Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 26

CHAPTER 7

1) ________ is the process of evaluating the attractiveness of different market segments and
selecting one or more segments to enter.
A) Differentiation
B) Mass marketing
C) Market targeting
D) Market segmentation
E) Positioning
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

2) Zista, a boutique that caters to the clothing needs of women, manufactures two different lines
of fashion wear based on the purchasing power of its customers. One product line caters to the
needs of affluent, middle-aged women, and the other line targets younger professionals and
homemakers. Zista most likely segments the consumer market based on ________ variables.
A) geographic
B) psychographic
C) universal
D) demographic
E) behavioral
Answer: D
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

3) ________ consists of arranging for a market offering to occupy a clear, distinctive, and
desirable place relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers.
A) Differentiation
B) Positioning
C) Market targeting
D) Market segmentation
E) Mass marketing
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

4) Which of the following is the right order of the steps that companies generally follow in
designing a customer-driven marketing strategy?
A) market segmentation, differentiation, positioning, and market targeting
B) positioning, market segmentation, mass marketing, and market targeting
C) market segmentation, market targeting, differentiation, and positioning
D) market alignment, market segmentation, differentiation, and market positioning
E) market recognition, market preference, market targeting, and market insistence
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

5) Senz, an automobile manufacturer, produces low-end vehicles that are targeted toward lower-
income consumer groups. Senz most likely segments the consumer market based on ________
variables.
A) demographic
B) psychographic
C) universal
D) geographic
E) behavioral
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

6) Pacific Fisheries groups its customers by regions in the U.S., such as Midwest, Northeast, and
Southwest. For each region, Pacific Fisheries tailors a different set of advertisements and
promotions. Based on which of the following segmentation variables does the firm divide its
market?
A) behavioral factors
B) personality characteristics
C) geographic location
D) benefits sought
E) demographics
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

7) Pediacertain Pet Supplies, a pet-food company, divides the pet market according to the pet
owners' gender, occupation, income, and family life cycle. In this case, which of the following
variables has the company used for market segmentation?
A) geographic
B) psychographic
C) benefit
D) demographic
E) occasion
Answer: D
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

8) Demographic variables are the most popular bases for segmenting customer groups because
they ________.
A) create smaller segments
B) create more easily accessible segments
C) do not involve stereotypes
D) are easier to measure
E) involve fewer attributes to consider
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

9) Zindle, an American smartphone-manufacturing firm, targets children below the age of ten by
providing free games and applications. The firm's marketing approach is reflective of a(n)
________ segmentation.
A) age and life-cycle
B) geographic
C) occasion
D) gender
E) income
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

10) ________ factors are the most popular bases for segmenting customer groups.
A) Geographic
B) Demographic
C) Behavioral
D) Lifestyle
E) Personality
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

11) ProFem Inc. caters its line of sports apparel exclusively to women. What type of
segmentation does the company use?
A) age and life-cycle
B) gender
C) behavior
D) psychographic
E) geographic
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

12) Which type of market segmentation is generally used by marketers who sell products for the
affluent segments of a population?
A) usage rate
B) occasion
C) income
D) benefits sought
E) gender
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

13) At one time, Miller Beer was known as the "champagne of bottled beer." It was targeted at
an elite class of customers. Later, to increase sales, Miller was repositioned to attract members of
the working, middle-class. What is this segmentation method called?
A) user status
B) usage rate
C) benefit
D) behavioral
E) psychographic
Answer: E
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

14) Dividing buyers into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses to a
product is called ________ segmentation.
A) behavioral
B) psychographic
C) age and life-cycle
D) user status
E) geographic
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

15) Firms that manufacture seasonal products target their consumers primarily through ________
segmentation.
A) psychographic
B) demographic
C) income
D) occasion
E) age and life-cycle
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

16) The marketing manager at Frizzles' Eateries targets customers who are working to lose
weight but who still want to dine out. The restaurant chain offers a wide variety of low-fat, low-
calorie meals that appeal to dieters. Frizzles' approach is best referred to as ________
segmentation.
A) age and life-cycle
B) user status
C) benefit
D) demographic
E) geographic
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

