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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

i

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ii

ABSTRACT

iii

Chapter 1:

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 2:

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Chapter 3:

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chapter 4:

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

  • A. List and Uses of Apparatus

  • B. Definition of Terms

  • C. Problems

ALKENES

A Research Study Presented to the

Faculty of the Department of Chemical Engineering

School of Engineering and Architecture

Saint Louis University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

by:

ABUBO, Josanne Joy O. APALLA, Di Ann Mae M. BOGBOG, Rousan Faye D. DOLIT, Shaira S. FERNANDEZ, Zhea Alyssa Mae M.

October 25, 2017

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment is to be able to determine the different properties,

physical and chemical, an alkene possess. The physical properties of alkenes were determined by

physical inspections and comparison with water and it was recognized than alkenes were

colorless, liquid, have an almost odorless odor, immiscible and less dense that water. The

chemical properties of an alkene were determined using four methods. First, bromine water,

being added to alkenes, decolorized from yellow-orange to clear. Second, potassium

permanganate, making contact with alkenes, also decolorized and formed a brown precipitate

(Baeyer’s test). Third, when heat was added to the alkene, a yellow luminous flame had evolved

showing that a complete combustion would always occur to alkenes being heated up. All this

methods showed that alkenes are vulnerable to reactions demonstrating that alkenes are

unsaturated. And lastly, alkenes’ acidity or alkalinity was determined when sodium hydroxide

and hydrogen chloride was added to the alkene. Neither of the two solutions showed any sign of

reaction proving that alkenes are neutral compounds.

Keyword: Alkene, Baeyer’s test, unsaturated, decolorized combustion.

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Alkenes, also known as olefins, are hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon

double bond and are said to be unsaturated. The double bond that formed causes the

concentration of hydrogen to decrease making alkenes unsaturated. The number or concentration

of hydrogen in this hydrocarbon is lower than the concentration of hydrogen in an alkane by two

hydrogen atoms. Due to the presence of double bond, alkenes are more vulnerable to reactions.

They can easily react to certain reagents compared to alkanes because the second bond formed

between the carbon atoms are not that strong compared to the first bond. The relative weakness

of the pi bond in comparison with the sigma bond signals the energetic preference for the

unsaturation site to react additively with reagent molecules. In actuality, alkenes are relatively

stable compounds, but are more reactive than alkanes, either because of the reactivity of the

carboncarbon pi-bond or the presence of allylic CH centers. Also, most reactions with alkene

are related to the addition of the reagents to the pi bonds therefore forming new single bongs ..

Chapter 2

DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Physical properties of alkenes were observed through physical inspection. Color, physical

state and odor were noted. Solubility and density were also determined by adding water to the

alkene.

Next tests were applied to test the chemical properties of an alkene. We have prepared

four test tubes with alkenes. The first one contains 2 ml of the alkene, the second one with 5

drops, and the third and fourth both contain 10 drops. In the first test tube, 3 drops of bromine

water (Br 2 ) was added to the alkene. In every drop, observations were noted. After this, 10 more

drops of bromine water were added to complete the procedure.

The second test tube was subjected to the next step called Baeyer’s test for unsaturation.

In this test, 2 drops of dilute potassium permanganate solution was added to the alkene. The tube

was then shaken well and observations were recorded.

In the next procedure, the alkene was placed in an evaporating dish. A lighted match was

placed in the hydrocarbon and observations were noted.

The third and fourth test tubes were used to determine the alkalinity and acidity of the

alkene. 1-2 mL of NaOH and 1-2 ml of HCl was added to test tubes -one solution per tube.

Observations for any signs of reactions were then recorded.

Chapter 3

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

This experiment determined the physical properties by simply looking at the alkene

solutions, where in this experiment hexene was used as the alkene. It was observed that alkene

possess the quality of being colorless. They are also in a liquid form having an almost odorless

odor. When we have added water to the alkene, we have observed that water went directly below

the alkene. We have shaken the solution but the two liquids didn't mix with each other.

