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Rotating machine that adds or extracts energy from a

fluid by virtue of a rotating system of blades

Hydraulic machines can be divided into displacement

machines and rotodynamic machines

In displacement machines the volume of a chamber is

increased/decreased by forcing a fluid into and out of the
chamber. e.g. tyre pump, human heart etc.
Rotodynamic machines have a set of blades, buckets,
flow channels/ passages forming a rotor. Its rotation
produces dynamic effects to extract/add energy from/to a

Includes turbines and pumps

Have rotating element through which the fluid passes

The rotor is called a runner in turbine and an impeller in

the pump.
Turbine is a device that extracts energy from a fluid
(converts the energy held by the fluid to mechanical

Pumps are devices that add energy to the fluid (e.g.

pumps, fans, blowers and compressors).
Hydro electric power is the most remarkable
development pertaining to the exploitation of
water resources throughout the world

Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic

turbines which are hydraulic machines.

Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-

potential into mechanical energy.
Mechanical energy developed by turbines
is used to run electric generators coupled
to the shaft of turbines

Hydro electric power is the most cheapest

source of power generation.
Poncelet first introduced the idea of the
development of mechanical energy
through hydraulic energy

Modern hydraulic turbines have been

developed by Pelton (impulse), Francis
(reaction) and Kaplan (propeller)
Classification of Turbines
On the basis of hydraulic action or type of energy at the inlet

Impulse Turbine (Pelton wheel)

Reaction Turbine (Francis turbine and Kaplan)

On the basis of direction of flow through the runner

Tangential flow turbine (pelton)

Radial flow turbine (francis )
Axial Flow Turbine (Kaplan)
Mixed flow turbine (modern francis)
On the basis of head of water

High head turbine (pelton, H>250m)

Medium head turbine (modern francis, 45-250m)
Low head turbine (kaplan, <45m)

On the basis of specific speed, Ns, of the turbine

Low specific speed (pelton, 10-35)
Medium (francis, 60-400)
High specific speed (kaplan, 300-1000)

Specific speed is the speed of turbine for producing unit power under
unit head
On the basis of head of water

High head turbine (pelton, H>250m)

Medium head turbine (modern francis, 45-250m)
Low head turbine (kaplan, <45m)

On the basis of specific speed, Ns, of the turbine

Low specific speed (pelton, 10-35)
Medium (francis, 60-400)
High specific speed (kaplan, 300-1000)

Specific speed is the speed of turbine for producing unit power under
unit head
Energy Transfer
Basic equation of energy transfer in
rotodynamic machines
The basic equation of fluid dynamics relating to
energy transfer is same for all rotodynamic
machines and is a simple form of " Newton 's
Laws of Motion" applied to a fluid element
traversing a rotor.
Here we shall make use of the momentum
theorem as applicable to a fluid element while
flowing through fixed and moving vanes.
Figure represents diagrammatically a rotor of a
generalised fluid machine, with 0-0 the axis of
rotation and the angular velocity.
Fluid enters the rotor at 1, passes through the
rotor by any path and is discharged at 2.
The points 1 and 2 are at r1 radii and r2 from the
centre of the rotor, and the directions of fluid
velocities at 1 and 2 may be at any arbitrary
angles. For the analysis of energy transfer due
to fluid flow in this situation, we assume the
(a) The flow is steady, that is, the mass flow
rate is constant across any section (no storage
or depletion of fluid mass in the rotor).
(b) The heat and work interactions between the
rotor and its surroundings take place at a
constant rate.
(c) Velocity is uniform over any area normal to
the flow. This means that the velocity vector at
any point is representative of the total flow over
a finite area. This condition also implies that
there is no leakage loss and the entire fluid is
undergoing the same process.
The velocity at any point may be resolved into
three mutually perpendicular components as
shown in Fig. The axial component of velocity
Va is directed parallel to the axis of rotation , Vf
the radial component is directed radially through
the axis to rotation, while the tangential
component Vw is directed at right angles to the
radial direction and along the tangent to the rotor
at that part.
The change in magnitude of the axial velocity
components through the rotor causes a change
in the axial momentum. This change gives rise
to an axial force, which must be taken by a
thrust bearing to the stationary rotor casing.
The change in magnitude of radial velocity
causes a change in momentum in radial
However, for an axisymmetric flow, this does not
result in any net radial force on the rotor. In case
of a non uniform flow distribution over the
periphery of the rotor in practice, a change in
momentum in radial direction may result in a net
radial force which is carried as a journal load.
The tangential component only has an effect on
the angular motion of the rotor.
No torque is produced by axial and radial
Torque is exerted on the rotor only due to the
change in momentum of the tangential
At inlet moment of momentum /mass
Vw1 r1
At outlet moment of momentum / mass
Vw2 r2
Rate of change of moment of momentum =
m (Vw1 r1 - Vw2 r2)
m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2) = T (Angular momentum theorem)
Rate of Energy imparted
E = m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2)
E = m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2 )
r1 = Tangential / linear velocity at inlet = u 1
r2 = Tangential / linear velocity at outlet = u 2
E = m (Vw1 u1 - Vw2 u2) (1)
E/m = (Vw1 u1 - Vw2 u2) (2)
Equation 1, 2 and 3 are different form of a single
equation which is known as Eulers equation.
Pelton Wheel Turbine
Most commonly used impulse or tangential flow

