3 vues

Transféré par Atheer Sat

shkuehhg

- Thermal engineering (ME 2301) 2 Mark Question and Answers.pdf
- Turbine Pelton Design
- Experiment 3 - Jet Impact
- Kvaerner Hydro VALVES
- About Pump
- Hydraulic Project 2(dam calc.)
- Kaplan Turbines Slides
- Performance Curves for Centrifugal Pumps
- Assignmnents ICE 3rd Sem Fluid Mechanics
- Introduction to Turbine
- DRY SEAL
- 2D Detailed Design
- IJETTCS-2013-04-22-137
- V80 2mw turbina.pdf
- Weiss Aerodynamic Design of Advanced LP Steam Path
- Modal Analysis Fo GT Rotor
- 52687.pdf
- A C Engines and Jet Propulsion 1
- Guideline for Pump Systems
- Francis Turbine Manual

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 63

fluid by virtue of a rotating system of blades

machines and rotodynamic machines

increased/decreased by forcing a fluid into and out of the

chamber. e.g. tyre pump, human heart etc.

Rotodynamic machines have a set of blades, buckets,

flow channels/ passages forming a rotor. Its rotation

produces dynamic effects to extract/add energy from/to a

fluid.

the pump.

Turbine is a device that extracts energy from a fluid

(converts the energy held by the fluid to mechanical

energy)

pumps, fans, blowers and compressors).

Turbines

Hydro electric power is the most remarkable

development pertaining to the exploitation of

water resources throughout the world

turbines which are hydraulic machines.

potential into mechanical energy.

Mechanical energy developed by turbines

is used to run electric generators coupled

to the shaft of turbines

source of power generation.

Poncelet first introduced the idea of the

development of mechanical energy

through hydraulic energy

developed by Pelton (impulse), Francis

(reaction) and Kaplan (propeller)

Classification of Turbines

On the basis of hydraulic action or type of energy at the inlet

Reaction Turbine (Francis turbine and Kaplan)

Radial flow turbine (francis )

Axial Flow Turbine (Kaplan)

Mixed flow turbine (modern francis)

On the basis of head of water

Medium head turbine (modern francis, 45-250m)

Low head turbine (kaplan, <45m)

Low specific speed (pelton, 10-35)

Medium (francis, 60-400)

High specific speed (kaplan, 300-1000)

Specific speed is the speed of turbine for producing unit power under

unit head

On the basis of head of water

Medium head turbine (modern francis, 45-250m)

Low head turbine (kaplan, <45m)

Low specific speed (pelton, 10-35)

Medium (francis, 60-400)

High specific speed (kaplan, 300-1000)

Specific speed is the speed of turbine for producing unit power under

unit head

Energy Transfer

Basic equation of energy transfer in

rotodynamic machines

The basic equation of fluid dynamics relating to

energy transfer is same for all rotodynamic

machines and is a simple form of " Newton 's

Laws of Motion" applied to a fluid element

traversing a rotor.

Here we shall make use of the momentum

theorem as applicable to a fluid element while

flowing through fixed and moving vanes.

Figure represents diagrammatically a rotor of a

generalised fluid machine, with 0-0 the axis of

rotation and the angular velocity.

Fluid enters the rotor at 1, passes through the

rotor by any path and is discharged at 2.

The points 1 and 2 are at r1 radii and r2 from the

centre of the rotor, and the directions of fluid

velocities at 1 and 2 may be at any arbitrary

angles. For the analysis of energy transfer due

to fluid flow in this situation, we assume the

following:

(a) The flow is steady, that is, the mass flow

rate is constant across any section (no storage

or depletion of fluid mass in the rotor).

(b) The heat and work interactions between the

rotor and its surroundings take place at a

constant rate.

(c) Velocity is uniform over any area normal to

the flow. This means that the velocity vector at

any point is representative of the total flow over

a finite area. This condition also implies that

there is no leakage loss and the entire fluid is

undergoing the same process.

The velocity at any point may be resolved into

three mutually perpendicular components as

shown in Fig. The axial component of velocity

Va is directed parallel to the axis of rotation , Vf

the radial component is directed radially through

the axis to rotation, while the tangential

component Vw is directed at right angles to the

radial direction and along the tangent to the rotor

at that part.

The change in magnitude of the axial velocity

components through the rotor causes a change

in the axial momentum. This change gives rise

to an axial force, which must be taken by a

thrust bearing to the stationary rotor casing.

The change in magnitude of radial velocity

causes a change in momentum in radial

direction.

