in
Kidt® g. kâ fšÿç¢ rhiy,
gŸë¡ fšé Ïa¡Fe® br‹id600 006.
thœ¤J¢ brŒÂ
ä¡f m‹òl‹,
(g. kâ)
gŸë¡ fšé Ïa¡Fe®
(iii)
Contents
Solutions
3. Algebra ...... 54
(vi)
1.Sets and
SETS AND Functions
FUNCTIONS
1
Exercise 1.1
1. If A 1 B, then show that A , B = B (use Venn diagram).
Solution: A , B = B
2. If A 1 B, then find A + B and A \ B (use Venn diagram).
Solution: A + B = A A\B = z
3. Let P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} and R = {a, e, f, s} . Find the following:
(i) P \ R (ii) Q + R (iii) R \ ^ P + Qh
Solution: (i) Given, P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} and R = {a, e, f, s}
Now, P \ R = {t ! P; t g R} , the set of all elements of P which are not in R.
= {b, c} .
(ii) Q + R .
Now, Q + R is the set of elements which belong to both the sets Q and R.
Thus, Q + R = Q, the empty set.
(iii) R \ ^ P + Qh .
Now, P + Q is empty. Thus, R \ (P + Q) = R = {a, e, f, s} .
4. If A = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , then find
(i) A , ^ B + Ch , (ii) A + ^ B , Ch , (iii) A \ ^C \ Bh .
Solution: (i) Now, B + C = {2, 4, 6} + {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {2, 4, 6}.
Thus, A , (B + C) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} , {2, 4, 6} = {2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
(ii) Now, B , C = {2, 4, 6} , {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
Thus, A + (B , C) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} + {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {4, 6}
(iii) Now, C \ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} \ {2, 4, 6} = {1, 3, 5}
Hence, A \ (C \ B) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} \ {1, 3, 5} = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
5. Given A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7,  10} , verify the commutative property
of set union.
Solution: Given A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7,  10} .
Let us verify that A , B = B , A .
Solution  Sets and Functions 1
Now, A , B = {a, x, y, r, s} , {1, 3, 5, 7,  10} .
= {a, x, y, r, s, 1, 3, 5, 7,  10} g (1)
B , A = {1, 3, 5, 7,  10} , {a, x, y, r, s}
= {a, x, y, r, s, 1, 3, 5, 7,  10} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A , B = B , A . That is, the set union is commutative.
6. Verify the commutative property of set intersection for
A = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} and B = {2, 5, 3,  2, m, n, o, p} .
Solution: Let us verify that A + B = B + A .
Now, A + B = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} + {2, 5, 3,  2, m, n, o, p}
= {2, 3, m, n, o} g (1)
B + A = {2, 5, 3,  2, m, n, o, p} + {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7}
= {2, 3, m, n, o} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A + B = B + A . That is, the set intersection is commutative.
7. For A = {x ; x is a prime factor of 42} , B = {x ; 5 1 x # 12, x ! N} and
C = {1, 4, 5, 6} , verify A , ^ B , Ch = ^ A , Bh , C .
Solution: A = {2, 3, 7}, B = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, C = {1, 4, 5, 6}
Let us verify that A , (B , C) = (A , B) , C .
Now, B , C = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} , {1, 4, 5, 6}
= {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Thus, A , (B , C) = {2, 3, 7} , {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} g (1)
Now, A , B = {2, 3, 7} , {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
= {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Thus, (A , B) , C = {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} , {1, 4, 5, 6}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A , (B , C) = (A , B) , C . (Note: The set union is associative)
8. Given P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g} . Verify the associative
property of set intersection.
Solution: Given that P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g}
Let us verify the associative property of set intersection (P + Q) + R = P + (Q + R)
Now, P + Q = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e, i, o, u} = {a, e}
Thus, (P + Q) + R = {a, e} + {a, c, e, g} = {a, e} g (1)
Now, Q + R = {a, e, i, o, u} + {a, c, e, g} = {a, e}
Thus, P + (Q + R) = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e} = {a, e} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get (P + Q) + R = P + (Q + R) .
Thus, the set intersection is associative.
2. Write a description of each shaded area. Use symbols U, A, B, C, , , + , l and \ as
necessary. (Many answers are possible. One such description is given below)
(ii)
Exercise 1.3
1. If A and B are two sets and U is the universal set such that n^U h = 700 ,
n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 and n^ A + Bh = 100, find n^ Al + Blh .
Solution: n (A , B) = n (A) + n (B)  n (A + B) = 200 + 300  100
= 500  100 = 400
n (Al + Bl ) = n (A , B)l = n (U)  n (A , B) = 700  400 = 300
Aliter: n (Al + Bl ) = n (Al ) + n (Bl )  n (Al , Bl ) = n (Al ) + n (Bl )  n (A + B)l
= 500 + 400  600 = 300
2. Given n^ Ah = 285, n^ Bh = 195, n^U h = 500, n^ A , Bh = 410, find n^ Al , Blh .
Solution: n (A + B) = n (A) + n (B)  n (A , B) = 285 + 195  410 = 70
n (Al , Bl ) = n [(A + B)l ] = n (U)  n (A + B) = 500  70 = 430
Solution  Sets and Functions 9
3. For any three sets A, B and C if n^ Ah = 17 , n^ Bh = 17, n^Ch = 17, n^ A + Bh = 7 ,
n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + Ch = 5 and n^ A + B + Ch = 2 , find n^ A , B , Ch .
Solution: n (A , B , C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C)  n (A + B) 
n (B + C)  n (A + C) + n (A + B + C) .
= 17 + 17 + 17  7  6  5 + 2 = 53  18 = 35.
4. Verify n^ A , B , Ch = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^Ch  n^ A + Bh 
n^ B + Ch  n^ A + Ch + n^ A + B + Ch for the sets given below:
(i) A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8} and C = {6, 7, 8, 9}
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x} .
Solution: (i) A = {4, 5, 6}, n (A) = 3, B = {5, 6, 7, 8}, n (B) = 4 and
C = {6, 7, 8, 9}, n (C) = 4
Now, A , B , C = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, n (A , B , C) = 6 g (1)
A + B = {4, 5, 6} + {5, 6, 7, 8} = {5, 6}, n (A + B) = 2
B + C = {5, 6, 7, 8} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6, 7, 8}, n (B + C) = 3
A + C = {4, 5, 6} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6}, n (A + C) = 1
Thus, A + B + C = {4, 5, 6} + {5, 6, 7, 8} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6}, n (A + B + C) = 1
Now, n (A) + n (B) + n (C)  n (A + B)  n (B + C)  n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
= 3 + 4 + 4  2  3  1 + 1 = 6 g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get,
n (A , B , C) =n (A) + n (B) + n (C)  n (A + B)  n (B + C)  n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x} ; n (A) = 5, n (B) = 3, n (C) = 3
A + B = {a, b, c, d, e} + {x, y, z} = { }, n (A + B) = 0
B + C = {x, y, z} + {a, e, x} = {x}, n (B + C) = 1
A + C = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e, x} = {a, e}, n (A + C) = 2
A , B , C = {a, b, c, d, e} , {x, y, z} , {a, e, x} = {a, b, c, d, e, x, y, z}
Thus, n (A , B , C) = 8 g (1)
n (A) + n (B) + n (C)  n (A + B)  n (B + C)  n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
= 5 + 3 + 3  0  1  2 + 0 = 8 g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get n (A , B , C)
= n (A) + n (B) + n (C)  n (A + B)  n (B + C)  n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
5. In a college, 60 students enrolled in chemistry, 40 in physics, 30 in biology, 15 in
chemistry and physics, 10 in physics and biology, 5 in biology and chemistry. No
one enrolled in all the three. Find how many are enrolled in at least one of the
subjects.
Solution: Let C, P and B be the set of students enrolled in Chemistry, Physics and
Biology respectively. Thus, n (C) = 60, n (P) = 40, n (B) = 30 ,
n (C + P) = 15, n (P + B) = 10, n (C + B) = 5, n (C + P + B) = 0
n (C , P , B) = n (C) + n (P) + n (B)  n (C + P)  n (P + B)  n (B + C) + n (C + P + B)
= 60 + 40 + 30  15  10  5 + 0 = 100
Hence, Number of students enrolled in atleast one of the subjects = 100.
10 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
6. In a town 85% of the people speak Tamil, 40% speak English and 20% speak
Hindi. Also, 32% speak English and Tamil, 13% speak Tamil and Hindi and
10% speak English and Hindi, find the percentage of people who can speak all
the three languages.
Solution: Let E denote the set of people speaking English, T denote the people
speaking Tamil and H denote the people speaking Hindi.
Thus, n (T) = 85, n (E) = 40, n (H) = 20
Also, n (E + T) = 32, n (T + H) = 13, n (E + H) = 10, n (E , T , H) = 100 .
n (E , T , H) = n (E) + n (T) + n (H)  n (E + T)  n (T + H)  n (H + E) + n (E + T + H)
100 = 40 + 85 + 20  32  13  10 = 90 + n (E + T + H)
Thus, n (E + T + H) = 100  90 = 10
Therefore, the percentage of people who can speak all the three languages = 10%.
7. An advertising agency finds that, of its 170 clients, 115 use Television, 110 use
Radio and 130 use Magazines. Also, 85 use Television and Magazines, 75 use
Television and Radio, 95 use Radio and Magazines, 70 use all the three. Draw
Venn diagram to represent these data. Find (i) how many use only Radio?
(ii) how many use only Television? (iii) how many use Television and magazine but
not radio?
Solution: Let, T  Clients of Television
R  Clients of Radio
M  Clients of Magazines
Then, n (U) = 170, n (T) = 115
n (R) = 110, n (M) = 130
n (T + M) = 85, n (T + R) = 75
n (R + M) = 95, n (T + R + M) = 70
From the Venn diagram
(i) Number of clients using only radio = 10
(ii) Number of clients using only television = 25
(iii) Number of clients using only magazines but not radio = 15
8. In a school of 4000 students, 2000 know French, 3000 know Tamil and 500 know
Hindi, 1500 know French and Tamil, 300 know French and Hindi, 200 know
Tamil and Hindi and 50 know all the three languages.
(i) How many do not know any of the three languages? (ii) How many know at
least one language? (iii) How many know only two languages?
n (F + T) = 1500, n (F + H) = 300
n (T + H) = 200, n (F + T + H) = 50
(i) Number of students do not know any of the three languages = 450
(ii) Number of students who know atleast one language = 3550
(iii) Number of students who know only two languages = 1850
9. In a village of 120 families, 93 families use firewood for cooking, 63 families use
kerosene, 45 families use cooking gas, 45 families use firewood and kerosene, 24
families use kerosene and cooking gas, 27 families use cooking gas and firewood.
Find how many use firewood, kerosene and cooking gas.
Solution: Let, F denote the Families using Firewood.
K  Families using Kerosene.
n (F + K) = 45, n (K + G) = 24
n (T + H) = 27, n (F , K , G) = 120
n (F , K , G)
& 93 + 63 + 45  45  24  27 + n (F + K + G) = 120.
n (F + K + G) = 120  105 = 15 .
Exercise 1.4
1. State whether each of the following arrow diagrams define a function or not.
Justify your answer.
Solution: (i) (ii)
The element c in P has no image inQ. Every element in the domain L has a unique
Thus , it is not a function. image in M. Therefore, it is a function.
2. For the given function F = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }, write the domain and
the range.
Solution: Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} , Range = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} .
3. Let A = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 }; B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 } and fi : A " B , i = 1,2,3.
State the type of function for the following (give reason): (i) f1 = {(10, 1), (11, 2),
(12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3)}, (ii) f2 = {(10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1)},
(iii) f3 = {(10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5)}.
Solution:
(i) f1 = {(10, 1), (11, 2), (12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3)}
The elements 12 and 14 in A have same image 3 in B.
Hence, it is not oneone.
The element 0 ! B has no preimage in A. Thus, it is not onto.
Hence, it is neither oneone nor onto.
(ii) f2 = {(10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1)}
Since f2 (x) = 1, for every x ! A , f2 is a constant function.
(iii) f3 = {(10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5)}
Distinct elements in A have distinct images in B under f3 .
Thus, f3 is oneone.
Also, f3 (A) = B .
Thus, f3 is onto.
Hence, f3 is oneone and onto. ( f3 is a bijective function)
Solution  Sets and Functions 13
www.tnschools.co.in
(iii) R3 = {(1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7)}
The element 1 ! X has two images 1, 3 in Y.
Thus, it is not a function.
(iv) R4 = {(1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1)}
Every element has unique image. Thus, R4 is a function.
Distinct elements in X have distinct images in Y .
Thus, it is oneone.
Each element in Y has atleast one preimage in X.
Thus, it is onto. Hence, it is a bijective function.
5. If R = {(a,  2), ( 5, b), (8, c), (d,  1)} represents the identity function, find the
values of a, b, c and d .
Solution: Given R is an identity function. Thus, R (x) = x, 6x .
Hence, a = 2, b = 5, c = 8 and d = 1 .
6. A = { –2, –1, 1, 2 } and f = $` x, 1 j : x ! A . . Write down the range of f .
x
Is f a function from A to A ?
Solution: Given that f = ` x, 1 j . So, f (x) = 1 .
x x
Thus, f ( 2) = 1 1
= ; f (1) = = 1. 1
2 2 1
f ( 1) = 1 = 1; f (2) = 1 .
1 2
1
Thus, the range of f = $ ,  1, 1, . . 1
2 2
However,  1 , 1 g A . Hence, it is not a function from A to A. .
2 2
14 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
7. Let f = { (2, 7), (3, 4), (7, 9), (–1, 6), (0, 2), (5, 3) } be a function from
A = { –1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 } to B = { 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 }. Is this (i) an oneone function
(ii) an onto function (iii) both oneone and onto function?
Solution:
(i) Distinct elements in A have distinct images in B.
Thus, it is an oneone function.
(ii) Every element in B has atleast one preimage in A
Thus, f is onto function.
(iii) From (i) and (ii) we have, it is a bijective.
8. Write the preimages of 2 and 3 in the function
f = { (12, 2), (13, 3), (15, 3), (14, 2), (17, 17) }.
Solution:
Preimages of 2 are 12 and 14.
Preimages of 3 are 13 and 15.
