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Chapter 12: Leadership

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The assumptions of the contingency approach to leadership include all of the following, except:
a. Different situations require different styles of leadership.
b. The leaders need to be able to understand the characteristics of the organizations they lead.
*c. Leaders do not need to adapt their behavior to fit the situation they lead.
d. Leadership requires consideration of both trait and behavior approaches.

2. Fiedlers contingency model of leadership suggests all of the following, except:


a. Effective group performance is based on the match between the leaders style and the degree to
which the situation enables the leader to exert influence.
b. It considers the leaders style in terms of tasks and relationships.
*c. It considers key situational factors such as the degree of the task, the power of the follower in
the situation, and the relationship with the follower.
d. Relationship oriented leaders will be most effective when the situation provides control.

3. The path-goal theory proposes that a directive behavior will be most effective in all of the
following circumstances, except:
a. Where the demands of the task are ambiguous.
*b. Where procedures are clear.
c. Where rules are unclear.
d. Where employees are somewhat dogmatic.

4. Which of the following is not one of the new leadership characteristics?


a. Self-confidence
b. Creativity
c. Intelligence
*d. Strength

5. Which of the following is not one of the practices that Kouzes and Posner (2012) believe that
leaders engage in when they are at their best?
a. Challenging the process.
b. Encouraging the heart.
*c. Inspiring each person with their own personal vision.
d. Modeling the way.

6. Ancona, director of MIT Leadership Center, believes all of the following are true about
leadership, except:
a. Each leader needs to call forth their most important qualities and adapt them to the situation
they find themselves in.
b. Leaders need the capacity to understand complex environments.
*c. Leadership involves many people, but each engages in single leadership.
d. Leaders need to be able to draw out the most relevant lessons for the future of the
organization.

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7. Ancona, director MIT Leadership Center, suggests that leadership is based on all of the
following specific capabilities, except:
a. Sensemaking
b. Visioning
c. Relating to others
*d. Investing

8. _____________ leadership advances the interests of both leader and follower, but there is no
deep or enduring link between them.
*a. Transactional
b. Transformational
c. Moral
d. Servant

9. Which of the following statements is not true of the transformational approach to leadership,
according to Burns (1978)?
a. Power is exercised when potential power wielders gather resources that enable them to
influence others.
b. Power is exercised to realize the purposes of the power wielders, whether or not those
purposes also are the purposes of the respondents.
*c. The difference between power and leadership is that power serves the interests of the leader.
d. Leadership is an aspect of power, but is a separate process.

10. _______________ leadership states that the organizational bottom line is less important
than the leaders capacity for honesty, integrity, character, or spirit.
a. Shared
b. Authentic
c. Collaborative
*d. Value-based

11. _____________ leadership states that the leader remains true to their values, preferences,
hopes and aspirations, and acts in a way that is consistent with those values and beliefs.
a. Shared
*b. Authentic
c. Collaborative
d. Value-based

12. Which of the following is not one of the components of authentic leadership?
*a. Self-control
b. Being true to self
c. Relational authenticity
d. Unbiased processing

13. ________________ leadership is broadly distributed among members of the group, the
organization, or the society.

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*a. Shared
b. Authentic
c. Collaborative
d. Value-based

14. In ______________ leadership, the focus is not on either party to exchange, but on the
space between leaders and followers, and how the shared meaning is constructed in that space.
a. Shared
b. Authentic
*c. Collaborative
d. Value-based

15. _________ leadership is primarily concerned with facilitating extraordinary performance, with
affirming human potential.
*a. Positive
b. Authentic
c. Collaborative
d. Value-based

16. Which of the following is not one of the elements of ethical leadership?
a. Human orientation
b. Justice orientation
c. Responsibility and sustainability orientation
*d. Mediation orientation

17. Which of the following is not one of the components of creative leadership?
a. Sense of purpose
*b. Learning stability
c. Courage
d. Love and compassion

18. Bass model of transformational leadership includes all of the following, except:
a. Charisma
b. Inspiration
c. Individual consideration
*d. Intuned stimulation

TRUE/FALSE

19. In early reviews of leadership, Stogdill (1974) argued that leaders are characterized by the
exercise of initiative in social situations.
*a. True
b. False

20. The contingency approach to leadership assumes that understanding requires consideration of
both trait and behavior characteristics to leadership.

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*a. True
b. False

21. Fiedler assumes task oriented leaders will be most effective when they can exert less influence
and control.
a. True
*b. False

22. The path goal theory proposes that a directive behavior will be most effective in situations
where subordinates are engaged in work that is stressful, frustrating or unsatisfying.
a. True
*b. False

23. The path goal theory proposes that a supportive behavior will be most effective in situations
where employees are dogmatic.
a. True
*b. False

24. Kouzes and Posner (2012) believe that leaders establish their credibility through the practice
of encouraging the heart.
*a. True
b. False

25. According to the transformational approach, moral leadership results in actions that are
consistent with the needs, interests, and aspirations of the followers.
*a. True
b. False

26. Creative leadership states that leaders who are able to develop a strong reservoir of group
energy will be better able to energize those with whom they work.
a. True
*b. False

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Chapter 11 Basic Approaches to Leadership
MULTIPLE CHOICE

What Is Leadership?

1. Leadership is:
a. the ability to influence a group in goal achievement.
b. an inherited trait.
c. not something that can be learned.
d. a trait held by all managers.
(a; Moderate; p. 314)

2. Leaders:
a. establish direction by developing a vision of the future.
b. align people by communicating their vision.
c. c.. inspire people to overcome hurdles.
d. all of the above
(d; Moderate; p. 314)

3. Good ____ brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans.
a. leadership
b. management
c. vision
d. inspiration
(b; Easy; p.314)

4. Which of the following statements is true?


a. All leaders are managers.
b. All managers are leaders.
c. When an organization provides its managers with formal rights, that is assurance that they will
be able to lead effectively.
d. Nonsanctioned leadership is not as important as formal influence.
(b; Challenging; p. 314)

Trait Theories

5. Which theory states that people are born with certain characteristics that predispose them to being
leaders?
a. trait theory
b. path-goal theory
c. LPC
d. contingency theory
(a; Easy; p. 314)

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6. The search for personality, social, physical, or intellectual attributes that would describe leaders
and differentiate them from nonleaders goes back to the:
a. 1930s.
b. 1950s.
c. 1970s.
d. 1990s.
(a; Easy; p. 314)

7. Which of the following is not a limitation of the trait approach?


a. There are no universal traits that predict leadership in all situations.
b. Traits predict behavior more in weak situations than in strong situations.
c. The evidence is quite clear in separating cause from effect.
d. Traits do a better job at predicting the appearance of leadership in distinguishing between
effective and ineffective leaders.
(c; Moderate; p.315)

8. There is fairly consistent evidence that leadership is related to all of the following traits except:
a. ambition and energy.
b. extroversion.
c. desire to lead.
d. intelligence.
(b; Moderate; p. 315)

Behavioral Theories

9. If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are:


a. trained.
b. born.
c. dominant.
d. powerless.
(b; Moderate; p. 316)

10. If behavioral leadership theories are correct, then:


a. leadership trait theories are incorrect.
b. leaders are born with leadership behaviors.
c. leader behavior should be altered.
d. leadership can be learned.
(d; Moderate; p. 316)