However, for an axisymmetric flow, this does not

result in any net radial force on the rotor. In case

of a non uniform flow distribution over the

periphery of the rotor in practice, a change in

momentum in radial direction may result in a net

radial force which is carried as a journal load.

The tangential component only has an effect on

the angular motion of the rotor.

No torque is produced by axial and radial

components.

Torque is exerted on the rotor only due to the

change in momentum of the tangential

component

At inlet moment of momentum /mass

Vw1 r1

At outlet moment of momentum / mass

Vw2 r2

Rate of change of moment of momentum =

m (Vw1 r1 - Vw2 r2)

m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2) = T (Angular momentum theorem)

Rate of Energy imparted

E=T

E = m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2)

E = m (Vw1 r1 Vw2 r2 )

Where

r1 = Tangential / linear velocity at inlet = u 1

r2 = Tangential / linear velocity at outlet = u 2

E = m (Vw1 u1 - Vw2 u2) (1)

E/m = (Vw1 u1 - Vw2 u2) (2)

Equation 1, 2 and 3 are different form of a single

equation which is known as Eulers equation.

Pelton Wheel Turbine

Most commonly used impulse or tangential flow

turbine

1908).

power plants

Pelton Wheel Turbine

In impulse turbine (Pelton wheel), the water from

a dam is made to flow through a pipeline, and

then the guide mechanism and finally through

the nozzle.

In such a process, the entire available energy of

the water is converted into kinetic energy, by

passing it through the nozzles; which are kept

close to the runner.

The water enters the running wheel in the form

of a jet ( or jets), which impinges on the buckets,

fixed to the outer periphery of the wheel.

Pelton Wheel Turbine

The jet of water impinges on the buckets with a

high velocity, and after flowing over the vanes,

leaves with a low velocity; thus imparting energy

to the runner.

The pressure of the water, both at entering and

leaving the vanes, is atmospheric.

Components

The Pelton wheel has the following components:

1. Nozzle

2. Runner and Buckets

3. Casing and

4. Breaking jet

1. Nozzle with guide mechanism

Function is to convert pressure energy to high velocity

energy in the form of jet.

A spear is provided in the nozzle to control the flow due

to varying load on the turbine.

Nozzle is made of either cast iron or cast steel

Nozzle mouth ring and spear tip are made of non-

abrasive material (stainless steel or bronze) and can

easily be replaced

Sudden closure of nozzle(s) results in sudden increase

in pressure which may burst the pipe; in order to avoid

such mishap, an additional nozzle ( known as bypass

nozzle) is provided through which the water can pass,

without striking the buckets.

Sometimes a plate (known as deflector) is provided to

the nozzle, which is used to deflect the water jet, and

preventing it from striking the buckets.

avoid minimise the losses due to windage.

2. Runner and Buckets

Runner is a circular disc with a number of evenly

spaced vanes or buckets semi-ellipsoidal in

shape

compartments by a sharp edge ridge called

splitter

dividing into two parts and leaving at the outer

edge

To get the full reaction of the jet, it has to

be turned through 180 degrees but it may

strike the incoming bucket thus retarding

its speed.

is normally kept between 160 and 170

degrees.

As the splitter takes the full impact of the jet, so

it has to be quite strong and should not be

having a sharp edge

present in water, cast iron buckets are used for

low head plants while cast steel, stainless steel

and bronze are used for medium head plants

bolted to the rim.

3. Casing

It does not have any hydraulic function

water and to lead the water to the tail race.

4. Breaking Jet

Whenever the turbine has to be brought to

rest, the nozzle is completely closed. It

has been observed that it goes on

revolving for a considerable time, due to

inertia, before it comes to rest.

In order to bring the runner to rest in a

short time, a small nozzle is provided in

such a way that it will direct a jet of water

on the back of the buckets. It acts as a

break for reducing the speed of the

Work Done by an Impulse

Turbine

Inlet triangle

Outlet triangle

Let

V = Absolute velocity of the entering water

Vr = Relative velocity of water and bucket at inlet

Vf = Velocity of flow at inlet

V1, Vr1, Vf1 = Corresponding values at outlet

D = Diameter of the wheel

d = Diameter of the nozzle

H = Total head of water under which wheel is

working

= Angle of the blade tip at outlet

Inlet velocity triangle is straight line as shown in

Fig.