In the next procedures, chemical properties where determined by adding solutions to the

alkene. First, we have added bromine water to it. Bromine water has the quality of having a

yellow-orange color. When we added this liquid to the alkene, it went directly below the alkene.

We stirred the mixture and noticed a decolorization of the bromine water making it colorless.

The next test, also known as Baeyer’s test for Unsaturation, was to add potassium permanganate

to the alkene. Potassium permanganate is solution with a purple color. When this liquid was

added, it also decolorized and slowly, a brown precipitate was formed at the bottom of the test

tube .This two tests showed positive reactions.

The third method was to ignite the alkene. The alkene placed in an evaporating dish was

ignited using a lit matchstick and we have noticed a yellow luminous flame coming from the

ignited alkene. Black soot was also produced in the reaction.

And the last test was to determine the alkalinity and acidity of the alkene. We have added

NaOH or sodium hydroxide to the alkene to determine the acidity of the alkene. We have added

it and we have observed that the mixture didn’t create any reactions. Next we have added HCl or

hydrochloric acid to the solution to determine the alkalinity of the alkene. We have added it and

we have observed that the mixture didn’t create any reactions.

Chapter 4

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The researchers were able to determine the different properties alkenes have. By physical

observations we have determined that alkenes are colorless liquid that have an almost odorless

odor, immiscible and less dense than water. These qualities of alkenes are due to their non-polar

characteristics. When we have added the two solutions, bromine water and potassium

permanganate, to the alkene, reactions were evidently observed. Bromine water changed its color

from yellow-orange to clear and the potassium permanganate solution decolorized and a brown

precipitate was formed. The reaction with potassium permanganate, also known as Baeyer’s test

for unsaturation, was a positive test that proved the unsaturation of alkenes. Comparing these

results to the results when this method was applied to alkanes, we have determined that reactions

were more evident to alkene compared to alkane. Because of this we could say that unsaturated

compounds are prone to reactions since alkenes have double bonds and that the second bond is

weaker than the first bond.

In the next methods that we have done, we have found out that alkenes undergo complete

combustion. This is evident through the yellow luminous flame that we have produced after a lit

match was used to ignite the alkenes. Since the temperature is not high enough or since the

oxygen present is in short supply, carbon, as soot, and CO were formed. Comparing this

observation to alkanes, we have found out that alkenes have sootier flame which may be because

of the reason that- as the unsaturation increases, the molecules do not appear to have enough

time to break all the necessary bonds within the flame region, to give the colorless, combustion

products expected therefore creating much sootier flame.

And lastly, we have found out that alkenes are compounds that are neutral. This is

because when we have added NaOH to the alkene, no reactions had occurred therefore alkenes

are not acidic. When HCl was added, no reactions had also occurred showing that alkenes are not

basic, therefore alkenes are neutral hydrocarbons.

REFERENCES:

Bettelheim and Landesberg, Laboratory Experiments for General, Organic, and Biochemistry,

  • 4 th edition, 2010.

Seager, Spencer L. and Micael R. Slabaugh, Safety-Scale Laboratory Experiments for Chemistry

for Today, 7 th Edition. 2010.

Properties of Alkenes. https://www.boundless.com/ chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-

textbook/organic-chemistry-23/alkenes-and-alkynes-164/properties-of-alkenes-631-3627/

An Introduction to alkenes http://www.chemquide.co.uk/organicprops/alkenes/background.html

APPENDICES

APPEMDIX A

List and Uses of Apparatus

APPENDICES APPEMDIX A List and Uses of Apparatus 1. Test tubes- is a thin glass tubefrictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface 5. APPENDIX B Definition of Terms 1. Baeyer’s test for unsaturation - a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such as double or triple bonds 2. Unsaturated compounds- is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively " id="pdf-obj-8-8" src="pdf-obj-8-8.jpg">
  • 1. Test tubes- is a thin glass tube closed at one end, used to hold small amounts of material for laboratory testing or experiments.

