Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Multi Modal Biometric Systems: A State of the Art Survey


G. Angeline Prasanna1, K. Anandakumar2, A. Bharathi 3
1 Research Scholar, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore - 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India
2Department of MCA, BannariAmman Institute of Technology, Erode - 638401, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of IT, BannariAmman Institute of Technology, Erode - 638401, Tamil Nadu, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***----------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - In its most general definition, Biometrics refers to the fact that they allow the user to interact differently

to the science of automatic recognition of individuals based on with the computer.

some specific physiological and/or behavioral features. A Other multimodal systems are less based on human

biometric system that is based on one single biometric computer dialog interaction, such as multimodal biometrics

identifier does not always come to meet the desired systems. They are used for identification purposes to

performance requirements; multimodal biometric systems provide more secure environments.

come to be an emergent trend. In this paper, we discuss the The use of biometric systems has grown quickly

most commonly used unimodal biometric systems ranging over the past decade. They are mostly used for identification

from signature identification, facial recognition, DNA systems implemented to provide a more secure

identification, speech authentication, hand geometry environment, and authenticate the identity of people, while

recognition, iris recognition and fingerprint identification. minimizing the chance of false positive or false negative (in

However, performances of such unimodal biometric terms of authentication). At the same time, the system

recognition systems can degrade quickly when the input should be fast enough to deal with possible real time traffics,

biometric traits suffer extensive variations; the importance of as at physical checkpoints.

multimodal biometric systems is hence highlighted. Recent Photographs and fingerprints have been used as

advances and application of multimodal biometric systems are personal identification tools for many decades. More

then presented. recently some more advanced biometrics tools have been
developed, such as the case of measuring the geometry of the
KeyWords: multimodal biometric systems, iris palm or hand; recognizing the pattern of blood vessels in a
recognition, facial recognition, gait identification, retina or the flecks of colour in an iris; or making the pattern
fusion in a persons DNA; as well as recognizing voices or faces, or
the way people walk. Multimodal biometric systems that
1.INTRODUCTION infer personal identification based on multiple physiological
The design of multimodal interfacing systems has or behavioral characteristics are preferred. Consider, for
been growing substantially over the last few decades, and example, a network logon application where a biometric
their applications have grown dramatically in functionalities system is used for user authentication. If a user cannot
in many fields. Some of these multimodal systems are human provide good fingerprint image due to a cut in the finger for
computer dialog interaction based systems where the user example, then face and voice or other biometric identifiers
interacts with the PC through voice or vision or any other can be used instead (or in conjunction). Voice identification
pointing device in order to complete a specific task. These as well cannot operate efficiently in a noisy environment or
kinds of systems seem to be very powerful and effective due in the case where the user has some illness affecting his

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1283
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

voice. Facial recognition is not suitable if the background is on the existence of a database template similar to the query
cluttered, or if the persons stored information are several template. Verification, on the other hand, refers to the process
years old. For these reasons among others, multimodal of checking whether a query biometric sample belongs to a

biometric systems found their way to emerge in the recent claimed identity. For instance, one may have to enter an ID

and advanced authentication and security applications. number or use a particular card, then have one's iris scanned.
The biometric system then has to only check whether the
The remainder of the paper is organized as follow:
constructed query template is similar enough to the database
Section 2 presents an overview on biometrics. Biometric
template associated with the given ID number or card. From
techniques including unimodal and multimodal biometrics
these descriptions, it should be obvious that verification is less
are presented in section 3. Section 4 then presents the most
computationally expensive and more robust than identification.
recent applications of unimodal and multimodal biometric
However, identification is more convenient, less obtrusive, and
systems. Section 5 concludes the paper with some
is the only option when it comes to applications that attempt to
suggestions for further investigations.
find security threats. After all, criminals are unlikely to put
forward their correct identities willingly.
2. OVERVIEW ON BIOMETRICS As with any field, it is very important to have a
As later demonstrated in this paper, there are many widely used metric to measure performance of biometric
different biometrics that could be utilized in a given system. system, so that systems could be compared, real-world
However, despite the wide variety of possible biometrics, the performance can be estimated, and progress could be
key high-level structure of a biometrics system is the same motivated. In biometrics, performance is ultimately based on
[2]. First of all, the system has to develop a representation the probability of accepting impostor users, referred to as
describing the discriminating features extracted from the False Acceptance Rate (FAR); and the probability of rejecting
biometric sample. These discriminating features could, for genuine users, referred to as False Rejection Rate (FRR).
instance, be the relative locations of minutiae points Plotting the value of (1 - FRR) against FAR produces what is
extracted from a fingerprint [3] or an iris code from an iris. known as the Receiver Operating Curve, which could be used
Each sample's representation is referred to as a template. for a graphical comparison of performance between
Clearly, a system has to allow for the addition or different systems. For a simple empirical measure, the Equal
registration of new templates. This process is called Error Rate (EER) is usually used in biometrics, which refers
enrolment. The templates are stored in a database and may to the point at which FRR and FAR are equal [5].
be linked to particular information about the corresponding
individual depending on the specific application [2].
3 BIOMETRICS TECHNIQUES
Biometrics systems are usually used to accomplish one
Various behavioural and physical attributes could be
of two related objectives: identification or verification [4].
used to identify an individual. We will visit briefly some of
Identification refers to the process of trying to find a match
the most commonly used biometrics and present the
between a query biometric sample and one stored in the
advantages and disadvantages of using each one on its own.
database. For instance, to obtain access to a restricted area, one
Then, we will move on to describe multimodal systems that
may go through an iris scan. A corresponding template
describing the discriminating features is built for the scanned
consult more than one biometric before making an