9. The following table represents a function from A = {5, 6, 8, 10} to B = {19, 15, 9, 11}
where f^ xh = 2x  1 . Find the values of a and b .
x 5 6 8 10
f(x) a 11 b 19
Solution: Given, f (x) = 2x  1, 6x ! A
f (5) = 2 # 5  1 = 10  1 = 9
f (8) = 2 # 8  1 = 16  1 = 15
Thus, the values of a and b are 9 and 15 respectively.
Note: A function of the form f (x) = px + 1, x ! R, is called linear function.
Such function are always one to one.
10. Let A = { 5, 6, 7, 8 }; B = { –11, 4, 7, –10,–7, –9,–13 } and f = {( x, y ) : y = 3  2x ,
x ! A , y ! B } (i) Write down the elements of f (ii) What is the codomain?
(iii) What is the range? (iv) Identify the type of function.
Solution: Given, A = {5, 6, 7, 8}, B = { 11, 4, 7,  10,  7,  9,  13}
Here, y = f (x) = 3  2x, 6 x ! A
Now, f (5) =  7, f (6) = 9
Now, f (7) =  11, f (8) = 13
(i) f = {(5,  7), (6,  9), (7,  11), (8,  13)}
(ii) Codomain = { 11, 4, 7,  10,  7,  9,  13}
(iii) Range = { 7,  9,  11,  13}
(iv) Distinct elements have distinct images under f .
Thus, f is oneone.
(Here, the function is not onto.)
(iii) In this graph, the vertical line l cuts the graph at two points A
and B .
Thus, it is not a function.
(iv) The vertical line l cuts the graph at three points A, B and C
.
Thus, it is not a function.
(ii) Set of ordered pairs f = {(6, 1), (9, 2), (15, 4), (18, 5), (21, 6)}
(iii) Table
x 6 9 15 18 21
f (x) 1 2 4 5 6
(iv) Graph
Here, the graph is the collection of all points (6, 1), (9, 2), (15, 4), (18, 5), (21, 6)
in x y plane.
14. Let A = {4, 6, 8, 10 } and B = { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }. If f : A " B is defined by f^ xh = 1 x + 1
2
then represent f by (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs and
(iii) a table.
Solution: f (x) = x + 1, x ! A
2
Thus, f (4) = 4 + 1 = 3, f (6) = 6 + 1 = 4
2 2
f (8) = 8 + 1 = 5, f (10) = 10 + 1 = 6 .
2 2
(i) An arrow diagram:
(ii) Set of ordered pairs: f = {(4, 3), (6, 4), (8, 5), (10, 6)} .
(iii) Table:
x 4 6 8 10
f (x) 3 4 5 6
4x 2  1 ;  3 # x 1 2
15. A function f : 6 3, 7h " R is defined as follows f^ xh = *3x  2 ; 2#x#4
2x  3 ; 41x17
f (3) + f ( 1)
Find (i) f^5h + f^6h (ii) f^1 h  f^ 3h (iii) f^ 2h  f^4h (iv) .
2f (6)  f (1)
Solution: Let us find the values of the function at the required points.
When x = 3,  2,  1 and 1 , the function is f (x) = 4x2  1 .
Thus, f ( 3) = 35, f ( 2) = 15, f ( 1) = 3, f (1) = 3.
When, x = 3, 4 , the function is f (x) = 3x  2,
Thus, f (3) = 7 and f (4) = 10 .
When x = 5 and 6 , the function f (x) = 2x  3 .
Thus, f (5) = 7, f (6) = 9
(i) f (5) + f (6) = 7 + 9 = 16
(ii) f (1)  f ( 3) = 3  35 = 32
(iii) f ( 2)  f (4) = 15  10 = 5
f (3) + f ( 1) 7 + 3 = 10 = 2 .
(iv) =
2f (6)  f (1) 2 (9)  3 15 3
x 2 + 2x + 1 ;  7 # x 1  5
16. A function f : 6 7, 6h " R is defined as follows f (x) = * x + 5 ; 5 # x # 2
x  1; 2 1 x16 .
4 f ( 3) + 2 f (4)
Find (i) 2 f ( 4) + 3 f (2) (ii) f ( 7)  f ( 3) (iii) .
f ( 6)  3 f (1)
Solution: When x = 7,  6 , f (x) = x2 + 2x + 1
Thus, f ( 7) = ( 7) 2 + 2 ( 7) + 1 = 49  14 + 1 = 36 and
f ( 6) = ( 6) 2 + 2 ( 6) + 1 = 36  12 + 1 = 25 .
When x = 4,  3, 2 and 1 the function is f (x) = x + 5
Thus, f ( 4) =  4 + 5 = 1, f ( 3) = 2 , f (1) = 6 and f (2) = 7.
When x = 4, the function is f (x) = x  1. So, f (4) = 3.
(i) Now, 2f ( 4) + 3f (2) = 2 # 1 + 3 # 7 = 23 .
(ii) Now, f ( 7)  f ( 3) = 36  2 = 34.
4f ( 3) + 2f (4) 4 # 2 + 2 # 3 = 8 + 6 = 14 = 2
(iii) Now, =
f ( 6)  3f (1) 25  3 # 6 25  18 7
( Ans. (A) )
2. If A 1 B , then A + B is
(A) B (B) A\B (C) A (D) B\A
Solution:
( Ans. (C) )
3. For any two sets P and Q , P + Q is
(A) " x : x ! P or x ! Q , (B) " x : x ! P and x b Q ,
(C) " x : x ! P and x ! Q , (D) " x : x b P and x ! Q ,
Solution: By definition, P + Q = {x : x ! P and x ! Q} ( Ans. (C) )
4. If A = { p, q, r, s }, B = { r, s, t, u }, then A\B is
(A) {p, q} (B) {t, u} (C) {r, s} (D) {p, q, r, s}
Solution: A\B is the set of elements in A but not in B . ( Ans. (A) )
( Ans. (A) )
(A) ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h (B) ^ B \ Ah + ^ B \ C h
(C) ^ B \ Ah + ^ A \ C h (D) ^ A \ Bh + ^ B \ C h
Solution: De Morgan’s Law : B\ (A , C ) = (B\A) + (B\C) ( Ans. (B) )
f = { (1, –1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (7, 5), (11, 9) }. Then f is
(A) oneone (B) onto
(C) bijective (D) not a function ( Ans. (A) )
Solution:
(A) an onto function (B) a constant function
(C) an oneone function (D) not a function
(A) { 1, 4, 5 } (B) { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }
(C) { 2, 3, 4 } (D) { 3, 4, 5 }
Solution: f (x) = x2 + 5
& f ( 4) = ( 4) 2 + 5 = 21. ( Ans. (B) )
Solution: If A and B are finite sets and f is bijective, then n (A) = n (B) ( Ans. (C) )
If n is odd, a = 2n .
n 2
n +1
2 (25)
So, a25 = 2 = 50 = 50 = 25 .
25 + 1 625 + 1 626 313
4. Find the 13th and 16th terms of the sequence defined by
bn = )
2
n, if n ! N and n is even
n (n + 2), if n ! N and n is odd.
Exercise 2.2
1. The first term of an A.P is 6 and the common difference is 5. Find the A.P and its
general term.
Solution: The general form of an A.P is a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, g .
Given that a = 6 and d = 5. Thus, the A.P is 6, ^6 + 5h, 6 + 2^5h, 6 + 3^5h, g
That is, the required A.P. is 6, 11, 16, 21, g
The general term tn = a + (n  1) d
= 6 + ^n  1h^5h
= 6 + 5n  5 = 5n + 1 , n = 1 , 2 , 3 , g .
2. Find the common difference and 15th term of the A.P. 125, 120, 115, 110, g .
Solution: Given that the sequence 125, 120, 115, 110, g is an A.P.
Here, a = 125, d = t2  t1 = 120  125 =  5
The general term is
tn = a + ^n  1h d .
Thus, t15 = 125 + ^15  1h^ 5h = 125 + 14^ 5h = 125  70 = 55 .
n = l  a + 1
d
& n = 3  24 + 1 = `  21 # 4j + 1 = 28 + 1 = 29
3 3
4
Thus, 29th term of the sequence is 3.
Here, a = 1, d =  5 + 1 = 1 and l = 10 .
6 6 3
Now, n = la +1
d
10 + 1
Thus, n= 3 + 1 = 13 (6) + 1 = 26 + 1 = 27 .
1 3
6
Hence, the sequence has 27 terms.
(ii) Given A.P. is 7, 13, 19, g, 205 .
Here, a = 7, d = 13  7 = 6 and l = 205.
The number of terms in the given A.P. is n = l  a + 1
d
= 205  7 + 1 = 198 + 1 = 34
6 6
Hence, there are 34 terms in the given sequence.
7. If 9th term of an A.P. is zero, prove that its 29th term is double (twice) the 19th term.
Solution: Given that t9 = 0 & a + 8d = 0 or a = 8d .
Now, t29 = a + 28d = 8d + 28d = 20d
= 2 610d @ = 2 6 8d + 18d @
= 2 6 a + 18d @ = 2t19
Hence, t29 = 2 t19 .
Solution  Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 25
8. The 10th and 18th terms of an A.P. are 41 and 73 respectively. Find the 27th term.
Solution: Given that t10 = 41 and t18 = 73 .
& a + ^10  1h d = 41 and & a + ^18  1h d = 73
& a + 9d = 41 g (1) ; & a + 17d = 73 g (2)
Now, (2)  (1) & 8d = 32 & d = 4 .
Also, (1) & a + 9 (4) = 41
& a = 41  36 = 5
Thus, t27 = a + ^27  1h d = 5 + 26^4h = 5 + 104 = 109 .
Hence, the 27th term is 109.
9. Find n so that the nth terms of the following two A.P.’s are the same.
1, 7, 13, 19,g and 100, 95, 90, g .
Solution: First consider the A.P. 1, 7, 13, 19, g .
Here, a = 1, d = 7  1 = 6 . So, the nth term of the A.P. is tn = 1 + ^n  1h^6h .
Now, consider the A.P. 100, 95, 90, g . Here, a = 100, d = 95  100 = 5 .
Thus, the nth term of this A.P. is sn = 100 + ^n  1h^ 5h
Given that tn = sn
& 1 + ^n  1h^6h = 100 + ^n  1h^ 5h
& 1 + 6n  6 = 100  5n + 5
& 11n = 110 & n = 10.
10. How many two digit numbers are divisible by 13?
Solution: Two digit numbers divisible by 13 are 13, 26, 39, g 91. . This is an A.P.
Here, a = 13, d = 13 and l = 91 .
Now, n = l  a + 1 .
d
= 91  13 + 1 = 78 + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7 .
13 13
Hence, there are 7 twodigit numbers divisible by 13.
11. A TV manufacturer has produced 1000 TVs in the seventh year and 1450 TVs
in the tenth year. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed
number every year, find the number of TVs produced in the first year and in the
15th year.
olution: Since the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every year, the
S
number of TV sets manufactured in 1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year ... will form an A.P.
Let us denote the number of TV sets manufactured in the nth year by tn .
13. The sum of three consecutive terms in an A.P. is 6 and their product is –120. Find
the three numbers.
olution: Let
S a  d, a, a + d be the three consecutive terms.
Now, ^a  d h + a + ^a + d h = 6 & 3a = 6 & a = 2
1. Find out which of the following sequences are geometric sequences. For those
geometric sequences, find the common ratio.
(i) 0.12, 0.24, 0.48, g . (ii) 0.004, 0.02, 0.1, g . (iii) 1 , 1 , 2 , 4 , g .
2 3 9 27
(iv) 12, 1, 1 , g . (v) 2 , 1 , 1 , g . (vi) 4,  2,  1,  1 , g .
12 2 2 2 2
Solution: (i) Here, 0.24 = 0.48 = g = 2
0.12 0.24
Thus, the common ratio is 2. Therefore the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
(ii) The given sequence is 0.004, 0.02, 0.1, g
Now, 0.02 = 0.1 = g = 5
0.004 0.02
Thus, the common ratio is 5. Therefore, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
(iii) Considering the ratio of the consecutive terms, we see that
1 2 4
3 = 9 = 27 =g= 2
1 1 2 3
2 3 9
2
So, the common ratio is . Therefore, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
3
1
(iv) We have 1 = 12 = g = 1 . Thus, the common ratio is 1 .
12 1 12 12
Hence, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
1 1
(v) We have 2 = 2 2 =g= 1
2 1 2
2
Thus, the common ratio is 1 .
2
Hence, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
2. Find the 10th term and common ratio of the geometric sequence 1 ,  1 , 1,  2, g .
4 2
Solution: The common ratio of the sequence,
1
r = 2 = 1 =  2 = g = 2
1 1 1
4 2
The first term of the sequence is 1 .
4
The general term of the sequence is tn = a r n  1, n = 1, 2, 3g
Thus, t10 = ` 1 j^ 2h10  1 = 12 ^ 2h9 = 27 .
4 2
3. If the 4th and 7th terms of a G.P. are 54 and 1458 respectively, find the G.P.
Solution: Given that t4 = 54 and t7 = 1458 .
Using the formula tn = a r n  1, n = 1, 2, 3g for the general term we have,
6
a r3 = 54 and a r6 = 1458 & a r3 = 1458 & r3 = 27 & r = 3
ar 54
Now, a r3 = 54
& a^33h = 54
& a = 54 = 2
27
Hence, the required geometric sequence is 2, ^2h^3 h, ^2h^3 h2, ^2h^3 h3 g
i.e., 2, 6, 18, 54, g
4. In a geometric sequence, the first term is 1 and the sixth term is 1 , find the
3 729
G.P.
Now, a r5 = 1 & 1 r5 = 1
729 3 729
4
Here, a = 5, r = = 5 = g = 2
2
5 2 5
n1
The general term is tn = a r , n = 1, 2, 3, g
Thus, a rn  1 = 128 = 27
15625 (625) (25)
n  1 7
& 5` 2 j = 26
5 5
2 n  1 7
& `5j = `2j
5
& n1 = 7 & n = 8
6. If the geometric sequences 162, 54, 18,g and 2 , 2 , 2 , g have their nth term
81 27 9
equal, find the value of n.
Solution: Consider the geometric sequence 162, 54, 18, g
Here, a = 162, r = 54 = 18 = g = 1 .