Named after its pioneer Leston A Pelton (1829-


Suitable to be used for high head hydroelectric

power plants
Pelton Wheel Turbine
In impulse turbine (Pelton wheel), the water from
a dam is made to flow through a pipeline, and
then the guide mechanism and finally through
the nozzle.
In such a process, the entire available energy of
the water is converted into kinetic energy, by
passing it through the nozzles; which are kept
close to the runner.
The water enters the running wheel in the form
of a jet ( or jets), which impinges on the buckets,
fixed to the outer periphery of the wheel.
Pelton Wheel Turbine
The jet of water impinges on the buckets with a
high velocity, and after flowing over the vanes,
leaves with a low velocity; thus imparting energy
to the runner.
The pressure of the water, both at entering and
leaving the vanes, is atmospheric.
The Pelton wheel has the following components:
1. Nozzle
2. Runner and Buckets
3. Casing and
4. Breaking jet
1. Nozzle with guide mechanism
Function is to convert pressure energy to high velocity
energy in the form of jet.
A spear is provided in the nozzle to control the flow due
to varying load on the turbine.
Nozzle is made of either cast iron or cast steel
Nozzle mouth ring and spear tip are made of non-
abrasive material (stainless steel or bronze) and can
easily be replaced
Sudden closure of nozzle(s) results in sudden increase
in pressure which may burst the pipe; in order to avoid
such mishap, an additional nozzle ( known as bypass
nozzle) is provided through which the water can pass,
without striking the buckets.
Sometimes a plate (known as deflector) is provided to
the nozzle, which is used to deflect the water jet, and
preventing it from striking the buckets.

The nozzle is kept very close to the buckets, in order to

avoid minimise the losses due to windage.
2. Runner and Buckets
Runner is a circular disc with a number of evenly
spaced vanes or buckets semi-ellipsoidal in

Each bucket is divided into two symmetrical

compartments by a sharp edge ridge called

Jet of water normally impinges on the splitter

dividing into two parts and leaving at the outer
To get the full reaction of the jet, it has to
be turned through 180 degrees but it may
strike the incoming bucket thus retarding
its speed.

The angle through which the jet is turned

is normally kept between 160 and 170
As the splitter takes the full impact of the jet, so
it has to be quite strong and should not be
having a sharp edge

To avoid erosion of buckets due to impurities

present in water, cast iron buckets are used for
low head plants while cast steel, stainless steel
and bronze are used for medium head plants

Buckets are either cast as an integral part or are

bolted to the rim.
3. Casing
It does not have any hydraulic function

Provided to avoid accidents, splashing of

water and to lead the water to the tail race.

Made in two parts to facilitate assembling

Material used is usually cast iron.

4. Breaking Jet
Whenever the turbine has to be brought to
rest, the nozzle is completely closed. It
has been observed that it goes on
revolving for a considerable time, due to
inertia, before it comes to rest.
In order to bring the runner to rest in a
short time, a small nozzle is provided in
such a way that it will direct a jet of water
on the back of the buckets. It acts as a
break for reducing the speed of the
Work Done by an Impulse

