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# Bernoulli's equation

Bernoulli found that the Total Pressure was a constant. The total pressure is de
fined as the static pressure plus the kinetic, or dynamic, pressure. This is rea
lly just another statement of the conservation of energy. This principle forms t
he basis for a wing to develop lift and also is the basis for the operation of a
n airspeed indicator.

## In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's equation, derived by Daniel Bernoulli, describes

the behavior of a fluid moving along a streamline. There are typically two diffe
rent formulations of the equations; one applies to incompressible fluids and the
other applies to compressible fluids.
The original form, for incompressible flow in a uniform graviational field (such
as on Earth), is:
v = fluid velocity along the streamline
g = acceleration due to gravity on Earth
h = height from an arbitrary point in the direction of gravity
p = pressure along the streamline
ρ = fluid density
These assumptions must be met fo the equation to apply:
• Inviscid flow − viscosity (inte nal f iction) = 0
• Incomp essible flow − ρ = constant along a st eamline. Density may va y f om st eam
ine to st eamline, howeve .
• Gene ally, the equation applies along a st eamline. Fo constant density potenti
al flow, it applies th oughout the enti e flow field.
The dec ease in p essu e simultaneous with an inc ease in velocity, as p edicted
by the equation, is often called Be noulli's p inciple.
The equation is named fo Daniel Be noulli although it was fi st p esented in th
e above fo m by Leonha d Eule .
A second, mo e gene al fo m of Be noulli's equation may be w itten fo comp essi
ble fluids, in which case, following a st eamline, we have:
He e, φ is the
 gravitational
 potential energy per unit mass,
 which is just φ = gh in
the case o a uni orm gravitational ield, and w is  the luid enthalpy per unit
mass, which
 is also o ten written as h (which con licts with our use o h in th
ese notes or "height"). Note that

## where ε is th fluid thrmodynamic nrgy pr unit mass.

Th constant on th right hand sid is oftn calld th Brnoulli constant and d
of nrgy, b is constant along any givn stramlin. Evn mor gnrally whn b
may vary along stramlins, it still provs a usful paramtr, rlatd to th

## Brnoulli's Law - Diagram 2.

________________________________________

## Airfoils and Lift

An airfoil, th cross-sctional shap of an aircraft wing, ows its dsign to th
 work of Danil Brnoulli, anothr physicist, who discovrd and dscribd crt
ain principls of fluid flow. Th "fluid", of cours, is air, th mdium through
which aircraft mov and dpnd upon for thir lift. Mr. Brnoulli discovrd so
m fairly simpl rlationships btwn fluid vlocity and prssur which ar th

fundamntal basis for th dsign of wings. Not that th discussion hr rally
only applis to subsonic flow, not th comprssibl flow found in th transonic
and suprsonic cass. If you rmmbr th pictur of th pip with a narrowd c
ntr sction through which air is flowing from your high school or collg phys
ics class, you may also rmmbr that as th air flows through th cntr narrow
sction, its vlocity incrass and its (static) prssur dcrass. In diagram
1. abov V2 > V1 and P1 > P2.
Th airfoil is just an insid-out, asymmtrical vrsion of th pip usd to dmo
nstrat Brnoulli's Principl. Th lift an airfoil gnrats is a rflction of
th fact that th static prssur on th top surfac of th wing is lowr than t
hat on th bottom surfac. With a diffrnc in static prssur, thr is a nt
forc in th dirction of bottom to top.
Th dynamic prssur of a gas flow is q = 1/2 d V2, whr d is th dnsity and V
is th vlocity. Th Total Prssur, Pt ,can thus b xprssd as:
Pt = Ps + q (whr Ps is th static prssur)
W could also xprss th rlationship as Ps = Pt - q