iris. Then the new template is compared to all those stored in identification decision.

the database. One is then granted or denied access depending

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1284
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3.1 Unimodal Biometric systems consistency between eye images despite the
Numerous systems have been built that make use of stretching of the iris induced by the pupil's dilation.
one biometric for identification purposes. The biometric 4. Unwrapping of the normalized iris region into a
used can be especially suitable or inappropriate for a given rectangular region.
application depending on its characteristic strengths and 5. Extraction of discrimination features in the iris
weaknesses. We carry out a brief survey to contrast the pattern, so that a comparison between templates
different commonly used biometrics outlining the basics of can be done.
how they work and the motivations behind the use of each 6. Encoding of iris features using wavelets to
one. construct the iris code to which input templates are
3.1.1 Iris Recognition compared in the matching step.
The iris begins to form in the third month of gestation, Although exhibiting a number of strong points,
and its patterns become unchangeable by the age of two or discussed above, iris recognition suffers from a few
three. Furthermore, the iris pattern depends on the initial problems as well. For one thing, it is very difficult to perform
environment of the embryo, hence making the iris a unique at a distance larger than a few meters or if the person to be
feature and highly distinct from one person to another. In fact, identified is not cooperating by holding the head still and
even the left and the right irises for the same person are not looking into the camera. Iris recognition is susceptible to
identical. poor image quality, with associated failure to enrol rates [8].
The iris is isolated and protected from external Besides the iris is located behind a curved, wet, and
environment and it is impossible to surgically modify the iris reflecting surface and obscured by eyelashes, lenses, and
without unacceptable risk to vision. Additionally, its reflections. It is partially occluded by eyelids. Also, it deforms
physiological response to light provides one of several non-elastically as pupil changes size [9]. All these reasons
natural tests against artifice [6]. Thus, given its uniqueness make image acquisition a critical operation to perform.
and permanence, iris recognition comes to be a popular
biometric identification technology for personal
identification.
Iris recognition identifies a person by analyzing the
unique random patterns that are visible within the iris of
an eye to form an iris code that is compared to iris templates
in an existing database. The iris recognition process has six
main steps [7]:
1. Image acquisition, as shown in figure 1, is one of the
major challenges of automated iris recognition,
because we need to capture a high-quality image of
Figure 1: Iris scanner used to identify Baghdadi city
the iris while remaining non-invasive to the human
council members [10]
operator.
3.1.2 Facial Recognition
2. Iris localization in which the edges of the iris and
Facial recognition is usually thought of as the
the pupil are detected to extract the iris region.
primary way in which people recognize one another. After
3. Normalization of the size of the iris region to ensure
all, given a search through one's wallet, it becomes clear that

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1285
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

identification based on facial recognition is used by many


organizations, such as universities, government agencies,
and banks, although the recognition is usually carried out by
a human. Many of these organizations will, of course, have
these photos stored in large databases making many
commercial and law-enforcement applications feasible given
a reliable facial recognition system. Additionally, facial
images of a person can usually be collected without
necessarily requiring much co-operation from that person.
Thus, it is no surprise that facial recognition is a key part of
Figure 2: Images generated by Eigenfaces
the DARPA-funded Human ID at a Distance Project aimed at
approach. [15]
developing the technology to identify terrorists from a
distance [11].
Despite the aforementioned advantages of using 3.1.3 Fingerprint Identification

facial recognition, it may perform very poorly when According to the glossary of the Scientific Working

deployed in the real world, especially for recognition at a Group on Friction Ridge Analysis, Study and Technology

distance. A facial recognition system deployed in Logan (SWGFAST) [16], a fingerprint is an impression of the

International Airport to detect terrorists failed in 38 percent friction ridges of any part of the finger. The uniqueness of

of the cases to match the identities of a test group of friction ridges tells us that no two fingers or palm prints are

employees, according to a study by the American Civil ever exactly alike; even two recorded successive

Liberties Union [12]. A face-recognition system deployed on impressions from the same finger are no identical [17].

the streets of Tampa, Florida to identify criminals was Fingerprint identification is the process of

scrapped two years later having not identified, alerted of, or comparing two or more friction skin ridge to determine if

caught any criminals, according to a spokesman for the they are originated from the same finger (or palm, toe, etc.)

