsequent review of
24 case records submitted by the Lincoln
firms, associations or other entities prescrib
ing, administering, selling or otherwise dis
Foundation after Dr. Lincoln's death contained
tributing the said Lincoln Staphage Lysate or
the following evaluations:
any substantially similar agent in the diag
Amongthe 24 case records pre nosis, alleviation, treatment or cure of cancer
sented, the Committee found no rec be ordered to cease and desist from such
ord which included both definite es activity. On September 20, 1963, the Cali
tablishment of the diagnosis by biopsy fornia State Board of Health issued such a
and also objective beneficial response regulation.