## Brnoulli's Law - Wing sction Diagram 3.

W can mak som vry broad simplifying assumptions and gain som insight into t
h opration of a wing, although vn from th simpl illustration abov, it can
b sn that th mathmatics of th problm is alrady gtting prtty mssy. L
t's just assum that th avrag flow vlocity on th bottom surfac of th wing
is V1 and th avrag vlocity on th top surfac is V2. That bing th cas, u
sing th scond xprssion, abov, th diffrnc in static prssur across th
wing would b:
Pdiff = (Pt - 1/2 d V12) - (Pt - 1/2 d V22)
Sinc Pt is a constant, th abov xprssion rducs to:
Pdiff = 1/2 d (V22 - V12)
Sinc prssur is a forc pr unit ara, th total lift is dirctly proportional
to th wing ara and is dirctly proportional to th air dnsity. Onc again, s
kipping a lot of th math, an airfoil can b charactrizd by an artific calld
its Cofficint of Lift or CL. Th Cofficint of Lift is not a constant, but v
aris with th Angl of Attack. Onc in possssion of th Cofficint of Lift, h
owvr, w can stat th total lift of a wing as:
L = 1/2 d V2 S CL , whr d is th air dnsity, V is th vlocity, and S is th
total projctd ara of th wing

________________________________________
DANIEL BERNOULLI
Danil Brnoulli (Groningn, Fbruary 9, 1700 – Basl, March 17, 1782) was a Dutch
-born mathmatician who spnt much of his lif in Basl, Switzrland. H workd
with Lonhard Eulr on th quations baring thir nams. Brnoulli's principl
is of critical us in arodynamics. It is applicabl to stady, inviscid, incomp
rssibl flow, along a stramlin.
Born as th son of Johann Brnoulli,nphw of Jakob Brnoulli, youngr brothr o
f Nicolaus Brnoulli II,and oldr brothr of Johann II, Danil Brnoulli was by
far th ablst of th youngr Brnoullis. H is said to hav had a bad rlations
hip with his fathr. Upon both of thm ntring and trying for first plac in a
scintific contst at th Univrsity of Paris, Johann, unabl to bar th "sham
" of bing compard to his offspring, bannd Danil from his hous. Johann Brno
ulli also trid to stal Danil's book Hydrodynamica and rnam it Hydraulica. D
spit Danil's attmpts at rconciliation, his fathr carrid th grudg until
his dath.

Danil Brnoulli

Whn Danil was fiv, his youngr brothr Johann Brnoulli II was born. H was
a contmporary and intimat frind of Eulr. H wnt to St. Ptrsburg in 1724 a
s profssor of mathmatics, but did not lik it thr, and a tmporary illnss i
n 1733 gav him an xcus for laving. H rturnd to th Univrsity of Basl, w
hr h succssivly hld th chairs of mdicin, mtaphysics and natural philos
ophy until his dath. His fathr wantd him to do this bcaus h blivd that
thr was no mony in mathmatics.
His arlist mathmatical work was th Exrcitations (Mathmatical Exrciss),
publishd in 1724, which contains a solution of th diffrntial quation propos
d by Jacopo Riccati (th Riccati quation). Two yars latr h pointd out for
th first tim th frqunt dsirability of rsolving a compound motion into mot
ions of translation and motions of rotation. His chif work is his Hydrodynamiqu
 (Hydrodynamica), publishd in 1738; it rsmbls Lagrang's Méchaniqu Analytiqu
 in bing arrangd so that all th rsults ar consquncs of a singl princip
l, namly, in this cas, th consrvation of nrgy. This was followd by a mm
oir on th thory of th tids, to which, conjointly with th mmoirs by Eulr a
nd Colin Maclaurin, a priz was awardd by th Frnch Acadmy: ths thr mmoi
rs contain all that was don on this subjct btwn th publication of Isaac N
wton's Principia and th invstigations of Laplac. Brnoulli also wrot a larg
numbr of paprs on various mchanical qustions, spcially on problms connc
t d with vibrating strings, and th solutions givn by Brook Taylor and by d'Al

mbrt.
H is th arlist writr who attmptd to formulat a kintic thory of gass,
and h applid th ida to xplain th law associatd with th nams of Robrt B
oyl and Edm Mariott.
Danil Brnoulli also was th author in 1738 of th "Exposition of a Nw Thory
on th Masurmnt of Risk", (Economtrica vol 22 (1954), pp23-36; Stanford Ency
clopadia of Philosophy) which St. Ptrsburg paradox was th bas of th conom
ic thory of risk avrsion, risk prmium and utility.