Tampa Police Department [13]. under some threshold scoring rules.

There are many approaches that exist for tackling One main shortcoming for fingerprint identification

face recognition. Some of these approaches use the whole systems is that small injuries and burns highly affect the

face as raw input, such as eigenfaces (figure 2) and fingerprint. In fact, injury, whether temporary or permanent,

fisherfaces, which are based on principal component can interfere with the scanning process. For example,

analysis. Other approaches depend on extracting and bandaging a finger for a short period of time can impact the

matching certain features from the face, such the mouth and fingerprint scanning process. Something as simple as a burn

eyes. Lastly, some approaches are a mix of the two using to the identifying finger could make the fingerprint

data from the whole face as well as specific features to carry identification process fail [18]. Also add to this that the type

out the recognition [14]. of work that a person performs can also affect and
sometimes damage some of fingerprint ridges as well.

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1286
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

identification. Statistics show that that the chance of having


two people with the same DNA profile is one to billion,
making DNA testing at a very high degree of accuracy.

Figure 3: Fingerprint ridges showing a loop pattern


[19]
3.1.4 Voice Identification
Figure 4: DNA double Helix [22]
A biometric system could be built based on the
On the other hand, DNA techniques are not able to
extraction and modelling of specific features from speech.
distinguish between monozygotic twins which are formed
This voice authentication process is based on an analysis of
when one fertilized egg splits, because they are the only
the vibrations created in the human vocal tract. The shape of
people in the world with identical DNA profile. DNA faces
a persons vocal tract determines the resonance of the voice
several other challenges as well; several hours are required
which is fairly different from one to another due to the fact
in order to obtain a fingerprint and the test is quite
that everyone has a unique vocal tract in shape and size.
expensive to perform. Besides, DNA includes sensitive
One advantage about the voice identification process
information related to genetic and medical aspects of
is that it does not have to require a specific grammar and can
individuals, and hence any misuse of DNA information can
be language independent; hence allowing callers to speak
disclose the users privacy. This is why people are fairly
any phrase in any language they choose [20]. However,
hostile to DNA usage [23].
Human voice is generated though a complex process that
3.1.6 Hand Geometry Recognition
involves the interactions of several body parts, especially the
While it does not occur to humans, in everyday life,
lungs, larynx and mouth. And hence, any small temporarily
to observe one's hand geometry to identify who they may be,
or permanent damage to any of these body parts can lead to
primitive biometric systems that do just that have been in
a voice problem, and therefore highly affecting the
existence since the 1960s. Use of hand geometry has several
identification process [21]. Besides, it would be possible that
advantages as shown by a survey of 129 users of a hand
a tape recording is used to hack into a system.
geometry biometric system at Purdue University's
3.1.5 DNA Identification
Recreation Centre. Out of the survey participants, 93% liked
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), shown in figure 4, is
using the technology, 98% found it easy to use, and no one
the well-known double helix structure present in every
found the technology invasive of privacy [24].
human cell, and is used to produce a DNA fingerprint which
Similar to other technologies, hand geometry's ease
is the same for every single cell of a person. A DNA
of use and acceptably amongst users does come at a cost. For
fingerprint is robust and is impossible to be changed by
one thing, hand geometry is not especially distinctive,
surgery or any other known treatment. It is widely used in
especially when applied to a large population. Thus, it is
the diagnosis of disorders, paternity tests, criminal
most suitable for purposes of verification rather than

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1287
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

identification. Additionally, hand geometry may not be an and the matching process can be done using a variety of
ideal biometric to use if users include children whose hand- techniques, such as hidden Markov models and eigen
geometry template may vary during their growth period analysis [30]. Recently, a very different type of approach to
[25]. gait recognition has emerged that relies on having a physical
device, such as an accelerometer, attached to one's physical
body to collect data about one's gait. The new sensor- based
approaches, however, give up gait's potential to identify
from a distance [31].
3.1.8 Signature Verification
Signatures are composed of special characters and
flourishes, which make them most of the time unreadable.
Besides, intrapersonal variations and differences make the
analysis of these signatures as complete images and not as

Figure 5: Hand Geometry Recognition system [27] letters and words important and unique [32]. That is why

Hand geometry recognition can be done based on signatures have been accepted in government, legal, and

the measurement and matching of various features, such as commercial transactions as a method of verification.

the finger width, finger length, hand size, and hand contour. There are two different types of signature

