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● Chapter   5  (Sekaran) 

● Chapter   8  (Sekaran) 
● Chapter   9  (Sekaran) 
 
Unit   4 
 

Chapter 6 (Cooper)  
Research Design: AN OVERVIEW 
 
Deꅐ�nition: 
 
Research design:  
• An activity- and time-based plan.  
• A plan always based on the research question.  
• A guide for selecting sources and types of information.  
• A framework for specifying the relationships among the study’s variables.  
• A procedural outline for every research activity.  
 
Learning Objectives 
 
1 The basic stages of research design.  
 
The general research process contains three major stages:  
(1) exploration of the situation,  
(2) collection of data, and  
(3) analysis and interpretation of results.  
 
2 The major descriptors of research design.  
Some major descriptors of designs are  
• Exploratory versus formalized.  
• Monitoring versus communication study.  
• Experimental versus ex post facto.  
• Descriptive versus causal.  
• Cross-sectional versus longitudinal.  
• Case versus statistical.  
• Field versus laboratory versus simulation.  
• Subjects perceive no deviations, some deviations, or researcher-induced deviations.  
 
3 The major types of research designs.  
 

    Descriptive studies are those used to describe phenomena associated with a subject population  or to estimate proportions of the population that have certain characteristics.  researcher  involvement. reciprocal.  type.  its  purpose.   Of greatest interest to the research analyst are asymmetrical relationships. of certain  more or less naturally occurring phenomena in the social world    Learning Objectives    1 How qualitative methods differ from quantitative methods.     Causal studies seek to discover the effect that a variable(s) has on another (or others) or why  certain outcomes are obtained.  decode.  research  design.  sampling  design.  and  preparation.  sample  size.     The relationships that occur between two variables may be symmetrical. which may be  classiꅐ�ed as any of the following types:   • Stimulus-response   • Property-disposition   • Disposition-behavior   • Property-behavior     Chapter 7 (Cooper)   Qualitative Research    Deꅐ�nition:    Qualitative research includes an “array of interpretive techniques which seek to describe. or  asymmetrical. not the frequency. and otherwise come to terms with the meaning.  data  source.     .  speed  of  the  research.  level  of  insights  and  meaning  extracted.  research  sponsor  involvement.  and  data  security.     Qualitative  research  methodologies  differ  from  quantitative  methodologies  based  on  the  focus  of  the  research.Exploratory research is appropriate for the total study in topic areas where the developed data  are limited.  A  qualitative  methodology  may  be  used  alone  to  address  organizational problems or in combination with other qualitative or quantitative methodologies.     4 The relationships that exist between variables in research design and the steps for evaluating  those relationships.  including  participant  pre  tasking.  methods  of  data  analysis. translate.

  This  is  primarily  due  to  qualitative  research’s  use  of  nonprobability  sampling. sales development.  as  well  as   observation.  feelings. In business planning and decision making.     Qualitative research is designed to tell the researcher how (process) and why (meaning) things  happen as they do.  economics. package design    4 The variety of qualitative research methods.2 The controversy surrounding qualitative research.  and  sorting  exercises.   the   focus   group   is   the   most   widely   used   methodology.  communication.  especially concept testing.  and  semiotics.  and  experiences.     While  qualitative  research  is  being  used  increasingly  because  of  the  methodologies’  ability  to  generate  deeper  understanding.  and  the  non  projectability  of  the  results to a broader.  the  smaller  sample  sizes  involved.  Among  these  techniques  are  word  or   picture  association.  designed  to  encourage  the  participant to  reveal  in  detail  deeply  suppressed  attitudes. new product development.     3 The types of decisions that use qualitative methods. qualitative methodologies are  used in market segmentation.  action  research.  sociology.  Common  among  these  strategies  are  the  individual  depth  interview  (IDI)  and  the  group  interview.  and  grounded  theory.   we   may   draw   conclusions   about  the   entire   population  population   element ­  the   individual   participant   or   object   on   which   the   measurement   is   taken.  Participant  preparation  and  the  actual  qualitative  sessions  themselves  often  include  various  creativity   sessions   and   exercises. Lower   cost   ­  .  Within   group   interviews.  population   ­  the   total   collection   of   elements   about   which   we   wish   to   make   some   inferences  census   ­  a  count   of   all   the   elements   in   a  population  sample   frame­ the   listing   of   all   population   elements   from   which   the   sample   will   be   drawn    Reasons   for   sampling  1.  it  still  is  perceived  by  many  senior-level  executives  as  a  stepchild  of  quantitative  data  collection.     ● Chapter   10   (Cooper)  ● Chapter   6  (Sekaran)  ● Chapter   11   (Sekaran)  ● Chapter   14   (Cooper)  Sampling ­by   selecting   some   of   the   elements   in   a  population. advertising creative development.  psychology.  opinions.  cartoons  or  empty  balloons. sales analysis. target population.  ethnography.  imagination  exercises.  the  Thematic  Apperception  Test.     Qualitative  methodologies  used  in  decision  making  evolved  from  techniques  used  in  anthropology.  sentence  completion.     Qualitative  research  often  uses  projective  techniques.  linguistics.