11. If trait research had been successful, we would _______, whereas if behavioral studies were
correct, we would _____
a. teach people certain traits; teach people certain behaviors.
b. select the right person for the job; train leaders.
c. change jobs to suit people; change people to suit jobs.
d. only hire women; hire either men or women.
(b; Challenging; p. 316)

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12. Which of the following is not a behavioral theory of leadership?
a. Ohio State studies
b. trait theory
c. University of Michigan studies
d. leadership grid
(b; Easy; pp. 315-317)

13. The two dimensions of leader behavior explained in the Ohio State studies are:
a. coercion and motivation.
b. motivation and charisma.
c. employee-oriented and production-oriented.
d. initiating structure and consideration.
(d; Challenging; p. 316)

14. According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leaders behavior is directed toward
getting the job done is called:
a. consideration.
b. initiating structure.
c. employee-oriented.
d. contingency theory.
(b; Moderate; p. 316)

15. According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships
characterized by mutual trust and respect for his/her employees is:
a. consideration.
b. task-oriented.
c. initiating structure.
d. concern for production.
(a; Moderate; p. 316)

16. A leader high in initiating structure would do which of the following?


a. Help subordinates with personal problems.
b. Have concern for subordinates status and satisfaction.
c. Treat all subordinates as equal.
d. Assign group members to particular tasks.
(d; Moderate; p. 317)

17. The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are:
a. consideration and influence.
b. employee-oriented and production-oriented.
c. initiating structure and consideration.
d. structured coercion and respect initiation.
(b; Moderate; p. 317)

18. The University of Michigan studies define a(n) _____ leader as one who takes personal interest in
the needs of his/her subordinates.

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a. personal
b. country club
c. employee-oriented
d. humanistic
(c; Moderate; p. 316)

19. If a leaders main concern is accomplishing his/her groups tasks, the University of Michigan
studies label this leader:
a. single-minded.
b. employee-oriented.
c. goal-oriented.
d. production-oriented.
(d; Moderate; p. 317)

20. The conclusion arrived at by the University of Michigan researchers strongly favored:
a. humanistic leaders.
b. employee-oriented leaders.
c. production-oriented leaders.
d. technical-oriented leaders.
(b; Moderate; p. 317)

21. Blake and Mouton were responsible for development of the:


a. Delphi Technique.
b. Managerial Grid.
c. BCG Matrix.
d. Leader-member Exchange Theory.
(b; Moderate; p. 317)

22. According to the Managerial Grid, managers perform best under a:


a. 9,9 style.
b. 5,5 style.
c. 9,1 style.
d. 1,9 style.
(a; Moderate; p. 317)

23. According to Blake and Mouton, a 9,1 style is considered:


a. effective management.
b. laissez-faire.
c. authority.
d. country club management.
(c; Moderate; p. 317)

24. The graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership style by Blake and Mouton is
known as the:
a. least preferred co-worker scale.
b. leader-participation model.

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c. autocratic-democratic continuum.
d. Managerial Grid.
(d; Easy; p. 317)

25. Researchers in Finland and Sweden have reassessed whether there are only two dimensions to
leadership behavior. Their premise is that effective leaders would exhibit:
a. development-oriented behavior.
b. a 9,9 style.
c. a team approach.
d. employee-oriented behavior.
(a; Challenging; p. 318)

26. The Scandinavian studies found:


a. the previous behavioral approaches that focused in on only two behaviors appropriately
captured leadership in the 21st century.
b. leaders who demonstrate development-oriented behavior have more satisfied employees.
c. leaders who demonstrate development-oriented behavior are seen as less competent by their
employees.
d. trait approaches were effective in identifying leadership success.
(b; Challenging; p. 318)

Contingency Theories

27. Consideration of ____ was missing from the behavioral theories.


a. traits
b. situational factors
c. employee satisfaction
d. employee turnover
(b; Moderate; p. 318)

28. Which of the following is not a contingency theory?


a. the Fiedler model
b. Blake and Mouton
c. Hersey and Blanchard
d. leader-member exchange theory
(b; Challenging; p. 320)

29. A national 15-year study of 41,000 managers suggested that many managers rely on a(n) ____
style of leadership.
a. inclusive
b. consensus-building
c. autocratic
d. laissez-faire
(c; Moderate; p. 319)
30. Who developed the LPC (least preferred co-worker) questionnaire?
a. Greenleaf
b. Fiedler
c. House
d. Blake and Mouton
(b; Moderate; p. 320)

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31. The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by:
a. Hersey and Blanchard.
b. Blake and Mouton.
c. Fred Fiedler.
d. Robert House.
(c; Challenging; p. 320)

32. Fiedlers contingency model assumes that an individuals leadership style is:
a. changeable.
b. trained.
c. situational.
d. fixed.
(d; Challenging; p. 320)

33. If the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms, then the respondent is:
a. relationship-oriented.
b. task-oriented.
c. humanistic.
d. technical-oriented.
(a; Challenging; p. 320)

34. If the least preferred co-worker is seen in relatively unfavorable terms, Fiedler would label the
respondent:
a. technical-oriented.
b. task-oriented.
c. relationship-oriented.
d. humanistic.
(b; Challenging; p. 320)

35. Leaders are inflexible in their ability to change their basic style would be most attributable to:
a. Blake and Mouton.
b. Fiedler.
c. Hersey and Blanchard.
d. Vroom and Yetton.
(b; Moderate; p. 320)

36. Three situational criteria identified in the Fiedler model are:


a. job requirements, position power, and leadership ability.
b. charisma, influence, and leader-member relations.
c. leader-member relations, task structure, and position power.
d. task structure, leadership ability, and group conflict.
(c; Moderate; p. 320)

37. Which of the following is not a contingency dimension identified by Fiedler?


a. leader-member relations
b. the LPC scale
c. task structure
d. position power
(b; Moderate; p. 320)

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38. Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader as:
a. leader-member relations.
b. task structure.
c. position power.
d. employee-oriented.
(a; Easy; p. 320)

39. The degree to which job assignments are procedurized is classified in the Fiedler model as:
a. leader-member relations.
b. concern for people.
c. task structure.
d. position power.
(c; Moderate; p. 320)

40. Which model represents the theory that effective leadership depends upon a proper match between
a leaders style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control
and influence to the leader?
a. Leader-member Exchange Theory
b. Fiedler Contingency Model
c. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Theory
d. Situational Leadership Theory
(b; Challenging; p. 321)

41. Fiedlers theory predicts that an individual who is considered task oriented will be most effective
when the situation is:
a. moderately to highly favorable.
b. moderately favorable.
c. moderately to highly unfavorable.
d. very favorable or unfavorable.
(d; Challenging; pp. 321-322)

42. The reconceptualization of Fieldlers contingency model is called:


a. situational theory.
b. cognitive resource theory.
c. evaluative theory.
d. leadership cognitive theory.
(b; Moderate; p. 323)

43. According to Fiedlers contingency theory, if there is not a match of leadership style to the group
situation, what should be done?
a. Replace the manager.
b. Change the situation to fit the leader.
c. either a or b
d. none of the above
(c; Moderate; p. 322 )

44. Garcia and Fiedler focused on the role of ____ in the cognitive resource theory.
a. stress

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b. task structure
c. position power
d. conflict
(a; Challenging; p. 323)

45. All of the following are predictions of the cognitive resource theory except:
a. the intellectual abilities of leaders correlate with group performance in situations that the leader
perceives as low stress.
b. in nonstressful situations, there is a positive relationship between job experience and
performance.
c. in high-stress situations, there is a positive relationship between job experience and
performance.
d. directive behavior results in good performance only if linked with high intelligence in a
supportive, nonstressful leadership environment.
(b; Challenging; p. 323)

