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7.1 The Logarithm Deﬁned as an Integral

What are logarithms?

log a b = x a x = b

What are logarithms?

log a b = x a x = b

a = ln x e a = x

What are logarithms?

log a b = x a x = b

a = ln x e a = x

ln x = x

1

1

t

dt,x > 0

What are logarithms?

log a b = x a x = b

a = ln x e a = x

ln x = x

1

1

t

dt,x > 0

What this last one means is that we can get the value for ln x by ﬁnding the area under the curve 1 to x.

The logarithm as an integral

Notice that the deﬁnition starts at 1. If you want ln x for 0 < x < 1 then the area is negative since ln x is negative there.

The logarithm as an integral

Notice that the deﬁnition starts at 1. If you want ln x for 0 < x < 1 then the area is negative since ln x is negative there.

In this way we can deﬁne the number e.

ln e = e

1

1

t

dt

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0). The domain is

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0). The domain is (0, ).

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0). The domain is (0, ). lim + ln x =

x0

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0). The domain is (0, ). lim + ln x =

x0

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

The domain is (0, ).

lim + ln x =

x0

x ln x =

lim

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

The domain is (0, ).

lim + ln x =

x0

x ln x =

lim

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

The domain is (0, ).

lim + ln x =

x0

x ln x =

lim

x 1 > 0 ln x is increasing.

The Graph

ln x crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

The domain is (0, ).

lim + ln x =

x0

x ln x =

lim

x 1 > 0 ln x is increasing.

1

2 < 0 ln x is concave down.

x

The Graph

How this relates to the FTC

Remember, from the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,

d

1

dx x t

1

dt = 1

x

How this relates to the FTC

Remember, from the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,

So, dx ln x = x for x = 0.

d

1

d

1

dx x t

1

dt = 1

x

How this relates to the FTC

Remember, from the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus,

So, dx ln x = x for x = 0.

d

1

We can generalize this:

d

dx

d

dx

x

1

1

t

dt = 1

x

dy

ln u = 1

u dx

Justiﬁcation

d

Where does dx ln x come from? Consider

e lnx = x

dx d e ln x =

d

dx x

Justiﬁcation

d

Where does dx ln x come from? Consider

e lnx = x

dx d e ln x =

d

dx x

By applying the chain rule we get

dx d e ln x =

d

dx x

Justiﬁcation

d

Where does dx ln x come from? Consider

e lnx = x

dx d e ln x =

d

dx x

By applying the chain rule we get

d

d

dx e ln x = dx x e ln x ·

d

dx ln x = 1

Justiﬁcation

d

Where does dx ln x come from? Consider

e lnx = x

d

dx e ln x =

d

dx x

By applying the chain rule we get

d

d

dx e ln x = dx x e ln x ·

d

dx ln x = 1

1
⇒ d
ln x =
= 1
dx
e ln x
x

Generalization

And, in general, we have

d

dx

log b x =

Generalization

And, in general, we have

d

dx

log b x =

1

x ln b

Generalization

And, in general, we have

d

dx

log b x =

1

x ln b

And if we have a composite function u, we’d get

d

dx

log b u =

Generalization

And, in general, we have

d

dx

log b x =

1

x ln b

And if we have a composite function u, we’d get

d

dx

log b u =

1

1

ln b ·

u ·

Generalization

And, in general, we have

d

dx

log b x =

1

x ln b

And if we have a composite function u, we’d get

d

dx

log b u =

1

ln b · u

1

· du

dx

Properties

Other logarithm properties:

1 ln bx = ln b + ln x

Properties

Other logarithm properties:

1 ln bx = ln b + ln x

b

2 ln x = ln b ln x

Properties

Other logarithm properties:

1 ln bx = ln b + ln x

2

b

ln x = ln b ln x

1

3 ln x = ln x

Properties

Other logarithm properties:

1 ln bx = ln b + ln x

2

b

ln x = ln b ln x

3 ln x = ln x

4 ln x r = rln x, r Q

1

Properties

Other logarithm properties:

1 ln bx = ln b + ln x

2

b

ln x = ln b ln x

3 ln x = ln x

4 ln x r = rln x, r Q

1

All of these properties can be generalized for log b x.

