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ROLL No. 1509140047

SESSION - 2017-2018

Prashant Chauhan



This is to certify that Seminar Report entitled .....................................

which is submitted by Mr/Ms.... in Department of
Mechanical Engineering JSS Academy of Technical Education, Noida
during his/her 5th semester B. Tech. degree course of U. P. Technical
University, is a record of the candidate work carried out by him/her under
my supervision.


Place: Noida Seminar Co-ordinator

(Prashant Chauhan)
This paper deals hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, in this we explain why hydrogen can be
used as fuel in further days to come, it can be of great use and as natural resources are
getting depleted and there is scope of using better fuels with reduced emissions with
good power and torque. In this the fuel cell is used to store energy which can be used
in driving the car. Over the last several decades, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
have emerged as a zero tailpipe-emission alternative to the battery electric vehicle (EV).

Hydrogen powered vehicles have been in development from the past decade. While the
attention to hydrogen fuel cell vehicle is increasing. Hydrogen internal combustion
engines may prove to be the most effective solution for the immediate future. Over
various research carried out in comparison of hydrogen as fuel to gasoline, hydrogen
was the most efficient for performance and utilization. But the finalized development
and releasing for public use may take over long period of time.
1. Introduction
1.1. Motivation for use of hydrogen as transport fuel
1.1.1. Hydrogen Chemical properties of Hydrogen
1.2. Introduction to hydrogen fuel vehicles
1.3. Applications
1.3.1. Automobiles Buses Bikes Airplanes Fork Trucks Rockets
1.4.1 Advantages
1.4.2 Disadvantages
1.5 Hydrogen Production
1.6 Hydrogen storage
1.7 Hydrogen technology development in India

2. Literature survey

3. Objectives

4. Methodology
4.1. Working of hydrogen fuel cell

5. Conclusions

6. References
SL no Title Page no
1. Hythane vehicle by Volvo, Multi Fuel 3

2. Hydrogen internal combustion vehicle, Mazda 4

3. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle by Toyota 5

4. Toyota FCHV-BUS at the Expo 2005 6

5. Hydrogen bicycle, Shanghai, China 6

6. Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator 7

7. Reforming of Biomass 9

8. Central and dish type receiver/reactor 10

9. Particle/electrode system water splitting 10

10. Hydrogen production via electrolysis 11

11. Working of hydrogen fuel cell 15

12. Fuel car cell 16


A vehicle using hydrogen as its fuel for power generation is known as hydrogen vehicle.
Automobiles considering various transportation vehicle like cars, buses, bikes and
cycles, as well as space rockets using hydrogen fuelled termed as hydrogen vehicle.
The main process of utilizing this energy is by converting the chemical energy of
hydrogen molecules to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal
combustion engine by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run the electric
motors. The proposed hydrogen fuel vehicle in commercial use over worldwide is due
to ease of hydrogen for fuelling transportation as key element. Hydrogen acts as a good
energy carrier and it can be produced by using renewable sources. As of 2014, 95% of
hydrogen is made from methane. The low cost of producing the hydrogen is from
electrolysis of water. Although evolving hydrogen is an expensive process to use, this
process can help us to save the fossils fuels for future fulfilling the future demand and
supply without stock out.

Hydrogen FCVs are a potential option for reducing emissions from the transportation
sector. Combusting fossil fuels to power conventional vehicles releases GHG (Green
House Gas like Water vapor, Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous oxide, Ozone,
Chlorofluorocarbons) emissions and other pollutants from the vehicle exhaust system
(i.e., tailpipe emissions). In addition, there are also emissions associated with
producing petroleum-based fuels (i.e., upstream emissions), notably emissions from
oil refineries. FCVs emit no tailpipe GHGs or other pollutants during vehicle operation,
and depending on how hydrogen is produced, there can be substantially lower upstream
GHG emissions associated with producing hydrogen fuel. One kilogram of hydrogen is
roughly equal to one gallon of gasoline (on an energy level).
1.1 Motivations for use of hydrogen as a transport fuel

Of all the potential applications for hydrogen it is perhaps its potential for use as a
transport fuel that has provoked the greatest interest around the world. There are a
number of social and political motivations for a transition to hydrogen as a transport
fuel, from decarbonizing the transport sector to reducing dependency on imported oil.
The key motivations are summarized below