46. Hersey and Blanchard developed the _____ leadership theory.


a. situational
b. cognitive resource
c. managerial grid
d. path-goal
(a; Moderate; p. 323)

47. Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership theory differs from other leadership theories most
clearly because it:
a. identifies specific leadership styles.
b. focuses on the followers.
c. makes leadership contingent on the situation.
d. uses the leadership dimensions of task and relationship behaviors.
(b; Challenging; p. 323)

48. According to Hersey and Blanchard, readiness encompasses:


a. the leaders motivation.
b. the age of the followers.
c. the followers power.
d. the ability and willingness of the followers to take responsibility.
(d; Challenging; p. 324)

49. Which of the following is not a leader behavior identified by Hersey and Blanchard?
a. directive
b. laissez-faire
c. supportive
d. consensus
(d; Moderate; p. 324)

50. The _____ theory argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship
with a small group of their subordinates.
a. managerial grid

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b. leader-member exchange
c. path-goal
d. Fiedler leadership
(b; Moderate; p. 324)

51. According to LMX theory, which of the following is not true of those individuals who fall into the
out-group?
a. They get less of the leaders time.
b. They have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interaction.
c. They are trusted.
d. They get fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls.
(c; Moderate; p. 324)

52. The leadership model that integrates the expectancy model of motivation with the Ohio State
leadership research is:
a. path-goal.
b. Fiedler.
c. leader-participation.
d. autocratic-democratic.
(a; Challenging; p. 325)

53. The leadership behaviors identified by the path-goal theory are:


a. participative, goal-oriented, and supportive.
b. achievement-oriented and humanistic.
c. supportive, directive, participative, and achievement-oriented.
d. participative and autocratic.
(c; Challenging; p. 326)

54. Which leadership style identified by House in path-goal theory leads to greater satisfaction when
tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out?
a. directive
b. supportive
c. participative
d. achievement-oriented
(a; Challenging; p. 326)

55. Which of Houses leaders from path-goal theory are friendly and show concern for the needs of
followers?
a. directive
b. supportive
c. participative
d. achievement-oriented
(b; Challenging; p. 326)

56. Which of Houses leaders from path-goal theory sets challenging goals and expects followers to
perform at their highest level?
a. directive
b. supportive

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c. participative
d. achievement-oriented
(d; Challenging; p. 326)

57. Which of the following is not an example of a hypothesis that has evolved out of path-goal theory?
a. Subordinates with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive style.
b. Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous.
c. Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when subordinates
are performing structured tasks.
d. Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant by employees with considerable
experience.
(a; Challenging; pp. 325-327)

58. The leader-participation model was developed by:


a. Robert House.
b. Fred Fiedler.
c. George Graen.
d. Vroom and Yetton.
(d; Moderate; p. 327)

59. Vroom and Yettons leadership theory could also be described as a _____ theory.
a. power
b. decision-making
c. satisfaction
d. trait
(b; Moderate; p. 327)

60. One of the problems with Vroom and Yettons leader-participation model is the complication of
considering the ___ contingency variables.
a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12
(d; Moderate; p. 328)

TRUE/FALSE

What Is Leadership?

61. Leadership and management are two terms that are seldom confused.
(False; Easy; p. 313)

62. Management is about coping with complexity while leadership is about coping with change.
(True; Moderate; p. 313)

63. Those who hold a management position are the only individuals who can become leaders in a group
or organization.
(False; Moderate; p. 314)

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64. Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimum effectiveness.
(True; Moderate; p. 314)

Trait Theories

65. The approach to leadership that attempted to find universal personality traits that leaders possessed
to a greater degree than nonleaders proved very effective.
(False; Moderate; p. 314)

66. The trait theories of leadership sought to find personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits that
leaders had to some greater degree than nonleaders.
(True; Moderate; p. 314)

67. There are traits that are consistently associated with leadership.
(True; Moderate; p. 315)

68. The cumulative findings from more than a half a century of research leads us to conclude that traits
do not increase the likelihood of success of a leader.
(False; Moderate; p. 315)

69. There are traits identified in the research that guarantee leadership success.
(False; Moderate; p. 315)

70. There are no universal traits that predict leadership success in all situations.
(True; Moderate; p. 315)

Behavioral Theories

71. One implication of the trait view of leadership is that leaders can be trained.
(False; Moderate; p. 316)

72. If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a basis for selecting the right
persons to assume formal positions requiring leadership.
(True; Challenging; p. 315)
73. If behavioral theories of leadership are valid, individuals can be trained to be leaders.
(True; Easy; p. 316)

74. If trait theories of leadership are valid, leadership is basically inborn.


(True; Easy; p. 316)

75. The most comprehensive and replicated of the trait theories resulted from research that began at
Ohio State University.
(False; Challenging; p. 316)

76. The Ohio State Studies used two dimensions initiating structure and consideration.
(True; Moderate; p. 316)

77. The leader designated as high on initiating structure tends to structure the role of subordinates
more clearly.
(True; Moderate; p. 316)

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78. Initiating structure is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships
that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings.
(False; Easy; p. 316)

79. The University of Michigan studies found production-oriented leaders were associated with higher
group productivity.
(False; Challenging; p. 317)

80. The University of Michigan studies production-oriented leaders tended to emphasize the technical
or task aspects of the job.
(True; Easy; p. 317)

81. The managerial grid found that managers perform best under a 1,1 style.
(False; Easy; p. 317)

82. Hersey and Blanchard developed the managerial grid.


(False; Easy; p. 317)

83. Scandinavian studies found that development-oriented leaders value experimentation, seek new
ideas, and generate and implement change.
(True; Moderate; p. 318)

84. A 15-year study of 41,000 managers suggested that many managers continue to rely on an
autocratic style of leadership.
(True; Challenging; p. 319)

Contingency Theories

85. The contingency approach to leadership would be best served by an autocratic leadership style.
(False; Moderate; p. 319)

86. The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper
match between the leaders style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.
(True; Moderate; p. 320)

87. Contingency models of leadership suggest that there is no one best style of leadership.
(True; Moderate; p. 320)

88. Fiedler used the most preferred co-worker (MPC) questionnaire.


(False; Easy; p. 320)

89. In Fiedlers model, if the LPC is seen in relatively unfavorable terms, the respondent can be said to
be primarily task-oriented.
(True; Moderate; p. 320)

90. Fiedlers theory is based on the assumption that leaders cant change their styles to fit changing
situations.
(True; Moderate; p. 320)

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91. According to Fiedler, task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized.
(True; Moderate; p. 320)

92. One of the flaws in the Fiedler leadership model is that it fails to take into account the formal
authority of the leader.
(False; Challenging; p. 323)

93. According to Fiedlers contingency model, task-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of
high or low control.
(True; Moderate; p. 323)

94. Fiedler concludes that since we cannot change individuals, we should concentrate on changing
situations to suit individuals.
(True; Moderate; p. 322)

95. Taken as a whole, tests of the overall validity of the Fiedler model lead to a generally positive
conclusion.
(True; Moderate; p. 323)

96. Fiedlers contingency model is the reconceptualization of cognitive resource theory.


(False; Moderate; p. 323)