17) Markets can be segmented into groups of nonusers, ex-users, potential users, first-time users,
and regular users of a product. This method of segmentation is called ________.
A) user status segmentation
B) usage rate segmentation
C) benefit segmentation
D) behavioral segmentation
E) loyalty status segmentation
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

18) Shampoo marketers segment buyers as light, medium, or heavy product users. This is an
example of ________ segmentation.
A) user status
B) usage rate
C) benefits sought
D) occasion
E) psychographic
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking
19) Gold Class Electricals, a consumer-electronics firm, targets market segments based on
factors such as country, age, social class, usage rate, and benefits sought. The company divides
its markets based on ________.
A) demographic variables
B) geographic regions
C) multiple segmentation bases
D) behavioral variables
E) psychographic segmentation bases
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

20) Rasco Corp. segments its foreign markets based on the income levels of a country's
population. In this case, the firm segments its market based on ________.
A) political factors
B) legal factors
C) personality factors
D) economic factors
E) cultural factors
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

21) Producers of popular beverages often partner with global music channels to target consumers
through a variety of promotional events and advertisements. This approach to marketing is
referred to as ________ segmentation.
A) intermarket
B) income
C) age and life-cycle
D) occasions
E) gender
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

22) Market segments that can be effectively reached and served are said to be ________.
A) measurable
B) accessible
C) substantial
D) actionable
E) profitable
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

23) When the size, purchasing power, and profiles of a market segment can be determined, the
market segment is said to be ________.
A) measurable
B) accessible
C) substantial
D) actionable
E) observable
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

24) When a market segment is large or profitable enough to serve, it is termed ________.
A) measurable
B) accessible
C) substantial
D) actionable
E) differentiable
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

25) When an effective program can be designed for attracting and serving a chosen segment, the
segment is best described as ________.
A) accessible
B) measurable
C) reachable
D) actionable
E) differentiable
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

26) When market segments are conceptually distinguishable and respond distinctively to various
marketing mix elements and programs, they are said to be ________.
A) accessible
B) measurable
C) reachable
D) differentiable
E) observable
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

27) A market segment is less attractive when ________.


A) there are few aggressive competitors in the segment
B) it is difficult for new entrants to enter the segment
C) it contains powerful suppliers who can control prices
D) substitute products are unavailable in the segment
E) buyers in the market segment have weak bargaining powers
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

28) Which of the following is an approach where firms target a whole market based on common
consumer needs?
A) demographic segmentation
B) undifferentiated marketing
C) micromarketing
D) concentrated marketing
E) geographic segmentation
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

29) Marketing the same product to a huge customer base without any customization is referred to
as ________.
A) mass marketing
B) differentiated marketing
C) niche marketing
D) local marketing
E) individual marketing
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

30) Port Orleans Shipping markets different services to the tourism, defense, and trade segments.
The firm designs separate offers for each segment based on their needs. This approach is called
________ marketing.
A) concentrated
B) differentiated
C) individual
D) mass
E) local
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

31) By offering product and marketing variations to segments and developing a stronger position
within several segments, companies hope to create more total sales through segmented marketing
than ________ marketing across all segments.
A) undifferentiated
B) differentiated
C) niche
D) local
E) individual
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Reflective thinking

32) BritWay Ventures, a leading producer of soft drinks, is considering a differentiated


marketing strategy. It is most likely important that the company weighs increased sales against
________ before selecting this strategy.
A) decreased production
B) increased demand
C) increased costs
D) decreased prices
E) increased profits
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

33) Compared with undifferentiated marketing, differentiated marketing is more likely to lead to
________.
A) reduced sales in each market segment
B) weaker product position in each market segment
C) higher costs of doing business
D) redundancy in product design across market segments
E) smaller market share in the industry
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking
34) A successful niche marketing strategy relies on a firm's ________.
A) availability of services
B) product positioning
C) superior products
D) knowledge of customer needs
E) affordable pricing
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

