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the art, science, technology, and business of growing

plants. It includes the cultivation of medicinal plants,
fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, sprouts, mushrooms,
algae, owers, seaweeds and non-food crops such as
grass and ornamental trees and plants. It also in-
cludes plant conservation, landscape restoration, land-
scape and garden design, construction, and maintenance,
and arboriculture. Inside agriculture, horticulture con-
trasts with extensive eld farming as well as animal hus-
Horticulturists apply their knowledge, skills, and tech-
nologies used to grow intensively produced plants for hu-
man food and non-food uses and for personal or social
needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cul-
A fruit and vegetable market in Milan tivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields,
quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, dis-
eases, and environmental stresses. They work as garden-
ers, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors
in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horti-
culture even refers to the growing of plants in a eld or

1 Etymology
The word horticulture is modeled after agriculture, and
comes from the Greek , which in Latin became
hortus garden[1] and cultra cultivation, from cul-
tus, the perfect passive participle of the verb col I
cultivate.[2] Hortus is cognate with the native English
A vertical garden word yard (in the meaning of land associated with a
building) and also the borrowed word garden.[3]

2 Scope
Horticulture involves nine areas of study, which can be
grouped into two broad sections: ornamentals and edi-

Arboriculture is the study of, and the selection,

plant, care, and removal of, individual trees, shrubs,
vines, and other perennial woody plants.
Turf management includes all aspects of the produc-
tion and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure
Horticultural and health-related produce
use or amenity use.
Floriculture includes the production and marketing
Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with of oral crops.


Landscape horticulture includes the production, papaya, avocado, cacao, ceiba and sapodilla. In the corn-
marketing and maintenance of landscape plants. elds, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using
cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli pep-
Olericulture includes the production and marketing pers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by
of vegetables. women.[10]

Pomology includes the production and marketing of

pome fruits.

Viticulture includes the production and marketing of

grapes. 4 Horticulture organizations
Oenology includes all aspects of wine and
winemaking. The oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in
1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still
Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the have four shows a year in York, UK. They have a large
quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants and archive of records, including the original members book
animals. dating back to 1768.
Desh Bhagat School of Horticulture Sciences at Desh
Bhagat University, Punjab is a prestigious institution in
3 Anthropology India to encourage the research and promote horticulture
techniques throughout the country. The Royal Horticul-
[4] tural Society is a UK charity which oversees several ma-
Horticulture has a very long history. The study and sci-
jor shows and gardens.[12]
ence of horticulture dates all the way back to the times
of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia, and has been go- The professional body representing horticulturists in
ing on ever since, with present-day horticulturists such as Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticul-
Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank. The practice of ture (IOH).[13] Also, the IOH has an international branch
horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years. for members outside of these islands.
The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea The International Society for Horticultural Science [14]
dates back to at least 69506440 cal BP.[5] The origins promotes and encourages research and education in all
of horticulture lie in the transition of human communi- branches of horticultural science.
ties from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-
sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety The American Society of Horticultural Science pro-
of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in spe- motes and encourages research and education in all
cialized plots visited occasionally during migrations from branches of horticultural science in the Americas.
one area to the next (such as the "milpa" or maize eld of The Australian Society of Horticultural Science was es-
Mesoamerican cultures).[6] In the Pre-Columbian Ama- tablished in 1990 as a professional society for the promo-
zon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar tion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science
to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste.[7] and industry.[16]
European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio.[8] In for-
est areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens The National Junior Horticultural Association (NJHA)
was established in 1934 and was the rst organization
("slash and burn" areas).[9] A characteristic of horticul-
tural communities is that useful trees are often to be found in the world dedicated solely to youth and horticulture.
NJHA programs are designed to help young people ob-
planted around communities or specially retained from
the natural ecosystem. tain a basic understanding of, and develop skills in, the
ever expanding art and science of horticulture.[17]
Horticulture primarily diers from agriculture in two [18]
ways. First, it generally encompasses a smaller scale of The New Zealand Horticulture Institute
cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHort) fosters
large elds of single crops. Secondly, horticultural cul- more ecient and eective partnerships and collective
tivations generally include a wide variety of crops, even action among dierent stakeholders in horticulture. The
including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cul- organization has a special focus on horticulture for devel-
tivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. opment (H4D), i.e. using horticulture to reduce poverty
In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horti- and improve nutrition worldwide. To be ecient, Glob-
cultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands (growing alHort is organized in a consortium of national and inter-
maize, squash and sunower) contrasted markedly with national organizations to collaborate in research, training,
the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains and technology-generating activities designed to meet
people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved mutually-agreed-upon objectives. GlobalHort is a not-
augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as for-prot organization registered in Belgium.[19]

