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4th Year BS Aeronautical Engineering, 14-00275
FEATI University
Coverage of the report:
A. Functions
B. Oil Properties
C.Types of Oil
D. Oil Distribution
E. System Classification
F. Lubricating System Components
G.System Maintenance
Properties and characteristics
of lubricating oils vary with
the oil type. An oil with the
correct specifications must
always be used in each
engine because use of the
wrong oil could lead to
damaged or failed engine
A. Functions
Lubricating engines moving parts
Cooling of the engine by reducing friction
Removing heat from the cylinders
Providing a seal between the cylinder walls and
Carrying away contaminants
Cushioning impact forces created by
Protecting against corrosion
B. Properties of Oil
Oils resistance to flow.
Temperature has the greatest impact on the viscosity
of lubricating oil.
Lower viscosity oils are typically used in cold climates
and higher viscosity oils are used in warm climates.
Specific Gravity
Comparison of the weight of an oil to the weight of
an equal volume of distilled water at a specified
B. Properties of Oil
The amount of light that passes through an oil sample
in a glass container when placed in front of a light of
known intensity.
Cloud Point
The temperature at which paraffin wax and other
solids normally held in a solution of oil begin to solidify
and separate into tiny crystals. At this temperature,
the oil begins to lose clarity and appears cloudy or
B. Properties of Oil
Pour Point
The lowest temperature at which the oil can flow or be
The pour point of an oil should be within five degrees
Fahrenheit of the average ambient starting temperature to
ensure oil circulation.
Flash Point and Fire Point
Flash - the temperature at which it begins to emit ignitable
vapors. Fire - sufficient vapors are emitted to support a
A typical lubricating oil has a fire point approximately 50 to
60 higher than the flash point.
C. Types of Oil
Castor Oil
Poor chemical stability and oxidizes.
Straight Mineral Oil
Effective, however, when exposed to elevated temperatures in
an aerated condition, straight mineral oil has a tendency to
If overly contaminated, a sludge can form that may clog filters
and passages as well as score engine components.
C. Types of Oil
Ashless-Dispersant Oil
Most commonly used
No carbon forming
Dispersant repels sludge until trapped by oil filter
Has anti-wear and anti-foam additives
Not recommended on engine's break-in period.
Multi-Viscosity Oil
Operates over a wider range of temperature.
SAE 15W50, can generally be safely used over the combined
temperature range of an SAE 15 and SAE 50 oil.
C. Types of Oil

Synthetic Oil
Synthetic oils are made by synthesizing raw materials to form a base
stock (diesters)
Has low internal friction, high resistance to thermal breakdown and
The wear characteristics of synthetic oil appears to be about the
same as ashless-dispersant oil and superior to straight mineral oil.
Does not disperse well like AD oil causing sludge formation
It can soften rubber products and resins.
Tendency to blister or remove paint wherever it is spilled.
D. Oil Distribution

Pressure Lubrication
Rely on a pump to supply pressurized oil to critical
engine parts.
Plain bearings, crankshaft and camshaft main bear-
ings, lower connecting rod bearings, and valve
D. Oil Distribution
D. Oil Distribution

Splash Lubrication
Produced by the movement of
internal components which
splash oil around.
Cylinder walls, camshaft lobes,
upper bearings of connecting
rods, piston pins, and accessory
D. Oil Distribution

Spray Lubrication
Uses the same pressurized oil in a pressure lubrication
system; however, instead of routing the oil to a
component through an oil passage, the oil is sprayed
on to a component through a nozzle.
E. System Classification
Wet-sump System
The oil is located in a sump that is an integral part of
the engine.
Simple and lightweight
Oil volume is limited by the sump size and difficult to
cool because it is contained within the engine a
source of heat.
E. System Classification
Dry-sump System
The oil is contained in a separate tank and circulated
through the engine by pumps.
After oil is routed through the engine, it is pumped from
the various locations in the engine back to the oil tank
by scavenge pumps.
Greater volume of oil to be supplied to the engine,
which makes them more suitable for very large
reciprocating engines.
F. Lubricating System Components

Oil Reservoir
Oil Pump
Oil Pressure Relief Valve
Oil Filter
Oil Cooler
Vent Lines
Pipings and Connections
F. Lubricating System Components

Oil reservoir
Large enough to hold an adequate supply of oil to
lubricate an engine.
Typically constructed of an aluminum alloy.
Reservoir in a dry-sump system is typically placed
close enough to the engine and high enough above
the oil pump inlet to ensure reliable gravity feed.
F. Lubricating System Components

Oil pump
Gear Pump
Most common type.
Oil is picked up by the gears at the pump inlet and then
becomes trapped between the teeth and the housing. As the
gears rotate, the trapped oil is released at the pump outlet.
Gerotor Pump
A typical gerotor-type pump consists of an engine driven spur
gear that rotates within a free spinning rotor housing.
F. Lubricating System Components
F. Lubricating System Components
F. Lubricating System Components
F. Lubricating System Components
Oil pressure relief valve
To prevent excessive pressure from damaging an
A typical pressure relief valve consists of a spring
loaded valve that is held in the closed position.
F. Lubricating System Components
Oil filter
To remove solid particles that are suspended in the oil.
This filtration is required to protect the engine's moving
parts from solid contaminants.
Full Flow System
All of the engine oil passes through a filter each time it
circulates through an engine.
Partial Flow System or Bypass System
About 10 percent of oil is filtered each circulation.
Full Flow System Partial Flow System
F. Lubricating System Components
Filtration methods:
depth filtration
semi-depth filtration
surface filtration
edge filtration
F. Lubricating System Components

Oil cooler
An oil-to-air heat exchanger.
In dry-sump system, the oil cooler is
typically located between the scavenge
pump outlet and storage reservoir.
In a wet-sump system, the oil cooler may
be located wherever the manufacturer
deems it appropriate.
F. Lubricating System Components
Oil pressure gauge
Provides a direct indication of the oil system operation.
It ensures the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi) of the oil
supplied to the engine.
Green indicates the normal operating range, while red
indicates the minimum and maximum pressures.
There should be an indication of oil pressure during engine start.
F. Lubricating System Components
Oil temperature gauge
Measures the temperature of oil.
A green area shows the normal operating range, and the red
line indicates the maximum allowable temperature.
Unlike oil pressure, changes in oil temperature occur more
slowly. This is particularly noticeable after starting a cold engine,
when it may take several minutes or longer for the gauge to
show any increase in oil temperature.
Problem Indication Cause Solution

Internal engine Excessive oil Accumulation of Entire lubrication

wear consumption contaminants system is drained at
without oil leakage regular intervals
and refilled with
clean, fresh, oil.

Important Notes:
Prior to draining the engine oil, an engine should be
Check the maintenance manual for instructions
regarding aircraft position.
Oil Filter Replacement
Oil filter replacement and inspection is normally
accomplished whenever the oil is changed.
It is common practice to cut open the filter and inspect the
element for the presence of any metal particles which
might indicate an impending engine failure.
Metal particles large enough to be trapped by the screen
could indicate impending internal engine failure.
Spectrometric oil analysis program, or S.O.A.P. - you are
provided with a list of the type of particles found along with
possible sources of the particles.
Components to inspect:
Oil Reservoir inspect for dents, cracks, leaks
Oil Cooler accumulation of sludge in the cooler, pay
attention to welded or soldered seams exposed from
high oil pressures.
Oil Relief Valve Adjustment 35 to 90 psi depending
on the engine model.