From velocity triangle at inlet

V =Vw

Vf =0

Vr =V v

As a matter of fact, the shape of the outlet velocity

triangle depends upon the value of V w1. If is in the

same direction as that of jet, its value is taken as

positive. However, if is in the opposite direction (

as shown in the fig. ) its value is taken

as negative. The relationship between these two

velocity triangles is

v1 =v =v

Vw1 = (Vr1 cos v1)

Vr1 =Vr =(V v )

E / m = (Vwv Vw1v1)

E / mg = 1 / g (Vwv Vw1v1)

E / mg = 1 / g (Vwv (Vw1 )v1)

E / mg = 1 / g ((Vw + Vw1 )v )

E / mg = 1 / g ((Vwv + Vw1v )

E / mg = v / g (V + ((Vr1 cos v ) )

E / mg = v / g ( (Vr + v + Vr cos v ) )

E / mg = v / g (Vr (1 + cos ) )

E / mg = v / g (V v)(1 + cos )

Hydraulic Efficiency

= Work done per kN of water / Energy supplied per

kN of water

v / g (V v)(1 + cos )

h =

1 2

V

2g

=

V2

For maximum efficiency

d h

=0

dv

(1 + cos )

d

2 (

Vv 2 v)2

=0

2

V dv

2V 4v = 0

v =V /2

It means that the velocity of the wheel, for

maximum hydraulic efficiency, should be

half of the jet velocity. Therefore,

maximum work done / kN of water

= v / g (V v)(1 + cos )

= V / 2 g (V V / 2)(1 + cos )

(

= (1 + cos ) V / 4 g

2

)

Maximum hydraulic efficiency

( 1 + cos ) (V 2 / 4 g )

=

(V 2 / 2 g )

h =

( 1 + cos )

2

Power Produced by an Impulse

Turbine

Some work is done per kN of water, when

the jet strikes the buckets of an impulse

turbine. If we know the quantity of water

flowing through jet per second and the

amount of work done per second, the

power produced can be calculated as

P = wQH (kW)

w = Specific weight of water

H = Head of water

Q = Discharge

Efficiencies of an Impulse

Turbine

In general the term efficiency may be

defined as the ratio of work done to the

energy supplied.

An impulse turbine has the following three

types of efficiencies

1.Hydraulic efficiency

It is the ratio of work done, on the wheel, to

the energy of the jet

Already calculated

Efficiencies of an Impulse

Turbine

2. Mechanical efficiency

It has been observed that all the energy

supplied to the wheel does not come out

as useful work. But a part of it is

dissipated in overcoming friction of

bearings and other moving parts. Thus the

mechanical efficiency is the ratio of actual

work available at turbine to the energy

imparted to the wheel.

Efficiencies of an Impulse

Turbine

3. Overall efficiency

It is the measure of the performance of a

turbine and is the ratio of actual power

produced by the turbine to input energy to

the turbine.

P

o =

wQH

Number of Jets of a Pelton

Wheel

A Pelton turbine, generally, has a single

jet only. But whenever a single jet can not

develop the required power, we may have

to employ more than one jets.

While designing the jets care should

always be taken to provide the jets are

equidistant on the outer periphery of the

wheel.

Number of Jets of a Pelton

Wheel

Design or working proportions

of pelton wheel

A Pelton wheel is designed to find out the following data:

1. Diameter of the wheel

2. Diameter of the jet

3. Size ( i.e. Width and depth ) of the buckets

4. No. of Buckets

available then the following assumptions are made,

which are meant for the best results:

1. Overall efficiency between 80% and 87% ( preferably

85%)

2. Coefficient of velocity 0.99 (preferably 0.985)

Design or working proportions

of pelton wheel

3. Ratio of peripheral velocity to the jet velocity as 0.46

Dimensions of bucket

Width B of the bucket is normally taken as 4 to 5 d (d =

diameter of the jet)

The depth of the bucket (c) normally 1.2 d

Length L of the bucket is 2.4 to 3.2d

= 10 to 15 degrees

1 = 5-8 degrees

Number of buckets

The number of buckets is decided such that the

frictional loss is minimum and the path of the jet

is not disturbed.

Also the jet must be fully utilised

Taygun gave the following relation for the

calculation of number of buckets.

1D D

bn = + 15 = 0.5 + 15

2d d

D = Mean Bucket diameter

d = Diameter of the jet

Design or working proportions

of pelton wheel

If a turbine is working under a net head H, then the ideal

velocity of the wheel is given by

2 gH

But due to the frictional loss, the actual velocity is slightly

less than this, so the velocity V of jet at inlet

V = Cv 2 gH

Cv (coefficient of velocity ranges from 0.97 to 0.99)

Although, theoretically,

v =V /2

But actually, h max occurs when

v= 0.46V

If v is expressed in terms of speed ratio (ratio of tangential

velocity of wheel to theoretical velocity of jet), the speed

ratio of a pelton turbine is given by

v

Ku =

2 gH

v = 0 . 46 2 gH

Ku ranges from 0.43 to 0.47

The angle through which the jet is deflected is taken as

165 degree and at the outlet velocity triangle is 15

degrees.