Reduced CO2 emissions

Improved energy efficiency
Reduced air pollution
Reduced noise

1.1.1 Hydrogen
Simplest element in the universe one proton and one electron
Occurs naturally as a gas
Can be used to create energy through combustion or use in fuel cells
Most hydrogen is bonded to oxygen in the form of water (H2O)
Can be produced through the use of nuclear, solar, wind, and other renewable
Diversity of sources make hydrogen available alternative fuel
Steam methane reforming (CH4 )
Hydrogen has long been considered as the wonder-fuel of the future. Chemical properties of Hydrogen

Makes up 75% of the mass of all visible matter
Nontoxic and non-poisonous
Rarely found alone (H2) usually bonded to oxygen in water (H2O)
Highly buoyant lighter than air, rises and diffuses when leaked
1.2 Introduction to Hydrogen vehicles

Huge number of companies are in process to develop technologies that might efficiently
exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for use in motor vehicles with better output.
As of November 2013 there are demonstration fleets of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles
undergoing field testing including the Chevrolet Equinox Fuel Cell, Honda FCX
Clarity, Hyundai ix35 FCEV and Mercedes-Benz B-Class F-Cell. There are three
main options for hydrogen vehicles, presenting differing degrees of technical challenge.
These options are as follows:

Hythane vehicles- Hythane is a mixture of hydrogen and natural gas (up to a

20% hydrogen concentration) Vehicles adapted to run on compressed natural
gas (CNG) can run on hythane, hence the technology required for hythane
vehicles is already relatively mature
Hydrogen internal combustion vehicles (H2ICE) - The gasoline powered
internal combustion engine can be adapted to run on hydrogen fuel. This is less
technologically challenging than development of fuel cell vehicles and is seen
by some as a bridging technology
Fuel cell vehicle- A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that generates
electricity from the combination of hydrogen and oxygen (which can be taken
from the air). Development of fuel cell vehicles represents the greatest
technological challenges, requiring not only development of the fuel cell itself
but also of electric drive trains for vehicles.

Fig: Hythane vehicle by Volvo also known as Multi Fuel

The aim of finding different ways to supportable mobility by Volvo Car Corporation
has developed a system for a multitude of fuels. Where hythane among others four bio-
methane, natural gas, bioethanol E85 and petrol was considered for use. Hythane
consists of 10% hydrogen and 90% methane, a blend that has tested most effective for
this system.

Fig: Hydrogen internal combustion vehicle by Mazda

Mazda realized the potential benefits of hydrogen at an early stage, and has since been
engaged in development of hydrogen vehicles. In February 2006, Mazda became the
first company in the world to commercialize a hydrogen rotary engine vehicle, when it
began commercial leasing of the RX-8 Hydrogen RE in Japan. Since then, Mazda has
delivered RX-8 Hydrogen RE vehicles to national and local government authorities as
well as private enterprises. The main motto for introducing hydrogen fuel vehicle by
this company was to reduce the global warming as 20% of global warming is caused by
transportation sector.
Fig: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle by Toyota

In Lexus RX450h designed by Toyota motor company, the front wheels are driven by
electric motor generated by chemical reaction in the hydrogen-powered fuel cell stack
located under the floor of the Mirais passenger compartment and the remaining layout
was same as normal. Water vapour was the only emission, some of which is recycled
to humidify the process.

1.3 Applications
1.3.1 Automobiles

Although there are currently no fuel cell cars available for commercial sale, over 20
FCEVs prototypes and demonstration cars have been released since 2009. Automobiles
such as the;

Honda FCX Clarity , Toyota FCHV-adv.

GM HydroGen4,
Mercedes-Benz F-Cell are all pre-commercial examples of fuel cell electric

Fuel cell electric vehicles have driven more than 3 million miles, with more than 27,000 re-
fuelling. Buses

Fig: Toyota FCHV-BUS at the Expo 2005

There are also demonstration models of buses, and in total there are over 100 fuel cell
buses deployed around the world today.

Most of these buses are produced by UTC Power, Toyota, Ballard, Hydrogenics, and
Proton Motor.

UTC buses have already accumulated over 970,000 km (600,000 mi) of driving.

