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Bernoulli's equation

Bernoulli found that the Total Pressure was a constant. The total pressure is de
fined as the static pressure plus the kinetic, or dynamic, pressure. This is rea
lly just another statement of the conservation of energy. This principle forms t
he basis for a wing to develop lift and also is the basis for the operation of a
n airspeed indicator.

Bernoulli's Law - Diagram 1.

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's equation, derived by Daniel Bernoulli, describes

the behavior of a fluid moving along a streamline. There are typically two diffe
rent formulations of the equations; one applies to incompressible fluids and the
other applies to compressible fluids.
The original form, for incompressible flow in a uniform graviational field (such
as on Earth), is:
v = fluid velocity along the streamline
g = acceleration due to gravity on Earth
h = height from an arbitrary point in the direction of gravity
p = pressure along the streamline
ρ = fluid density
These assumptions must be met fo the equation to apply:
• Inviscid flow − viscosity (inte nal f iction) = 0
• Steady flow
• Incomp essible flow − ρ = constant along a st eamline. Density may va y f om st eam
ine to st eamline, howeve .
• Gene ally, the equation applies along a st eamline. Fo constant density potenti
al flow, it applies th oughout the enti e flow field.
The dec ease in p essu e simultaneous with an inc ease in velocity, as p edicted
by the equation, is often called Be noulli's p inciple.
The equation is named fo Daniel Be noulli although it was fi st p esented in th
e above fo m by Leonha d Eule .
A second, mo e gene al fo m of Be noulli's equation may be w itten fo comp essi
ble fluids, in which case, following a st eamline, we have:
He e, φ is the
 potential energy per unit mass,
 which is just φ = gh in
the case o a uni orm gravitational ield, and w is  the luid enthalpy per unit
mass, which
 is also o ten written as h (which con licts with our use o h in th
ese notes or "height"). Note that

where ε is th fluid thrmodynamic nrgy pr unit mass.

Th constant on th right hand sid is oftn calld th Brnoulli constant and d
notd b. For stady inviscid adiabatic flow with no additional sourcs or sinks
of nrgy, b is constant along any givn stramlin. Evn mor gnrally whn b
may vary along stramlins, it still provs a usful paramtr, rlatd to th
"had" of th fluid.

Brnoulli's Law - Diagram 2.


Airfoils and Lift

An airfoil, th cross-sctional shap of an aircraft wing, ows its dsign to th
 work of Danil Brnoulli, anothr physicist, who discovrd and dscribd crt
ain principls of fluid flow. Th "fluid", of cours, is air, th mdium through
which aircraft mov and dpnd upon for thir lift. Mr. Brnoulli discovrd so
m fairly simpl rlationships btwn fluid vlocity and prssur which ar th

fundamntal basis for th dsign of wings. Not that th discussion hr rally
only applis to subsonic flow, not th comprssibl flow found in th transonic
and suprsonic cass. If you rmmbr th pictur of th pip with a narrowd c
ntr sction through which air is flowing from your high school or collg phys
ics class, you may also rmmbr that as th air flows through th cntr narrow
sction, its vlocity incrass and its (static) prssur dcrass. In diagram
1. abov V2 > V1 and P1 > P2.
Th airfoil is just an insid-out, asymmtrical vrsion of th pip usd to dmo
nstrat Brnoulli's Principl. Th lift an airfoil gnrats is a rflction of
th fact that th static prssur on th top surfac of th wing is lowr than t
hat on th bottom surfac. With a diffrnc in static prssur, thr is a nt
forc in th dirction of bottom to top.
Th dynamic prssur of a gas flow is q = 1/2 d V2, whr d is th dnsity and V
is th vlocity. Th Total Prssur, Pt ,can thus b xprssd as:
Pt = Ps + q (whr Ps is th static prssur)
W could also xprss th rlationship as Ps = Pt - q

Brnoulli's Law - Wing sction Diagram 3.

