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PetroleumPetroleum ReservoirReservoir SimulationSimulation

ModelingModeling Multiphase,Multiphase, MultiMulti--ComponentComponent FluidFluid FlowFlow inin ComplexComplex GeologicalGeological RocksRocks

Khalid Aziz Engineering Resources Engineering

ReservoirReservoir andand FacilitiesFacilities

El Shargi field, Occidental
El Shargi field, Occidental

DeepwaterDeepwater ChallengeChallenge

• BP operated Thunder Horse field lies beneath some 6000m of mud, rock and salt, topped by 1900m of ocean

• Reservoir at over 1200 bar and 135°C • Advanced wells are required

rock and salt, topped by 1900m of ocean • Reservoir at over 1200 bar and 135
rock and salt, topped by 1900m of ocean • Reservoir at over 1200 bar and 135

MotivationMotivation

• Development costs for typical oil fields are many billions of dollars

• Every field is different

• Development and operating actions are irreversible

• Models are needed to develop “optimum” strategies • Annually around $10 billion spent on reservoir models, and it is increasing

GrowingGrowing EnergyEnergy DemandDemand

• Energy demand is outpacing new discoveries

• By 2030 energy demand will increase by 50%

• Only about 35% of OOINP is recovered

• Impact of technology can be huge (~30-70%)

• Technology can also reduce environmental footprint

800.0 700.0 Total World Energy 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 1990 2002 2003
800.0
700.0
Total World Energy
600.0
500.0
400.0
300.0
200.0
100.0
0.0
1990
2002
2003
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
Quadrillion B TU

Year

UGSUGS EstimatesEstimates

UGS UGS Estimates Estimates • About half the reserves of conventional oil have been produced •

• About half the reserves of conventional oil have been produced • Unconventional oil much harder to recover

WeWe areare notnot likelylikely toto bebe freefree ofof oiloil soon!soon!

likely to to be be free free of of oil oil soon! soon! • 85 million

• 85 million barrels/day now

• 120 million barrels/day by

2030

OutlineOutline

• What is reservoir simulation?

• Underlying equations and solution techniques

• Use

ReservoirReservoir SimulationSimulation

Gringarten, 2002
Gringarten, 2002
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Reservoir Reservoir Simulation Simulation Gringarten, 2002 Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores,
Integration of data from all sources (wells, cores, seismic, outcrops, well tests, etc.)
Integration of data
from all sources
(wells, cores,
seismic, outcrops,
well tests, etc.)

DataData toto DecisionsDecisions

Geosciences

Geosciences Engineering

Engineering

Simmodels Geomodels
Simmodels
Geomodels

Analysis,Analysis, OptimizationOptimization andand ControlControl (Decisions)(Decisions)

and and Control Control (Decisions) (Decisions) History Matching and Predictions Data Collection,

History Matching and Predictions

Data Collection, Interpretation and Integration

CharacteristicsCharacteristics ofof thethe SystemSystem

• Complex and generally unknown geology

• Multicomponent, multiphase flow

– Poorly understood fluid mechanics

– Thermodynamic complexity

• Complex wells and reservoir well interactions

– Multiphase flow

• Strong connections to facilities and surroundings

flow • Strong connections to facilities and surroundings Stanford VI reservoir model 6 million nodes –

Stanford VI reservoir model 6 million nodes – Castro et al.

connections to facilities and surroundings Stanford VI reservoir model 6 million nodes – Castro e t

DataData

• Many sources

• Many scales (10 -5 to 10 8 cm)

• Sparse

• Not always reliable

10 -5 10 -4 10 -3 10 -2 10 -1 10 0 10 1 10
10 -5
10 -4
10 -3
10 -2
10 -1
10 0
10 1
10 2
10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
10 7
10 8
10 9

10 10

1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10

Thin

Sections

3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 1 0

Core

Data

5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 1 0 Thin Sections Core Data

Well Log

Upscaling

8 10 9 10 1 0 Thin Sections Core Data Well Log Upscaling Geological Model Cells

Geological

Model Cells

Sections Core Data Well Log Upscaling Geological Model Cells Seismic Data Simulation Cells Well Test Downscaling

Seismic Data

Simulation

Cells

Well Log Upscaling Geological Model Cells Seismic Data Simulation Cells Well Test Downscaling Hamdi Tchelepi Pipat