97. The essence of cognitive resource theory is that stress is the enemy of rationality.
(True; Moderate; p. 323)

98. Cognitive resource theory predicts that in low-stress situations, bright individuals perform worse in
the leadership role than their less intelligent counterparts.
(False; Challenging; p. 323)

99. Situational leadership theory has been well validated by research but not well received by
practitioners.
(False; Challenging; p. 324)

100. Hersey and Blanchard argue that leadership success is contingent on the age of the leader.
(False; Easy; p. 323)

101. Readiness was defined by Hersey and Blanchard as the extent to which people have the ability and
willingness to accomplish a specific task.
(True; Moderate; p. 324)

102. SLT essentially views the leader-follower relationship as analogous to that between a parent and
child.
(True; Challenging; p. 326)

103. SLT is an example of a trait theory.


(False; Easy; p. 326)

104. In the leader-member exchange theory, leaders dont treat all their subordinates alike.
(True; Moderate; p. 324)

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105. According to LMX theory, out-group members get less of the leaders time.
(True; Moderate; p. 324)

106. Research to test LMX theory has been generally supportive.


(True, Moderate, p. 325)

107. In the leader-member exchange theory, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group
called the mature followers.
(False; Challenging; p. 324)

108. The path-goal model of leadership integrates the expectancy model of motivation with the Fiedler
contingency model.
(False; Challenging; p. 325)

109. The path-goal theory assumes leaders are flexible and can display different leadership behavior
depending on the situation.
(True; Moderate; p. 325)

110. A hypothesis that has evolved out of path-goal theory is that directive leadership leads to greater
satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well
laid out.
(True; Challenging; p. 325)

111. The leader-participation model identifies two leadership behaviorsinitiating structure and
consideration.
(False; Moderate; p. 327)

SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS

Application of Behavioral Theories

Your supervisor has been studying leadership and has

described so many theories to you that you are really

confused.Youaskhimtoexplainthesimilaritiesofthemany

theoriessothatyoucanunderstandtherelationshipbetween

them.

112. What other term might be used to describe the concept of task?
a. supportive
b. initiating structure
c. consideration
d. relationship-oriented
(b; Moderate; pp. 316-317)

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113. What other terms might be used to describe the concept of people?
a. consideration and employee-oriented
b. directive leadership and production-oriented
c. supportive and directive leadership
d. consideration and relationship-oriented
(a; Challenging; pp. 316-317)

114. Behavioral leadership theorists seem to agree that:


a. a leaders style is fixed.
b. a leaders style is flexible.
c. traits are always important.
d. there seem to be two dimensions of leadershiptask and people.
(d; Challenging; pp. 316-317)

Application of Fiedlers LPC Theory

You have decided to use Fiedlers LPC questionnaire to help your employees learn more about their
leadership styles. Each of your employees has filled out and scored the instrument. It is your job to try to
explain how to use this information.

115. You should assume which of the following about the styles that have been assessed?
a. Each persons style is essentially fixed.
b. Each person can use the information to change his/her style to a more productive style if
necessary.
c. Task-oriented leaders will not perform as well as relationship-oriented leaders in situations that
were very unfavorable.
d. Task-oriented leaders will perform better than relationship-oriented leaders in moderately
favorable situations.
(a; Challenging; pp. 320-323)

116. Which of the following is an important contingency dimension in Fiedlers LPC model?
a. leader-member relations
b. task structure
c. position power
d. All of the above are important dimensions in this model.
(d; Moderate; pp. 320-323)

117. The Fiedler model proposes:


a. changing the leader.
b. changing the situation.
c. matching leaders and situations.
d. changing the employees.
(c; Challenging; pp. 320-323)

Application of Trait Theories

23
YourcompanysHRdirectorisabelieverintraittheories

ofleadership.Hebelievesthathecandifferentiateleaders

from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and

characteristics. You want to help shed some light on this

perspective.

118. You should inform your HR director that research efforts at isolating leadership traits have:
a. definitively identified six leadership traits.
b. resulted in a number of dead ends.
c. identified two traits that guarantee success.
d. identified universal traits predicting success in all situations.
(b; Moderate; pp. 314-315)

119. When selecting individuals for leadership positions, the trait research would suggest that which of
the following should not be used as a trait differentiating leaders from nonleaders?
a. ambitions and energy
b. the desire to lead
c. communication skills
d. intelligence
(d; Moderate; pp. 314-315)

Application of LMX Theory

As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the departments employees, you
have come to believe in LMX theory. Sarah and Joe get less of the managers time. Sally gets fewer of the
preferred rewards that the manager controls and John has a relationship with the manager based on formal
authority interactions. Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer gets a disproportionate amount of the managers
attention and is more likely to receive special privileges.

120. According to LMX theory, the in-group is likely to be comprised of:


a. Rebecca.
b. Jennifer.
c. both Rebecca and Jennifer
d. none of the above
(c; Challenging; pp. 324-325)

121. According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the out-
group?
a. Rebecca
b. Jennifer
c. Sarah
d. none of the above
(c; Challenging; pp. 324-325)

24
SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

122. What is the difference between leadership and management?


(Pages 303-304)

Leadership is defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
Leadership is about coping with change. Good management brings about order and consistency by
drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against
plans. Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders,
coordinating and staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems.

123. Discuss the two dimensions of leadership described in the Ohio State studies.
(Page 316)

The Ohio State studies proposed that two categories accounted for most of the leadership behavior
described by employees. They called these two dimensions initiating structure and consideration.
Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her
role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. Consideration is described as the
extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust,
respect for employees ideas, and regard for their feelings.

124. Discuss Blake and Moutons managerial grid.


(Page 317)

Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid based on the styles of concern for people and
concern for production. This grid shows the dominating factors in a leaders thinking in regard to
getting results. Managers were found to perform best under a 9,9 style. The dimensions represent
the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure and the Michigan dimensions of
employee oriented and production oriented.

125. What dimension did the Scandanavian studies add?


(Pages 317-318)

Researches in Finland and Sweden have been reassessing whether there are only two dimensions
that capture the essence of leadership behavior. Their basic premise is that in a changing world,
effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior. These are leaders who value
experimentation, seek new ideas, and generate and implement change.

126. Discuss cognitive resource theory.


(Page 323)

Fiedler and Joe Garcia reconceptualized Fiedlers contingency model. They focused on the role of
stress as a form of situational unfavorableness and how a leaders intelligence and experience
influence his or her reaction to stress. The essence of the theory is that stress is the enemy of
rationality. Fiedler and Garcia found that a leaders intellectual abilities correlate positively with
performance under low stress but negatively under high stress. According to the theory, its the
level of stress in the situation that determines whether an individuals intelligence and experience
will contribute to leadership performance.

127. Discuss Hersey and Blanchards situation leadership theory.

25
(Pages 323-324)

Situation leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. Successful leadership is
achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which Hersey and Blanchard argue is contingent on
the level of the followers readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness
reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leaders. The term readiness
refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.
SLT says if a follower is unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and
specific directions; if followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task
orientation to compensate for the followers lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get
the follower to buy into the leaders desires; if followers are able and unwilling, the leader needs
to use a supportive and participative style; and if the employee is both able and willing, the leader
doesnt need to do much.

128. Discuss LMX theory.


(Pages 324-325)

The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of time pressures, leaders
establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers. These individuals make up
the in-group they are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leaders attention, and are
more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. They get less of
the leaders time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-follower
relations based on formal authority interactions. The leader implicitly categorizes the follower as
an in or out and that relationship is relatively stable over time.