35) Unlike other car rental agencies that are based in airports to serve travelers, Wheelz-On-Rent
has a network of neighborhood offices. The firm strives to serve people who need car rentals for
reasons other than vacation, such as when their own cars are being repaired. Wheelz-On-Rent
caters to a small share of the large car rental market. From this description, it can be concluded
that Wheelz-On-Rent most likely practices ________.
A) undifferentiated marketing
B) multi-segmented marketing
C) individual marketing
D) local marketing
E) concentrated marketing
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

36) The practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific
individuals and locations is referred to as ________.
A) niche marketing
B) micromarketing
C) segmented marketing
D) global marketing
E) undifferentiated marketing
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

37) ________ marketing tailors brands and promotions to the needs and wants of specific cities,
neighborhoods, and even stores.
A) Differentiated
B) Mass
C) Niche
D) Local
E) Individual
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

38) Which of the following is true about local marketing?


A) It does not cater to individual stores.
B) It does not support evolving technologies.
C) It increases manufacturing costs.
D) It increases economies of scale.
E) It reduces logistical issues.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

39) Marketers tailoring brands and promotions to the needs and wants of specific customer
groups practice ________.
A) niche marketing
B) multi-segmented marketing
C) local marketing
D) mass marketing
E) individual marketing
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

40) When a company interacts one-on-one with large numbers of customers to create customer-
unique value by designing products and services tailor-made to individual needs, it is engaging
in ________.
A) concentrated marketing
B) mass marketing
C) mass customization
D) differentiated marketing
E) local marketing
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

41) Which of the following is true of product positioning?


A) A product's position is defined by the number of competitors in a market.
B) Product positioning has little influence on the design of marketing mixes.
C) Consumers generally reevaluate products every time they make a buying decision.
D) To simplify the buying process, consumers are likely to position products in their minds.
E) Consumers cannot position products without the help of marketers.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

42) Through ________, brands can be differentiated on features, performance, or style and
design.
A) people differentiation
B) channel differentiation
C) price differentiation
D) services differentiation
E) product differentiation
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

43) Companies are likely to gain ________ through speedy, convenient, or careful delivery of
products.
A) price differentiation
B) product differentiation
C) channel differentiation
D) services differentiation
E) people differentiation
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

44) Which of the following types of differentiation is used to gain competitive advantage through
the way a firm designs its distribution coverage, expertise, and performance?
A) services differentiation
B) channel differentiation
C) people differentiation
D) product differentiation
E) price differentiation
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

45) Argonaut Food Stores, a retail giant, hires better-skilled employees than its competitors by
employing strategic recruitment practices. It also conducts highly specialized training programs
for its employees. In this case, Argonaut has focused on gaining a strong competitive advantage
through ________ differentiation.
A) image
B) people
C) services
D) product
E) channel
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

46) Customers recognize the products of Breads & Butters, a coffee shop, by identifying the
"twisted bread" logo that helped the firm revolutionize its products. In this case, the firm has
differentiated itself through its ________.
A) image
B) people
C) services
D) channels
E) positioning
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

47) When firms use symbols, colors, or characters to convey their personalities, they are using
________ differentiation.
A) image
B) people
C) usage-rate
D) user-status
E) channel
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

48) Which of the following is true of perceptual positioning maps?


A) They are used by marketers to divide a market into smaller groups with distinct
characteristics.
B) They are used by marketers to identify supplier and retailer perceptions of a product.
C) They are used to analyze consumer perceptions of a brand versus competing products.
D) They are used to divide buyers into groups based on their perceived income and age.
E) They are used to plot the geographic segments that a company needs to target.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking
49) Estel, a kitchen-cabinet manufacturer, positions its cabinets as furniture with superior
craftsmanship and durability. This is an example of ________ differentiation.
A) product
B) services
C) image
D) people
E) channels
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

50) A brand difference is said to be preemptive if ________.