Most hand-geometry systems determine the different parts verification: offline and online. The former takes only a

of the hand based on pins between fingers, restricting the signature's image and analyses it, and then compares it to

position in which one can place one's hand [26]. Figure 5 the stored template to measure similarity (figure 6). The

shows one of such hand geometry recognition systems. latter goes a step further and various features that are

3.1.7 Gait Recognition determined by the signing method are evaluated. Such

One's walk can be observed well from a distance or features include the number of strokes used, the amount of

from security-camera video and checked against a database pressure at a given point, and the writing speed. Online

for a possible match. This ability to identify a person from a signature verification is more robust against forgery as it

distance is gait's biggest asset, because it helps in building requires the forger to not only copy the signature's shape,

non-obtrusive authentications systems as well as helping to but also copy the way it is written. However, online

meet today's heightened security concerns. Alongside facial techniques cannot be applied for verifying signatures on

recognition, the Human ID at a Distance Project uses gait to documents or bank cheques [33].

help identify terrorists from a distance [11]. Additionally, it The major problem faced with this technology is that a

is difficult for one to deliberately copy someone else's way of persons signature changes with time and is highly affected

walking [28]. Having said all of this, gait recognition is still in by the physical and emotional conditions of the signatories.

its infancy and has not faced many tests, especially for As a matter of fact, even successive signatures by the same

potential attacks [29]. person can be significantly different.

Most of current approaches to gait recognition are


based on silhouette analysis. Given video input of one's walk,
a corresponding silhouette is formed, which is analyzed to
produce a gait signature. The production of the signature

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1288
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

ways. First of all, fusion could be carried out at different


levels. Modalities could be combined at the feature level, the
matching level, or the decision level. Secondly, fusion could
be based on rules or based on machine-learning approaches
[36]. Rule-based approaches include simple sum, max score,
and min score [37]. Machine-learning approaches include
support vector machines, minimum cost Bayesian classifier,
Fisher's linear discriminant, decision trees, and multilayer
Figure 6: Signature Verification Process [34] perceptron [38].
3.2.1 Fusion at Feature Level
3.2 Multimodal Biometric Systems Fusion at the feature level may be most useful for
As emphasized above, none of the biometrics can closely-related modalities or for integrating input from
guarantee perfect recognition rates. Also, different multiple sensors of same modality. It normalizes features
biometrics has different strengths and weakness. Thus, from multiple channels and includes all in one vector, and
conditions that may cause one biometric to fail may have no then it selects features using some specific mechanisms, such
influence on another. For instance, if one's voice had as sequential forward selection.
changed because of a cold, speech identification may no It calculates distance scores between a query vector
longer be reliable, but the cold is unlikely to affect the and one in the database based on a measure, such as
reliability of fingerprint recognition. Alternatively, if one's Euclidean distance. Feature Fusion produced best results
finger incurred an injury, fingerprint identification may when modalities are related (e.g. LDA-Red, LDA-Green, LDA-
become less reliable than that of voice identification. This Blue) than when they were unrelated (e.g., hand and face)
realization leads one to consider the possibility of using [39].
multiple biometrics together for the purpose of 3.2.2 Fusion at Matching Level
identification. A fusion module could be added that takes in Fusion at matching level normalizes scores of matchers
output from multiple unimodal recognizers and attempts to to same domain using mechanisms such as Min Max, which
make a conclusion based on the combined evidence. maps score values to [0, 1], or Quadric-Line-Quadric
function, which tries to separate the genuine and impostor
score distributions [37]. Then it may use one or more of
following approaches for the actual classification [37]
Fixed rules, such as simple sum, maximum
unimodal score, and minimum unimodal score
Trained rules, such as Support Vector Machines,
Fisher's Linear Discriminant, Bayesian Classifier,
Multi-Layer Perceptron, and Decision Trees [40].
Adaptive rules, such as assigning less weight to
modalities that are disadvantaged by the current
Figure 7: Multimodal Biometrics [35]
environment (e.g. too much background noise).
Many approaches exist for integrating multiple
modalities. Fusion approaches can be distinguished in two

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1289
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