162 54 3
n1
So tn = 162` 1 j g (1)
3
n1
Thus, 162` 1 j = 2 ^3 hn  1
3 81
& 162 = 2 3n  1
3n  1 81
2 162 # 81
& ^3 n  1h =
2
a8 rB
& 1 r+1+1 = 7
4
& 1;r +r+1E = 7
2
g (2)
a r 4
On dividing (1) by (2) we get a2 = 7 # 4
7
& a2 = 4 & a = ! 2
Since the sum of the terms are positive, a = 2
2
Now, 2c r + r + 1 m = 7
r
& 2r 2 + 2 r + 2 = 7 r
& 2r2  5r + 2 = 0
& ^2r  1h^r  2h = 0
& r = 2 or 1
2
By taking a = 2, r = 2 the three terms of the G.P. are 1, 2, 4
By taking a = 2, r = 1 , the three terms of the G.P. are 4, 2, 1.
2
34 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
11. The sum of the first three terms of a G.P. is 13 and sum of their squares is 91.
Determine the G.P.
Solution: Let the first three terms of the G.P be a, ar, ar2 .
Given that a^1 + r + r2h = 13 g (1)
a2 ^1 + r2 + r4h = 91 g (2)
Using (1) and (2) we get,
a2 ^1 + r2 + r4h = 91 = 7
2 169 13
a2 ^1 + r + r2h
^ 2h^ 2h
& 1 + r + r 1  r2 + r = 7
^1 + r + r2h 13
& 1  r + r2 = 7
1 + r + r2 13
& 3r2  10r + 3 = 0
& ^r  3h^3r  1h = 0
& r = 3 or 1
3
When r = 3 , the three terms are 1, 3, 9; when r = 1 , the three terms are 9, 3, 1.
3
12. If `1000 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the rate of 5%
compounded annually, find the maturity amount at the end of 12 years.
Solution: The principal is ` 1000. Interest for the first year is 1000 ` 5 j
100
Amount at the end of the first year is
1000 + 1000` 5 j = 1000`1 + 5 j
100 100
Interest for second year = 1000 `1 + 5 j` 5 j
500 100
So, the amount at the end of the second year
= 1000`1 + 5 j + 1000`1 + 5 j` 5 j
100 100 100
= 1000`1 + 5 j`1 + 5 j
100 100
2
= 1000`1 + 5 j
100
Continuing in this way, we see that the amount at the end of 12th year
12 12
= ` 1000`1 + 5 j = ` 1000 ` 105 j
100 100
Note: Without using above method, one can easily find that total amount using the
formula A = P^1 + ihn Where A is the amount, P is the principal i = r , r is the
100
annual interest rate and n is the number of years.
12 12
A = 1000 `1 + 5 j = ` 1000 ` 105 j
100 100
t2 = `50000 # 85 j # 85
100 100
2
= 50000 # ` 85 j
100
15
Thus, the value of the machine at the end of 15th year, t15 = ` 50000` 85 j .
100
14. If a, b, c, d are in a geometric sequence, then show that
^a  b + ch^ b + c + dh = ab + bc + cd.
Solution: Given a, b, c, d are in geometric sequence. Let r be the common ratio of the
given sequence. Then, b = ar, c = ar2, d = ar3
Now, ^a  b + ch^b + c + d h = ^a  ar + ar2h^ar + ar2 + ar3h
= a2 r^1  r + r2h ^1 + r + r2h
= a 2 r + a 2 r3 + a 2 r 4
= ab + bc + cd .
Aliter: Given that a, b, c, d are in G.P. So, b2 = ac , ad = bc and c2 = bd
Now, ^a  b + ch ^b + c + d h
= ab + ac + ad  b2  bc  bd + bc + c2 + cd
= ab + ^ac  b2h + ^ad  bch + ^ bd + c2h + bc + cd
= ab + bc + cd .
Exercise 2.4
1. Find the sum of the first (i) 75 positive integers (ii) 125 natural numbers.
Solution: (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 75 is an Arithmetic series
Here, a = 1, d = 2  1 = 1 and n = 75
Now, Sn = n 6 2a + ^ n  1 h d @
2
& s75 = 75 62 (1) + ^75  1h (1) @
2
= 75 62 + 74 @ = 75 676 @ = 675 # 38 @
2 2
Thus, S75 = 2850.
Remarks: Also note that the above problem can be solved by using the formula
Sn = n 6 a + l @ . Here, n = 75, a = 1 .
2
` S75 = 75 61 + 75 @ = 75 ^76h = 2850
2 2
(ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 125 is an Arithemetic series
Here, a = 1, d = 1, n = l = 125
125 61 + 125 @
`` Sn = 2 6 a + l @j
Now, S125 = n
2
= 125 # 126 = 125 # 63
2
Thus, S125 = 7875.
2. Find the sum of the first 30 terms of an A.P. whose nth term is 3 + 2n .
Solution: Given that the nth term of an A.P is 3 + 2n .
Now, tn = 3 + 2n = 5 + (n  1) (2) of the form a + (n  1) d
We have Sn = n 62a + (n  1) d @
2
& S20 = 20 6^ 6h + 19 ( 4) @ = 10^ 82h = – 820.
2
Aliter: 1  2 + 3  4 + g + 392  402
2 2 2 2
= 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + g + 392 + 402
 2^22 + 42 + 62 + g + 402h
= 12 + 22 + 32 + g + 402  2^22h^12 + 22 + g + 202h
^40h^41h^81h ^20h^21h^41h
=  8
6 6
= ^20h^41h627  28 @ = 820 .
= 39 + ` 39 + 1 j + ` 39 + 2 j + g = 39 + 40 + 41 + 42 + g .
11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
7. In the arithmetic sequence 60, 56, 52, 48,g , starting from the first term, how
many terms are needed so that their sum is 368?
Solution: Given arithmetic sequence is 60, 56, 52, 48,g
Here, a = 60, d = 56  60 = 52  56 = g = 4
Also, Sn = 368 .
Let us find the number of terms needed.
Now, Sn = n 62a + ^n  1h d @
2
& 368 = n 62^60h + ^n  1h^ 4h@
2
& n 6120  4n + 4 @ = 368
2
& n 6124  4n @ = 368 & n^62  2nh = 368
2
& 2n2  62n + 368 = 0 & n2  31n + 184 = 0
& ^n  8h^n  23h = 0 & n = 8 or 23
Hence, 8 terms or 23 terms are needed to get the sum 368.
8. Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 9.
Solution: The sequence of 3 digit numbers which are divisible by 9 are
108, 117, 126, g, 999 .
This is an A.P., where a = 108, d = 9 and l = 999 .
Also, l = a + (n  1) d & n = l  a + 1
d
& = 999  108 + 1 = 891 + 1 = 99 + 1 = 100
9 9
Now, Sn = n (a + l) & S100 = 100 6999 + 108 @
2 2
= 50^1107h = 55350 .
13. A construction company will be penalised each day for delay in construction of
a bridge. The penalty will be `4000 for the first day and will increase by `1000
for each following day. Based on its budget, the company can afford to pay a
maximum of `1,65,000 towards penalty. Find the maximum number of days by
which the completion of work can be delayed.
Solution: Penalty amounts to be levied for consecutive days form an Arithmetic
series with a = 4000, d = 1000 .
Let n be the maximum number of days for which the work can be delayed.
Then, Sn = 1,65,000 ( given )
& n 62^4000h + ^n  1h^1000h@ = 1,65,000
2
& n 68000 + 1000n  1000 @ = 3,30,000
& n2 + 7n  330 = 0
& ^n + 22h^n  15h = 0 & n = 15 or  22
Maximum number of days for which the work can be delayed is 15.
14. A sum of `1000 is deposited every year at 8% simple interest. Calculate the
interest at the end of each year. Do these interest amounts form an A.P.?
If so, find the total interest at the end of 30 years.
Solution: Every year `1000 is deposited at 8% simple interest.
Interest for the first year, t1 = 1000 # 8 = 80
100
Interest for the second year, t2 = 2000 # 8 = 160
100
Thus, the interest amounts 80 , 160 , 240, g at the end of each year form an A.P.
with a = 80 and d = 80 .
The total interest is Sn = n { 2a + (n  1) d } & S30 = 30 6160 + 29^80h@ = `7200
2 2
2
15. The sum of first n terms of a certain series is given as 3n  2n .
Show that the series is an arithmetic series.
Solution: Given that Sn = 3n2  2n .
So, Sn  1 = 3^n  1h2  2^n  1h
Solution  Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 41
= 36 n2  2n + 1 @  2n + 2 = 3n2  8n + 5
Now, the nth term is tn = Sn  Sn  1
= 3n2  2n  63n2  8n + 5 @
= 6n  5 = 6n  6 + 1 = 1 + ^n  1h 6 .
So, tn is of the term a + ^n  1h d .
Hence, the given series is an Arithmetic series with a = 1, d = 6 .
16. If a clock strikes once at 1 o’clock, twice at 2 o’clock and so on, how many times
will it strike in a day?
Solution: Number of times the clock strikes each hour form an A.P.
Then, for the first 12 hours, the arithmetic series is 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 12 .
Thus, Sn = n 6 a + l @ & S12 = 12 61 + 12 @ = 6^13h = 78 .
2 2
Hence, the clock strikes in a day ( in 24 hours) = 2 # 78 = 156 times.
17. Show that the sum of an arithmetic series whose first term is a , second term b and
^a + ch^ b + c  2ah
the last term is c , is equal to .
2 ^ b  ah
Solution: Given that t1 = a, t2 = b and the last term tn = l = c
Now, the common difference, d = t2  t1 = b  a
Thus, tn = a + ^n  1h d = c & a + ^n  1h^b  ah = c
& n  1 = c  a & n = b + c  2a
ba ba
Hence, Sn = n 6 a + l @
2
^b + c  2ah
= ^ a + ch
2^ b  ah
18. If there are ^2n + 1h terms in an arithmetic series, then prove that the ratio of the
sum of odd terms to the sum of even terms is ^n + 1h : n .
Solution: Given that the arithmetic series has ^2n + 1h terms.
Let T, S denote the sum of odd terms and even terms respectively.
Now, T = t1 + t3 + t5 + g + t2n + 1
Exercise 2.5
Sn = 7 69 + 99 + 999 + g to n terms]
9
= 7 6^10  1h + ^100  1h + ^1000  1h + g to n terms]
9
= 7 6 (10 + 100 + 1000 + g n terms)  (1 + 1 + 1gn terms) ]
9
= 7 610 + 102 + 103 + gn terms  n @
9
= 7 ;10 c 10 n  1 m  n E
9 10  1
^ n h
( Here, sum of n terms of G.P. is a r  1 )
r1
= 70 ^10 n  1h  7n
81 9
(ii) Given series is 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .
= n  6 ; 1 + 1 2 + 1 3 + g to n terms]
10 10 10
46 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
1 81  1 n B
= n  6 > 10 H
` 10 j
= n  6 8 1 `1  ` 1 j jB = n  2 81  ` 1 j B
n n
1 1 9 10 3 10
10
^ n h
( Here, sum of n terms of G.P. is a r  1 )
r1
9. Suppose that five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic and each sick
person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the
second week and so on. By the end of 15th week, how many people will be affected
by the epidemic?
Solution: The number of people affected by the epidemic during each week form a
geometric series.
Thus, the total number of people affected by the epidemic in 15 weeks is,
S15 = 5 + ^4 # 5h + ^4 # 20h + ^4 # 80h + g to 15 terms
= 5 + 20 + 80 + g to 15 terms.
It is geometric series with a = 5, r = 4 , n = 15
6 15 @
Thus, Sn = a r  1 & S15 = 5 4  1 = 5 6415  1 @ .
^ n h
r1 41 3
10. A gardener wanted to reward a boy for his good deeds by giving some mangoes.
He gave the boy two choices. He could either have 1000 mangoes at once or he
could get 1 mango on the first day, 2 on the second day, 4 on the third day, 8
mangoes on the fourth day and so on for ten days. Which option should the boy
choose to get the maximum number of mangoes?
Solution: If the boy receives mangoes daily for 10 days, then
the total number of mangoes is S10 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + g to 10 terms.
The above series is a geometric series with a = 1, r = 2 and n = 10 .
^ n h (1)6210  1 @
Thus, Sn = a r  1 & S10 = = 210  1 = 1023.
r1 21
Hence, the boy should opt for getting mangoes daily for 10 days.
11. A geometric series consists of even number of terms. The sum of all terms is 3
times the sum of odd terms. Find the common ratio.
Solution: Assume that the number of terms in the geometric series is 2n .
Given that S2n = 3 (sum of odd terms)
n
& = 3a )= 1  r 2 G3 & 3 = 1
^ 2h
& r=2
1r 1+r
Thus, the common ratio is 2.
12. If S1, S2 and S3 are the sum of first n, 2n and 3n terms of a geometric series
respectively, then prove that S1 ^ S3  S2h = ^ S2  S1h2 .
^ nh ^ 2nh ^ 3n h
Solution: Given that S1 = a 1  r , S2 = a 1  r and S3 = a 1  r
1r 1r 1r
nh 3n h
^ ^
Now, S1 ^ S3  S2h = ' a 1  r 1 ' a 1  r a^1  r2nh 1

1r 1r 1r
^1  r h ^1  r h
2 2n ^ nh ^ nh 2 2n ^ nh2
= a r 1  r 2 1  r = a r 1 2r g (1)
^1  r h ^1  r h
2n n
Also S2  S1 = a c 1  r m  a c 1  r m
1r 1r
= a 61  r2n  1 + r n @ = a r 61  r n @
n
1r 1r
2
& a2 r2n ^1  r nh
^ S2  S1h = = S1 ^ S3  S2h . (using (1))
2
^1  r h2
Exercise 2.6
/ k2  22 612 + 22 + 32 + g + 192 @  10 = / k2  4/ k2  10
39 39 19
=
1 1 1
n
{ / k2 = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) }
1 6
4; E  10
39^39 + 1h ^78 + 1h 19 ^19 + 1h ^38 + 1h
=
6 6
= 20540  9880  10 = 10650 .
3 3 3
(vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35
= ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 353h  ^13 + 23 + g + 153h
35 15 n n^ n + 1h 2
= / k3  / k3 ) / k3 = c m 3
1 1 k=1 2
E  ;
15 ^15 + 1h 2
= ; E = 8 35 # 36 B  8 15 # 16 B
35 (35 + 1) 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
= ^35 # 18h2  ^15 # 8h2 = ^630h2  ^120h2
= (630 + 120)(630  120) = 382500.
2. Find the value of k if
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084 (ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
3 3 3 3
Solution: (i) Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084
k
& / n3 = 6084
1
;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 6084 = 782
2
& k (k + 1) = 156 = 12 # 13 & k = 12 .