129. Describe the leader-participation model.


(Pages 327-328)

Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a leader-participation model that related leadership
behavior and participation in decision making. Recognizing that task structures have varying
demands for routine and nonroutine activities, these researchers argued that leader behavior must
adjust to reflect the task structure. The model was normative it provided a sequential set of rules
that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making, as
determined by different types of situations. The model was a decision tree incorporating seven
contingencies and five alternative leadership styles.

130. What are the predictions of the path-goal theory?


(Page 326)

Path-goal theory made several predictions:


Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than
when they are highly structured and well laid out.
Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees
are performing structured tasks.
Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high
perceived ability or with considerable experience.
Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style.
Achievement-oriented leadership will increase employees expectancies that effort will lead to
high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured.

26
MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

131. Describe the limitations of trait theory.


(Page 315)

Trait theory has at least four limitations. First, there are no universal traits that predict in all
situations. Rather, traits appear to predict leadership in selective situations. Second, traits predict
behavior more in weak situations than in strong situations. Strong situations are those in
which there are strong behavioral norms, strong incentives for specific types of behaviors, and
clear expectations as to what behaviors are rewarded and punished. Such strong situations create
less opportunity for leaders to express their inherent dispositional tendencies. Since highly
formalized organizations and those with strong cultures fit the description of strong situations, the
power of traits to predict leadership in many organizations is probably limited. Third, the evidence
is unclear in separating cause from effect. Finally, traits do a better job at predicting the
appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective and ineffective leaders.

132. What are the implications of the behavioral theories of leadership?


(Pages 318-319)

If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a basis for selecting the right
persons to assume formal positions in groups and organizations requiring leadership. In contrast,
if behavioral studies were to turn up critical behavioral determinants of leadership, we could train
people to be leaders. The difference between trait and behavioral theories, in terms of application,
lies in their underlying assumptions. If trait theories were valid, then leaders are born rather than
made. On the other hand, if there were specific behaviors that identified leaders, then we could
teach leadership we could design programs that implanted these behavioral patterns in individuals
who desired to be effective leaders.

COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS

133. Explain Fiedlers contingency model. Include the LPC (least preferred coworker) questionnaire
and the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness in your discussion.
(Pages 320-322)

Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership. This model
proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leaders
style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. The least preferred co-
worker (LPC) questionnaire is used to determine what the leaders basic style is. Sixteen
contrasting adjectives are used to ask respondents to describe their least-preferred co-worker. If
the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms (a high LPC score), then the
respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this co-worker. This person is
considered relationship oriented. If the least preferred co-worker is primarily interested in
productivity, they would be labeled task oriented. Fiedler assumes that an individuals leadership
style is fixed.

Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that define the key situational factors that determine
leadership effectiveness. Leader-member relations are the degree of confidence, trust, and respect
members have in their leader. Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are
procedurized. Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as

27
hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases. The better the leader-member relations,
the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader
has.

With knowledge of an individuals LPC and an assessment of the three contingency variables,
Fiedler proposes matching them up to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. Task-oriented
leaders tend to perform better in situations that were very favorable to them and in situations that
were very unfavorable. Relationship oriented leaders perform better in moderately favorable
situations. Fiedler has suggested recently that task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of
high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control
situations.

There are two ways to improve leader effectiveness. You can change the leader to fit the situation.
The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. This could be done by
restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control factors such
as salary increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions.

134. Compare and contrast Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership theory with Houses path-goal
theory.
(Pages 323-326)
HerseyandBlanchardssituationleadershiptheoryisacontingencytheorythatfocuseson
thefollowers.Successfulleadershipisachievedbyselectingtherightleadershipstyle,
whichHerseyandBlanchardargueiscontingentonthelevelofthefollowersreadiness.The
emphasisonthefollowersinleadershipeffectivenessreflectstherealitythatitisthe
followerswhoacceptorrejecttheleaders.Thetermreadinessreferstotheextenttowhich
peoplehavetheabilityandwillingnesstoaccomplishaspecifictask.SLTsaysifafollower
isunableandunwillingtodoatask,theleaderneedstogiveclearandspecificdirections;
iffollowersareunableandwilling,theleaderneedstodisplayhightaskorientationto
compensateforthefollowerslackofabilityandhighrelationshiporientationtogetthe
followertobuyintotheleadersdesires;iffollowersareableandunwilling,theleader
needstouseasupportiveandparticipativestyle;andiftheemployeeisbothableand
willing,theleaderdoesntneedtodomuch.

Path-goal theory was developed by Robert House. The essence of the theory is that its the leaders
job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support
to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their
followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make the journey
along the path easier by reducing roadblocks.

House identified four leadership behaviors. The directive leader lets followers know what is
expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish
tasks. The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers. The
participative leader consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision.
The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their
highest level. House assumes that leaders are flexible and that the same leader can display any or
all of these behaviors depending on the situation.

Path-goal theory made several predictions:


Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than
when they are highly structured and well laid out.
Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees

28
are performing structured tasks.
Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high
perceived ability or with considerable experience.
Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style.
Achievement-oriented leadership will increase employees expectancies that effort will lead to
high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured.

Chapter 12 Contemporary Issues in Leadership


MULTIPLE CHOICE

Trust: The Foundation of Leadership

1. _____ is a positive expectation that another will through words, actions, or decisions act
opportunistically.
a. Confidence
b. Trust
c. c, Pygmalion effect
d. Leadership
(a; Moderate; p. 336)

2. Which of the following is not a dimension of trust?


a. integrity
b. competence
c. loyalty
d. distance
(d; Easy; p. 336)

3. The most critical characteristic that a person looks for in determining whether another person is
trustworthy is:
a. integrity.
b. loyalty.
c. consistency.
d. openness.
(a; Moderate; p. 336)

4. Research has identified five dimensions that underlie the concept of trust. Among these dimensions
is ______, which indicates willingness to protect and save face for a person.
a. integrity
b. competence
c. loyalty
d. openness
(c; Challenging; p. 336)

5. Reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations is the dimension of trust known

29
as:
a. openness.
b. consistency.
c. loyalty.
d. integrity.
(b; Moderate; p. 336)

6. _____ refers to honesty and truthfulness.


a. Integrity
b. Competency
c. Loyalty
d. Openness
(a; Moderate; p. 336)

7. _____ is the dimension of trust that encompasses an individuals technical and interpersonal
knowledge and skills.
a. Consistency
b. Competence
c. Integrity
d. Confidence
(b; Easy; p. 336)

8. ____ is the dimension of trust that refers to the degree to which you can rely on the person to tell
you the full truth.
a. Integrity
b. Loyalty
c. Consistency
d. Openness
(d; Moderate; p. 336)

9. Which of the following is not useful in building trust?


a. keeping your feelings to yourself
b. demonstrating that youre working for others interests as well as your own
c. showing consistency in the basic values that guide your decision making
d. demonstrating competence
(a; Moderate; p. 336)

10. _____ consistently ranks at the top of most peoples list of characteristics they admire in their
leaders.
a. Honesty
b. Communication
c. Interpersonal skills
d. Money
(a; Moderate; p. 338)

11. A recent national survey of U.S. employees found that about ____ percent of respondents trusted
their senior manager.