3.2.3 Fusion at Decision Level difficulty in forging them makes biometrics an attractive
Fusion of multiple biometrics can be also done at solution for enhancing security. The Republic of the
the decision level where each classifier provides its decision Maldives, with the support of BioLink, introduced passports
as accept or reject. Then the Borda count method can be that come with microchips storing fingerprint and face
used for combining the classifiers outputs. The Borda count templates. This technology allows for quick and reliable
is a winner election method in which voters rank candidates identification of citizens [41]. Mexico City International
in order of preference. Candidates will receive a certain Airport installed Bioscrypt's V-Smart authentication system
number of points depending on the position they hold. to provide access control to high-security areas of its
Finally, the winner of an election is the candidate with terminals. The system requires use of a smart card that
highest number of points. stores one's fingerprint template [42].
One problem that appears with decision level fusion 4.1.2 Convenience
is the possibility of having a tie. Therefore it is necessary to Biometrics provide a very convenient solution that
have more classifiers than classes. Hence, for verification allows one to quickly authenticate into a system without
applications, at least three classifiers are needed because necessarily having to carry anything, take the time to type
only two classes exist in a verification process (yes or anything, nor remember any secret strings. This convenience
no). But for identification cases, it is not practical and even factor has attracted many manufacturers. Axxis Biometrics
sometimes not feasible to have more classifiers than classes; makes fingerprint-based door locks, such their 1Touch [43].
this is why combination level is usually applied to Also, mainstream Lenovo notebooks, such as the R Series
verification scenarios. Important combination schemes at come with an integrated fingerprint reader that lets users
this level are the serial and parallel combination (AND and simply swipe their finger, rather than enter passwords to log
OR combinations); where AND combination improves the in [44]. NCR, on the other hand, provides point-of-sale
False Acceptance Ratio (FAR) while the OR combination biometric terminals used to quickly authenticate sports bar
improves the False Rejection Ratio (FRR) [36]. employees to enter orders [45]. Columbia's Bancafe Bank
4 Applications incorporated NCR's fingerprint readers across all of its ATM

Biometrics has been used in a wide range of network, so that users no longer need to carry an ATM card

applications. First, we categorize and present specific to make transactions [46].

application examples based on the primary benefit of 4.1.3 Privacy Enhancement

biometrics that they make use of. Then, we provide detailed Biometrics can be used as unique identifiers without

descriptions of several interesting biometric applications. revealing any personal information about the person they

4.1 Benefit and Examples are identifying. Opposite to what many believe, biometrics
could in fact enhance privacy. Thus, biometrics could be the
There are a wide variety of applications for biometrics
ideal solution for social benefit programs where it is
in existence today. Of course, these applications have sprung
important to keep track of usage; but privacy is a major
up because of the benefits biometrics provides as an
concern. On the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, the United
identification solution. Depending on the application, a
Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) uses an iris
particular benefit is usually emphasized, such as security,
recognition solution to ensure that each Afghani refugee
convenience or privacy.
obtains only one refugee package. To obtain a package,
4.1.1 Security
refugees have to authenticate via the iris recognition system.
The uniqueness of biometric signals and the

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1290
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

If they are already in the database, then they are identified as of personal information which is stored on the smart card.
having already received their package. If they are not in the However surveys show that fingerprint and iris identifiers
database, then they are added to it and are given a package. received the highest preference from the respondents with
The biometric database stores nothing but iris templates 57% and 53% each. Therefore these types of biometrics
that are not linked with any personal information to the should be taken into account first when implementing the e-
refugees [47]. passport. Another clear preference was noticed in the favour
4.2 Case Studies of applications related to Banking and Government (e.g.
In this section, four most recent applications of driving license, national ID and passport) [49].
multimodal biometric systems are presented. Then one 4.2.2 BioID
advanced application of unimodal biometric systems is Another notable multimodal biometric technology is
highlighted. HumanScan's BioID technology [50], which combines face,
4.2.1 E-passport in the European Union voice and lip movement information to identify users (see
The European Unions e-passport is one important security figure 9). It has a number of positive features. First of all, it
application of multimodal biometric systems. E-passport is costs little to set up and install. A standard USB camera and a
an advanced smart card that holds digitized multi biometric microphone are all that is needed in terms of input devices.
features of its associated holder (figure 8). This card will Also, it is fairly unobtrusive requiring one little more than to
substitute both the national identity card and the look at the camera and say something. Lastly, BioID can be
conventional passport and possibly other cards (e.g. driving configured to use any single one or combination of face,
license). It will be used for enhanced security of personal voice and lip movement biometrics. BioID is not tied to any
authentication. specific application, but simply provides an Application
The smart card uses a systematic cryptographic and Programming Interface (API) that makes it integratable into
public key infrastructure (PKI) and a number of private keys existing applications. In fact, the API used is BioAPI [51]
for each cardholder, as well as a visual identity that is a compliant. BioAPI is an international standard for biometric
requirement for a travel document in EU. APIs allowing applications to be developed independently of
the biometrics systems they may use. [52] claims that BioID
could be used for controlling access to physical locations, as
well as access to technical systems and that BioID had
demonstrated reliability in many installations around the
world. However, no specific examples are provided, nor
performance evaluations are published.