3 3 3 3
(ii) Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
k
& / n3 = 2025
1
;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 2025 = 452 & k^k + 1h = 9 # 10
2
Thus, k = 9
Solution  Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 49
3 3 3 3
3. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p .
Solution: Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171
p
& / n = 171
1
p^ p + 1h
& = 171
2
;
p^ p + 1h 2
& E = 1712
2
Thus, 1 3 + 23 + 33 + g + p3 = 1712 = 29241.
3 3 3 3
4. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k .
3 3 3 3
Solution: Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281
;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 8281 = 912
2
k ^ k + 1h
& = 91
2
& 1 + 2 + 3 + gk = 91
5. Find the total area of 12 squares whose sides are 12 cm, 13cm, g, 23cm. respectively.
Solution: Given that the sides of 12 squares are 12cm, 13cm, 14cm, g, 23cm.
Total area of 12 squares = 122 + 132 + 142 + g + 232
= ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 232h  ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 112h
23 11 n
= / k2  / / k2 { / k2 = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) }
1 1 1 6
23^23 + 1h^46 + 1h 11^11 + 1h^22 + 1h
= 
6 6
= 23 # 24 # 47  11 # 12 # 23
6 6
= 4324  506 = 3818 cm 2 .
6. Find the total volume of 15 cubes whose edges are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm
respectively.
Solution: The edges of 15 cubes are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm respectively.
Total volume of 15 cubes = 163 + 173 + 183 + g + 303
= ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 303h  ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 153h
30 15 n n^ n + 1h 2
= / k3  / k3 ) / k3 = c m 3
1 1 k=1 2
= ; E ;
30^30 + 1h 2 15^15 + 1h 2
E
2 2
= ^15 # 31h2  ^15 # 8h2 = ^465h2  ^120h2
= 216225  14400 = 201825 cm3 .
50 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Exercise 2.7
Choose the correct answer.
1. Which one of the following is not true?
(A) A sequence is a real valued function defined on N .
(B) Every function represents a sequence.
(C) A sequence may have infinitely many terms.
(D) A sequence may have a finite number of terms.
Solution: A real valued function defined on N is a sequence. ( Ans. (B) )
a
7. If a1, a2, a3, g are in A.P. such that 4 = 3 , then the 13th term of the A.P. is
a7 2
(A) 3 (B) 0 (C) 12a1 (D) 14a1
2
Solution: 2( a + 3d ) = 3( a + 6d ) & 3a + 18d – 2a – 6d = 0
& a + 12d = 0 ( Ans (B) )
9. If k+2, 4k–6, 3k–2 are the three consecutive terms of an A.P, then the value of k is
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5
Solution: (k+2) + (3k–2) = 2(4k–6) & 4k = 8k – 12 & k = 3. ( Ans (B) )
10. If a, b, c, l, m. n are in A.P., then 3a+7, 3b+7, 3c+7, 3l+7, 3m+7, 3n+7 form
(A) a G.P. (B) an A.P.
(C) a constant sequence (D) neither A.P. nor G.P
Solution: If an A.P is Multiplied by a constant or Added by a constant,
the resulting sequence is an A.P ( Ans (B) )
11. If the third term of a G.P is 2, then the product of first 5 terms is
2 5
(A) 5 (B) 2 (C) 10 (D) 15
Solution: The terms 5x, 10x + 10 , 15x + 15 are obtained by multiplying the
original sequence by 5. ( Ans (B) )
15. If the product of the first four consecutive terms of a G.P is 256 and if the common ratio
is 4 and the first term is positive, then its 3rd term is
(A) 8 (B) 1
16
(C) 1 (D) 16
32
Solution: Let the G.P be a3 , a , ar, ar3 ; a4 = 256 & a = 4. ar = 16. ( Ans (D) )
r r
2 3 4 5
17. If x ! 0 , then 1 + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x is equal to
2 3 4 2 4
(A) (1 + sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (B) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)
3 5 3 4
(C) (1  sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (D) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)
6 (1 sec2 x) (1 + sec2 x + sec4 x)
Solution: Expression = 1  sec x =  ( Ans (B) )
1  sec x 1  sec x
th
18. If the n term of an A.P. is tn = 3  5n , then the sum of the first n terms is
mn m m+n
19. The common ratio of the G.P. a ,a ,a is
m m n n
(A) a (B) a (C) a (D) a ( Ans (C) )
3 3 3
20. If 1 + 2 + 3 +. . . + n = k then 1 + 2 + g + n is equal to
2 3 k ^ k + 1h
(A) k (B) k (C) (D) ^k + 1h3
2
( Ans (A) )
Solution  Algebra 55
When b = 31 , (5) & 3a  8` 31 j = – 5 & a = 23 .
22 22 11
When a = 23 , we have 1 = 23 & x = 11 .
11 x 11 23
9. 15 + 2 = 17 , 1 + 1 = 36 , x ! 0, y ! 0 .
x y x y 5
Solution: The given equations are
15 + 2 = 17 g (1)
x y
1 + 1 = 36 g (2)
x y 5
Let a = 1 and b = 1 .
x y
(1) & 15a + 2b = 17 g (3)
(2) & a + b = 36 g (4)
5
(3)  (4) # 15 & 13b = – 91 & b = 7

56 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
When b = 7, (4) & 5a + 5 (7) = 36 & a = 1
5
When a = 1 , 1 = 1 & x = 5. When b = 7, 1 = 7 & y = 1 .
5 x
5 y 7
Thus, the solution is1
`5, 7 j .
10. 2 + 2 = 1 , 3 + 2 = 0, x ! 0, y ! 0 .
x 3y 6 x y
Solution: The given equations are,
2 + 2 = 1 g (1)
x 3y 6
3 + 2 = 0 g (2)
x y
Let a = 1 and b = 1 . Now, (1) & 2a + 2 b = 1 g (3)
x y 3 6
(2) & 3a + 2b = 0 g (4)
2b = 1 & b = 1 .
(3) # 3  (4) # 2 & 
2 4
When b = 1 , (4) & 3a + 2` 1 j = 0 & 3a = 1 & a = 1 .
4 4 2 6
Thus, a = 1 & x = 6 and b = 1 & y = 4.
6 4
Hence, the solution is (6, – 4).
Exercise 3.2
x y 1
& = =
4 ( 47)  ( 11) ( 24) ( 24) (20)  ( 47) (3) 3 ( 11)  (20) (4)
x = y
& = 1
 452  339  113
& x =  452 = 4, y =  339 = 3
 113  113
Thus, the solution is (4, 3).
Solution  Algebra 57
(ii) The given system of equation is
0.5x + 0.8y  0.44 = 0
0.8x + 0.6y  0.5 = 0
Multiply both sides of the given equations by 100.
We get, 50x + 80y  44 = 0
80x + 60y  50 = 0.
x y 1
& 80  44 50 80
60  50 80 60
x y 1
& = =
80 ( 50)  60 ( 44) 80 ( 44)  50 ( 50) 50 (60)  80 (80)
x = y 1
& =
 1360  1020  3400
9x  10y 2x + 3y
(iii) = – 2, = 13 .
6 6 6
The given system of equations can be written as
9x  10y + 12 = 0
2x + 3y  13 = 0
x y 1
&  10 12 9  10
3  13 2 3
x y 1
& = =
130  36 24 + 117 27 + 20
& x = 94 = 2 ; y = 141 = 3.
47 47
Thus, the solution is (2, 3).
(iv) Three chairs and two tables cost ` 700 and five chairs and three tables cost
` 1100. What is the total cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables?
Solution: Let the cost of a chair be ` x and cost of a table be ` y.
Given that 3x + 2y = 700 & 3x + 2y  700 = 0 g (1)
and 5x + 3y = 1100 & 5x + 3y  1100 = 0 g (2)
To solve (1) and (2), let us write the coefficients as follows
x y 1
2  700 3 2
3  1100 5 3
x y 1
& = =
 2200 + 2100  3500 + 3300 9  10
Exercise 3.3
1. Find the zeros of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the basic
relationships between the zeros and the coefficients.
2
(i) x  2x  8 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2  2x  8 = (x  4) (x + 2)
Clearly, p (4) = 0 and p ( 2) = 0 .
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = x2  2x  8 are 4 and – 2.
Sum of zeros = 4 – 2 = 2 g (1)
Product of zeros = (4) (– 2) = – 8 g (2)
Solution  Algebra 61
The basic relationships:
( 2)
Sum of zeros =  coefficient of x2 =   = 2 g (3)
coefficient of x 1
Product of zeros = constant term 2 =  8 = 8 g (4)
coefficient of x 1
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(ii) 4x  4x + 1 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x2  4x + 1 = (2x  1) (2x  1)
Clearly, p^ xh = 0 when x = 1 , 1 (twice) .
2 2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 4x  4x + 1 are 1 and 1 .
2
2 2
Sum of zeros = 1 + 1 = 1 g (1)
2 2
Product of zeros = 1 # 1 = 1 g (2)
2 2 4
( 4)
coefficient of x2 =  
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  = 1 g (3)
coefficient of x 4
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(iii) 6x  3  7x .
Solution: Let p (x) = 6x2  7x  3 = (2x  3) (3x + 1)
So, p` 3 j = 0 and p `  1 j = 0
2 3
2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 6x  7x  3 are 3 and  1 .
2 3
Sum of zeros = 3 1
 = 7 g (1)
2 3 6
Product of zeros = 3 # 1 = 1 g (2)
2 3 2
( 7)
coefficient of x2 =   = 7
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  g (3)
coefficient of x 6 6
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(iv) 4x + 8x .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x2 + 8x = 4x (x + 2)
Thus, p (0) = 0 and p ( 2) = 0 .
Hence, the zeros of p (x) = 4x2 + 8x are 0 and – 2.
62 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Sum of zeros = 0 – 2 = – 2 g (1)
Product of zeros = (0) (– 2) = 0 g (2)
coefficient of x2 =  8 = 2
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  g (3)
coefficient of x 4
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(v) x  15 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2  15 = (x + 15 ) (x  15 ) .
Thus, p ( 15 ) = 0 and p ( 15 ) = 0 .
coefficient of x2 = 0 = 0
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  g (3)
coefficient of x 1
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(vi) 3x  5x + 2 .
Solution: p (x) = 3x2  5x + 2 = (3x  2) (x  1)
Let
Clearly, p` 2 j = 0 and p (1) = 0 .
3
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 3x2  5x + 2 are 2 and 1.
3
Sum of zeros = 2 5
+ 1 = . g (1)
3 3
Product of zeros = ` 2 j (1) = 2 g (2)
3 3
( 5)
coefficient of x2 =  
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  = 5 g (3)
coefficient of x 3 3
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(vii) 2x  2 2 x + 1 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 2x2  2 2 x + 1 = ( 2 x  1) ( 2 x  1)
Solution  Algebra 63
Clearly, p c 1 m = 0 ( twice)
2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 2x2  2 2 x + 1 are 1 and 1 .
2 2
Sum of zeros = 1 + 1 = 2 = 2 g (1)
2 2 2
Product of zeros = c 1 mc 1 1
m = 2 g (2)
2 2
( 2 2)
coefficient of x2 =  
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  = 2 g (3)
coefficient of x 2
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(viii) x + 2x  143 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2 + 2x  143 = (x + 13) (x  11)
Clearly, p ( 13) = 0 and p (11) = 0 .
coefficient of x2 =  2 = 2
Basic relationships: sum of zeros =  g (3)
coefficient of x 1
From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2. Find a quadratic polynomial each with the given numbers as the sum and product
of its zeros respectively.
(i) 3, 1.
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 3 and ab = 1 .
Thus, p (x) = x2  (a + b) x + ab = x2  3x + 1 .
(ii) 2, 4.
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 2 and ab = 4 .
Thus, p (x) = x2  (a + b) x + ab = x2  2x + 4 .
3 –5 5  50 " Remainder
3 9
So, (3x3  4x2  5) = ` x + 1 j`3x2  5x + 5 j  50
3 3 9
= (3x + 1) 1 `3x2  5x + 5 j  50
3 3 9
Thus, the required quotient = 1 3x  5x + j = x  x + 5 .
2 5 2 5
3` 3 3 9
The remainder =  . 50
9
4 2
(v) (8x  2x + 6x  5 ) ' (4x + 1 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 8x4  2x2 + 6x  5 .
The zero of the divisor (4x + 1) is  1 .
4
66 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
1 8 0 –2 6 –5
4
0 –2 1 3  51
2 8 32
2 –6 – 16 55  41 " Remainder
2
So, 2x4  7x3  13x2 + 63x  48 = ` x  1 j (2x3  6x2  16x + 55)  41
2 2
1
= (2x  1) (2x  6x  16x + 55)  41
3 2
2 2
Thus, the required quotient = 1 (2x  6x  16x + 55) = x  3x  8x + 55 .
3 2 3 2
2 2
The remainder =  . 41
2
4 3 2
2. If the quotient on dividing x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 by x + 4 is
3 2
x  ax + bx + 6 , then find a, b and also the remainder.
Solution: Let p (x) = x4 + 10x3 + 35x2 + 50x + 29 .
The zero of the divisor (x + 4) is – 4.
–4 1 10 35 50 29
0 –4 – 24 – 44 – 24
1 6 11 6 5 " Remainder
So, x4 + 10x3 + 35x2 + 50x + 29 = (x + 4) (x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6) + 5
Thus, the quotient is x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 .
But, x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 = x3  ax2 + bx + 6 .
Comparing the respective coefficients, we get a = 6 and b = 11 .
The remainder is 5.
Solution  Algebra 67
4 2 3 2
3. If the quotient on dividing, 8x  2x + 6x  7 by 2x + 1 is 4x + px  qx + 3 ,
then find p , q and also the remainder.
Solution: Let p (x) = 8x4  2x2 + 6x  7 .
The zero of the divisor (2x + 1) is  1 .
2
1 8 0 –2 6 –7
2
0 –4 2 0 –3
8 –4 0 6 – 10 " Remainder
Exercise 3.5
1. Factorize each of the following polynomials.
3 2
(i) x  2x  5x + 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3  2x2  5x + 6 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 1  2  5 + 6 = 0 .
So, (x  1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 –2 –5 6
0 1 –1 –6
1 –1 –6 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2  x  6 = x2  3x + 2x  6 = (x + 2) (x  3) .
Thus, x3  2x2  5x + 6 = (x  1)(x + 2) (x  3) .
(ii) 4x3  7x + 3 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x3  7x + 3 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) = 4  7 + 3 = 0 .