Examples

1

What is x dx?

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u =

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u = x 2 + 1

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u = x 2 + 1

du =

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u = x 2 + 1

du = 2x dx

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1
1
x=1
du
u = x 2 + 1
2
u
x=−1
du = 2x dx
2 1 du = x dx

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1
1
x=1
du
u = x 2 + 1
2
u
x=−1
1
x=1
du = 2x dx
=
2 ln |u|
x=−1
2 1 du = x dx

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u = x 2 + 1

du = 2x dx

2 1 du = x dx

=

1
x=1
du
2
u
x=−1
1
x=1
=
2 ln |u|
x=−1
1
1 2 ln |x 2 + 1|
−1 =

Examples

1

What is x dx?ln |x| + c

Example

Evaluate
1
x
x 2 + 1 dx
−1

u = x 2 + 1

du = 2x dx

2 1 du = x dx

=

1
x=1
du
2
u
x=−1
1
x=1
=
2 ln |u|
x=−1
1
1 2 ln |x 2 + 1|
−1 = 0

Note

Note: the fact that we have a symmetric interval and we get 0 for the value of the integral tells us what?

Note

Note: the fact that we have a symmetric interval and we get 0 for the value of the integral tells us what?

The function is odd.

Exponentials

Let’s turn our attention to exponentials. If we consider f(x) = e x , what does the graph look like?

Exponentials

Let’s turn our attention to exponentials. If we consider f(x) = e x , what does the graph look like?

Exponentials

Let’s turn our attention to exponentials. If we consider f(x) = e x , what does the graph look like?

We know lim

x e x = and lim

x→−e x = 0.

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ?

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ? e x

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ? e x

e x > 0 x R, so the function is

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ? e x

e x > 0 x R, so the function is increasing everywhere.

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ? e x

e x > 0 x R, so the function is increasing everywhere.

And, since

2 e x =

dx

d

2

Exponentials

What is

d

dx

e x ? e x

e x > 0 x R, so the function is increasing everywhere.

And, since

2 e x = e x , we know that the function is concave up.

dx

d

2

Exponentials

By this same logic, we have the following:

e x dx = e x + c

Exponentials

By this same logic, we have the following:

and in general,

e x dx = e x + c

e u du = e u + c

with the difference being that u is a function of x and would require substitution to integrate.

Derivative of e x

Who can tell me why the derivative of e x is e x ?

Derivative of e x

Who can tell me why the derivative of e x is e x ?

When in doubt, we can go back to the limit of the difference quotient.

d

dx e x = lim

h0

e x+h e x

h

Derivative of e x

Who can tell me why the derivative of e x is e x ?

When in doubt, we can go back to the limit of the difference quotient.

d

dx e x = lim

h0

e x+h e x

h

= e x lim

h0

e h 1

h

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x .

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x . So let’s pull this part out for the moment.

e h 1

h

= 1

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x . So let’s pull this part out for the moment.

e h 1

h

= 1

h = e h 1

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x . So let’s pull this part out for the moment.

e h 1

h

h

h

= 1

= e h 1 + 1 = e h

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x . So let’s pull this part out for the moment.

e h 1

h

h

h

= 1

= e h 1 + 1 = e h

Now we will bring the limit back in.

lim

h0 h + 1 = e h

Derivative of e x

Now, we expect the expression we are taking the limit of to equal 1 so that we end up with just e x . So let’s pull this part out for the moment.

e h 1

h

h

h

= 1

= e h 1 + 1 = e h

Now we will bring the limit back in.

lim

h0 h + 1 = e h

1 = e 0 1 = 1

This gives us that the expression we wanted to be 1 is 1 and we get the desired result.