Fuel cell buses have a 30-141% higher fuel economy than diesel buses and natural gas
buses. Motorcycles and bicycles

Fig: Hydrogen bicycle, Shanghai, China

In 2005 the British firm Intelligent Energy produced the first ever working hydrogen
run motorcycle called the ENV (Emission Neutral Vehicle).

The motorcycle holds enough fuel to run for four hours, and to travel 160 km (100 mi)
in an urban area, at a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph).
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

In 2004 Honda developed a fuel-cell motorcycle which utilized the Honda FC

Stack. There are other examples of bikes and bicycles with a hydrogen fuel cell

The Suzuki Burgman received "whole vehicle type" approval in the EU. Airplanes

Fig: Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator powered by a hydrogen fuel cell

Boeing researchers and industry partners throughout Europe conducted

experimental flight tests in February 2008 of a manned airplane powered only by a
fuel cell and lightweight batteries.

The Fuel Cell Demonstrator Airplane, as it was called, used a Proton Exchange
Membrane (PEM) fuel cell/lithium-ion battery hybrid system to power an electric
motor, which was coupled to a conventional propeller.

In 2003, the world's first propeller driven airplane to be powered entirely by a fuel
cell was flown. Fork trucks

A HICE (Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) forklift or HICE lift truck is a
hydrogen fueled, internal combustion engine-powered industrial forklift truck used
for lifting and transporting materials.

The first production HICE forklift truck based on the Linde X39 Diesel was
presented at an exposition in Hannover on May 27, 2008. It used a 2.0 litre, 43 kW
(58 hp) diesel internal combustion engine converted to use hydrogen as a fuel with
the use of a compressor and direct injection.
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

A fuel cell forklift (also called a fuel cell lift truck or a fuel cell forklift) is a fuel
cell powered industrial forklift truck. In 2013 there were over 4,000 fuel cell
forklifts used in material handling in the US.

Fuel-cell-powered forklifts can provide benefits over battery powered forklifts as

they can work for a full 8-hour shift on a single tank of hydrogen and can be refueled
in 3 minutes Rockets
Many large rockets use liquid hydrogen as fuel, with liquid oxygen as an oxidizer.
Advantage of hydrogen rocket fuel is the high effective exhaust velocity compared
to kerosene/LOX (Liquid - Oxygen combination) or UDMH
(Unsymmetrical Dimethyl hydrazine) /N2O4 (Nitrogen tetroxide) engines.
According to the Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, a rocket with higher exhaust velocity
needs less propellant mass to achieve a given change of speed. Before combustion,
the hydrogen runs through cooling pipes around the exhaust nozzle to protect the
nozzle from damage by the hot exhaust.

1.4.1 Advantages
1) Created from water, can be recycled to produce more hydrogen
2) Cleanest fuel available when combusted produces carbon monoxide, carbon
dioxide, or hydrocarbon emissions
3) Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) have a significant potential to reduce emissions
from the transportation sector, because they do not emit any greenhouse gases
(GHGs) during vehicle operation. Their lifecycle GHG emissions depend on how
the hydrogen fuel is made.
4) Leaks/spills will quickly evaporate and do not pose any threats to the environment
5) Several major hurdles to commercial deployment must be overcome before any
environmental benefits from FCVs are realized. These challenges include the
production, distribution, and storage of hydrogen; fuel cell technology; and overall
vehicle cost.
6) Domestic production will allow for energy independence
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

1.4.2 Disadvantages
1) Conceptually, replacing the current oil-based infrastructure with hydrogen would
cost billions, maybe trillions, of dollars.
2) Although abundant in the universe, hydrogen is fairly rare in our atmosphere,
meaning that it has to be extracted (for example through electrolysis, as explained
above) and currently, the process is cost prohibitive and inefficient.
3) It is a very flammable gas (think of the Hindenburg), which further adds to the on-
board storage problems. Its production at energy plants creates excessive carbon
4) Low energy content per unit volume
5) The large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles.

1.5 Hydrogen Production

1) Reforming of Biomass and Wastes: Hydrogen can be produced via pyrolysis or
gasification of biomass resources such as agricultural residues like peanut shells;
consumer wastes including plastics and waste grease; or biomass specifically grown
for energy uses. Biomass pyrolysis produces a liquid product (bio-oil) that contains
a wide spectrum of components that can be separated into valuable chemicals and
fuels, including hydrogen.