30
a. 10
b. 25
c. 50
d. 75
(c; Challenging; pp. 337-338)

12. There are three types of trust in organization relationships. Which of the following is not one of
those three types?
a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(a; Easy; p. 338)

13. The most fragile relationships are contained in _____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(b; Moderate; p. 338)

14. The new manager-employee relationship is an example of ____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(b; Moderate; p. 338)

15. Most organizational relationships are rooted in ____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(c; Moderate; p. 339)

16. Trust exists because the parties understand each others intentions and appreciate the others:
a. wants and desires
b. needs and feelings
c. opinions and needs
d. wants and feelings
(a; Moderate; p. 339)

17. Controls are minimal with ____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based

31
(d; Moderate; p. 339)

18. A long-term happily married couple is an example of ____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(d; Moderate; p. 339)

19. The highest level of trust is exhibited in _____ trust.


a. reward-based
b. deterrence-based
c. knowledge-based
d. identification-based
(d; Moderate; p. 339)

Leaders as Shapers of Meaning

20. _____ is a way to use language to manage meaning.


a. Framing
b. Influencing
c. Highlighting
d. Trust
(a; Easy; p. 340)

21. Leaders demonstrate framing when they use language to do all of the following except:
a. to influence followers perception of the world.
b. to influence the meaning of events.
c. to influence visions of the future.
d. all of the above
(d; Moderate; p. 340)

What is Charismatic Leadership?

22. Which of the following is not true of charismatic leaders?


a. They have a vision and the ability to articulate the vision.
b. They have behavior that is unconventional.
c. They are willing to take high personal risk.
d. They are rarely sensitive to follower needs.
(d; Challenging; Ex 12-2; p. 342)

23. Which of the following is not part of the four-step process charismatic leaders use to influence
followers?
a. The leader articulates an appealing vision.
b. The leader communicates high performance expectations and expresses confidence that
followers can attain them.
c. The leader reinforces the old set of values.
d. The leader makes self-sacrifices and engages in unconventional behavior to demonstrate
courage and convictions about the vision.
(c; Challenging; pp. 341-342)

32
24. A person can learn to become more charismatic by doing all of the following except:
a. developing an aura of charisma by maintaining an optimistic view.
b. creating a bond that inspires others to follow.
c. communicating only with words.
d. bringing out the potential in followers by tapping into their emotions.
(c; Moderate; p. 342)

25. There are some situations when charismatic leadership would not be needed. Which of the
following would be an example of such a situation?
a. A business is facing the introduction of a radically new product.
b. A business is in its infancy.
c. A business is operating during a time of war.
d. A business has had several years of unchallenged success.
(d; Moderate; p. 343)

26. The two types of leaders may be identified as:


a. transformational leaders and charismatic leaders.
b. translational leaders and transcendent leaders.
c. transactional leaders and transformational leaders.
d. task-oriented leaders and production-centered leaders.
(c; Moderate; p. 343)

27. The Ohio State studies, Fiedlers model, path-goal theory, and the leader-participation model all
concerned the _____ leader.
a. transactional
b. charismatic
c. transformational
d. employee-oriented
(a; Moderate; p. 343)

28. The type of leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by
clarifying role and task requirements are:
a. transactional leaders.
b. charismatic leaders.
c. transformational leaders.
d. employee-oriented leaders.
(a; Moderate; p. 343)

29. The type of leader who inspires followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the
organization and who is capable of having a profound effect on his/her followers is a(n):
a. transcendent leader.
b. transformational leader.
c. transactional leader.
d. employee-oriented leader.
(b; Moderate; p. 343)

33
30. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a transactional leader?
a. gives rewards in exchange for good work
b. intervenes if standards arent met
c. provides vision and a sense of mission
d. avoids making decisions
(c; Challenging; p. 343)

31. The overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated than
transactional leadership with:
a. lower turnover rates.
b. higher productivity.
c. higher employee satisfaction,
d. all of the above
(d; Challenging; p. 343)

32. The ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an
organization that grows out of and improves the present is _____ leadership.
a. transformational
b. visionary
c. transactional
d. feminine
(b; Easy; p. 344)

33. What skills do visionary leaders exhibit?


a. ability to explain the vision to others
b. ability to express the vision through behavior
c. ability to extend the vision to different leadership contexts
d. all of the above
(d; Moderate; p. 345)

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness

34. Emotional Intelligence (EI) appears to be especially relevant in jobs that demand a high degree of:
a. social interaction.
b. commitment.
c. task structure.
d. technical expertise.
(a; Challenging; p. 346)

35. Which of the following is not a key component of EI (emotional intelligence)?


a. self-awareness
b. self-management
c. commitment
d. empathy
(c; Challenging; p. 346)

34
36. ____ is exhibited by self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self deprecating sense of
humor.
a. Self-awareness
b. Self-management
c. Commitment
d. Empathy
(a; Challenging; p. 346)

Contemporary Leadership Roles

37. Leaders of teams find themselves in a role of:


a. autocrat.
b. follower.
c. high power.
d. facilitator.
(d; Moderate; p. 346)

38. _____ are exhibited by the ability to lead change, persuasiveness, and expertise in building and
leading terms.
a. Social skills
b. Change skills
c. Interpersonal skills
d. Technical skills
(a; Moderate; p. 346)

39. A study of 20 organizations that had reorganized themselves around teams identified four specific
roles for managers. Which of the following is not one of these roles?
a. liaisons with external constituencies
b. senior management
c. troubleshooters
d. conflict managers
(b; Moderate; p. 347)

40. A ____ is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less experienced employee.
a. mentor
b. facilitator
c. leader
d. manager
(a; Easy; p. 347)

41. What is not a role performed by a mentor?


a. coach
b. counselor
c. evaluator
d. sponsor
(c; Easy; p. 347)

35
42. Which of the following is not a difference found in the inherent leadership styles of men and
women?
a. Women tend to adopt a more democratic style.
b. Men are more likely to use a direct command and control style.
c. Women share power.
d. Men tend to lead through inclusion and rely on interpersonal skills to influence others.
(d; Moderate; p. 349)

43. All of the following are characteristics of women leaders except:


a. democratic leadership style.
b. encouraging participation.
c. directive command.
d. sharing power.
(c; Moderate; p. 349)

44. Leaders can create self-leaders by which of the following?


a. Model self-leadership.
b. Encourage the use of self-rewards to strengthen and increase desirable behaviors.
c. Create positive thought patterns.
d. all of the above
(d; Moderate; pp. 349-350)

45. Which of the following is true concerning on-line leadership?


a. The digital age can never turn nonleaders into leaders.
b. Effective online leaders need to develop the skill of deciphering the emotional components of
messages.
c. Managers whose face-to-face leadership skills are less than satisfactory will not shine online.
d. The online leader has received considerable attention from OB researchers.
( b; Moderate; pp. 351-352)

Challenges to the Leadership Construct

46. The ______ says that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals.
a. fundamental attribution error
b. attribution theory of leadership
c. perception of leadership
d. organizational attribution theory
(b; Moderate; p. 353)

47. According to the attribution theory of leadership, whats important in being characterized as an
effective leader is projecting the ____ of being a leader rather than focusing on _____.
a. appearance; actual accomplishments
b. image; attributions
c. reality; appearance
d. appearance; perception
(a; Challenging; p. 353)

48. _____ make it impossible for leader behavior to make any difference to follower outcomes.