Well Test

Downscaling

Hamdi Tchelepi

Well Log Upscaling Geological Model Cells Seismic Data Simulation Cells Well Test Downscaling Hamdi Tchelepi Pipat
Well Log Upscaling Geological Model Cells Seismic Data Simulation Cells Well Test Downscaling Hamdi Tchelepi Pipat

Pipat 2006

ProcessProcess

• Build one or more geological descriptions on a fine scale

• Upscale to a computational grid

• Establish boundary conditions and choose development and operating strategies • Solve appropriate equations describing flow

• Predict reservoir performance

• Maximize or minimize some objective function

• Estimate uncertainty

Gurpinar, 2001

GeoModelGeoModel andand UpscalingUpscaling

• Optimum level of and techniques for upscaling to minimize errors

• Gridding and upscaling are interconnected

• Optimum level of and techniques for upscaling to minimize errors • Gridding and upscaling are
• Optimum level of and techniques for upscaling to minimize errors • Gridding and upscaling are

GriddingGridding

Gurpinar, 2001 Castellini, 2001
Gurpinar, 2001
Castellini, 2001

Wolfsteiner et al., 2002

• Honor geology

• Preserve numerical accuracy

• Be easy to generate

Prevost 2003
Prevost 2003

EquationsEquations

OGJ
OGJ

• Mass balance for each component in the system in each block (CVFD)

• Additional Constraints

• Wells and Facilities

• Large number of non-linear equations

SimulatorSimulator EquationsEquations

n n , ++ 1 w n , 1 + m −= ∑∑ m (
n n
,
++
1
w n
,
1
+
m
−=
∑∑
m
(
n
1
n
∑∑
1 ∑
MM
)
c p
,
c p
,
cp
,
cp
,
l
,,
i
i
Δ t
i
i
i
l
p
w
p
p
Flow Rate into
Flow Rate out of
Accumulation Rate in Block i
Block
i
from
Block
i
through
Conn ected Blocks
l
Well
w
in i
p
- phase
i
l
c
- component

DefinitionsDefinitions

• Flow Rate

m

c p l i

,

,

• Mass Accumulation

• Rock

(

= ϒ

c p

,

)

l i

,

⎡Φ −Φ ⎤

pl

,

pi

,

M

c , p

(

= VSφ ω

p

cp,

[

(

φ=φ 1+ c p p

R

o

o

)

)]

ϒ=

cp

,

ωλ

cp

,

p

ωρ

cp

,

=

p

y

cp

,

T ,

,

T

λ

p

kA

=

α

k

Δ x

r p

,

=

μ

p

MethodsMethods ofof SolutionSolution

1

Δ t

∑∑

l

p

++

m

w n

,

l

,,

i

1

∑∑

w

p

1

p

(

m

n n

,

c p

,

n

+

1

i

)

i

MM

cp

,

i

n

−=

c p

,

i

cp

,

n + 1

i
i

Flow Rate into

Flow Rate out of

Block

i

from

Block

i

through

Conn ected Blocks

l

Well

w

in i

n

,

n +

1

c p

,

l

, i

(

= ϒ

c p

,

)

n

,

n +

1

l i

,

pl

,

Accumulation Rate in Block i

⎡Φ −Φ ⎤

m

pi

,

• Explicit impractical

• Fully implicit most robust, but expensive

• Partially implicit (IMPES, IMPEC) cheaper

• Adaptive implicit is generally the optimum approach

l

GeneralGeneral FormulationFormulation

Non-linear equations set:

F ()X

Rewrite it as:

F ( X

F ( X

p

s

p

p

,

,

X X ) =

s

s

)

=

0

0

=

0

p : primary s: secondary

• Appropriate variables, equations and alignment • All primary variables or a subset treated implicitly

EquationsEquations

• Number of equations per block varies from 3 to around 10 (n c )

• Number of blocks hundred thousand to several million (n b )

• Optimum time step is selected automatically

• Number of nonlinear equations to be solved every timestep: n c x n b

• Equations are linearized using Newton’s method

• Typical problems take about 3 iterations per timestep, difficult problems may not converge

LinearizedLinearized EquationsEquations

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟
⎤ ⎛
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
X
= −
⎥ ⎜
R
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎥ ⎜
⎦ ⎜
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
nz = 74960