C6H12O6 + O2 + H2O CO + CO2 + H2

Water-gas shift reaction

CO + H2O CO2 + H2 + (small amount heat)

Fig: Reforming of Biomass

2) Thermal Water Splitting: Thermochemical water splitting processes use

hightemperature heat (5002,000C) to drive a series of chemical reactions that
produce hydrogen. The chemicals used in the process are reused within each cycle,
creating a closed loop that consumes only water and produces hydrogen and
oxygen. The necessary high temperatures can be generated in the following ways:
Concentrating sunlight onto a reactor tower using a field of mirror
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

Using waste heat from advanced nuclear reactors

3) Photo-electro-chemical Water Splitting: The PEC water splitting process uses

semiconductor materials to convert solar energy directly to chemical energy in the
form of hydrogen. The semiconductor materials used in the PEC process are similar
to those used in photovoltaic solar electricity generation, but for PEC applications
the semiconductor is immersed in a water-based electrolyte, where sunlight
energizes the water-splitting process.

4) Fermentation: Scientists over world are developing pretreatment technologies to

convert lignocellulosic biomass into sugar-rich feedstocks that can be directly
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

fermented to produce hydrogen, ethanol, and high-value chemicals. Researchers are

also working to identify a consortium of Clostridium that can directly ferment
hemicellulose to hydrogen. Other research areas involve bio-prospecting efficient
cellulolytic microbes, such as Clostridium thermocellum, that can ferment
crystalline cellulose directly to hydrogen to lower feedstock costs. Once a model
cellulolytic bacterium is identified, its potential for genetic manipulations, including
sensitivity to antibiotics and ease of genetic transformation, will be determined.

5) Renewable Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the separation of water into oxygen and

hydrogen by running a direct electric current through the water. It is the simplest
and cleanest way of producing hydrogen, because the hydrogen that comes out of
the process is 99.999% pure.

Fig: Hydrogen production via electrolysis

1.6 Hydrogen storage

Hydrogen storage in present context of development is the biggest problem for research
workers. According to the January 2003 Office of Technology Policy report, fuel Cell
Vehicles is race to a new automotive future. The needs of consumers in a fuel cell
vehicle are un-fulfilled due to inadequate hydrogen storage system. The difficult raised
for storage of hydrogen is because of its low density.
Existing and proposed technologies for hydrogen storage include;

1) Compressed gas storage: Pressurized tanks of adequate strength, including impact

resistance for safety in collisions, have been made of carbon-fiber wrapped
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

cylinders. Compressed gas storage in such tanks has been marked at a pressure of
34 MPa with a mass of 32.5 kg and volume of 186 L, sufficient for a 500-km range.
However, this tank volume is about 90% of a 55-gallon drum, rather large for
individual automobiles.

2) Liquid storage (cryogenic storage): While having potential weight and volume
advantages, cryogenic method with activated carbon as adsorbent requires liquid
nitrogen temperatures and 2 MPa to hold the physically adsorbed hydrogen.

3) Carbon Nanotube and Related Storage Technologies: It is still unclear about the
status of using advanced carbon materials for the storage of hydrogen. Reviewing
the status of single walled, double walled, graphite nanofiber stack storage and other
carbon-based storage technologies that have been proposed include alkali-doped
graphite, fullerenes, and activated carbon, high surface area and abundant pore
volume in the nanostructured materials make these especially attractive as potential
absorption storage materials.

4) Storage as metal hydride: Hydrogen can be stored by metal hydridation method

above room temperature and below 3 or 4 MPa. This method adds up some
additional weight to vehicle use and considering this method for storage is
expensive too. Recent work by P. Chen, et al. has shown that lithium nitride can
reversibly take up large amounts of hydrogen. This material takes up hydrogen
rapidly in the temperature range 170-210C, and achieved 9.3 wt.% uptake when
the sample was held at 255C for 30 minutes. Under high vacuum (10-9 MPa) about
two-thirds of the hydrogen was released at temperatures below 200C and remaining
third of the 16 stored hydrogen required temperatures above 320C for release.