36
a. Substitutes
b. Neutralizers
c. Higher level leaders
d. Rewards
(b; Moderate; p. 354)

49. Examples of substitutes do not include which of the following?


a. explicit formalized goals
b. rigid rules and procedures
c. cohesive work groups
d. professional orientation of employees
(d; Moderate; p. 354)

50. Which of the following skills might be included in leadership training?


a. vision creation
b. trust building
c. situational analysis
d. all of the above
(d; Moderate; p. 356)

TRUE/FALSE

Trust: The Foundation of Leadership

51. Recent research has identified the dimensions that underlie the concept of trust. Loyalty is the
willingness to share ideas and information freely.
(False; Easy; p. 336)

52. Trust implies familiarity and risk.


(True; Moderate; p. 336)

53. Recent research has identified various dimensions that underlie the concept of trust. Integrity is the
term used to describe a persons honesty and truthfulness.
(True; Moderate; p. 336)

54. Openness refers to whether or not you can rely on a person to give you the full truth.
(True; Moderate; p. 336)

55. Honesty is absolutely essential to leadership.


(True; Easy; p. 337)

56. The three types of trust in organizational relationships are deterrence-based, knowledge-based, and
identification-based.
(True; Easy; p. 338)

57. The most fragile relationships are contained in identification-based trust.


(False; Moderate; p. 338)
58. Deterrence-based trust will work only to the degree that punishment is possible, consequences are
clear, and the punishment is actually imposed if the trust is violated.
(True; Moderate; p. 338)

37
59. Most new relationships begin on a base of deterrence.
(True; Moderate; p. 339)

60. At the knowledge-based level, trust is broken by inconsistent behavior.


(False; Challenging; p. 339)

61. Controls are minimal at the identification level of trust.


(True; Challenging; p. 339)

Leaders as Shapers

62. Framing was used by Martin Luther King, Jr. in his I have a dream speech.
(True; Moderate; p. 340)

63. George W. Bush has been the only U.S. president to engage in framing.
(False; Easy; p. 341)

64. According to charismatic leadership theory, followers make attributions of heroic leadership
abilities when they observe certain behaviors.
(True; Moderate; p. 341)

65. Most researchers have concluded that charisma cannot be learned.


(False; Moderate; p. 342)

66. Charismatic leadership is necessary to achieve high levels of employee performance.


(False; Moderate; pp. 342-343)

67. Transactional leaders are charismatic leaders.


(False; Moderate; p. 343)

68. Transformational leadership is built on top of transactional leadership.


(True; Challenging; p. 343)

69. There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlation between transformational
leadership and higher productivity, lower turnover rates, and higher employee satisfaction.
(True; Moderate; pp. 343-344)

70. Visionary leadership is a way to jump-start the future.


(True; Moderate; p. 344)

71. The key properties of a vision tend to be value-centered.


(True; Challenging; p. 344)

72. A vision is likely to fail if it doesnt offer a view of the future that is clearly and demonstrably
better for the organization and its members.
(True; Moderate; pp. 344-345)

73. Visionary leaders do not need the ability to explain the vision to others.

38
(False; Easy; p. 344)

74. IQ and technical skills are sufficient requirements for leadership.


(False; Moderate; p. 345)

75. EI is especially relevant in jobs that demand a high degree of social interaction.
(True; Challenging; p. 345)

76. EI is an essential element in leadership effectiveness.


(True; Moderate; p. 349)

77. Recent studies indicate that EI (emotional intelligence)more than IQ, expertise, or any other
single factoris the best predictor of who will emerge as a leader.
(True; Moderate; p. 345)

78. Leaders of teams will probably find they need to adopt an autocratic style.
(False; Moderate; p. 346)

79. Team leaders are increasingly being described as coaches rather than bosses.
(True; Moderate; p. 347)

80. A protg is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee.
(False; Easy; p. 347)

81. The mentoring role includes coaching, counseling, and sponsorship.


(True; Moderate; p. 347)

82. Successful mentors are good teachers.


(True; Easy; p. 347)

83. Minorities and women are less likely to be chosen as protgs than are white males.
(True; Moderate; pp. 348-349)

84. Differences in the leadership styles of men and women tend to outweigh the similarities.
(False; Moderate; p. 349)

85. Women typically prefer to lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, contacts,
and interpersonal skills to influence others.
(True; Moderate; p. 349)

86. Neutralizers and substitutes make leadership assume greater importance.


(False; Moderate; p. 354)

SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS

Application of Trust: The Three Types of Trust

As a seasoned manager, you have recognized the importance of trust when using empowerment and teams.
You have observed the three different types of trust in your organization.

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87. You have a new employee in the department. She trusts you even though there is little experience
on which to base that trust. What type of trust relationship is described here?
a. deterrence-based trust
b. knowledge-based trust
c. identification-based trust
d. consistency-based trust
(a; Challenging; pp. 338-339)

88. You have an employee that has worked with you regularly for ten years. You both have enough
experience working with each other to know what to expect of each other. This is an example of:
a. deterrence-based trust.
b. knowledge-based trust.
c. identification-based trust.
d. consistency-based trust.
(b; Challenging; p. 338-339)

89. You have the highest level of trust for Joe. He often acts as your agent and can easily understand
your intentions. He requires no monitoring and there is unquestioned loyalty. This is an example
of:
a. deterrence-based trust.
b. knowledge-based trust.
c. identification-based trust.
d. consistency-based trust.
(c; Challenging; pp. 338-339)

Application of Transactional and Transformational Leaders

The two leaders in your department are very different. John believes that he should guide and motivate by
clarification of the roles and tasks of his subordinates. Alan feels that his role should be to provide
individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation. Most of the workers believe that both leaders are
well trained, but Alan has a special spark that employees feel when they work with him.

90. That special spark that people notice when they work with Alan may be termed:
a. transactional.
b. laissez-faire.
c. charisma.
d. structure.
(c; Easy; pp. 343-344)

91. John is a _____ leader.


a. transformational
b. transactional
c. charismatic
d. team
(b; Moderate; pp. 343-344)

92. Alan is a _____ leader.

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a. transactional
b. Theory X
c. transformational
d. laissez-faire
(c; Moderate; pp. 343-344)

Application of What is Trust?

Suppose that you are the manager in charge of a work team. You realize that high performance teams are
characterized by high mutual trust and it is your goal to make sure that your team has this high level of
trust. You wish to use the recent research that has identified the five dimensions that underlie the concept of
trust as your model. Answer the following questions about how you should proceed.

93. Which of the following has been found to be the most important dimension in developing trust?
a. openness
b. consistency
c. integrity
d. loyalty
(c; Challenging; p. 336)

94. You find that members of the team are unpredictable and unreliable. With which dimension of trust
does the team need help?
a. integrity
b. competence
c. consistency
d. loyalty
(c; Challenging; p. 336)

95. All of the following are ways you can build trust within the work team except:
a. practice openness.
b. speak your feelings.
c. demonstrate your competence.
d. keep all negative thoughts to yourself.
(d; Moderate; p. 339)

SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

96. What is trust?


(Page 336)

Trust is a positive expectation that another will not through words, actions, or decisions act
opportunistically. The two most important elements of the definition are that it implies familiarity
and risk.

97. What is charismatic leadership?


(Page 341)

According to charismatic leadership theory, followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary


leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. Five characteristics have been identified:
they have a vision, are willing to take risks to achieve that vision, are sensitive to both

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environmental constraints and follower needs, and exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.