Inlet triangle
Outlet triangle
V = Absolute velocity of the entering water
Vr = Relative velocity of water and bucket at inlet
Vf = Velocity of flow at inlet
V1, Vr1, Vf1 = Corresponding values at outlet
D = Diameter of the wheel
d = Diameter of the nozzle
H = Total head of water under which wheel is
= Angle of the blade tip at outlet
Inlet velocity triangle is straight line as shown in
From velocity triangle at inlet
V =Vw
Vf =0
Vr =V v
As a matter of fact, the shape of the outlet velocity
triangle depends upon the value of V w1. If is in the
same direction as that of jet, its value is taken as
positive. However, if is in the opposite direction (
as shown in the fig. ) its value is taken
as negative. The relationship between these two
velocity triangles is
v1 =v =v
Vw1 = (Vr1 cos v1)
Vr1 =Vr =(V v )

Work done per kN of water

E / m = (Vwv Vw1v1)

E / mg = 1 / g (Vwv Vw1v1)
E / mg = 1 / g (Vwv (Vw1 )v1)
E / mg = 1 / g ((Vw + Vw1 )v )
E / mg = 1 / g ((Vwv + Vw1v )

E / mg = v / g (Vw + (Vr1 cos v1) )

E / mg = v / g (V + ((Vr1 cos v ) )
E / mg = v / g ( (Vr + v + Vr cos v ) )
E / mg = v / g (Vr (1 + cos ) )
E / mg = v / g (V v)(1 + cos )
Hydraulic Efficiency
= Work done per kN of water / Energy supplied per
kN of water

v / g (V v)(1 + cos )
h =
1 2

2(V v )(1 + cos ) v

For maximum efficiency
d h

(1 + cos )
2 (
Vv 2 v)2
V dv
2V 4v = 0
v =V /2
It means that the velocity of the wheel, for
maximum hydraulic efficiency, should be
half of the jet velocity. Therefore,
maximum work done / kN of water

= v / g (V v)(1 + cos )
= V / 2 g (V V / 2)(1 + cos )

= (1 + cos ) V / 4 g
Maximum hydraulic efficiency

( 1 + cos ) (V 2 / 4 g )
(V 2 / 2 g )

h =
( 1 + cos )
Power Produced by an Impulse
Some work is done per kN of water, when
the jet strikes the buckets of an impulse
turbine. If we know the quantity of water
flowing through jet per second and the
amount of work done per second, the
power produced can be calculated as
P = wQH (kW)
w = Specific weight of water
H = Head of water
Q = Discharge
Efficiencies of an Impulse
In general the term efficiency may be
defined as the ratio of work done to the
energy supplied.
An impulse turbine has the following three
types of efficiencies
1.Hydraulic efficiency
It is the ratio of work done, on the wheel, to
the energy of the jet
Already calculated
Efficiencies of an Impulse
2. Mechanical efficiency
It has been observed that all the energy
supplied to the wheel does not come out
as useful work. But a part of it is
dissipated in overcoming friction of
bearings and other moving parts. Thus the
mechanical efficiency is the ratio of actual
work available at turbine to the energy
imparted to the wheel.
Efficiencies of an Impulse
3. Overall efficiency
It is the measure of the performance of a
turbine and is the ratio of actual power
produced by the turbine to input energy to
the turbine.

o =
Number of Jets of a Pelton
A Pelton turbine, generally, has a single
jet only. But whenever a single jet can not
develop the required power, we may have
to employ more than one jets.
While designing the jets care should
always be taken to provide the jets are
equidistant on the outer periphery of the
Number of Jets of a Pelton
Design or working proportions
of pelton wheel
A Pelton wheel is designed to find out the following data:
1. Diameter of the wheel
2. Diameter of the jet
3. Size ( i.e. Width and depth ) of the buckets
4. No. of Buckets

While designing a Pelton wheel, if sufficient data is not

available then the following assumptions are made,
which are meant for the best results:
1. Overall efficiency between 80% and 87% ( preferably
2. Coefficient of velocity 0.99 (preferably 0.985)
Design or working proportions
of pelton wheel
3. Ratio of peripheral velocity to the jet velocity as 0.46
Dimensions of bucket
Width B of the bucket is normally taken as 4 to 5 d (d =
diameter of the jet)
The depth of the bucket (c) normally 1.2 d
Length L of the bucket is 2.4 to 3.2d

Other dimensions are

= 10 to 15 degrees
1 = 5-8 degrees
Number of buckets
The number of buckets is decided such that the
frictional loss is minimum and the path of the jet
is not disturbed.
Also the jet must be fully utilised
Taygun gave the following relation for the
calculation of number of buckets.
1D D
bn = + 15 = 0.5 + 15
2d d
D = Mean Bucket diameter
d = Diameter of the jet
Design or working proportions
of pelton wheel
If a turbine is working under a net head H, then the ideal
velocity of the wheel is given by