2

Q = aV = d Cv 2 gH

4

4Q

d2 =

Cv 2g H

1/ 2

4 Q

d =( )1 / 2

0.98 2 g H

1/ 2

Q

= 0.5416

H

If D is the mean diameter of the wheel and

N is the rotation of the wheel in rpm

DN

v=

60

60v 60.K u 2 gH

D= =

N N

Ratio of diameter of the runner to the least

diameter of the jet is known as jet ratio D/d

efficiency

Normal value is taken as 12 if not given

1. A Pelton wheel develops 2000 kW under a head of 100 m, and

with an overall efficiency of 85%. Find the diameter of the nozzle, if

the coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.98.

2. A Pelton wheel having semi-circular buckets and working under a

head of 140 m is running 600 rpm. The discharge through the

nozzle is 500 lit/s and diameter of the wheel is 600 mm. Find

a) Power available at the nozzle

b) Hydraulic efficiency of the wheel, if coefficient of velocity is 0.98)

3. A Pelton wheel, working under a head of 500 m, produces 13000

kW at 430 rpm. If the efficiency of the wheel is 85%. Determine (a)

discharge of the turbine (b) diameter of the wheel and (c) diameter

of the nozzle. Assume suitable data.

4. In hydraulic scheme, the distance between high level reservoir at the

top of mountains and turbine is 1.6 km and difference of their

levels is 500 m. The water is brought in 4 penstocks each of 0.9 m

connected to a nozzle of 200 mm diameter at the end. Find:

(a) Power of each jet and

(b) total power available at the reservoir, taking the value of

Darcys coefficient of friction as 0.008

5. A power house is equipped with impulse turbines of pelton type.

Each turbine delivers a maximum power of 14250 kW, when

working under a head of 900 m and running at 600 rpm.

Find the diameter of the jet, and the mean diameter of the wheel.

Take overall efficiency of the turbine as 89.2%.

6. A Pelton wheel is required to generate 3750 kW under an effective

head of 400 m. Find the total flow in lit/s and size of the jet.

Assume generator efficiency 95%, overall efficiency 80%,

coefficient of velocity 0.97, speed ratio 0.46. If the jet ratio is 10,

find mean diameter of runner.

7. A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 15m/s with a jet of

water impinging with a velocity of 40m/s and discharging 450lit/s. If

the buckets deflect the jet through an angle of 165 o, find the power

generated by the wheel.

8. A Pelton wheel has a tangential velocity of buckets of 15 m/s. The

water is being supplied under a head of 150 m at the rate of 200

lits/s. The buckets deflects the jet through an angle of 160. If the

coefficient of velocity for the nozzle is 0.98, find the power

produced by the wheel and its hydraulic efficiency.

9. A Pelton wheel is supplied water under a head of 200 m through a

100 mm diameter pipes. If the quantity of water supplied to the

wheel is 1.25 cumecs. Find the number of jets. Assume coefficient

of velocity 0.97.

10. A Pelton wheel has to develop 5000 kW under a net head of 300 m,

while running at a speed of 500 rpm. If the coefficient of velocity for

the jet = 0.97, speed ratio = 0.46 and the ratio of the jet diameter is

1/10 of wheel diameter, calculate (a) quantity of water supplied to

the wheel (b) diameter of pitch circle (c) diameter of jets and (d)

number of jets.

11. Design a Pelton wheel for a head of 350 m at a speed of 300 rpm.

Take overall efficiency of the wheel as 85% and ratio of the jet to

the wheel diameter as 1/10.

12. Design a Pelton wheel for the for following data:

Head of water = 150 m

Power to be developed = 600 kW

Speed of wheel = 360rpm

Assume, reasonably, the missing data.