5 See also [7] Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies,

Thorsten Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Ed-
uardo Neves, James Petersen, Flavio Luizao, and Jan
Skjemstad, Molecular signature and sources of biochem-
ical recalcitrance of organic carbone in Amazonian Dark
Forest gardening Earths, Geochemica et cosmochemica ACTA 71.9 2285-
2286 (2007) (Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a
Gardening unique type of soils apparently developed between 500
and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic ac-
Genetically modied trees tivities such as biomass-burning and high-intensity nu-
trient depositions on pre-Columbian Amerindian settle-
Genomics of domestication ments that transformed the original soils into Fimic An-
throsols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin.) (inter-
Hoe-farming nal citations omitted)

Horticultural botany [8] Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, and Wolfgang Zech,
Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly
Horticultural ora weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal a review, Bi-
ology and Fertility of Soils 35.4 219-220 (2002) (These
Horticultural oil so called Terra Preta do Indio (Terra Preta) characterize
the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In Terra Preta
Horticultural therapy soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and pro-
longed input of carbonized organic matter probably due
Indigenous horticulture to the production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low
amounts of charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest
Landscaping res and slash-and-burn techniques.) (internal citations
[9] McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture
Plant nutrition among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)].
University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Cen-
Plug (horticulture) ter

[10] Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society

Tropical horticulture in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79:
Turf management
[11] http://www.ancientsocietyofyorkflorists.co.uk/
Vertical farming
[12] https://www.rhs.org.uk/

[13] IOH
6 References [14] ISHS Archived September 22, 2012, at the Wayback Ma-
[1] hortus. Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin
Dictionary on Perseus Project. [15] ASHS

[2] Harper, Douglas. horticulture. Online Etymology Dic- [16] AuSHS

[17] NJHA
[3] Entry for yard Dictionary.com (presenting information [18]
supposedly from Random House Dictionary)
[4] Archived copy. Archived from the original on Septem-
ber 10, 2012. Retrieved September 21, 2012.

[5] Fullagar, Richard, Judith Field, Tim Denham, and Carol 7 Further reading
Lentfer (2006) Early and mid Holocene tool-use and pro-
cessing of taro (Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea sp.) C.R. Adams, Principles of Horticulture Butterworth-
and other plants at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua Heinemann; 5th edition (11 Aug 2008), ISBN 0-
New Guinea Journal of Archaeological Science 33: 595 7506-8694-4.

[6] von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of David Oluwatosin Samuel. I actually don't know I
The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company can make a contribution on here. This is great. : )

8 External links
The Institute of Horticulture

ISHS International Society for Horticultural Sci-


The Royal Horticultural Society

British Library nding information on the horti-

culture industry

History of Horticulture
HORTIVAR The FAO Horticulture Cultivars Per-
formance Database
Global Horticulture Initiative GlobalHort

Horticulture Information & Resource Library

Plant and Soil Sciences eLibrary

9 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

9.1 Text
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ClueBot, Samuel Grant, OCPE, Shailendralko, Niceguyedc, JulianFT~enwiki, Robert Skyhawk, Excirial, Paymaun, Singhalawap, Balt79,
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Vens 8, Bandwagon1967, Yorklmingandediting and Anonymous: 362

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