  • 2. Evaporating dish- are used to evaporate excess solvents -

most commonly water - to produce a

APPENDICES APPEMDIX A List and Uses of Apparatus 1. Test tubes- is a thin glass tubefrictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface 5. APPENDIX B Definition of Terms 1. Baeyer’s test for unsaturation - a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such as double or triple bonds 2. Unsaturated compounds- is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively " id="pdf-obj-8-18" src="pdf-obj-8-18.jpg">

concentrated solution or a solid precipitate of the dissolved

substance. Most are made of porcelain or

borosilicate glass.

  • 3. Droppers- is a pipette consisting of a small tube with a vacuum bulb at one end for drawing liquid in and releasing it a drop at a

APPENDICES APPEMDIX A List and Uses of Apparatus 1. Test tubes- is a thin glass tubefrictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface 5. APPENDIX B Definition of Terms 1. Baeyer’s test for unsaturation - a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such as double or triple bonds 2. Unsaturated compounds- is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively " id="pdf-obj-8-29" src="pdf-obj-8-29.jpg">
APPENDICES APPEMDIX A List and Uses of Apparatus 1. Test tubes- is a thin glass tubefrictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface 5. APPENDIX B Definition of Terms 1. Baeyer’s test for unsaturation - a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such as double or triple bonds 2. Unsaturated compounds- is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively " id="pdf-obj-8-31" src="pdf-obj-8-31.jpg">

time.

4.

Matchstick- is a tool for starting a fire. One end is coated

with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by

striking the match against a suitable surface

5.

APPENDIX B Definition of Terms

  • 1. Baeyer’s test for unsaturation-

a qualitative test for the presence of unsaturation, such

as double or triple bonds

  • 2. Unsaturated compounds- is a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively

APPENDIX C

Problems

  • 1. Briefly discuss at least 3 methods of preparing alkenes. From alkynes

Alkenes can be easily obtained by hydrogenation of alkynes. An alkyne on

controlled hydrogenation with

hydrogen in

presence of Ni

or

Pd

at

200 gives

corresponding alkene.

APPENDIX C Problems 1. Briefly discuss at least 3 methods of preparing alkenes. From alkynes Alkenes

From vicinal halides (Dehalogenation)

Vicinal dihalides can be defined as the dihalides in which two adjacent carbon

atoms are attached to two halogens. When such dihalides react with zinc metal they

lose halogen molecules which result in the formation of alkenes.

APPENDIX C Problems 1. Briefly discuss at least 3 methods of preparing alkenes. From alkynes Alkenes

From alcohol (Dehydration)

Alcohol reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid which results in the formation of

alkenes due to the elimination of water molecule. As water molecule is removed in this

reaction, is called as acidic dehydration of alcohol and the dehydrating agent is

concentrated sulfuric acid.

APPENDIX C Problems 1. Briefly discuss at least 3 methods of preparing alkenes. From alkynes Alkenes

2.

What is the basis for the Baeyer’s test for unsaturation

A dilute potassium permanganate will oxidize alkene or alkyne. As the

unsaturated hydrocarbon is oxidized, potassium permanganate is reduced from 7+ to

2+ with the loss of purple color. During this reaction, the solution becomes alkaline

(KOH) is formed and the brown precipitate of manganese dioxide can appear in the

reaction mixture.

  • 3. Write the mechanism for the bromination of ethene

CH 2 =CH 2 + Br 2 CH 2 CH 2 Br 2

  • 4. What simple chemical tests may be used to differentiate the alkene from an alkane? Describe the test.

Bromine test- In this test the alkene or alkyne reacts with Br 2 to form an alkyl

dibromide, which causes the orange-brown of the Br 2 to disappear. This will be

immediate with alkenes but would never occur to alkanes