From Jiang 2006

MultiMulti--levellevel SparseSparse BlockBlock MatrixMatrix

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
nz = 74960

• R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells

RR

RF

FR

FF

RW1

1000 1200 1400 nz = 74960 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells
1000 1200 1400 nz = 74960 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells
1000 1200 1400 nz = 74960 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells
1000 1200 1400 nz = 74960 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells

From Jiang 2006

RW2
RW2
1000 1200 1400 nz = 74960 • R ~ reservoir • F ~ facilities and wells

ProcessProcess

1. Create one or more images of the reservoir based on available data

2. Set objectives

3. Create a grid

4. Select time step

5. Iteratively solve equations to advance solution

6. Go to 3 and continue until

• Desired time is reached, or

• Some constraint is violated

7. Go to 2

BlockBlock--BasedBased LinearLinear SolversSolvers

• Block Solvers

– GMRES & BiCGstab (from IML)

• Multi-Level Block Preconditioners

– CPR

– BILU(0)

– BILU(k)

From Jiang 2006

PerformancePerformance ofof BlockBlock SSolversolvers

9 components, 100x100x5 grid (FIM), solver time

18 14.9 15 12 8.3 9 6 1.6 3 1 0 PGMRES+ BGMRES+ PGMRES+ BGMRES+
18
14.9
15
12
8.3
9
6
1.6
3
1
0
PGMRES+
BGMRES+
PGMRES+
BGMRES+
ILU
BILU
CPR(ILU)
CPR(BILU)
Speedup Factor

From Jiang 2006

OtherOther ComplicationsComplications

• Fractured Systems

• Mutiphase flow in wells and facilities

• Complex recovery processes

• Unconventional resources

• Geomechanics

ModelingModeling FracturesFractures

Image source: http://210.42.35.8/ybs/images/jcz/lar7.jpg From: Bin Gong 06
Image source: http://210.42.35.8/ybs/images/jcz/lar7.jpg
From: Bin Gong 06

• Most reservoirs are fractured

• Modeling individual fractures is neither possible or desirable

• Usually dual media approach is used

DualDual PorosityPorosity ModelModel

Real fractured system

Dual Porosity Porosity Model Model Real fractured system matrix fracture Idealized sugar-cube model matrix block

matrix

Porosity Porosity Model Model Real fractured system matrix fracture Idealized sugar-cube model matrix block fracture (

fracture

Idealized sugar-cube model

fractured system matrix fracture Idealized sugar-cube model matrix block fracture ( Aziz & Settari , 1979,
fractured system matrix fracture Idealized sugar-cube model matrix block fracture ( Aziz & Settari , 1979,
fractured system matrix fracture Idealized sugar-cube model matrix block fracture ( Aziz & Settari , 1979,

matrix block

fracture

(Aziz & Settari, 1979, after Warren & Root, 1963)

From: Bin Gong 06

Main transport through fractures Flow between matrix and fracture is modeled by transfer functions Number of equations doubles

EnhancementsEnhancements toto DualDual PorosityPorosity ModelsModels

Matrix Fracture
Matrix
Fracture

From: Bin Gong 06

• May allow flow between matrix blocks

• Subgrid matrix blocks

ModelingModeling FineFine ScaleScale FeaturesFeatures

Modeling Modeling Fine Fine Scale Scale Features Features • Explicitly model major faults and fractures •

• Explicitly model major faults and fractures

• Near well modeling

Karimi Fard 2006

Scale Scale Features Features • Explicitly model major faults and fractures • Near well modeling Karimi

DiscreteDiscrete FeatureFeature ModelModel

Features are represented as interfaces between matrix control volumes

Model Model Features are represented as interfaces between matrix control volumes Karimi Fard 2006 Matrix Fracture

Karimi Fard 2006

Model Model Features are represented as interfaces between matrix control volumes Karimi Fard 2006 Matrix Fracture
Matrix Fracture
Matrix
Fracture

Treatment of Intersections

Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures

Grid domain

Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures

Computational domain

Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures
Treatment of Intersections Grid domain Computational domain Intermediate control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures

Intermediate control-volume

Karimi Fard 2006

Fractures
Fractures

Connectivity list

Modified connectivity list

control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Star-Delta transformation
control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Star-Delta transformation
control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Star-Delta transformation
control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Star-Delta transformation
control-volume Karimi Fard 2006 Fractures Connectivity list Modified connectivity list Star-Delta transformation