A) competitors cannot easily copy the difference
B) buyers can afford to pay for the difference
C) the difference can be introduced profitably
D) the difference is communicable
E) the difference is beneficial to customers
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

51) Rad, a manufacturer of luxury watches, charges a higher price for its products than its
competitors. Despite the high prices, the brand is popular among customers for its quality and
service in comparison to cheaper alternatives available in the market. In this case, Rad offers a(n)
________ value proposition.
A) more-for-more
B) more-for-the-same
C) more-for-less
D) all-or-nothing
E) same-for-less
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

52) Using a(n) ________ positioning strategy, companies can attack the more-for-more strategy
of another firm by offering a brand of comparable quality at a lower price.
A) more-for-the-same
B) more-for-less
C) the-same-for-less
D) less-for-much-less
E) less-for-more
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

53) Which positioning strategy offers value for consumers by providing the same brands as
competitors at a lower price?
A) more for the same
B) more for less
C) the same for less
D) less for much less
E) more for more
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

54) The less-for-much-less positioning involves meeting consumers' requirements for ________.
A) moderate quality at a higher price
B) lower quality for a lower price
C) lower quality at a higher price
D) higher quality at a discounted rate
E) higher quality at the lowest possible price
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

55) Stores offering low-quality alternatives to luxury products at low prices most likely follow a
________ positioning strategy.
A) more-for-the-same
B) more-for-less
C) same-for-less
D) less-for-much-less
E) more-for-more
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

56) Which of the following strategies is most likely to be followed by firms that position
themselves as caterers of the best products at economical prices?
A) more for the same
B) more for less
C) same for less
D) more for more
E) less for much less
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

57) Household Storez, a local retail store, claims to offer better products at lower prices than
other retail stores. In this case, the firm's positioning reflects a ________ value proposition.
A) more-for-the same
B) more-for-less
C) same-for-less
D) more-for-more
E) same-for-more
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

58) Which of the following includes the target segment of a product, the category to which the
product belongs, and the product's point of difference from other members in the category?
A) mission statement
B) vision statement
C) profit statement
D) positioning statement
E) inventory statement
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

59) Zeal is a popular automobile brand, and its positioning statement reads as follows: "For
upscale American families who require large vehicles, Zeal is the automobile of choice." Which
of the following mandatory elements is missing from the positioning statement?
A) point of difference
B) target audience
C) brand name
D) product category
E) need
Answer: A
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

60) Company and brand positioning should be summed up in a ________.


A) mission statement
B) vision statement
C) profit statement
D) positioning statement
E) corporate statement
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

61) Companies today are moving away from target marketing and toward mass marketing.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

62) While designing a customer-driven marketing strategy, marketers are likely to divide the
market into smaller segments.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

63) Josie's, a gift store with a presence in multiple nations, divides its markets into units of
nations, regions, and cities. This is an example of geographic segmentation.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

64) Marketers must be careful to guard against stereotypes when using age and life-cycle
segmentation.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

65) Demographic factors are the most popular bases for segmenting customer groups.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

66) Demographic variables are generally more difficult to measure than most other types of
variables.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

67) Companies that use income segmentation always target the affluent.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

68) LaGrange, a floral boutique, segments its customers into three groups: those who frequently
use their services, those who have never used their services, and potential users. This is an
example of usage-rate segmentation.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

69) Marketers typically limit their market segmentation analysis to a single variable in order to
simplify the process.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

70) Clusters of marketable groups of customers with similar likes, dislikes, lifestyles, and
purchase behaviors can be identified by multivariable segmentation systems that merge and
analyze geographic, demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral data.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

71) Business and consumer marketers use many of the same variables to segment their markets.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

72) Light users are often a small percentage of a company's market but account for a high
percentage of total consumption.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

73) New communications technologies are likely to eliminate the need for markets to be
geographically segmented as clusters of countries.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

74) For market segments to be beneficial for companies, they must be measurable.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

75) The largest, fastest-growing market segments are generally the most attractive ones for
smaller companies.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

76) A segment is more attractive if it already contains many strong and aggressive competitors.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

77) A market segment with powerful suppliers controlling the prices is more attractive than a
segment with less powerful suppliers.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

78) Even if a segment has the right size and growth and is structurally attractive, a company must
consider its own objectives and resources before targeting that segment.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

79) Using a differentiated marketing strategy, a company is likely to design a product and a
marketing program that will appeal to the largest number of buyers.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