2 gH
But due to the frictional loss, the actual velocity is slightly
less than this, so the velocity V of jet at inlet

V = Cv 2 gH
Cv (coefficient of velocity ranges from 0.97 to 0.99)
Although, theoretically,

v =V /2
But actually, h max occurs when

v= 0.46V
If v is expressed in terms of speed ratio (ratio of tangential
velocity of wheel to theoretical velocity of jet), the speed
ratio of a pelton turbine is given by
Ku =
2 gH
v = 0 . 46 2 gH
Ku ranges from 0.43 to 0.47
The angle through which the jet is deflected is taken as
165 degree and at the outlet velocity triangle is 15

Least diameter of the jet is given by

Q = aV = d Cv 2 gH
d2 =
Cv 2g H
1/ 2
4 Q
d =( )1 / 2
0.98 2 g H
1/ 2
= 0.5416
If D is the mean diameter of the wheel and
N is the rotation of the wheel in rpm
60v 60.K u 2 gH
D= =
Ratio of diameter of the runner to the least
diameter of the jet is known as jet ratio D/d

D/d is taken between 11 to 14 for maximum

Normal value is taken as 12 if not given
1. A Pelton wheel develops 2000 kW under a head of 100 m, and
with an overall efficiency of 85%. Find the diameter of the nozzle, if
the coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.98.
2. A Pelton wheel having semi-circular buckets and working under a
head of 140 m is running 600 rpm. The discharge through the
nozzle is 500 lit/s and diameter of the wheel is 600 mm. Find
a) Power available at the nozzle
b) Hydraulic efficiency of the wheel, if coefficient of velocity is 0.98)
3. A Pelton wheel, working under a head of 500 m, produces 13000
kW at 430 rpm. If the efficiency of the wheel is 85%. Determine (a)
discharge of the turbine (b) diameter of the wheel and (c) diameter
of the nozzle. Assume suitable data.
4. In hydraulic scheme, the distance between high level reservoir at the
top of mountains and turbine is 1.6 km and difference of their
levels is 500 m. The water is brought in 4 penstocks each of 0.9 m
connected to a nozzle of 200 mm diameter at the end. Find:
(a) Power of each jet and
(b) total power available at the reservoir, taking the value of
Darcys coefficient of friction as 0.008
5. A power house is equipped with impulse turbines of pelton type.
Each turbine delivers a maximum power of 14250 kW, when
working under a head of 900 m and running at 600 rpm.
Find the diameter of the jet, and the mean diameter of the wheel.
Take overall efficiency of the turbine as 89.2%.
6. A Pelton wheel is required to generate 3750 kW under an effective
head of 400 m. Find the total flow in lit/s and size of the jet.
Assume generator efficiency 95%, overall efficiency 80%,
coefficient of velocity 0.97, speed ratio 0.46. If the jet ratio is 10,
find mean diameter of runner.
7. A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 15m/s with a jet of
water impinging with a velocity of 40m/s and discharging 450lit/s. If
the buckets deflect the jet through an angle of 165 o, find the power
generated by the wheel.
8. A Pelton wheel has a tangential velocity of buckets of 15 m/s. The
water is being supplied under a head of 150 m at the rate of 200
lits/s. The buckets deflects the jet through an angle of 160. If the
coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.98, find the power
produced by the wheel and its hydraulic efficiency.
9. A Pelton wheel is supplied water under a head of 200 m through a
100 mm diameter pipes. If the quantity of water supplied to the
wheel is 1.25 cumecs. Find the number of jets. Assume coefficient
of velocity 0.97.
10. A Pelton wheel has to develop 5000 kW under a net head of 300 m,
while running at a speed of 500 rpm. If the coefficient of velocity for
the jet = 0.97, speed ratio = 0.46 and the ratio of the jet diameter is
1/10 of wheel diameter, calculate (a) quantity of water supplied to
the wheel (b) diameter of pitch circle (c) diameter of jets and (d)
number of jets.
11. Design a Pelton wheel for a head of 350 m at a speed of 300 rpm.
Take overall efficiency of the wheel as 85% and ratio of the jet to
the wheel diameter as 1/10.
12. Design a Pelton wheel for the for following data:
Head of water = 150 m
Power to be developed = 600 kW
Speed of wheel = 360rpm
Assume, reasonably, the missing data.