Derivative of Exponentials

In general,

d dx a x =

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x ln y = ln a x

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x ln y = ln a x ln y = x ln a

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x

ln y = ln a x

ln y = x ln a 1 dy

= ln a

y dx

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x

ln y = ln a x

ln y = x ln a 1 dy

= ln a

y dx

dy

dx

= y ln a

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x

ln y = ln a x

ln y = x ln a 1 dy

= ln a

y dx

dy

dx

=

= y ln a

a x ln a

Derivative of Exponentials

d

In general, dx a x = a x ln a. Where does this come from?

y = a x

ln y = ln a x

ln y = x ln a 1 dy

= ln a

y dx

dy

dx

= y ln a

= a x ln
a
u
d
a
dx a u = a u (ln a) du
and a u du =
dx
ln a + c.

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

= e x 1 · e x 2

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

2 e x =

= e x 1 · e x 2

1

e x

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

= e x 1 · e x 2

2 e x =

e

x

1

3 e x 2

1

e x

= e x 1 x 2

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

2 e x =

e

x

1

3 e x 2

=

= e x 1 · e x 2

1

e x

e x 1 x 2

4 (e x 1 ) r = e rx 1 , for r Q

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

2 e x =

e

x

1

3 e x 2

=

= e x 1 · e x 2

1

e x

e x 1 x 2

4 (e x 1 ) r = e rx 1 , for r Q

5 x = e lnx

Properties

Some properties of exponential:

1 e x 1 +x 2

2 e x =

e

x

1

3 e x 2

=

= e x 1 · e x 2

1

e x

e x 1 x 2

4 (e x 1 ) r = e rx 1 , for r Q

5 x = e lnx

6 x = ln e x

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example g(x) = sin(e x )

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example g(x) = sin(e x )

g (x) = e x cos(e x )

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example
g(x) = sin(e x )
g (x) = e x cos(e x )
Example
log x
y =
1+log x

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example
g(x) = sin(e x )
g (x) = e x cos(e x )
Example
1
1
(1+log x)
log x
xln(10) −log x
xln(10)
y =
x y =
1+log
(1+log x) 2

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example
g(x) = sin(e x )
g (x) = e x cos(e x )
Example
1
1
(1+log x)
log x
xln(10) −log x
xln(10)
1
y =
x y =
1+log
(1+log x) 2
= x ln(10)(1+log x) 2

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example
g(x) = sin(e x )
g (x) = e x cos(e x )
Example
1
1
(1+log x)
log x
xln(10) −log x
xln(10)
1
y =
x y =
1+log
(1+log x) 2
= x ln(10)(1+log x) 2

Example

y = log (x 2 + 1)

Derivatives

Find the derivative of the following:

Example

f(x) = a x + x a

f (x) = ln a · a x + ax a1

Example
g(x) = sin(e x )
g (x) = e x cos(e x )
Example
1
1
(1+log x)
log x
xln(10) −log x
xln(10)
1
y =
x y =
1+log
(1+log x) 2
= x ln(10)(1+log x) 2
Example
2x
y = log (x 2 + 1)
y =
(ln 10)(x 2 +1)

Another Example

Example
log x
dx
x

Another Example

Example
log x
dx
x

We ﬁrst want to apply the “change of base” rule.

log x =

ln x

ln 10

and the reason is because we know how to take the antiderivative when we rewrite.

Another Example

Example
log x
dx
x

We ﬁrst want to apply the “change of base” rule.

log x =

ln x

ln 10

and the reason is because we know how to take the antiderivative when we rewrite.

log x

x

dx

=

1
10 ln x
dx
ln
x

Another Example

We now apply the substitution rule.

1

u = ln x du = x dx

Another Example

We now apply the substitution rule.

So now we have

1

u = ln x du = x dx

1

10 u du

ln

Another Example

We now apply the substitution rule.

So now we have

1

u = ln x du = x dx

1

10 u du

ln

= (ln x) 2

2ln 10 + c