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Rules of Bacterial

Nomenclature
JOSEPH PAULO L. SILVA
MSMCB - MCB240
LECTURE
Nomenclature
Naming of units characterized and delineated
by classification
Also called the handmaid of taxonomy.
The nomenclature of the different kinds of
living creatures falls into two parts:

Informal or vernacular names, or very


specialized and restricted names

Scientific names of taxonomic groups (taxon,


plural taxa).
Form of Names
Naming Microorganisms was
established by Carolus Linnaeus
1735
Latin Binomial which is composed of the
Genus name and specific epithet (species
name)
Genus name is capitalized but
Specific epithet name is not.
Italicized
Form of Names
Epithet - Latinized adjective in
agreement with the gender of the
genus name, or a Latin word in the
genitive case, or occasionally a
noun in apposition.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Form of Names
oBinominal name or binomen
Two parts
oSubspecies name = trinomial
name
Subspecific Epithet
Example:
Lactobacillus casei subsp. biovar
rhamnosus
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)
Nomenclature of Bacteria
International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology
International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria:
Bacteriological Code (Revised code) - Regulates the
scientific names of prokaryotes.
Revisions:
1975: Authorized a new starting date for names of
bacteria
1980: Contains all the scientific names of bacteria that
retain their nomenclatural validity from the past
1992: Updated; Latest revision
Contents of the Code
This Code is divided into Principles, Rules, and Recommendations.
Principles (Chapter 2) form the basis of the Code, and the Rules and Recommendations are
derived from them.
Rules (Chapter 3) are designed to make effective the Principles, to put the nomenclature of the
past in order, and to provide for the nomenclature of the future.
Recommendations (Chapter 3) deal with subsidiary points and are appended to the Rules
which they supplement. Recommendations do not have the force of Rules; they are intended to
be guides to desirable practice in the future. Names contrary to a Recommendation cannot be
rejected for this reason.
Purpose of the codes of Nomenclature
The codes have three main aims:
1. Names should be stable
2. Names should be unambiguous
3. Names should be necessary.
Availability
The Code is available online:
To further your understanding of the Code you may
refer to this URL

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8817
Priority of Publication
Principle of priority - the first name
given to a taxon (provided the other
rules are obeyed ) is taken as the
correct name
Valid publication name published in
scientific literatures, together with
sufficient indication of what they refer
to.
Effective publication - name is merely
published in the scientific literature.
Priority of Publication
The earliest names that must be considered are
those published after an official starting date
Linnaeus Species Plantarum of 1753 -
difficulties of knowing to what the early
descriptions refer.
Starting date of 1980 - Code of nomenclature for
bacteria. Approved Lists of Bacterial
Names(Skerman etal., 1980)
Announcement in the official publications is
required to be validly published
International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (
now the International Journal of Systematic and
Evolutionary Microbiology).
Descriptions
The Code provides guidance on
descriptions, in the form of
recommendations.
Diagnosis - a statement or list of those
features that led the author to conclude
that the proposed taxon is sufficiently
different from other recognized taxa to
justify its revival.
The requirements of a valid publication
Valid publication of names of prokaryotes according to the rules of
nomenclature: past history and current practice (Tindall et.al) 2006
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
The protologue - emphasis that an author must make it clear to the
reader the taxonomic rank of the name being proposed, that a
summary of properties of the taxon is listed, so that other workers
can recognize that taxon
Designation of the type a nomenclatural type must be
designated
Nomenclatural types
Actual specimens which serve as
reference specimen for the name.
Type Strains
Types of genera are type species (one
of the included species) and types of
higher names are usually type genera
(one of the included genera).
Name Bearer - the reference point
/type for the name.
Neotype Replaces the lost type
Classification determines nomenclature
Progress in classification must
reflect progress in knowledge
(e.g., no one now wants to classify
all rod-shaped bacteria in Bacillus,
as was popular a century ago).
Changes in name must reflect
progress in classification; some
changes in name are thus
inevitable.
Changes in Name
Conserved Name name retained
by international agreement; the
type maybe changed to a more
suitable one.
New Combination new name
Example
Bacterium carotovorum - Erwinia
carotovora.
Citations
oCitation of a name is to provide a means of
referring to a name, just as a name is a means of
referring to a taxon.
Agrobacterium
tumefaciens (Smith
and Townsend)
Conn
Change of Name
Names should be necessary - there is
only one correct name for a taxon in a
given or implied taxonomy
Names are labels, not descriptions -
scientific names or organisms are today
only labels, to provide a means of
referring to taxa, just like personal
names.
Synonyms and Homonyms
Homonym - a name identical in spelling to another
name but based on a different type.

oSenior homonym - first published name


oJunior homonyms Later published names
Synonyms and Homonyms
Synonym - a name that refers to the same taxon under another
scientific name.
oObjective synonyms - names with the same nomenclatural type
oErwinia carotovora and Pectobacterium carotovorum -
American Type Culture Collection strain 15713.

oSubjective synonyms - names that are believed to refer to the


same taxon but that do not have the same type. They are matters
of taxonomic opinion.
oPseudomonas geniculata is a subjective synonym of
Pseudomonas fluorescense
Proposal of Names
The basic needs for publication of a new taxon are four
(a) The publication should contain a new name in proper
form that is not a homonym of an earlier name of
bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, or viruses.
(b) The taxon name should not be a synonym of an
earlier taxon name.
(c) A description or at least a diagnosis should be given.
(d) The type should be designated.
Guide in Latinization
Etymology in Nomenclature of
Prokaryotes
Hans G. Trper
References
Gibbons,N.E.1974b.Reference collections of bacteriathe need and requirements for
type and neotype strains. In Buchanan and Gibbons(Editors),Bergeys Manual of
Determinative Bacteriology, 8th Ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore. pp. 1417.
Lapage, S.P., P.H.A. Sneath, E.F. Lessel, Jr., V.B.D. Skerman, H.P.R. Seeliger and W.A.
Clark (Editors). 1992. International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, (1990)
Revision. Bacteriological Code, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
Peter H.A. Sneath, Bacterial Nomenclature University of Leicester, Department of
Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 138, Leicester LE1 9HN,
United Kingdom

Tindall B. J Et.al 2006 Valid publication of names of prokaryotes according to the rules of
nomenclature: past history and current practice International Journal of Systematic and
Evolutionary Microbiology.
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