80) Companies with limited financial and personnel resources should most likely avoid
concentrated or niche marketing until their earnings improve.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

81) Niche marketing offers smaller companies an opportunity to compete by focusing their
limited resources on serving niches that may be unimportant to or overlooked by larger
companies.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

82) When a company chooses a target marketing strategy for a product, its choices are most
likely influenced by the product's life-cycle stage.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

83) A company or brand image should convey a product's distinctive benefits and positioning.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

84) A more-for-more market offering not only offers higher quality but also gives prestige to a
buyer.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

85) Cian, an automobile manufacturer, offers a new car model with features comparable to that
of another popular brand. However, the Cian model is priced lower than its competitor and
includes a longer warranty. Cian is most likely following a more-for-the-same strategy.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

86) Explain the four major steps in designing a customer-driven marketing strategy.
Answer: The four major steps in designing a customer-driven marketing strategy are market
segmentation, market targeting, differentiation, and market positioning.
Market segmentation: Dividing a market into smaller groups of buyers with distinct needs,
characteristics, or behaviors, that might require separate marketing strategies or mixes. The
company identifies different ways to segment the market and develops profiles of the resulting
market segments.
Market targeting: Evaluating each market segment's attractiveness and selecting one or more of
the market segments to enter.
Differentiation: Actually differentiating the firm's market offering to create a superior customer
value.
Market positioning: Arranging for a market offering to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable
place relative to competing products in the minds of consumers.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

87) Explain the four major segmentation variables for consumer markets.
Answer: For consumer marketing, the major segmentation variables are geographic,
demographic, psychographic, and behavioral. Geographic segmentation divides the market into
different geographic units, such as nations, regions, states, countries, cities, or neighborhoods.
Many companies are localizing their products, advertising, promotion, and sales efforts to fit the
needs of individual regions, cities, and neighborhoods. Demographic segmentation divides the
market into groups based on variables such as age, life-cycle stage, gender, income, occupation,
education, religion, ethnicity, and generation. These are the most popular factors because they
are easy to measure, and consumer needs, wants, and usage rates often vary closely with
demographic variables. Psychographic segmentation, on the other hand, divides buyers into
different groups based on social class, lifestyle, or personality characteristics. People in the same
demographic group can have very different psychographic characteristics. Behavioral
segmentation divides buyers into groups based on their knowledge, attitudes, uses, or responses
to a product. Many marketers believe that behavior variables are the best starting point for
building market segments.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

88) Describe age and life-cycle segmentation with examples. What are the precautions that
marketers should take when using age and life-cycle segmentation?
Answer: Consumer needs and wants change with age. Some companies use age and life-cycle
segmentation, offering different products or using different marketing approaches for different
age and life-cycle groups. For example, Kraft promotes JELL-O to children as a fun snack. For
adults, it is a tasty, guilt-free indulgence. Other companies focus on the specific age of life-stage
groups. Marketers must be careful to guard against stereotypes when using age and life-cycle
segmentation. For example, although consumers in all age segments love Disney cruises, most
Disney Cruise Lines destinations and shipboard activities are designed with parents and their
children in mind. Marketers must be careful to guard against stereotypes when using age and
life-cycle segmentation. Although some 80-year-olds fit the doddering stereotypes, others ski
and play tennis. Similarly, whereas some 40-year-old couples are sending their children off to
college, others are just beginning new families. Thus, age is often a poor predictor of a person's
life cycle, health, work or family status, needs, and buying power. Companies marketing to
mature consumers usually employ positive images and appeals.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