98. What is the difference between transactional leadership and transformational leadership?
(Page 343)

Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by
clarifying role and task requirements. The transformational leader inspires followers to transcend
their own self-interests for the good of the organization, and who is capable of having a profound
and extraordinary effect on his or her followers. Transformational leadership is built on top of
transactional leadership it produces levels of follower effort and performance that go beyond
what would occur with a transactional approach alone.

99. What is visionary leadership?


(Page 344)

Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of
the future for an organization or organizational unit, that grows out of and improves upon the
present. This vision, if properly selected and implemented, is so energizing that it in effect jump-
starts the future by calling forth the skills, talents, and resources to make it happen.

100. What are the qualities of a vision?


(Pages 344-345)

The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered,
realizable, with superior imagery and articulation. Visions should be able to create possibilities
that are inspirational, unique, and offer a new order that can produce organizational distinction. A
vision is likely to fail if it doesnt offer a view of the future that is clearly and demonstrably better
for the organization and its members. Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect
the uniqueness of the organization. People in the organization must also believe that the vision is
attainable. It should be perceived as challenging yet doable. Visions that have clear articulation
and powerful imagery are more easily grasped and accepted.

101. What is EI (emotional intelligence)?


(Page 345)

EI is emotional intelligence. The five components of emotional intelligence are self-awareness self-
management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. Leaders need basic intelligence and job-

relevant knowledge, but these are only threshold capabilities. The possession of EI allows an
individual to become a star performer.

102. What is a mentor?


(Page 347)

A mentor is a senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee (a protg).
The mentoring role includes coaching, counseling, and sponsorship.

103. What is online leadership?


(Page 351)

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Todays managers and their employees are increasingly being linked by networks rather than
geographical proximity. Examples include managers who regularly use e-mail to communicate
with their staff, managers overseeing virtual projects or teams, and managers whose telecommuting
employees are linked to the office by a computer and modem. Online leadership is the topic of how
you lead people who are physically separated from you and where interactions are basically
reduced to written digital communication.

MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

104. What are the key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust?
(Page 336)

The key dimensions that underlie the concept of trust are integrity, competence, consistency,
loyalty, and openness. Integrity refers to honesty and truthfulness. Competence encompasses an
individuals technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills. Consistency relates to an
individuals reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations. Loyalty is the
willingness to protect and save face for another person. The final dimension of trust is openness.
This asks if you can rely on the person to give you the full truth.

105. Discuss the three kinds of trust in organizational relationships.


(Pages 338-339)

There are three types of trust in organizational relationships: deterrence-based, knowledge-based,


and identification-based. The most fragile relationships are contained in deterrence-based trust.
One violation or inconsistency can destroy the relationship. This form of trust is based on fear of
reprisal if the trust is violated. Most new relationships begin on a base of deterrence. Most
organizational relationships are rooted in knowledge-based trust. That is, trust is based on the
behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. It exists when you have
adequate information about someone to understand them well enough to be able to accurately
predict their likely behavior. The highest level of trust is achieved when there is an emotional
connection between the parties. It allows one party to act as an agent for the other and substitute
for that person in interpersonal transactions. This is called identification-based trust. Trust exists
because the parties understand each others intentions and appreciate the others wants and desires.

106. Why is framing relevant to leadership?


(Page 340)
What is real is often what the leader says is real. Whats important is what he or she chooses to
say is important. Leaders can use language to influence followers perceptions of the world, the
meaning of events, beliefs about causes and consequences, and visions of the future. Its through
framing that leaders determine whether people notice problems, how they understand and
remember problems, and how they act upon them. Thus, framing is a powerful tool by which
leaders influence how others see and interpret reality.

107. Are charismatic leaders born or made?


(Pages 342)

While a small minority still think charisma cannot be learned, most experts believe that individuals
can be trained to exhibit charismatic behaviors and can thus enjoy the benefits that accrue to being
labeled a charismatic leader. One set of authors proposes that a person can learn to become
charismatic by following a three-step process. First, an individual needs to develop the aura of

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charisma by maintaining an optimistic view; using passion as a catalyst for generating enthusiasm;
and communicating with the whole body, not just with words. Second, an individual draws others
in by creating a bond that inspires others to follow. And third, the individual brings out the
potential in followers by tapping into their emotions.

108. Explain the importance of EI (emotional intelligence) and explain its five key components.
(Pages 345-346)

EI is emotional intelligence. The five components of emotional intelligence are self-awareness,


self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills. Leaders need basic intelligence and
job-relevant knowledge, but these are only threshold capabilities. The possession of EI allows an
individual to become a star performer. Self-awareness is exhibited by self-confident, realistic self-
assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humor. Self-management is exhibited by
trustworthiness and integrity, comfort with ambiguity, and openness to change. Self-motivation is
exhibited by a strong drive to achieve, optimism, and high organizational commitment. Empathy is
exhibited by expertise in building and retaining talent, cross-cultural sensitivity, and service to
clients and customers. Social skills are exhibited by the ability to lead change, persuasiveness, and
expertise in building and leading teams.

COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS

109. Discuss the difference between the role of team leader and the traditional leadership role performed
by first-line supervisors.
(Pages 346-347)

There are four specific roles that team leaders must take on to be effective over and above
traditional leadership. The challenge for most managers is to learn how to become an effective
team leader learning patience to share information, to trust others to give up authority, and
understand when to intervene. Team leaders are liaisons with external constituencies. These
include upper management, other internal teams, customers, and suppliers. Second, team leaders
are troubleshooters. When the team has problems and asks for assistance, team leaders sit in on
meetings and help try to resolve the problems. Third, team leaders are conflict managers. When
disagreements surface, they help process the conflict. Finally, team leaders are coaches. They
clarify expectations

and roles, teach, offer support, cheerlead, and whatever else is necessary to help team members
improve their work performance.

110. Why would a leader want to be a mentor?


(Page 348)

There are personal benefits to the leader as well as benefits for the organization. The mentor-
protg relationship gives the mentor unfiltered access to the attitudes and feelings of lower-ranking
employees. Proteges can be an excellent source of potential problems by providing early warning
signals. They provide timely information to upper managers that short-circuits the formal
channels. In addition, in terms of leader self-interest mentoring can provide personal satisfaction to
senior executives. In the later stages of their careers, managers are often allowed the luxury of
playing the part of elder statesperson. They are respected for their judgment, built up over many
years and through varied experiences. The opportunity to share this knowledge with others can be
personally rewarding for the mentor.

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111. What is self-leadership? How do leaders create self-leaders?
(Page 349)

Effective leaders help their followers lead themselves that is, become self-leaders. They do this
by developing leadership capacity in others and nurturing followers so they no longer need to
depend on formal leaders for direction and motivation. Leaders can create self-leaders by the
following:
Model self-leadership. They practice self-observation, setting challenging personal goals, self-
direction, and self-reinforcement.
Encourage employees to create self-set goals. They have quantitative, specific goals.
Encourage the use of self-rewards to strengthen and increase desirable behaviors. Self-
punishment should be limited to occasions when the employee has been dishonest or destructive.
Create positive thought patterns. They should encourage employees to use mental imagery and
self-talk to further stimulate self-motivation.
Create a climate of self-leadership. They redesign the work to increase the natural rewards of a
job and focus on these naturally rewarding features of work to increase motivation.
Encourage self-criticism. They should encourage individuals to be critical of their own
performance.

The assumptions behind self-leadership are that people are responsible, capable, and able to
exercise initiative without the external constraints of bosses, rules, or regulations. Given the
proper support, individuals can monitor and control their own behavior.

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