So, (x  1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 4 0 –7 3
0 4 4 –3
4 4 –3 0 " Remainder
The other factor is 4x2 + 4x  3 = 4x2 + 6x  2x  3 = (2x + 3) (2x  1) .
Thus, 4x3  7x + 3 = (x  1)(2x + 3) (2x  1) .
Exercise 3.6
Solution  Algebra 71
2 3 2 2
(ii) x y , x y , x y .
Solution: GCD = x2 y .
4 3 2 5 3
(iii) 25bc d , 35b c , 45c d .
Solution: 25bc4 d3 = 52 # bc4 d3
35b2 c5 = 5 # 7b2 c5
45c3 d = 5 # 3 2 c3 d
GCD = 5c3 .
5 3 4 2 3 2 2
(iv) 35x y z , 49x yz , 14xy z .
Solution: 35x5 y3 z4 = 7 # 5 # x5 y3 z4
49x2 yz3 = 7 # 7 # x2 yz3
14xy2 z2 = 7 # 2 # xy2 z2
GCD = 7xyz2 .
2. Find the GCD of the following
2 2
(i) c  d , c^c  dh .
Solution: c2  d2 = (c + d) (c  d)
c (c  d) = c (c  d)
GCD = (c  d) .
4 3
(ii) x  27a x , ^ x  3ah2 .
Solution: x4  27a3 x = x (x3  33 a3) = x (x  3a) (x2 + 3ax + 9a2)
(x  3a) 2 = (x  3a) (x  3a)
GCD = (x  3a) .
2 2
(iii) m  3m  18 , m + 5m + 6 .
Solution: m2  3m  18 = (m  6) (m + 3)
m2 + 5m + 6 = (m + 2) (m + 3)
GCD = (m + 3) .
2 3 2
(iv) x + 14x + 33 , x + 10x  11x .
Solution: x2 + 14x + 33 = (x + 11) (x + 3)
x3 + 10x2  11x = x (x + 11) (x  1)
GCD = (x + 11) .
2 2 2 2
(v) x + 3xy + 2y , x + 5xy + 6y .
Solution: x2 + 3xy + 2y2 = (x + y) (x + 2y)
x2 + 5xy + 6y2 = (x + 3y) (x + 2y)
GCD = (x + 2y) .
72 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
2 2
(vi) 2x  x  1 , 4x + 8x + 3 .
Solution: 2x2  x  1 = (2x + 1) (x  1)
4x2 + 8x + 3 = (2x + 1) (2x + 3)
GCD = (2x + 1) .
2 2 2
(vii) x  x  2 , x + x  6 , 3x  13x + 14 .
Solution: x2  x  2 = (x  2) (x + 1)
x2 + x  6 = (x  2) (x + 3)
3x2  13x + 14 = (x  2) (3x  7)
GCD = (x  2) .
3 2 4
(viii) x  x + x  1 , x  1 .
Solution: x3  x2 + x  1 = (x2 + 1) (x  1)
x4  1 = (x2 + 1) (x  1)(x + 1)
GCD = (x2 + 1) (x  1) .
4 3 2 6 5 4
(ix) 24^6x  x  2x h , 20^2x + 3x + x h .
Solution: 24 (6x4  x3  2x2) = 4 # 6 # x2 (2x + 1) (3x  2) .
20 (2x6 + 3x5 + x4) = 4 # 5 # x4 (2x + 1) (x + 1)
GCD = 4x2 (2x + 1) .
(x) ^a  1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a  2h2 ^a  1h3 ^a + 3h4 .
Solution: (a  1) 5 (a + 3) 2 = (a  1) 2 ^a  1h3 (a + 3) 2
(a  1) 3 (a + 3) 4 (a  2) 2 = (a  1) 3 (a + 3) 2 ^a + 3h 2 (a  2) 2
GCD = (a  1) 3 (a + 3) 2
3. Find the GCD of the following pairs of polynomials using division algorithm.
3 2 2
(i) x  9x + 23x  15 , 4x  16x + 12 .
Solution: Let f (x) = x3  9x2 + 23x  15 .
and g (x) = 4x2  16x + 12 = 4 (x2  4x + 3) .
So, the divisor is x2  4x + 3.
x5
x2  4x + 3 x3  9x2 + 23x  15
x3  4x2 + 3x
 5x2 + 20x  15
 5x2 + 20x  15
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = x2  4x + 3 .
Solution  Algebra 73
3 2 2
(ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 , 3x + 13x + 10 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 3x3 + 18x2 + 33x + 18 .
and g (x) = 3x2 + 13x + 10 .
So, the divisor is g (x) = 3x2 + 13x + 10 .
x+ 5
3
3x2 + 13x + 10 3x3 + 18x2 + 33x + 18
3x3 + 13x2 + 10x
(–) (–) (–)
5x2 + 23x + 18
5x2 + 65x + 50
3 3
4x + 4
3 3
& 4 (x + 1) ! 0. Note that 4 is not a divisor of g (x).
3 3
3x + 10
x + 1 3x2 + 13x + 10
3x2 + 3x
(–) (–)
10x + 10
10x + 10
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = x + 1 .
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 , 6x + 12x + 6x + 12 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2 (x3 + x2 + x + 1) .
and g (x) = 6 (x3 + 2x2 + x + 2) .
Note that 2 is a common factor of f (x) and g (x) .
Here, the divisor is x3 + x2 + x + 1 .
1
x3 + x2 + x + 1 x3 + 2x2 + x + 2
x3 + x 2 + x + 1
x2 + 1 ! 0
x+1
x 2 + 1 x3 + x 2 + x + 1
x3 +x
x2 + 1
x2 + 1
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = 2 (x2 + 1) .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) x  3x + 4x  12 , x + x + 4x + 4x .
Solution: Let f (x) = x3  3x2 + 4x  12
and g (x) = x (x3 + x2 + 4x + 4)
Thus, the divisor is x 3 + x 2 + 4x + 4
1
x3 + x2 + 4x + 4 x3  3x2 + 4x  12
x3 + x2 + 4x + 4
 4x 2  16
&  4 (x2 + 4) ! 0. Note that  4 is not a factor of f (x).
x+1
x2 + 4 x3 + x2 + 4x + 4
x3 + 4x
(–) (–)
x2 +4
x2 +4
(–) (–)
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD ( f (x), g (x) ) = x2 + 4 .
Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following.
3 2
1. x y , xyz .
Solution: x3 y2 , xyz. Hence, LCM = x3 y2 z .
Solution  Algebra 75
2 3 3
2. 3x yz , 4x y .
Solution: 3x2 yz ; 4x3 y3 .
Thus, LCM = 3 # 4x3 y3 z = 12x3 y3 z .
2 2 2
3. a bc , b ca , c ab .
Solution: a2 bc = a2 bc ; b2 ca = ab2 c ; c2 ab = abc2
Thus, LCM = a2 b2 c2 .
4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4
4. 66a b c , 44a b c , 24a b c .
Solution: 66a4 b2 c3 = 11 # 2 # 3 # a4 b2 c3
44a3 b4 c2 = 11 # 2 # 2 # a3 b4 c2
24a2 b3 c4 = 2 # 3 # 2 # 2 # a2 b3 c4
Thus, LCM = 11 # 2 # 2 # 3 # 2 # a4 b4 c4 = 264a4 b4 c4 .
m+1 m+2 m+3
5. a , a , a .
Solution: a m + 1 = a m # a ; a m + 2 = a m # a2
a m + 3 = a m # a3
Thus, LCM = a m # a3 = a m + 3 .
2 2 2
6. x y + xy , x + xy .
Solution: x2 y + xy2 = xy (x + y)
x2 + xy = x (x + y)
Thus, LCM = xy (x + y) .
2
7. 3^a  1h , 2^a  1h2 , ^a  1h .
2
Solution: 3^a  1h , 2^a  1h2 , ^a  1h .
Now, a2  1 = (a  1) (a + 1) .
Thus, LCM = 6 (a  1) 2 (a + 1) .
2 2 2 2 3 3
8. 2x  18y , 5x y + 15xy , x + 27y .
Solution: 2x2  18y2 = 2 (x + 3y) (x  3y)
5x2 y + 15xy2 = 5xy (x + 3y)
x3 + 27y3 = (x + 3y) (x2  3xy + 9y2)
LCM = 2 # 5 # xy (x + 3y) (x  3y) (x2  3xy + 9y2)
Thus, LCM = 10xy (x + 3y) (x  3y) (x2  3xy + 9y2) .
Exercise 3.8
x2 + 2x + 3
x2 + x + 1 x4 + 3x3 + 6x2 + 5x + 3
x 4 + x3 + x 2
2x3 + 5x2 + 5x
2x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x
3x2 + 3x + 3
3x2 + 3x + 3
0
(x + x + 1) (x + 2x + 3) (x4 + 2x2 + x + 2)
2 2
LCM =
(x2 + x + 1)
Thus, LCM = (x2 + 2x + 3) (x4 + 2x2 + x + 2) .
Solution  Algebra 77
www.tnschools.co.in
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 15x + 2x  35 , x + 8x + 4x  21 whose GCD is x + 7 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2x3 + 15x2 + 2x  35
g (x) x3 + 8x2 + 4x  21 and GCD. is x + 7
=
f (x) # g (x)
Thus, LCM =
GCD
Now, GCD divides both f (x) and g (x) . Let us divide f (x) by GCD.
2x 2 + x  5
x + 7 2x3 + 15x2 + 2x  35
2x3 + 14x2
x2 + 2x
x2 + 7x
 5x  35
 5x  35
0
(x + 7) (2x + x  5) (x3 + 8x2 + 4x  21)
2
LCM =
x+7
Hence, LCM = (2x2 + x  5) (x3 + 8x2 + 4x  21) .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) 2x  3x  9x + 5 , 2x  x  10x  11x + 8 whose GCD is 2x  1 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2x3  3x2  9x + 5 .
g (x)= 2x4  x3  10x2  11x + 8 and GCD = 2x  1
f (x) # g (x)
Thus, LCM =
GCD
Now, GCD divides both f (x) and g (x) . Let us divide g (x) by GCD.
x3  5x  8
2x  1 2x4  x3  10x2  11x + 8
2x 4  x 3
2
 10x  11x
 10x2 + 5x
 16x + 8
 16x + 8
0
(2x  1) (x3  5x  8) (2x3  3x2  9x + 5)
LCM =
(2x  1)
Thus, LCM = (x3  5x  8)(2x3  3x2  9x + 5) .
2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD
and one polynomial p^ xh respectively.
(i) ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h2 , ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h , ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h .
Solution: LCM = (x + 1) 2 (x + 2) 2 ; GCD = (x + 1) (x + 2)
and p (x) = (x + 1) 2 (x + 2)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
2 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 1) (x + 2)
p (x) (x + 1) 2 (x + 2)
2
Thus, q (x) = (x + 1) (x + 2) .
(ii) ^4x + 5h3 ^3x  7h3 , ^4x + 5h^3x  7h2 , ^4x + 5h3 ^3x  7h2 .
Solution: LCM = (4x + 5) 3 (3x  7) 3 ; GCD = (4x + 5) (3x  7) 2
and p (x) = (4x + 5) 3 (3x  7) 2
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
(4x + 5) 3 (3x  7) 3 (4x + 5) (3x  7) 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD =
p (x) (4x + 5) 3 (3x  7) 2
Thus, q (x) = (3x  7) 3 (4x + 5) .
4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4
(iii) ^ x  y h^ x + x y + y h , x  y , x  y .
Solution: LCM = (x4  y4) (x4 + x2 y2 + y4) ; GCD = (x2  y2)
and p (x) = x4  y4
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = (x  y ) (x + x y + y ) (x  y )
p (x) x4  y4
4 2 2 4 2 2
Thus, q (x) = (x + x y + y )(x  y ) .
3 2 3 2
(iv) ^ x  4xh^5x + 1h , ^5x + xh , ^5x  9x  2xh .
Solution: LCM = (x3  4x) (5x + 1) = x (x + 2) (x  2) (5x + 1)
GCD = (5x2 + x) = x (5x + 1)
and p (x) = 5x3  9x2  2x = x (5x + 1) (x  2)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
x (x + 2) (x  2) (5x + 1) (x) (5x + 1)
& q (x) = LCM
= # GCD =
p (x) x (5x + 1) (x  2)
Thus, q (x) = x (x + 2) (5x + 1) .
2 3 2
(v) ^ x  1h^ x  2h^ x  3x + 3h , ^ x  1h , ^ x  4x + 6x  3h .
Solution: LCM = (x  1)(x  2) (x2  3x + 3) ; GCD = x  1
and p (x) = x3  4x2 + 6x  3 = (x  1) (x2  3x + 3)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
Solution  Algebra 79
(x 1)(x  2) (x2  3x + 3) (x  1)
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = 
p (x) (x  1) (x2  3x + 3)
Thus, q (x) = (x  1) (x  2) .
2
(vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x  4h , ^ x + 1h , ^ x + 1h^ x  2h .
Exercise 3.9
Simplify the following into their lowest forms.
2
(i) 6x2 + 9x .
3x  12x
Solution: 6x2 + 9x = 3x (2x + 3) = 2x + 3 .
3x2  12x 3x (x  4) x4
2
(ii) x4 + 1 .
x 1
Solution: x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 = 21 .
4 2 2
3
x 1 (x + 1) (x  1) x 1
(iii) x 1 .
2
x +x+1
2
Solution: x3  1 = (x  1)(x + x + 1) = (x  1) .
x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1
3
(iv) x 2 27 .
x 9
2
Solution: x3  27 = (x  3) (x + 3x + 9) = x2 + 3x + 9 .
x2  9 (x + 3) (x  3) x+3
4 2
(v) x 2+ x + 1 .
4 2 2 2 2
(Hint: x + x + 1 = ^ x + 1h  x )
x +x+1
2 2
Solution: x4 + x2 + 1 = (x + x + 1) (x  x + 1) = x2  x + 1 .
x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1
3
(vi) x +8 .