89) Explain with examples how marketers segment markets based on occasions, benefits sought,
and user status.
Answer: Occasions: Buyers can be grouped according to occasions when they get the idea to
buy, actually make their purchase, or use the purchased item. Occasion segmentation can help
firms build up product usage. For example, most consumers drink orange juice in the morning,
but orange growers have promoted drinking orange juice as a cool, healthful refresher at other
times of the day.
Benefits sought: A powerful form of segmentation is grouping buyers according to the different
benefits that they seek from a product. Benefit segmentation requires finding the major benefits
people look for in a product class, the kinds of people who look for each benefit, and the major
brands that deliver each benefit. For example, people buying bikes are looking for any of
numerous benefits, from competitive racing and sports performance to recreation, fitness,
touring, transportation, and just plain fun. To meet varying benefit preferences, Trek makes bikes
in three major benefit groups: road bikes, mountain bikes, and town bikes.
User status: Markets can be segmented into nonusers, ex-users, potential users, first-time users,
and regular users of a product. Marketers want to reinforce and retain regular users, attract
targeted nonusers, and reinvigorate relationships with ex-users. Included in the potential user
group are consumers facing life-stage changessuch as new parents and newlywedswho can be
turned into heavy users. For example, to get new parents off to the right start, P&G makes certain
its Pampers Swaddlers are the diaper provided for newborns at most U.S. hospitals.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

90) Describe how marketers use multiple-segmenting bases to their advantage.


Answer: Marketers rarely limit their segmentation analysis to only one or a few variables.
Instead, they use multiple segmentation bases in an effort to identify smaller, better-defined
target groups of consumers. Such segmentation provides a powerful tool for marketers of all
kinds. It can help companies identify and better understand key customer segments, reach them
more efficiently, and tailor market offerings and messages to their specific needs.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

91) How do businesses segment their markets?


Answer: Consumer and business marketers use many of the same variables to segment their
markets. Like consumer groups, business buyers can be segmented using geographic,
demographic, benefits sought, user status, usage rate, and loyalty status segmentation. Business
buyers are also segmented by the variables of operating characteristics, purchasing approaches,
situational factors, and personal characteristics.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

92) Why do international markets need to be segmented?


Answer: Few companies have either the resources or the will to operate in all, or even most, of
the countries that dot the globe. Different countries, even those that are close together, can vary
greatly in their economic, cultural, technological, and political makeup. International firms need
to group their world markets into segments with distinctive buying needs and behaviors.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

93) Briefly describe the characteristics of effective market segments.


Answer: To be useful, market segments must be:
Measurable: The size, purchasing power, and profiles of the segments can be measured.
Accessible: The market segments can be effectively reached and served.
Substantial: The market segments are large or profitable enough to serve. It should be the largest
possible homogeneous group worth pursuing with a tailored marketing program.
Differentiable: The segments are conceptually distinguishable and respond differently to
different marketing mix elements and programs.
Actionable: Effective programs can be designed for attracting and serving consumers who make
up the segment.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

94) Describe the process by which companies identify attractive market segments and choose a
target marketing strategy.
Answer: To target the best market segments, a company first evaluates each segment's size and
growth characteristics, structural attractiveness, and compatibility with company objectives and
resources. It then chooses one of four marketing strategiesranging from very broad to very
narrow targeting. The seller can ignore segment differences and target broadly using
undifferentiated marketing. This involves mass producing, mass distributing, and mass
promoting about the same product in about the same way to all consumers. The seller can also
adopt differentiated marketingdeveloping different market offers for several segments.
Concentrated marketing involves focusing on only one or a few market segments. Finally,
micromarketing is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of
specific individuals and locations. Micromarketing includes local marketing and individual
marketing. Which targeting strategy is best depends on company resources, product variability,
product life-cycle stage, market variability, and competitive marketing strategies.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking
95) Compare and contrast the four major strategies that are generally used to target market
segments.
Answer: Market targeting can be carried out at several different levels. Companies can target
very broadly (undifferentiated marketing), very narrowly (micromarketing), or somewhere in
between (differentiated or concentrated marketing). An undifferentiated marketing strategy
ignores market segment differences and targets the whole market with one offer. This mass-
marketing strategy focuses on what is common in the needs of consumers rather than on what is
different. In contrast, a differentiated strategy targets several market segments and designs
separate offers for each. Companies hope for higher sales and a stronger position within each
market segment. Concentrated or niche marketing goes after a large share of one or a few
segments or niches instead of going after a large share of a large market. These niches may be
overlooked or unimportant. Niching offers smaller companies an opportunity to compete by
focusing their limited resources more effectively. Finally, using micromarketing, a company can
tailor products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific individuals and locations. It
includes local and individual marketing.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

96) Compare and contrast local and individual marketing.