Figure 8: E-passport Chip [48]


The EU is studying the peoples acceptance to e-
passports Negative respondents in fact see that e-Passport
has significant negative privacy consequences. The e-
passport, with biometric identifiers, requires the disclosure Figure 9: Bio-ID System [53]

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1291
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

4.2.3 Human ID areas at the airport. The card has a small computer chip that
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency stores the cardholders fingerprint and iris templates. The
(DARPA) in USA is currently developing a program called biometric reader at the airport will scan the individual and
Human Identification at a Distance (HumanID). The program the card, and compare the information presented by the
aims at developing automated biometric identification individual with the data stored on the card in order to test if
technologies to detect, recognize and identify humans at that individual is indeed the cardholder, then it checks if the
great distances (25-150 feet) [11]. cardholder has access to the particular restricted area or not.
Techniques being investigated are face recognition; The government hopes to finish implementing the system at
recognition from body dynamics in video including gait; the airports and issuing the cards by December 31, 2007
recognition from infrared, multi-spectral, and hyperspectral [56].
imagery. Methods for fusing biometric technologies into 4.2.5 ATM Vein Authentication
advanced human identification systems will be developed to Most ATMs today in Europe and North America
enable faster, more accurate and unconstrained require customer to authenticate using a card and a PIN.
identification of humans. However, fraudsters have found ways to obtain such
Program manager, Jonathon Philips holds good information. A fraudster can install a skimming device that
future ideas for the HumanID project. Despite all the tough reads a card's magnetic strip and a mini-camera to capture
challenges the program faces, he has faith in newer the entry of a PIN [57]. When Japan faced a dramatic rise in
techniques that will be emerging to enhance the proficiency card fraud in 2003, authorities forced banks to adopt new
and accuracy of this project that will be of great help and use more secure methods of authentications. Since then, most
to the Intelligence, Information Access Division, and the Japanese banks have adopted finger vein technology offered
security organizations [54]. by Hitachi (figure 11). The biometric system works by
emitting near-infrared rays that pass through the finger and
are absorbed by the haemoglobin. Since haemoglobin is
present only within the veins, dark areas will appear only
wherever veins exist. The resulting image can be captured by
a camera and used for matching against templates that were
collected in the same manner [58].

Figure 10: Poster on "Human ID" system [55]


4.2.4 Restricted Area Identity Card
Another interesting recent application for
multimodal biometric systems is the biometric ID card (also
called as the Restricted Area Identity Card) that will be
introduced by the federal Canadian government for workers Figure 11: Hitachi Finger Vein Authentication [59]
at 29 major airports by the end of the year 2007. This card This new method of ATM authentication was not
uses both fingerprint and iris biometrics in order to identify used to replace any of the existing cards or PIN security
120,000 workers who have permission to access restricted layers, but was added as an additional layer making it surely

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1292
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

more difficult to commit fraud [60]. As for the reliability of Notes in Computer Science, 4571, pp 795-809 (2007).
the vein biometric layer on its own, its false acceptance rate [6] Y.P. Huang, S.W. Luo and E.Y. Chen, An efficient iris
is extremely low at 0.0001% with a verification time of less recognition system, Proceedings of First International
than 0.5 seconds. Additionally, vein biometric is not Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics,
externally visible making it more difficult to forge and is not Beijing, pp 4-5 (2002).
affected by injuries or common sickness [58]. Thus, it should [7] J. Daugman, How iris recognition works, IEEE
not be surprising to find that the International Biometric Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video
Group ranked vein biometric as the best biometric in both Technology, 14(1), pp 21-30 (2004).
aspects: effectiveness and usability [60]. [8] J. Daugman, The importance of being random:
5. CONCLUSIONS statistical principles of iris recognition, Pattern
In this paper, we have highlighted the most Recognition, 36(2), pp 279-291 (2003).
commonly used unimodel biometric systems. We also [9] P. Blythe and J. Fridrich, Secure digital camera, Digital
presented the importance of multimodal biometrics systems Forensic Research Workshop, Baltimore, Maryland,
for providing a more secure environment with higher (2004).
authentication accuracy by overcoming the limitations of [10] Wikimedia,Image,http://upload.wikimedia.org/
individual biometrics. Some recent applications of these wikipedia/commons/c/cf/Retinal_scan _securimetrics
types of systems were then presented. .jpg , visited on 15/10/2007.
It can be concluded that multimodal biometric [11] Electronic Frontier Foundation, Human ID at a
systems that infer personal identification based on multiple distance(HumanID), http://w2.eff.org/Privacy/TIA/
physiological or behavioral characteristics are preferred hid.php, visited on 15/10/2007.
because of their robustness against the failure of one specific [12] S. Murphy and H. Bray, Face recognition devices failed
biometric identifier. in test at Logan, http://www.boston.com/news/local

REFERENCES /articles/2003/ 09/03/face_ recognition_ devices_

[1] A. Ross and A.K. Jain, Multimodal biometrics: an failed _in_test_a t_logan/, visited on 15/10/2007.

overview, Proceedings of 12th European Signal [13] L.M. Bowman, Tampa drops face-recognition

Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), Vienna, Austria, pp system, http://www.news.com/Tampa-drops-face-

1221-1224 (2004). recognition-system/2100-1029_3-5066795.html,

[2] A.C. Weaver, Biometric authentication, Computer, visited on 15/10/2007.

