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Good afternoon everyone. I am Tahneia Quader. And Today, I will be taking about the policy of India
toward Pakistan. But before going through the main discussion, first of all, I would like give a brief history
of the creation and subsequent relationship of India and Pakistan.

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Both India and Pakistan has been created by the dissolution of British Raj in Mid-August, 1947. The
partition was based on religious majority. Hindu majority area was created as Dominion on India, which
is now Republic of India. And Muslim majority area was created as Dominion of Pakistan, which is now
Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

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Right after the partition, a mass exodus happened. Around 14.5 million people had to migrate with an
estimated death toll around 1 million.

The most violent clauses were centered on Punjab. According to Sir Francis Mudie, the governor of West
Punjab, around 5,00,000 Muslims died trying to enter his province. Similar number of Hindus also died
trying to enter East Punjab.

Between 75,000 and 100,000 women were kidnapped and raped.

Direct Action Day, better known as Great Calcutta Killings, announced by Muslim League, was a day of
widespread manslaughter between Hindus and Muslims. Around 4000 people were killed with 72 hours.

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Since the partition of British India in 1947, India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars, including
one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
Some of the major Wars and conflicts are listed here.

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And since the partition, uncountable number of Insurgent activities have been happened in India which
India accused Pakistan behind these activities.

Some of the major Insurgent activities are listed here.


We can see, the most violence insurgencies were centered around Jammu and Kashmir. Total 5,462 Indian
security forces were killed.
21,000 militants were killed, 3,000 were captured, 4,500 were surrendered. India accuses they are being
trained by Pakistans ISI.
Total civilian death toll around 20,22870,000.
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So in simple words, the relationship between India and Pakistan can be reflected by Transgenerational
Hatred, Hostile, and Suspicious. And both of them consider rival to each other. So, what should be the
policy of India toward its Archrival Pakistan?

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Basically, Indias core foreign policies are:
Cautious prudence and Non-alignment: autonomy in security (suspicious of balance of power
politics and alignment)
Obsessed with territorial integrity and domestic legitimacy
Military non-provocative billateral diplomacy with rivals.

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Basically, Indias core foreign policies can be divided into 3 phases:

Idealist Nehruvian Era:


build an autonomous geopolitical space for itself and the newly emerging African and Asian countries,
bridge the divide between the Cold War blocs, maintain a modest military capacity, pursue autarkic
economic development, build international and regional institutions in the cause of peace and cooperation.

Realist or Self-help Era:


After Indias defeat in the 1962 war with China, India aligned with Soviet Union, expand millitary power,
continued insistence on autarky, interventions against its south Asian nehigbours.

Realistist-pragmatic Era:
Went nuclear weapon program, south trade and diplomatic linkage with outher countries, reinserted itself
into regional institutions.

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The classical Indias Policies toward Pakistan were
Patient, negotiation, deterrence of conflict, militarily non-provocative bilateral diplomacy.
Discussion in two equally important primary issues: Kashmir and Security.
Unwillingness to join or create an alliance against Pakistan.

Which can be reflected by a lot of summits or agreements like Agra summit, Delhi Agreement, Indus
Waters Treaty, Karachi Agreement, Lahore Declaration, LiaquatNehru Pact, Non-Nuclear Aggression
Agreement, Shimla Agreement, Tashkent Declaration
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Modi clearly follows his predecessors in terms of Deterrence of conflict, militarily non-provocative
diplomacy.

However, he is different from others in terms of focusing only on Security issue. Avoid Kashmir Issue
completely (Bilateral Diplomacy: Cooperation and defection). And creating alliance against Pakistan
(Coalition diplomacy).

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As Modi follows his predecessors in terms of Deterrence of conflict, militarily non-provocative diplomacy,
therefore, Modi clearly sees value in keeping the door open for discussion. However, he has kept the focus
firmly on terrorism and has avoided the subject of Kashmir. He has alternated between engaging in
dialogue and disengaging: what game theorists could call cooperation and defection.