Answer: Local marketing involves tailoring brands and promotions to the needs and wants of
local customer groupscities, neighborhoods, and even specific stores. Advances in
communications technology have given rise to new high-tech versions of location-based
marketing. Local marketing has some drawbacks, however. It can drive up manufacturing and
marketing costs by reducing the economies of scale. It can also create logistics problems as
companies try to meet the varied requirements of different regional and local markets. Still, local
marketing helps a company to market more effectively in the face of pronounced regional and
local differences in demographics and lifestyles. In contrast, individual marketing involves
tailoring products and marketing programs to the needs and preferences of individual customers.
Individual marketing has also been labeled one-to-one marketing, mass customization, and
markets-of-one marketing. Today, new technologies are permitting many companies to return to
customized marketing. More detailed databases, robotic production and flexible manufacturing,
and interactive communication media such as cell phones and the Internet have combined to
foster mass customization. Mass customization is the process by which firms interact one-to-one
with masses of customers to design products and services tailor-made to individual needs.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking

97) Describe a few ways in which a marketer can engage in socially responsible target
marketing.
Answer: In order to engage in socially responsible target marketing, marketers must avoid
purposefully targeting vulnerable or disadvantaged consumers with controversial or potentially
harmful products. In addition, marketers should reconsider the marketing of adult products that
may spill over into the child segment either intentionally or unintentionally; primary examples
include beer, cigarettes, and fast food.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Ethical understanding and reasoning

98) Explain the concept of positioning for competitive advantage.


Answer: A product's position is the way the product is defined by consumers on important
attributesthe place the product occupies in consumers' minds relative to competing products.
Positioning involves implanting the brand's unique benefits and differentiation in customers'
minds. To carry out effective positioning, a company must identify a set of possible competitive
advantages upon which to build a position, choose the right competitive advantages, and select
an overall positioning strategy. The company must then effectively communicate and deliver the
chosen position to the market.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

99) Brand differences are worth promoting if they satisfy certain criteria. What are these criteria?
Answer: A brand difference is worth establishing to the extent that it satisfies the following
criteria:
(a) Important: The difference delivers a highly valued benefit to target buyers.
(b) Distinctive: Competitors do not offer the difference, or the company can offer it in a more
distinctive way.
(c) Superior: The difference is superior to other ways that customers might obtain the same
benefit.
(d) Communicable: The difference is communicable and visible to buyers.
(e) Preemptive: Competitors cannot easily copy the difference.
(f) Affordable: Buyers can afford to pay for the difference.
(g) Profitable: The company can introduce the difference profitably.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning

100) Describe the different types of value propositions on which a company might position its
products.
Answer: Companies can generally choose one of five types of value propositions for their
customers:
(a) More for more: More-for-more positioning involves providing the most upscale product or
service and charging a higher price to cover the higher costs. A more-for-more market offering
not only offers higher quality, it also gives prestige to the buyer. It symbolizes status and a loftier
lifestyle.
(b) More for the same: Companies can attack a competitor's more-for-more positioning by
introducing a brand offering comparable quality at a lower price.
(c) The same for less: Offering the same for less can be a powerful value proposition. Many
companies that offer this proposition don't claim to offer different or better products. Instead,
they offer many of the same brands as their competitors but at deep discounts based on superior
purchasing power and lower-cost operations. Other companies develop imitative but lower-
priced brands in an effort to lure customers away from the market leader.
(d) Less for much less: A market almost always exists for products that offer less and therefore
cost less. Few people need, want, or can afford "the very best" in everything they buy. In many
cases, consumers will gladly settle for less than optimal performance or give up some of the bells
and whistles in exchange for a lower price. Less-for-much-less positioning involves meeting
consumers' lower performance or quality requirements at a much lower price.
(e) More for less: The winning value proposition would be to offer more for less. Many
companies claim to do this. And, in the short run, some companies can actually achieve such
lofty positions.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the process of market segmentation, targeting, and positioning
AACSB: Analytic thinking