W can mak som vry broad simplifying assumptions and gain som insight into t
h opration of a wing, although vn from th simpl illustration abov, it can
b sn that th mathmatics of th problm is alrady gtting prtty mssy. L
t's just assum that th avrag flow vlocity on th bottom surfac of th wing
is V1 and th avrag vlocity on th top surfac is V2. That bing th cas, u
sing th scond xprssion, abov, th diffrnc in static prssur across th
wing would b:
Pdiff = (Pt - 1/2 d V12) - (Pt - 1/2 d V22)
Sinc Pt is a constant, th abov xprssion rducs to:
Pdiff = 1/2 d (V22 - V12)
Sinc prssur is a forc pr unit ara, th total lift is dirctly proportional
to th wing ara and is dirctly proportional to th air dnsity. Onc again, s
kipping a lot of th math, an airfoil can b charactrizd by an artific calld
its Cofficint of Lift or CL. Th Cofficint of Lift is not a constant, but v
aris with th Angl of Attack. Onc in possssion of th Cofficint of Lift, h
owvr, w can stat th total lift of a wing as:
L = 1/2 d V2 S CL , whr d is th air dnsity, V is th vlocity, and S is th
total projctd ara of th wing

Danil Brnoulli (Groningn, Fbruary 9, 1700 – Basl, March 17, 1782) was a Dutch
-born mathmatician who spnt much of his lif in Basl, Switzrland. H workd
with Lonhard Eulr on th quations baring thir nams. Brnoulli's principl
is of critical us in arodynamics. It is applicabl to stady, inviscid, incomp
rssibl flow, along a stramlin.
Born as th son of Johann Brnoulli,nphw of Jakob Brnoulli, youngr brothr o
f Nicolaus Brnoulli II,and oldr brothr of Johann II, Danil Brnoulli was by
far th ablst of th youngr Brnoullis. H is said to hav had a bad rlations
hip with his fathr. Upon both of thm ntring and trying for first plac in a
scintific contst at th Univrsity of Paris, Johann, unabl to bar th "sham
" of bing compard to his offspring, bannd Danil from his hous. Johann Brno
ulli also trid to stal Danil's book Hydrodynamica and rnam it Hydraulica. D
spit Danil's attmpts at rconciliation, his fathr carrid th grudg until
his dath.

Danil Brnoulli

Whn Danil was fiv, his youngr brothr Johann Brnoulli II was born. H was
a contmporary and intimat frind of Eulr. H wnt to St. Ptrsburg in 1724 a
s profssor of mathmatics, but did not lik it thr, and a tmporary illnss i
n 1733 gav him an xcus for laving. H rturnd to th Univrsity of Basl, w
hr h succssivly hld th chairs of mdicin, mtaphysics and natural philos
ophy until his dath. His fathr wantd him to do this bcaus h blivd that
thr was no mony in mathmatics.
His arlist mathmatical work was th Exrcitations (Mathmatical Exrciss),
publishd in 1724, which contains a solution of th diffrntial quation propos
d by Jacopo Riccati (th Riccati quation). Two yars latr h pointd out for
th first tim th frqunt dsirability of rsolving a compound motion into mot
ions of translation and motions of rotation. His chif work is his Hydrodynamiqu
 (Hydrodynamica), publishd in 1738; it rsmbls Lagrang's Méchaniqu Analytiqu
 in bing arrangd so that all th rsults ar consquncs of a singl princip
l, namly, in this cas, th consrvation of nrgy. This was followd by a mm
oir on th thory of th tids, to which, conjointly with th mmoirs by Eulr a
nd Colin Maclaurin, a priz was awardd by th Frnch Acadmy: ths thr mmoi
rs contain all that was don on this subjct btwn th publication of Isaac N
wton's Principia and th invstigations of Laplac. Brnoulli also wrot a larg
numbr of paprs on various mchanical qustions, spcially on problms connc
t d with vibrating strings, and th solutions givn by Brook Taylor and by d'Al

H is th arlist writr who attmptd to formulat a kintic thory of gass,
and h applid th ida to xplain th law associatd with th nams of Robrt B
oyl and Edm Mariott.
Danil Brnoulli also was th author in 1738 of th "Exposition of a Nw Thory
on th Masurmnt of Risk", (Economtrica vol 22 (1954), pp23-36; Stanford Ency
clopadia of Philosophy) which St. Ptrsburg paradox was th bas of th conom
ic thory of risk avrsion, risk prmium and utility.