4 2
x + 4x + 16
x3 + 8 x3 + 23 (x + 2) (x2  2x + 4)
Solution: = =
x4 + 4x2 + 16 (x2 + 4) 2  (2x) 2 (x2 + 2x + 4)(x2  2x + 4)
= 2 x + 2 .
x + 2x + 4
Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
2
(i) x  2x # 3x + 6 .
x+2 x2 2
Solution: x  2x # 3x + 6 = x (x  2) # 3 (x + 2) = 3x .
x+2 x2 x+2 x2
2 2
(ii) x 2 81 # x2 + 6x + 8
x 4 x  5x  36
2 2
Solution: x  81 # x + 6x + 8 = (x + 9) (x  9) # (x + 4) (x + 2)
2
x 4
2
x  5x  36 (x + 2) (x  2) (x  9) (x + 4)
= x + 9 .
x2
Solution  Algebra 81
2 2
(iii) x 2 3x  10 # x 3 2x + 4
x  x  20 x +8
2 2
Solution: x  3 x  10 # x  2x + 4 = (x  5) (x + 2) # x 2  2x + 4
2
x  x  20
3
x +8 (x  5) (x + 4) (x + 2) (x2  2x + 4)
= 1 .
x+4
(iv) x 2  16 # x 2  4 # x 2  4x + 16
x 2  3x + 2 x3 + 64 x 2  2x  8
2 2 2
Solution: 2 x  16 # x3  4 # x 2 4x + 16
x  3x + 2 x + 64 x  2x  8
=
(x + 4) (x  4)
#
(x + 2) (x  2)
# x2  4x + 16
(x  2)(x  1) (x + 4) (x2  4x + 16) (x  4) (x + 2)
= 1 .
x1
2 2
(v) 3x 2 + 2x  1 # 2x 2  3x  2
x x2 3x + 5x  2
2 2
(3x  1) (x + 1) (2x + 1) (x  2)
Solution: 3x 2 + 2x  1 # 2x2  3x  2 = #
x x2 3x + 5x  2 (x  2) (x + 1) (3x  1) (x + 2)
= 2x + 1 .
x+2
4
(vi) 2x  1 # x  8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x  3 x  2x
4
Solution: 2x  1 # x  8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x  3 x  2x
2
= 2x  1 # x (x  2) (x + 2x + 4) # x + 3 = 1.
x 2 + 2x + 4 (2x  1) (x + 3) x (x  2)
2. Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
2
(i) x ' x .
x + 1 x2  1
2
Solution: x ' x = x # ^ x + 1h (x  1) = x  1 .
x + 1 x2  1 x+1 x2 x
2
(ii) x2  36 ' x + 6
x  49 x + 7
2
(x 6) (x  6) (x + 7)
Solution: x2  36 # x + 7 = + = x  6 .
x  49 x + 6 ( x + 7) ( x  7) ( x + 6) x7
2 2
(iii) x 2
4x  5 ' x  3x  10
2
x  25 x + 7x + 10
Solution:
(x2  4x  5) (x2 + 7x + 10) (x  5) (x + 1) (x + 5) (x + 2) (x + 1)
# 2 = # = .
2
(x  25) (x  3x  10) ( x + 5) ( x  5) (x  5) (x + 2 ) (x  5)
2 2
(vii) 2x 2 + 5x  3 ' 2x 2 + x  1
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x  3
2 2
2x + 5x  3 ' 2x + x  1 = (2x  1) (x + 3) # (2x + 3) (x  1)
Solution:
2 2
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x  3 (2x + 3) (x + 3) (2x  1) (x + 1)
= x  1 .
x+1
Exercise 3.11
= 1 + 1 = 2 .
x+1 x+1 x+1
Solution  Algebra 83
www.tnschools.co.in
2 2
(iii) x 2 x  6 + x 2+ 2x  24 .
x 9 x  x  12
2 2
Solution: x 2
x  6 + x + 2x  24
2
x 9 x  x  12
(x  3) (x + 2) (x + 6) (x  4)
= + = x+2 + x+6
(x + 3) (x  3) (x  4) (x + 3) x+3 x+3
= x + 2 + x + 6 = 2x + 8 = 2 (x + 4) .
x+3 x+3 x+3
(iv) 2
x2 + 2 x+3 .
x  7x + 10 x  2x  15
= 1 + 1 = 2 .
x5 x5 x5
2 2
(v) 2x2  5x + 3  2x 2  7x  4 .
x  3x + 2 2x  3x  2
2 2
Solution: 2x2  5x + 3  2x2  7x  4
x  3x + 2 2x  3x  2
(2x  3) (x  1) (2x + 1) (x  4)
=  = 2x  3  x  4
(x  2)(x  1) (2x + 1) (x  2) x2 x2
= 2x  3  x + 4 = x + 1 .
x2 x2
2 2
(vi) x  4  x  11x + 30 .
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x  x  20
2 2
Solution: x  4  x  11x + 30
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x  x  20
(x + 2)(x  2) (x  6) (x  5)
=  = x2  x6
(x + 2)(x + 4) (x  5) (x + 4) x+4 x+4
= x2x+6 = 4 .
x+4 x+4
2
(vii) > 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 H  ` 3x  2 j .
x+1 x 1 x1
Solution: = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G  ` 3x  2 j
2
x+1 x 1 x1
= 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 
(3x  2)
x+1 (x + 1)(x  1) x1
(2x + 5)(x  1) + x2 + 1  (3x  2) (x + 1)
=
(x + 1)(x  1)
84 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
= 2x2  2x + 5x  5 + x2 + 1  3x2  3x + 2x + 2
(x + 1)(x  1)
2x  2 2 (x  1)
= = = 2 .
(x + 1)(x  1) (x + 1) (x  1) x+1
(viii) 1 + 1  2 2 .
x 2 + 3x + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 6 x + 4x + 3
Solution: 1 + 2 1  2 2
2
x + 3x + 2 x + 5x + 6 x + 4x + 3
= 1 + 1  2
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 2) (x + 3) (x + 3) (x + 1)
x + 3 + x + 1  2 (x + 2)
=
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)
= 2x + 4  2x  4 = 0 .
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)
3 3 2
2. Which rational expression should be added to x 2  1 to get 3x +2 2x + 4 ?
x +2 x +2
Solution: Let p (x) be the required rational expression.
Solution: 1  2Q = 1 
2Q
PQ P Q2 2 P  Q (P + Q) (P  Q)
Solution  Algebra 85
www.tnschools.co.in
P + Q  2Q PQ
= =
(P + Q) (P  Q) (P + Q)(P  Q)
= 1 = 1 = 1
P+Q x + y x+y
x+y x+y x+y
Thus, 1  2Q = 1.
P  Q P2  Q2
Exercise 3.12
82 (a + b) 4 (x  y) 8 (b  c) 6 2 4
8 (a + b) (x  y) (b  c) .
3
= =
52 (x + y) 4 (a  b) 6 (b + c)10 5 (x + y) 2 (a  b) 3 (b + c) 5
x 2
x + 14 + 2 = (x2) 2 + d 12 n + 2 (x2) d 12 n
4
Solution:
x x x
= 2 1 2 2 1
cx + 2 m = cx + 2 m .
x x
2 2 2
(v) ^6x + 5x  6h^6x  x  2h^4x + 8x + 3h .
Solution: ^6x2 + 5x  6h^6x2  x  2h^4x2 + 8x + 3h
= (2x + 3) (3x  2) (3x  2) (2x + 1) (2x + 1) (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3) 2 (3x  2) 2 (2x + 1) 2 = (2x + 3) (3x  2) (2x + 1) .
2 2 2
(vi) ^2x  5x + 2h^3x  5x  2h^6x  x  1h .
2 2 2
Solution: ^2x  5x + 2h^3x  5x  2h^6x  x  1h
= (2x  1) (x  2) (3x + 1) (x  2) (2x  1) (3x + 1)
= (2x  1) 2 (x  2) 2 (3x + 1) 2 = (2x  1) (x  2) (3x + 1) .
Exercise 3.13
1. Find the square root of the following polynomials by division method.
4 3 2
(i) x  4x + 10x  12x + 9 .
Solution: x2  2x + 3
x2 x4  4x3 + 10x2  12x + 9
x4
2x2  2x  4x3 + 10x2
 4x3 + 4x2
2x2  4x + 3 6x2  12x + 9
6x2  12x + 9
0
Thus, x4  4x3 + 10x2  12x + 9 = x2  2x + 3 .
Solution  Algebra 87
4 3 2
(ii) 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x + 1 .
Solution: 2x2 + 2x + 1
2x2 4x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 1
4x4
4x2 + 2x 8x3 + 8x2
8x3 + 4x2
4x2 + 4x + 1 4x2 + 4x + 1
4x2 + 4x + 1
0
Thus, 4x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 1 = 2x2 + 2x + 1 .
4 3 2
(iii) 9x  6x + 7x  2x + 1 .
Solution: 3x2  x + 1
3x2 9x4  6x3 + 7x2  2x + 1
9x4
6x2  x  6x3 + 7x2
 6x3 + x2
6x2  2x + 1 6x2  2x + 1
6x2  2x + 1
0
Thus, 9 x 4  6 x 3 + 7 x 2  2 x + 1 = 3x 2  x + 1 .
2 3 4
(iv) 4 + 25x  12x  24x + 16x .
Solution: 4x2  3x + 2
4x2 16x4  24x3 + 25x2  12x + 4
16x4
8x2  3x  24x3 + 25x2
 24x3 + 9x2
8x2  6x + 2 16x2  12x + 4
16x2  12x + 4
0
Thus, 16x4  24x3 + 25x2  12x + 4 = 4x2  3x + 2 .
6 + 2x + 3x2
6 36 + 24x + 40x2  bx3 + ax4
36
12 + 2x 24x + 40x2
24x + 4x2
12 + 4x + 3x2 36x2  bx3 + ax4
36x2 + 12x3 + 9x4
0
Since the given polynomial is a perfect square, we must have a = 9 and b = 12 .
Thus, a = 9 and b = 12 .
Exercise 3.14
Solution: 3x2  5x  12 = 0
Solution: 5 x2 + 2x  3 5 = 0
& (x + 5 ) ( 5 x  3) = 0 & x = 5 or x = 3
5
Hence, solution set is ' 5 , 3 1 .
5
Solution  Algebra 91
Exercise 3.15
& x2 + 2 (3x) = 7
& x2 + 2 (3x) + 9 = 7 + 9
& (x + 3) 2 = 16
& x + 3 = ! 4 & x = 1 or x = 7 .
Hence, the solution set is {– 7, 1}.
2
(ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0.
Solution: x2 + 3x + 1 = 0
& x2 + 2` 3 xj + 9 =  1 + 9
2 4 4
3 2 5
& ` x + 2 j = 4
& x + 3 = ! 5
2 2
& x =  3 ! 5 & x =  3  5 or x =  3 + 5 .
2 2 2 2
Hence, the solution set is '  3  5 ,  3 + 5 1 .
2 2
2
(iii) 2x + 5x  3 = 0.
Solution: 2x2 + 5x  3 = 0
& x + 5 = ! 7 & x = 5 ! 7
4 4 4 4
1
& x = or x = 3 . Hence, the solution set is $ 3, 1 . .
2 2
2 2 2
(iv) 4x + 4bx  a  b = 0.
^ h
Solution: 4x2 + 4bx  (a2  b2) = 0 (Divide both sides by 4)
2 2
& x2 + bx = a  b
4
2 2 2 2
& x2 + bx + b = a  b + b
4 4 4
& x + b = ! a & x =  b ! a
2 2 2 2
(a b)
Thus, x = a  b or x = +
2 2
(a b)
Hence, the solution set is '  + , a  b 1 .
2 2
2
(v) x  ^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0.
Solution: x2  ( 3 + 1) x + 3 = 0
2 2
& x2  ( 3 + 1) x + c 3 + 1 m = c 3 + 1 m  3
2 2
; x  c 3 + 1 mE = 3 + 2 3 + 1  4 3
2
&
2 4
; x  c 3 + 1 mE = c 3  1 m
2 2
&
2 2
& x  c 3 + 1 m = ! c 3  1 m
2 2
& x = c 3 + 1 m ! c 3  1 m
2 2
Thus, x = 3 or x = 1 . Hence, the solution set is {1, 3 } .
(vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2 .
x1
Solution: 5x + 7 = 3x + 2
x1
& 5x + 7 = (3x + 2) (x  1)
& 3x2  6x  9 = 0
2
& x2  2x  3 = 0 ( Note that `  2 j = 1 )
2
& x2  2x + 1 = 1 + 3
& (x  1) 2 = 4
& x  1 = ! 2 & x =1!2
Thus, x = 3 or x = 1 .
Hence, the solution set is { 1, 3} .
2. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.
2
(i) x  7x + 12 = 0.
Solution: x2  7x + 12 = 0. The equation is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 1, b = 7, c = 12
x =  b ! b2  4ac
2a
Solution  Algebra 93
www.tnschools.co.in
= 7 ! 49  48 = 7 ! 1
2 2
& x = 8 or x = 6 & x = 4 or x = 3.
2 2
Thus, the solution set is "4, 3 , .
2
(ii) 15x  11x + 2 = 0.
Solution: 15x2  11x + 2 = 0. It is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 15, b = 11, c = 2
Thus, x = b ! b2  4ac
2a
Here, a = 2, b = 5, c = 2
Thus, x = b ! b2  4ac
2a
5 ! 25  16 = 5 ! 9 = 5 ! 3
=
4 4 4
& x = 2 or x = 1
2
1
Thus, the Solution set is $ , 2 . .
2
2 2 2
(iv) 3a x  abx  2b = 0.
Solution: 3a2 x2  abx  2b2 = 0. It is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .
Now, x = B ! B2  4AC
2A
ab ! a2 b2  4 (3a2) ( 2b2)
=
2 (3a2)
= ab ! a2 b2 + 24a2 b2 = ab ! 5ab
6a 2 6a2
Now, x =  B ! B2  4AC
2A
(a2 1) ! (a2 + 1) 2  4a2
= +
2a
(a2 + 1) ! a 4 + 2a 2 + 1  4a 2
=
2a
(a2 + 1) ! a 4  2a 2 + 1 (a2 + 1) ! (a2  1) 2
= =
2a 2a
(a2 + 1) ! (a2  1)
=
2a
2
Thus, x = 2a = a or x = 2 = 1
2a 2a a
1
Hence, the Solution set is $ , a . .
a
2 2 2
(vi) 36x  12ax + ^a  b h = 0.
2
Solution: 36x2  12ax + (a2  b2) = 0. It is of the form Ax + Bx + C = 0 .