- Thermal engineering (ME 2301) 2 Mark Question and Answers.pdfTransféré parA.R. Pradeep Kumar
- Turbine Pelton DesignTransféré parsilingga
- Experiment 3 - Jet ImpactTransféré parKhairil Ikram
- Kvaerner Hydro VALVESTransféré parEduardo Castillo
- About PumpTransféré parEshant Rane Rane
- Hydraulic Project 2(dam calc.)Transféré parMotasem Ash
- Kaplan Turbines SlidesTransféré parjonas61700700
- Performance Curves for Centrifugal PumpsTransféré parjack
- Assignmnents ICE 3rd Sem Fluid MechanicsTransféré parPawan Saini
- Introduction to TurbineTransféré parEngr Mujahid Mehdi
- DRY SEALTransféré parGGUNA
- 2D Detailed DesignTransféré parrtk5025
- IJETTCS-2013-04-22-137Transféré parAnonymous vQrJlEN
- V80 2mw turbina.pdfTransféré parAmer Zagorcic
- Weiss Aerodynamic Design of Advanced LP Steam PathTransféré parnascosannascosan
- Modal Analysis Fo GT RotorTransféré parAmbrish Singh
- 52687.pdfTransféré parmahyar tadayon
- A C Engines and Jet Propulsion 1Transféré parImyth
- Guideline for Pump SystemsTransféré parkappanjk7584
- Francis Turbine ManualTransféré parshubham
- Pipe FlowTransféré parnyj martin
- 10.1016@j.energy.2017.04.154Transféré parEdgard Marroquin Colque
- Hydrodynamic Optimization Method NRELTransféré parvictoria
- 63Transféré pardhinesht
- masnTransféré paranon_180959307
- 06083426Transféré parYogi Eka Fernandes
- Crossing the Retirement Finish Line With High Temperature Steam Turbine Rotors - Energy-Tech Magazine_ Turbine TechTransféré parramnadh803181
- DSCC-202010-20finalTransféré parNM HK
- precommissioningloadtrial21-140420004427-phpapp01Transféré parHatem Jafoura
- Related Lit.Transféré partakla11

- 7 Limited Pressure CycleTransféré parcaptainhass
- ايسي-13Transféré parAtheer Sat
- Introduction to TurbomachineryTransféré parKevin Zagorski
- 01-PT11-Intro2Turbomachines [Compatibility Mode].pdfTransféré parShantanu Gaikwad
- Ice Handout2Transféré parCamilo Jose
- Win Configure Updated Title "Recommended Settings Updated"Transféré pardams6797
- Multi Point Fuel Injection SystemTransféré parVenkatesan Swamy
- 98657984-Energy-Transfer-in-Turbomachines.pdfTransféré parAtheer Sat
- I. C. EngineTransféré parnoelmecwan
- 2 CentrifugalPumpTheory InviscidFLuid SinglePhaseTransféré parkingcobra008
- Sheet 5 ICETransféré parAtheer Sat
- Sheet 7 ICETransféré parAtheer Sat
- Combustion Solved ProblemsTransféré parAnonymous 1VhXp1
- CH3_ICTransféré parAtheer Sat
- notice.txtTransféré parAtheer Sat
- Turbo MachineTransféré parShlok Baruaole
- Pelton WheelTransféré parAtheer Sat
- ComplexFourierTransféré parManash Mandal
- atf_ice_tut1-7Transféré parAtheer Sat

- Problems16SerwayTransféré parKitz Dereco
- Final Report Fluid MechanicsTransféré parRaphael Andres Rubiano Vasco
- 0 MotionTransféré parnik_consult6908
- PID Control of A Quadrotor UAVTransféré parAnonymous kw8Yrp0R5r
- Relativity Practice TestTransféré parxutem
- 1. AerodynamicsTransféré parAldrine Banal
- Modeling a Falling Slinky-2006Transféré parHomers Simpson
- ch-5Transféré paranil.gelra5140
- Traffic Vibrations Near BuildingTransféré parmdeenk
- Solved Examples of SystemTransféré parpalparas
- Physics Lab. Manuals_001Transféré parNikhil Dhingra
- PhysicsTransféré parLikhang Pilipino
- Introduction to Aerospace Engineering Full VersionTransféré parDileneDuarcadas
- L1 Forces IntroTransféré paroyenyo
- Catapult CalculationsTransféré parbridgetd14
- IIT Physics lab manual (combined)Transféré parVictoria Aschebrook-Kealiher
- 06_NewtonEulerDynamicsTransféré parXzax Tornadox
- 02 Diffraction of Light PolarisationTransféré parNaved Anjoom
- The Acoustic Doppler EffectTransféré parZully J Garcia
- English for Students of Physics Vol 2Transféré parlequangcuong
- aml715-40.pptTransféré paramr hassan
- APPENDIX C Worked ExampleTransféré parnorsam1511
- 1force motion flashcardsTransféré parapi-290509627
- Lecture3.pptxTransféré parBagus Van Houten IX
- Chap13Transféré parWelheminah Keamogetswe Lebuso
- ps4_solnTransféré parJacky C K LeOng
- TITLE.docxTransféré parrazermabioki
- Chapter 35Transféré parAbdulrahman Ahmed
- Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers - KOM_Lecture-22.pdfTransféré parVasudev Gupta
- StabilityTransféré parLemmor