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# UNIT II DESIGN CONCEPTS

PART A

1. What are the three approaches to analyze a prestressed member at transfer and under
The three approaches to analyze a prestressed member at transfer and under service loads
are:
a) Based on stress concept.
b) Based on force concept.
c) Based on load balancing concept.

## 2. Define Stress Concept

In the approach based on stress concept, the stresses at the edges of the section under the
internal forces in concrete are calculated. The stress concept is used to compare the calculated
stresses with the allowable stresses.

## 3. Define Force Concept

The approach based on force concept is analogous to the study of reinforced concrete. The
tension in prestressing steel (T) and the resultant compression in concrete (C) are considered
to balance the external loads. This approach is used to determine the dimensions of a section
and to check the service load capacity.

## 4. Define Load balanced Concept (N/D 16)

The approach based on load balancing concept is used for a member with curved or harped
tendons and in the analysis of indeterminate continuous beams. The moment, upward thrust
and upward deflection (camber) due to the prestress in the tendons are calculated. The upward
thrust balances part of the superimposed load.
5. What is known as kern zone and pressure line?
Kern zone:
When the resultant compression (C) is located within a specific zone of a section of a beam,
tensile stresses are not generated. This zone is called the kern zone of a section.

Pressure line:
The pressure line in a beam is the locus of the resultant compression (C) along the length. It is
also called the thrust line or C-line.

6. List out the assumptions for analysis of members under flexure for ultimate strength.
The assumptions for analysis of members under flexure for ultimate strength are:
a) Plane sections perpendicular to the axis of the member remain plane till the ultimate state.
b) Perfect bond is retained between concrete and prestressing steel for bonded tendons.
c) Tension in concrete is neglected.
d) The design stress versus strain curves of concrete and steel are considered.

7. What are the three types of cracks are identified in a simply supported beam under
uniformly distributed load, without prestressing? (N/D 16)
The three types of cracks that are identified in a simply supported beam under uniformly
a) Flexural cracks: These cracks form at the bottom near the midspan and propagate
upwards.
b) Web shear cracks: These cracks form near the neutral axis close to the support and
propagate inclined to the beam axis.
c) Flexure shear cracks: These cracks form at the bottom due to flexure and propagate due
to both flexure and shear.

## 8. List out the modes of failure due to shear?

The modes of failure due to shear are:
a) Diagonal tension failure
b) Shear compression failure
c) Shear tension failure
d) Web crushing failure
e) Arch rib failure

(M/J 16)

## Short term deflection:

The short term deflection at transfer is due to the prestressing force (before long term losses)
and self-weight. The effect of creep and shrinkage of concrete are not considered.

## Long term deflection:

The long term deflection under service loads is due to the effective prestressing force (after
long term losses) and the gravity loads. The permanent components of the gravity loads are

10. At what quantities do the crack width of a flexural crack depends on?
The crack width of a flexural crack depends on the following quantities:
a) Amount of prestress
b) Tensile stress in the longitudinal bars
c) Thickness of the concrete cover
d) Diameter and spacing of longitudinal bars
e) Depth of member and location of neutral axis
f) Bond strength
g) Tensile strength of concrete.

11. What are the factors that influence the transmission length?
The factors that influence the transmission length are:
a) Type of tendon
b) Size of tendon
c) Stress in tendon
d) Surface deformations of the tendon
e) Strength of concrete at transfer
f) Pace of cutting of tendons
g) Presence of confining reinforcement
h) Effect of creep
i) Compaction of concrete
j) Amount of concrete cover.

12. What are the three mechanisms in the bond? (M/J 16)
The three mechanisms in the bond are:
a) Adhesion between concrete and steel
b) Mechanical bond at the concrete and steel interface.
c) Friction in presence of transverse compression.

13. What are the aspects need to be considered in the analysis and design of a prestressed
cantilever beam?
The aspects that are needed to be considered in the analysis and design of a prestressed
cantilever beam are:
a) Certain portions of the back span are subjected to both positive and negative moments.
Hence, there will be two design moments at service loads.
c) The sequence of loading is important to design the prestressing force.
d) High values of moment and shear occur simultaneously near the support.

14. What is known as splitting tensile stress and splitting bursting force?
Splitting tensile stress:
The transverse tensile stress is known as splitting tensile stress.

## Splitting bursting stress:

The resultant of the tensile stress in a transverse direction is known as the bursting force.

## 15. What is called tension stiffening effect and transmission length?

Tension stiffening effect: (M/J 16)
The stiffening of a member due to the tension carried by the concrete is called the
tensionstiffening effect.

Transmission length:
The prestress is transferred over a certain length from each end of a member which is called the
transmission length or transfer length.

Part B (16marks)

1. A pretensioned prestressed concrete beam having a rectangular section, 150 mm wide and 300mm
deep has an effective cover of 50mm. If fck = 40 N/mm2 , fp= 1600 N/mm2, and the area of prestressing
steel Ap= 461mm2 , calculate the ultimate flexure strength of the section using IS : 1343 code provision.
[A/M 15 ]

2. A post tensioned prestressed concrete Tee beam having a flange width of 1200mm and flange
thickness of 150mm, thickness of web being 300mm is prestressed by 2000mm2 of high tensile steel
located at an effective depth of 1600mm. If fck= 40 N/mm2 and fp= 1600 N/mm2, estimate the ultimate
flexural strength of the unbounded tee section, assuming span/depth ratio as 20 and fpe = 1000 N/mm2.
(M/J 16)(N/D 16)
3.A PSC beam of effective span 16m is of rectangular section 400mm wide and 1200mm deep. A
tendons consist of 3300mm2 of strands of characteristic strength 1700 N/mm2 with an effective
prestress of 910 N/mm2 . The strands are located 870mm from the top face of the beam. If fcu =60
N/mm2 , estimate the flexural strength of the section as per BS provisions for the following cases: (i)
Bonded tendons (ii) Unbonded tendons [N/D 15]
3. Explain in detail , the types of flexural failure in concrete [A/M14]