5) Some others storage system like underground storage system and line storage

1.7 Hydrogen production in India

Production of hydrogen by photo electrolysis of water using solar energy

Production of hydrogen by blue green algae & by certain bacterial species

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

Storage of hydrogen through metal hydride / non metal hydride

Problems relating to utilization of hydrogen as a fuel, that is developed for certain

engines and fuel etc.

Liquid hydrogen production, storage and utilization.

Fuel cells are more an evolutionary technology than a revolutionary one. Originally
invented in the early 1800s, the technology was developed gradually before being given
a boost through use in the NASA Apollo space program in the late 1960s and early
1970s. During this period the first fuel cell car was demonstrated by General Motors
and was followed by several other early Fuel cell Electric Vehicle demonstrations, all
based on alkaline fuel cell technologies similar to those developed for NASA. Fuel cells
using proton exchange membranes, the type now used in fuel cell electric vehicle, were
first developed in 1958 but it took until 1993 for the technology to become viable
enough for vehicle demonstrations.

1820s Rev. W. Cecil developed hydrogen-fuelled engine

1876 Nicolaus Otto invented four-cylinder engine;
1885 Gottleib Daimler invented modern ICE
1920s first testing of the hydrogen Rudolf Erren used hydrogen ICEs in
submarines and land vehicles
General Motors coined the phrase hydrogen economy during the fuel crisis of
the 1970s
As fuel prices returned to normal, interest in hydrogen vehicles diminished
Rising fuel prices, environmental concerns, and energy security sparked interest
again in the twenty-first century

1) Alternative for the existing exhausting fuels and reduced pollution with good energy
economy and concentrating on Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

2) Explaining the working of the hydrogen fuel cell

Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

3) Finding out if HICE is a reasonable possibility and if it is cost effective to mass

HICE vs. Fuel Cells Production Methods

4) Determine the benefits, if any, of adapting HICEs now, rather than waiting for fuel
cells to become available

5) Comparing the performance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with others competing

6) Availing the safety and public acceptance profit if HFV introduced as infrastructure
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

4. Methodology
4.1 Working of hydrogen fuel cell

Fig: Working of hydrogen fuel cell

1) Hydrogen is chaneed through field flow plates to anode on one side of the fuel cell
while oxygen from the air is chaneled to the cathode on the other side of the cell.

2) At the anode ,a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen
ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons.

3) The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions
to pass through it to the cathode .The negatively charged electrons must travel along
an external circuit to the cathode , creating an electrical current.

4) At the cathode , the electons and positively cahrged hydrogen ions combine with
oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

Fig: Fuel car cell

A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of vehicle which
uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor. Fuel cells in vehicles create
electricity to power an electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and
compressed hydrogen. A fuel cell vehicle that is fueled with hydrogen emits only water
and heat, but no tailpipe pollutants, therefore it is considered a zero-emissions vehicle.
Depending on the process, however, producing the hydrogen used in the vehicle may
create pollutants. Fuel cells have been used in various kinds of vehicles including
forklifts, especially in indoor applications where their clean emissions are important to
air quality, and in space applications. The first commercial production fuel cell
automobiles are being sold in California by Toyota and leased on a limited basis by
Hyundai, with additional manufacturers planning to enter the market. Furthermore, fuel
cells are being developed and tested in buses, boats, motorcycles and bicycles, among
other kinds of vehicles.

As of early 2014, there is limited hydrogen infrastructure, with 10 hydrogen fueling

stations for automobiles publicly available in the U.S., but more hydrogen stations are
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

planned, particularly in California. New stations are also planned in Japan and
Germany. Critics doubt whether hydrogen will be efficient or cost-effective for
automobiles, as compared with other zero emission technologies, such as the battery
electric vehicle.

5. Conclusions

1) Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicles are currently being researched for their feasibility of
widespread usage in automobiles and other forms of transportation.
2) Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source,
but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other
fossil fuels.
3) However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or
nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel
Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle

6. References

1) Note on Hydrogen vehicle From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia .

2) The Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Material Issues in a Hydrogen Fuel Power
Source, http://education.lanl.gov/RESOURCES/h2/gottesfeld/education.html.
3) http ://www.f.edu/hydrocar.html
4) http://www.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell.html
5) http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/photos.html
6) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/hydrogen_production