Here, A = 36, B = 12a, C = (a2  b2)
Now, x =  B ! B2  4AC
2A
12a ! 144a2  4 (36)(a2  b2)
=
2 (36)
2 2 2
= 12a ! 144a  144a + 144b
72
2
= 12a ! 144b = 12a ! 12b
72 72
12 (a + b) (a + b) 12 (a  b) (a  b)
Thus, x = = or x = =
72 6 72 6
Solution  Algebra 95
(vii) x  1 + x  3 = 10 .
x+1 x4 3
Solution: x  1 + x  3 = 10
x+1 x4 3
(x  1)(x  4) + (x  3) (x + 1)
& = 10
(x + 1)(x  4) 3
& x2  5x + 4 + x2  2x  3 = 10
x2  3x  4 3
& 2x2  7x + 1 = 10
x2  3x  4 3
& 6x2  21x + 3 = 10x2  30x  40
& 4x2  9x  43 = 0 ( ax2 + bx + c = 0 form )
Here, a = 4, b = 9, c = 43
Now, x =  b ! b2  4ac
2a
9 ! 81  4 (4) ( 43)
= = 9 ! 769
2 (4) 8
Thus, x = 9 + 769 or 9  769
8 8
Hence, the Solution set is ' 9  769 , 9 + 769 1.
8 8
2 2 2 2 2
(viii) a x + ^a  b h x  b = 0.
Solution: a2 x2 + (a2  b2) x  b2 = 0. This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .
Here, A = a2, B = a2  b2, C = b2
Now, x =  B ! B2  4AC
2A
Exercise 3.16
2. The difference of the squares of two positive numbers is 45. The square of the
smaller number is four times the larger number. Find the numbers.
Solution: Let x and y be the two positive numbers. Given that x < y
Given that x2 = 4y g (1)
and y2  x2 = 45 g (2)
& y2  4y  45 = 0 [ using the equation (1) ]
& (y  9) (y + 5) = 0
& y  9 = 0 or y + 5 = 0 & y = 9 or y = – 5
Since the numbers are positive, we take y = 9.
Substituting y = 9 in (1), we get, x2 = 4 # 9, & x=6
Thus, the required numbers are 6 , 9.
3. A farmer wishes to start a 100 sq.m rectangular vegetable garden. Since he has
only 30 m barbed wire, he fences the sides of the rectangular garden letting his
house compound wall act as the fourth side fence. Find the dimension of the
garden.
Solution: Let AB = x metre and BC = y metre be the length and breadth of the
rectangular garden. Let CD be the compound wall.
Given that the length of the fencing barbed wire = 30 m
& y + x + y = 30
& x + 2y = 30
& y = ` 30  x j g (1)
2
Area of the vegetable garden = 100m2
& xy = 100
& x` 30  x j = 100 ( using (1) )
2
& 30x  x2 = 200
& x2  30x + 200 = 0
Solution  Algebra 97
www.tnschools.co.in
Solution  Algebra 99
www.tnschools.co.in
& x2  8x + 7 = 0 & (x  7) (x  1) = 0
& x=7 or x = 1
Since x = 1 is inadmissible, we take x = 7 .
Thus, Son’s age is 7 years ; Father’s age is = 72 = 49 years.
2
8. A chess board contains 64 equal squares and the area of each square is 6.25 cm .
A border around the board is 2 cm wide. Find the length of the side of the chess
board.
Solution: Let the length of side of the chess board = x cm.
Area of the each square = 6.25cm 2
Thus, the area of 64 squares = 64 # 6.25
& (x  4) 2 = 400
& x4 = ! 20 & x = 24 or – 16
Since, length of the sides of a board can’t be negative, so x = 24 cm.
9. A takes 6 days less than the time taken by B to finish a piece of work. If both A and
B together can finish it in 4 days, find the time that B would take to finish this
work by himself.
Solution: Let x be the number of days taken by B to finish the work .
Then, A takes (x  6) days to finish the same work.
& x+x6 = 1
x (x  6) 4
& x2  14x + 24 = 0
& (x  12) (x  2) = 0
& x  12 = 0 or x  2 = 0 & x = 12 or x = 2
Since x = 2 is inadmissible, we take x = 12 .
Thus, B needs 12 days to finish the work by himself.
10. Two trains leave a railway station at the same time. The first train travels due
west and the second train due north. The first train travels 5 km/hr faster than
the second train. If after two hours, they are 50 km apart, find the average speed
of each train.
Exercise 3.17
(v) 3 x  2 x + 1 = 0 .
2
5 3
Solution: 3 x2  2 x + 1 = 0
5 3
Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 3 , b = 2 , c = 1
5 3
2 2 2 3 4 12 88
Now, D = b  4ac = ` j  4` j (1) =  = <0
3 5 9 5 45
Thus, the equation has no real roots.
where a, b, c, d are nonzero real numbers, are equal, then prove that a = c .
b d
Solution: (a2 + b2) x2  2 (ac + bd) x + c2 + d2 = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 , we get ,
A = a2 + b2, B = 2 (ac + bd), C = c2 + d2
Now, D = B2  4AC = 0 ( the roots are equal )
& [ 2 (ac + bd)] 2  4 (a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) = 0
& 4 (ac + bd) 2  4 (a2 c2 + a2 d2 + b2 c2 + b2 d2) = 0
& a2 c2 + 2abcd + b2 d2  a2 c2  a2 d2  b2 c2  b2 d2 = 0
2 2 2 2
&  a d  b c + 2abcd = 0
& a2 d2  2abcd + b2 c2 = 0
& (ad  bc) 2 = 0 & ad  bc = 0
& ad = bc
& a = c . ( a, b, c, d are non zero)
b d
6. Show that the roots of the equation
^ x  ah^ x  bh + ^ x  bh^ x  ch + ^ x  ch^ x  ah = 0 are always real and they
cannot be equal unless a = b = c .
Solution: (x  a) (x  b) + (x  b) (x  c) + (x  c) (x  a) = 0
& x2  ax  bx + ab + x2  bx  cx + bc + x2  cx  ax + ca = 0
& 3x2  2 (a + b + c) x + ab + bc + ca = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .
Thus, we get A = 3, B = 2 (a + b + c), C = ab + bc + ca .
Now, D = B2  4AC
= [ 2 (a + b + c)] 2  4 (3) (ab + bc + ca)
= 4 (a + b + c) 2  12 (ab + bc + ca)
= 4 [(a + b + c) 2  3 (ab + bc + ca)]
= 4 [a2 + b2 + c2  ab  bc  ca]
= 2 [2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2  2ab  2bc  2ca]
104 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
= 2 [(a  b) 2 + (b  c) 2 + (c  a) 2] > 0
Thus, the roots are always real.
If a = b = c , then D = 0 . Thus, in this case the roots are equal.
2 2 2 2
7. If the equation ^1 + m h x + 2mcx + c  a = 0 has equal roots, then prove that
2 2 2
c = a ^1 + m h .
Solution: (1 + m2) x2 + 2mcx + c2  a2 = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 , where
A = (1 + m2), B = 2mc, C = c2  a2
Given that the equations has equal roots
Thus, D = B2  4AC = 0
& (2mc) 2  4 (1 + m2)^c2  a2h = 0
& 4m2 c2  4 (c2  a2 + m2 c2  a2 m2) = 0
& m2 c2  c2 + a2  m2 c2 + a2 m2 = 0
&  c2 + a2 + a2 m2 = 0
Thus, c2 = a2 (1 + m2) .
Exercise 3.18
1. Find the sum and the product of the roots of the following equations.
2
(i) x  6x + 5 = 0 .
Solution: x2  6x + 5 = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 1, b = 6, c = 5 . Let a and b be the roots.
( 6)
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b =  b =  = 6
a 1
Product of the roots, ab = c = 5 = 5
a 1
Thus, sum and product of the roots are 6 and 5 respectively.
2
(ii) kx + rx + pk = 0 .
Solution: kx2 + rx + pk = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = k, b = r, c = pk . Let a and b be the roots.
Now, sum of the roots, a + b =  b = r
a k
pk
Product of the roots, ab = c = =p
a k
Thus, sum and product of the roots are  r and p.
k
2
(iii) 3x  5x = 0 .
Solution: 3x2  5x = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Solution  Algebra 105
Here, a = 3, b = 5, c = 0 . Let a and b be the roots.
( 5)
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b =  b =  =5
a 3 3
Product of the roots, ab = c 0
= =0
a 3
Thus, sum and product of the roots are 5 and 0.
3
2
(iv) 8x  25 = 0 .
Solution: 8x2  25 = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 8, b = 0, c = 25 . Let a and b be the roots.
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b =  b = 0 = 0 Note: x2 = 25 ,
a 8 8
Product of the roots, ab = c = 25 Thus. x = 25 ,  25
a 8 8 8
Thus, Sum and product of the roots are 0 and  25 .
8
2. Form a quadratic equation whose roots are
(i) 3 , 4 (ii) 3 + 7 , 3  7 (iii) 4 + 7 , 4  7
2 2
Solution: (i) Given roots are 3, 4. Let a , b be the roots.
Sum of the roots, a + b = 3 + 4 = 7
Product of the roots, ab = 3 (4) = 12
The required equation is x2  (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
Thus, the equation is x2  7x + 12 = 0 .
(ii) Given roots are 3 + 7 , 3  7 . Let a = 3 + 7 and b = 3  7 .
Sum of the roots, a + b = 3 + 7 + 3  7 = 6
Product of the roots, ab = (3 + 7 ) (3  7 ) = 9  7 = 2
The required equation is x2  (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
Thus, the equation is x2  6x + 2 = 0 .
(iii) Let a = 4 + 7 , b = 4  7 be the given roots.
2 2
Sum of the roots, a + b = 4 + 7 + 4  7 = 8 = 4
2 2 2
Product of the roots, ab = c 4 + 7 mc 4  7 m = 16  7 = 9
2 2 4 4
The required equation is x  (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
2
p
Now, a+b = ` b j = g (1)
a 5
ab = 1 g (2)
5
Given that, ab = 1 g (3)
Now, (a + b) 2  4ab = (a  b) 2
p2 4
&  = 1 ( using (1), (2) & (3) )
25 5
& p2  20 = 25 & p2 = 45
Thus, p = !3 5 .
Exercise 3.19
Chose the correct answer.
Solution: 6x  2y = 3, kx  y = 2 . Here a1 = 6, b1 = 2, a2 = k, b2 = 1 .
a1 b
For unique solution ! 1 & 6 ! 2 & k ! 3 (Ans. (B) )
a2 b2 k 1
Solution: If the system is inconsistent, it does not have solution. (Ans. (C) )
Let a and 1 be the zeros of the polynomial. (a) ( 1 ) = 3k & k = 2. (Ans. (A) )
a a k+4
 (p + 3)
Sum of zeros =  b & = 0 & p + 3 = 0. (Ans. (C) )
a 2
2
6. The remainder when x  2x + 7 is divided by x+4 is
(A) 28 (B) 29 (C) 30 (D) 31
Solution: By remainder theorem,
f ( 4) = ( 4) 2  2 ( 4) + 7 = 16 + 8 + 7 = 31 (Ans. (D) )
3 2
7. The quotient when x  5x + 7x  4 is divided by x–1 is
2 2 2 2
(A) x + 4x + 3 (B) x  4x + 3 (C) x  4x  3 (D) x + 4x  3
Solution: By synthetic division,
1 1 –5 7 –4
0 1 –4 3
Quotient " 1 " Remainder –4 3 –1
(Ans. (B) )
3 4
8. The GCD of ^ x + 1h and x  1 is
3 3
(A) x  1 (B) x + 1 (C) x +1 (D) x  1
Solution: Let f (x) = (x3 + 1) = (x + 1)(x2  x + 1)
g (x) = x4  1 = (x + 1) (x  1)(x2 + 1) (Ans. (C) )
2 2 4 4
9. The GCD of x  2xy + y and x  y is
2 2
(A) 1 (B) x+y (C) x–y (D) x  y
Solution: Let f (x) = x2  2xy + y2 = (x  y) 2
g (x) = x4  y4 = (x  y) (x + y) (x2 + y2) (Ans. (C) )
3 3
10. The LCM of x  a and (x – a) 2 is
3 3 3 3
(A) (x  a ) ^ x + ah (B) (x  a ) ^ x  ah2
2 2 2 2
(C) ^ x  ah2 ^ x + ax + a h (D) ^ x + ah2 ^ x + ax + a h
Solution: Let f (x) = x3  a3 = (x  a) (x2 + ax + a2)
g (x) = (x  a) 2 = (x  a) 2 (Ans. (C) )
Thus, LCM = (x  a) 2 (x 2 + ax + a2)
k k+3 k+5
11. The LCM of a , a ,a , where keN is
k+9 k k+6 k+5
(A) a (B) a (C) a (D) a
Solution: Let f (x) = a k ; g (x) = a k + 3 = a k # a3 .
h (x) = a k + 5 = a k # a5 (Ans. (D) )
Thus, LCM is a k + 5 .
112 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
2
12. The lowest form of the rational expression x 2+ 5x + 6 is
x x6
(A) x  3 (B) x + 3 (C) x + 2 (D) x  3
x+3 x3 x3 x+2
3 3 3 3 (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)
Solution: a + b = a  b =  (Ans. (A) )
ab ba ab ab ab
2 2 2
16. The square root of 49 (x  2xy + y ) is
2 2
(A) 7 x  y (B) 7^ x + yh^ x  yh (C) 7 (x + y) (D) 7 (x  y)
2 4 6 2 4
(C) 11x y z l  m (D) 11x y z (l  m)
3
Matrices 4
Exercise 4.1
1. The rates for the entrance tickets at a water theme park are listed below:
Week Days Week End
rates (`) rates (`)
Adult 400 500
Children 200 250
Senior Citizen 300 400
Write down the matrices for the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and
senior citizens. Also find the dimensions of the matrices.
Solution: In Matrix form, the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and senior
citizens is given in the following two ways.
400 500
(i) A = f200 250 p. The dimension (order) of A is 3 # 2
300 400
400 200 300
(ii) B = c m . The dimension (order) of B is 2 # 3
500 250 400
2. There are 6 Higher Secondary Schools, 8 High Schools and 13 Primary Schools
in a town. Represent these data in the form of 3 # 1 and 1 # 3 matrices.
6
Solution: We can represent the given data in the form of 3 # 1 matrix as A = f 8 p
13
We can also represent the given data in the form of 1 # 3 matrix as B = ^6 8 13h
3. Find the order of the following matrices.
J 1 2 N
7 3 2 6 K O
1 1 5 2 3
(i) e o (ii) f 8 p (iii) f 6  1 1 p (iv) ^3 4 5h (v) KK O
O
2 3 4 9 7
9 2 4 5 K O
1 1 5 L 6 4 P
Solution: (i) The matrix e o has 2 rows and 3 columns.