39(2), pp 96-97 (2006). [14] W. Zhao, R. Chellappa, P. Phillips and A. Rosenfeld, Face

[3] S. Prabhakar and A. Jain, Fingerprint identification, recognition: a literature survey, ACM Computing

http://biometrics.cse.msu.edu/fingerprint.html, Surveys, 35(4), pp 399-458 (2003).

visited on 15/10/2007. [15] Christopher DeCoros Website at Computer Science


Department of Princeton University, Face recognition
[4] J. Ortega-Garcia, J. Bigun, D. Reynolds and J. Gonzalez-
using Eigenfaces, http://www.cs. princeton. edu/ ~
Rodriguez, Authentication gets personal with
cdecoro/eigenfaces /eigenfaces.jpg, visited on
biometrics, Signal Processing Magazine, IEEE, 21(2), pp
15/10/2007.
50-62 (2004).
[16] SWGFAST, Glossary, http://www.swgfast.org/
[5] R. Tronci, G. Giacinto and F. Roli, Selection of experts
Glossary_Consolidated_ ver_1.pdf, visited on
for the design of multiple biometric systems, Lecture

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1293
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

15/10/2007. pp 184-193 (2004).


[17] D.R. Ashbaugh, Ridgeology, Journal of Forensic [26] G. Boreki and A. Zimmer, Hand geometry: a new
Identification, 41(1), pp 16-64 (1991). approach for feature extraction, Proceedings of the
[18] R. Jamieson, G. Stephen and S. Kuma, Fingerprint Fourth IEEE Workshop on Automatic Identification
identification: an aid to the authentication process, Advanced Technologies, pp 149-154 (2005).
Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 1, [27] Sandia Control Systems Inc., Products, http://
(2005). sandiacontrolsystems.com/img/HGU.jpg, visited on
[19] Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at 15/10/2007.
University of Delaware, Image taken from course [28] L. Wang, H. Ning, T. Tan and W. Hu, Fusion of static and
number: eleg675, dynamic body biometrics for gait recognition, IEEE
http://www.ee.udel.edu/~barner/courses/eleg675/ Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video
Images/Fingerprint.jpg, visited on 15/10/2007. Technology, 14(2), pp 149-158 (2004).
[20] Voice Recognition and Speech Recognition Software and [29] D. Gafurov, E. Snekkenes and P. Bours, Spoof attacks on
Vendors Guide, Biometric identification, gait authentication system, IEEE Transactions on
http://www.voice-commands.com/510.htm, visited on Information Forensics and Security, 2(3), pp 491-502
15/10/2007. (2007).
[21] Yahoo Health, Voice problems, http://health. [30] M. Nixon and J. Carter, Advances in automatic gait
yahoo.com/topic/other/other/article/ recognition, Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International
healthwise/ty7247, visited on 15/10/2007. Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition
[22] D. Secko, A monks flourishing garden: the basics of 2004, pp 139-144 (2004).
molecular biology explained, http://www.scq. ubc. [31] D. Gafurov, K. Helkala and T. Sndrol, Biometric gait
ca/a-monks-flourishing-garden-the-basics-of- authentication using accelerometer sensor, Journal of
molecular-biology-explained/, visited on Computers, 1(7), pp 51-59 (2006). J.F. Vlez, . Snchez
15/10/2007. and A.B. Moreno, Robust off-line signature verification
[23] I. Maghiros, Y. Punie, S. Delaitre, E. Lignos, C. Rodrguez, using compression networks and positional cuttings,
M. Ulbrich, M. Cabrera, B. Clements, L. Beslay and R. Proceedings of the 2003 IEEE Workshop on Neural
Van-Bavel, Biometrics at the frontiers: assessing the Networks for Signal Processing, pp 627-636 (2003).
impact on society - for the European parliament [32] A. Kholmatov and B. Yanikoglu, Identity authentication
committee on citizens freedoms and rights, justice and using improved online signature verification method,
home affairs (LIBE), Institute for Prospective Pattern Recognition Letters, 26(15), pp 2400-2408
Technological Studies, (2005). (2005).
[24] E. Kukula and S. Elliott, Implementation of hand [33] M.E. Munich Website, Camera-based ID verification by
geometry: an analysis of user perspectives and system signature tracking, http://www.vision.caltech.edu /
performance, Aerospace and Electronic Systems mariomu/research/ sigverif/sv.gif, visited on
Magazine, IEEE, 21(3), pp 3-9 (2006). 15/10/2007.
[25] K. Delac and M. Grgic, A survey of biometric [34] Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of
recognition methods, Electronics in Marine, 2004, Carnegie Mellon University, Advanced multimedia
Proceedings Elmar 2004, 46th International Symposium, processing lab projects, http://amp.ece.cmu. edu/