Star-Delta transformation

WellWell ModelModel inin ReservoirReservoir SimulatorSimulator

Model Model in in Reservoir Reservoir Simulator Simulator • Predicting pressure drop in wellbores is an
Model Model in in Reservoir Reservoir Simulator Simulator • Predicting pressure drop in wellbores is an

• Predicting pressure drop in wellbores is an important component

• Wellbore flow model needs to be simple, continuous, and differentiable

GasGas--LiquidLiquid FlowFlow inin PipesPipes

Horizontal Flow

Slug Churn Annular Bubble Flow Flow Flow Flow
Slug
Churn
Annular
Bubble
Flow
Flow
Flow
Flow
Stratified Smooth Flow Stratified Wavy Flow Elongated Bubble Flow Slug Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Bubble
Stratified Smooth Flow
Stratified Wavy Flow
Elongated Bubble
Flow
Slug Flow
Annular Flow
Dispersed Bubble
Flow

Figures from Shoham (1982)

ModelingModeling ofof ComplexComplex ProcessesProcesses

• Limited ability to model processes involving

– Fast phase changes

– Chemical reactions (in situ upgrading)

– Unstable fronts

• Unconventional

Resources

– Fast phase changes – Chemical reactions (in situ upgrading) – Unstable fronts • Unconventional Resources

RockRock DeformationDeformation

Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow

⎤⎡Δ ⎤ ⎡⎤

⎥ ⎢⎥

⎦⎣ ⎣⎦

F

=

LE Δ P

t

R

KL

t

δ

T

⎥⎢

Geomechanics Simulator

Flow Simulator

SubsidenceSubsidence inin NorthNorth AdriaticAdriatic

Subsidence Subsidence in in North North Adriatic Adriatic From ENI

From ENI

GeneralGeneral PurposePurpose ResearchResearch SimulatorSimulator (GPRS)(GPRS) DesignDesign

field
field
SimMaster facilities solvers other surfac wells wellgroup stdwell mswell smart wells
SimMaster
facilities
solvers
other surfac
wells
wellgroup
stdwell
mswell
smart wells

belonging

inheritance

stdwell mswell smart wells belonging inheritance core concepts reservoir grid … fluid rock From Jiang 2006
core concepts
core concepts
core concepts
core concepts
core concepts

core concepts

reservoir
reservoir
grid … fluid
grid
fluid
rock
rock

From Jiang 2006

SimMaster SimMaster reservoir reservoir facilities facilities solvers solvers reservoir reservoir grid grid
SimMaster SimMaster reservoir reservoir facilities facilities solvers solvers reservoir reservoir grid grid
SimMaster SimMaster reservoir reservoir facilities facilities solvers solvers reservoir reservoir grid grid
SimMaster
SimMaster
reservoir
reservoir
facilities
facilities
solvers
solvers
reservoir
reservoir
grid
grid
surfac
surfac
wells
wells
grid
grid
rock
rock
rock
rock
stdwells
stdwells
……
……
mswells
mswells
……
……
smart wells
smart wells

ObjectObject OrientedOriented DesignDesign

field

SimMaster SimMaster reservoir reservoir facilities facilities solvers solvers
SimMaster
SimMaster
reservoir
reservoir
facilities
facilities
solvers
solvers
grid grid rock rock …… ……
grid
grid
rock
rock
……
……
surfac surfac wells wells stdwells stdwells mswells mswells smart wells smart wells
surfac
surfac
wells
wells
stdwells
stdwells
mswells
mswells
smart wells
smart wells
SimMaster SimMaster solvers solvers
SimMaster
SimMaster
solvers
solvers
facilities facilities
facilities
facilities
surfac surfac wells wells stdwells stdwells mswells mswells smart wells smart wells
surfac
surfac
wells
wells
stdwells
stdwells
mswells
mswells
smart wells
smart wells

reservoir 1

reservoir 2

reservoir 3

From Jiang 2006

ConcludingConcluding RemarksRemarks

• There have been continuous improvements in simulation techniques over the past 50 or so years

• Many challenges remain to make reservoir simulators more accurate, efficient and robust

• Benefits can be huge

AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements

• Based on the work of many students and colleagues

• Supported by SUPRI-B and SUPRI-HW consortia, and the new Smart Fields Consortium (SUPRI-SFC) • Additional support from DOE and several oil companies