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1294
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

projects/images/image00 8.gif, visited on 15/10/2007. n/news_releases/2007/may/051707b.jsp?lang=E N,


[35] M. Faundez-Zanuy, 2004, Data fusion in biometrics, visited on 15/10/2007.
IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, 20(1), [46] ATM Market Place, Columbias Bancafe Bank
pp 34-38 (2005). introduces ATM finger-scanning technology,
[36] M. Indovina, U. Uludag, R. Snelick, A. Mink and A. Jain, http://www.atmmarketplace.com/article.php?id=
Multimodal biometric authentication methods: a COTS 5253, visited on 15/10/2007.
approach, Proceeding of the MMUA 2003, Workshop on [47] C.M. Most, Towards privacy enhancing applications of
Multimodal User Authentication, Santa Barbara, biometrics, Digital ID World Magazine, June/July 2004
California, pp 99-106 (2003). Issue, pp 18-20 (2004).
[37] S. Ben-Yacoub, Y. Abdeljaoued and E. Mayoraz, Fusion [48] The New York City Independent Media Centre, Image
of face and speech data for person identity verification, archives of 08/2006, http://nyc.indymedia.org/
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 10(5), pp 1065- images/2006/08/74861. jpg, visited on 15/10/2007.
1074 (1999). [49] G. Ng-Kruelle, P.A. Swatman, J.F. Hampe and D.S. Rebne,
[38] A. Ross and R. Govindarajan, Feature level fusion using Biometrics and e-Identity (e-Passport) in the European
hand and face biometrics, Proceedings of the SPIE Union: end-user perspectives on the adoption of a
Conference on Biometric Technology for Human controversial innovation, Journal of Theoretical and
Identification II, 5779, pp 196204 (2005). Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 1(2), pp 12-35
[39] K.A. Toh, X. Jiang and W.Y. Yau, Exploiting global and (2006).
local decisions for multimodal biometrics verification, [50] HumanScan: Boid, Home page, http://www.bioid.com,
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 52(10), pp visited on 15/10/2007.
3059-3072 (2004). [51] BioAPI Consortium, Home page,
[40] BioLink, BioLink fingerprint biometrics in Maldivian http://www.bioapi.org, visited on 15/10/2007.
passports, http://www.biolinksolutions.com / [52] R. Frischholz and U. Dieckmann, BiolD: a multimodal
print.asp?nItem ID=162, visited on 15/10/2007. biometric identification system, Computer, 33(2), pp
[41] Bioscrypt, Mexico City International Airport Uses 64-68 (2000).
Bioscrypts Identity and Access Management Solution [53] Secure Systems, ControlSphere biometric extension,
in New State-of-the-Art Terminal, http://www.securesystems.lv/images/bioid.png,
http://www.bioscrypt .com/news/press/item-845/, visited on 15/10/2007.
visited on 15/10/2007. [54] P. Wallich, Getting the message, IEEE Spectrum, 40(4),
[42] Axis Biometrics, Products, pp 38-42 (2003).
http://www.axxisbiometrics. com/products/index. cfm, [55] 21C Magazine, Human ID at a distance,
visited on 15/10/2007. http://www.21cmagazine.com/issue2/iao_remix/
[43] Lenovo, Security, fingerprint reader, overview, humanid.html, visited on 15/10/2007.
http://www.pc.ibm.com/ca/security/fingerprintre [56] CBC News, Biometric ID cards coming for airport
ader.html, visited on 15/10/2007. workers,
[45] NCR, Smooths sports grille deploys POS with http://www.cbc.ca/technology/story/2006/11/10/
fingerprint recognition for employee use, airports-card.html, visited on 15/10/2007.
http://www.ncr.com /about_ncr/media_informatio

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1295
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056
Volume: 03 Issue: 04 | Apr-2016 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

[57] BBC News, Cash machine fraud up, say banks,


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/6115974.stm ,
visited on 15/10/2007.
[58] P. Jones, Banking on vein at the ATM,
Biometric Technology Today, 14(5), pp 8-9 (2006).
[59] S. Vickers, Could this be the end of Chip and PIN?,
http://www.info4security.com/pictures/thumb/r/o
/p/FINGER.jpg, visited on 15/10/2007.
[60] R. Condon, New biometrics see right through you,
Infosecurity, Jan/Feb 2007 Issue, pp 24-25 (2007).

2016, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 4.45 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1296