2 3 4
Hence, the order of the matrix is 2 # 3.
7
(ii) The given matrix f8 p has 3 rows and 1 column.
9
Hence, the order of the matrix is 3 # 1.
3 2 6
(iii) The given matrix f6  1 1 p has 3 rows and 3 columns.
2 4 5
Hence, the order of the matrix is 3 # 3.
Solution  Matrices 115
(iv) The given matrix ^3 4 5h has 1 row and 3 columns.
Hence, the order of the matrix is 1 # 3.
J 1 2N
K O
K 2 3O
(v) Since the given matrix K has 4 rows and 2 columns, the order is 4 # 2.
9 7O
K O
L 6 4P
4. A matrix has 8 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?
Solution: The possible orders of the matrices having 8 elements are
1 # 8, 2 # 4, 4 # 2 and 8 # 1.
5. A matrix consists of 30 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?
Solution: The possible orders of the matrices having 30 elements are
1 # 30, 2 # 15, 3 # 10, 5 # 6, 6 # 5, 10 # 3, 15 # 2 and 30 # 1.
6. Construct a 2 # 2 matrix A = 6aij @ whose elements are given by
ij
(i) aij = ij (ii) aij = 2i  j (iii) aij =
i+j
a a
Solution: In general a 2 # 2 matrix is given by A = e 11 12 o
a21 a22
(i) Now, ai j = ij , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
a11 = (1) (1) = 1, a12 = (1) (2) = 2, a21 = (2) (1) = 2, a22 = (2) (2) = 4
1 2
Hence, the required matrix A = c m
2 4
(ii) Now, ai j = 2i–j , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
a11 = 2 (1)  1 = 1, a12 = 2 (1)  2 = 0, a21 = 2 (2)  1 = 3, a22 = 2 (2)  2 = 2
1 0
Hence, the required matrix A = c m
3 2
ij
(iii) Now, ai j = , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
i+j
Exercise 4.2
1. Find the values of x, y and z from the matrix equation
5x + 2 y4 12 8
e o=c m
0 4z + 6 0 2
Solution: Since the matrices are equal, the corresponding elements are equal.
Equating the corresponding elements, we get
5x + 2 = 12 & 5x = 10 & x = 2
y  4 = 8 & y = 4
4z + 6 = 2 & 4z = 4 & z = 1
Thus, x = 2, y = 4, z = 1
2x + y 5
2. Solve for x and y if e o=c m.
x  3y 13
Solution: Since the matrices are equal, the corresponding elements are equal.
Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
2x + y = 5 & 2x + y  5 = 0 and x  3y = 13 & x  3y  13 = 0
Solving the equations by the method of cross multiplication, we get
x y 1 x = y = 1
= = &
13
  15 5
 + 26 6
  1  28 21 7
Thus, x =  28 = 4, y = 21 = 3 .
7 7
118 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
2 3 1 5
3. If A = e oe o , then find the additive inverse of A.
9 5 7 1
2 3 1 5 2 3 1 5
Solution: A = e oe o=e o+e o
9 5 7 1 9 5 7 1
21 35 1 2
= e o = e o
9  7 5 + 1  16 6
The additive inverse of A is –A. Hence, the additive inverse is
1 2 1 2
 A =  e o=e o
 16 6 16  6
3 2 8 1
4. Let A = c m and B = c m . Find the matrix C if C = 2A + B .
5 1 4 3
3 2 8 1
Solution: Given that A = c m and B = c m.
5 1 4 3
Now, C = 2A + B
3 2 8 1 6 4 8 1
= 2 c m+c m=c m+c m
5 1 4 3 10 2 4 3
6+8 41 14 3
= e o = c m
10 + 4 2 + 3 14 5
4 2 8 2
5. If A = e o and B = e o , find 6A  3B .
5 9 1 3
4 2 8 2
Solution: Given that A = e o and B = e o
5 9 1 3
4 2 8 2
Now, 6A  3B = 6 e o  3e o
5 9 1 3
24  12  24  6 24  24  12  6 0  18
= e o+c m=e o=e o
30  54 3 9 30 + 3  54 + 9 33  45
2 1 10
6. Find a and b if a c m+ b c m=c m.
3 1 5
2 1 10
Solution: Given that a c m + b c m = c m
3 1 5
2a b 10 2a  b 10
& c m+c m = c m & e o=c m
3a b 5 3a + b 5
Comparing the corresponding elements, we have
2a – b = 10 g (1)
3a + b = 5 g (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get 5a = 15 & a = 3.
Substituting a = 3 in (2), we get 9 + b = 5 & b = – 4
Thus, a = 3, b = 4 .
Solution  Matrices 119
2 3 2 2
7. Find X and Y if 2X + 3Y = c m and 3X + 2Y = e o.
4 0 1 5
2 3
Solution: 2X + 3Y = c m ... (1)
4 0
2 2
3X + 2Y = e o ... (2)
1 5
We first eliminate Y. Now,
2 3 4 6
^1 h # 2 & 4X + 6Y = 2 c m=c m ... (3)
4 0 8 0
2 2 6 6
^2h # 3 & 9X + 6Y = 3 e o=e o ... (4)
1 5  3 15
Subtracting (3) from (4), we get
6 6 4 6
5X = e oc m
 3 15 8 0
6 6 4 6 6 6 4 6
= e oc m=e o+e o
 3 15 8 0  3 15 8 0
J 2 12 N
2  12 K 5  5 O
5X = e o & X = K 11 O
 11 15 K 3O
L 5 P
Substituting X in (1), we get
2  12 4 24
2 3 2 3 5 5 2 3 5
3Y = c
4 0
m  2X = c
4 0
m  2 f 11
3
p = c4 0 m + f 22 56 p
5 5 
2  4 3 + 24 6 39
= f 5 5 = f 42 5 p
5
4+ 22 06
p 6
5 5 
J 6 39 N J 2 13 N
K 5 5 O = KK 5 5 OO
O
Thus, Y = 1 K 42
3K –6 O K 14 –2 O
L5 P L5 P
2
2x 9
8. Solve for x and y if e x2 o + 3 e o=c m.
y y 4
x2 2x 9
Solution: Given that e 2 o + 3 e o = c m
y –y 4
x2 6x –9 x2 + 6x 9
& e 2o + e o=c m & e 2 o=c m
y  3y 4 y  3y 4
Equating the corresponding elements, we get
x2 + 6x = –9 y2  3y = 4
& x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 & y2  3y  4 = 0
11. An electronic company records each type of entertainment device sold at three
of their branch stores so that they can monitor their purchases of supplies. The
sales in two weeks are shown in the following spreadsheets.
T.V. DVD Video games CD Players
Store I 30 15 12 10
Week I Store II 40 20 15 15
Store III 25 18 10 12
Store I 25 12 8 6
Week II Store II 32 10 10 12
Store III 22 15 8 10
Find the sum of the items sold out in two weeks using matrix addition.
Solution: The number of items sold by three stores during week I in matrix form is
TV DVD Video CD
30 15 12 10 Store I
A = f40 20 15 15 p Store II
25 18 10 12 Store III
Similarly, the number of items sold by three stores during week II in matrix form is
TV DVD Video CD
25 12 8 6 Store I
B = f32 10 10 12 p Store II
22 15 8 10 Store III
Thus, the matrix representation of the sum of the items sold by three stores
during week I and II is
30 15 12 10 25 12 8 6
A + B = f40 20 15 15 p + f32 10 10 12 p
25 18 10 12 22 15 8 10
30 + 25 15 + 12 12 + 8 10 + 6
= f40 + 32 20 + 10 15 + 10 15 + 12 p
25 + 22 18 + 15 10 + 8 12 + 10
TV DVD Video CD
55 27 20 16 Store I
= f72 30 25 27 p Store II
47 33 18 22 Store III
Write the matrix that represents the additional cost for nonmembership.
Solution: Let the matrix A represents the fee structure for membership for oneday
admission to a swimming pool. Then,
Children Adult
20 30 Before 2pm
A = c m
30 40 After 2pm
Let the matrix B represents the fee structure for nonmembership for oneday
admission to a swimming pool. Then,
Children Adult
25 35 Before 2pm
B = c m
40 50 After 2pm
Hence, the matrix that represents the additional cost for nonmembership is given by
25 35 20 30 25  20 35  30
B – A = c m–c m=e o
40 50 30 40 40  30 50  40
Children Adult
5 5 Before 2pm
= c m
10 10 After 2pm
Exercise 4.3
1. Determine whether the product of the matrices is defined in each case. If so, state
the order of the product.
(i) AB, where A = 6aij @ , B = 8 bij B (ii) PQ, where P = 6 pij @ , Q = 6 qij @
4x3 3x2 4x3 4x3
(iii) MN, where M = 6 mij @ , N = 6 nij @ (iv) RS, where R = 6 rij @ , S = 6 sij @
3x1 1x5 2x2 2x2
Solution: (i) Now, the number of columns in A and the number of rows in B are equal
So, the product AB is defined and the order of AB is 4 × 2.
(ii) Now, the number of columns in P and the number of rows in Q are not equal.
So, the product PQ is not defined.
(iii) Now, the number of columns in M and the number of rows in N are equal.
So, the product MN is defined and the order of MN is 3×5.
(iv) Now, the number of columns in R and the number of rows in S are equal.
So, the product RS is defined and the order of RS is 2 × 2.
Solution  Matrices 123
www.tnschools.co.in
2. Find the product of the matrices, if exists,
5 3 2 4 1
(i) ^ 2  1h c m (ii) c m c m
4 5 1 2 7
4 2
2 9 3 6
(iii) e o f 6 7 p (iv) e o^ 2  7 h
4 1 0 3
2 1
5
Solution: (i) Let A = (2 –1) and B = c m .
4
The order of A is 1 × 2 and the order of B is 2 × 1.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
5
Hence, the product AB is defined and AB = (2 –1) c m = ( (2)(5) + (–1)4 ) = ( 6 ).
4
3 2 4 1
(ii) Let A = c m and B = c m.
5 1 2 7
The order of A is 2 × 2 and the order of B is 2 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
3 2 4 1
Hence, the product AB is defined and AB = c mc m
5 1 2 7
(3) (4) + ( 2) (2) (3) (1) + ( 2)(7) 12  4 3  14 8  11
= e o =e o=c m
(5) (4) + (1)(2) (5) (1) + (1)(7) 20 + 2 5 + 7 22 12
4 2
2 9 3
(iii) Let A = e o and B = f 6 7 p.
4 1 0
2 1
The order of A is 2 × 3 and the order B is 3 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
Thus, the product AB is defined and
4 2
2 9 3 8  54 + 6 4 + 63  3  40 64
AB = e o f 6 7 p = e o=c m
4 1 0 16 + 6  0 8  7 + 0 22 1
2 1
6
(iv) Let A = e o and B = (2 – 7).
3
The order of A is 2 × 1 and the order of B is 1 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
Thus, the product AB is defined and
AB = c 6 m^2  7h = e 6 # 2 6 # ^ 7h 12  42
o=c m
3 ^ 3h # 2 ^ 3h # ^ 7h 6 21
3. A fruit vendor sells fruits from his shop. Selling prices of Apple, Mango and
Orange are ` 20, ` 10 and ` 5 each respectively. The sales in three days are given
below
Day Apples Mangoes Oranges
1 50 60 30
2 40 70 20
3 60 40 10
Write the matrix indicating the total amount collected on each day and hence
find the total amount collected from selling of all three fruits combined.
124 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Solution: Let A be the matrix that represents the selling prices of Apple, Mango and
Orange in `.
Prices
20 Apple
Then, A = f10 p Mango
5 Orange
Let B be the matrix that represents the sales in three days.
Apple Mango Orange
50 60 30 Day 1
Thus, B = f40 70 20 p Day 2
60 40 10 Day 3
Thus, the total amount collected on each day is given by the matrix T = BA.
50 60 30 20
Now, T = BA & T = f40 70 20 pf10 p
60 40 10 5
1000 + 600 + 150 1750 Day 1
= f 800 + 700 + 100 p= f1600 p Day 2
1200 + 400 + 50 1650 Day 3
Hence, the total amount collected = ` (1750+1600+1650) = ` 5000
Aliter: The total sales of three fruits can be represented by the matrix
C = ( 50+40+60 60+70+40 30+20+10 )
= ( 150 170 60 )
Thus, the total amount collected from selling of all fruits is given by
T = CA
20
= (150 170 60) f10 p = (3000 + 1700 + 300) = (5000)
5
1 2 x 0 x 0
4. Find the values of x and y if c mc m=c m.
3 3 0 y 9 0
1 2 x 0 x 0 x + 0 0 + 2y x 0 x 2y x 0
Solution: c mc m=c m &e o=c m &c m=c m
3 3 0 y 9 0 3x + 0 0 + 3y 9 0 3x 3y 9 0
Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
3x = 9 & x = 3 and 2y = 0 & y = 0 .
5 3 x 5
5. If A = c m, X =c m and C = e o and if AX = C , then find the values of
7 5 y  11
x and y.
5 3 x 5
Solution: Given A = c m , X = c m and C = e o
7 5 y  11
5 3 x 5 5x + 3y 5
Now, AX = C & c mc m = e o & e o=e o
7 5 y  11 7x + 5y  11
1 1 1 1 12 13 1 4
= c mc m=e o=c m
2 3 2 3 2+6 2+9 8 7
1 4 1 1 1 0
A2 – 4A + 5I2 = c m –4 c m + 5c m
8 7 2 3 0 1
1 4 4 4 5 0
= c m+e o+c m
8 7  8  12 0 5
1  4 + 5 4+4+0 0 0
= e o=c m=O
88+0 7  12 + 5 0 0
3 2 3 0
7. If A = c m and B = c m then find AB and BA. Are they equal?
4 0 3 2
Solution: A and B are square matrices of same order 2 × 2.
Hence, the products AB and BA are defined.
3 2 3 0 9+6 0+4 15 4
Now, AB = c mc m=e o=c m g (1)
4 0 3 2 12 + 0 0+0 12 0
3 0 3 2 9+0 6+0 9 6
BA = c mc m=e o=c m g (2)
3 2 4 0 9+8 6+0 17 6
rom (1) and (2), we have AB ! BA.
F
0
1 2 1
8. If A = c m, B = f p and C = ^2 1h , then verify (AB) C = A (BC) .
1
1 2 3
2
Solution: A is of order 2 × 3 , B is of order 3 × 1 and C is of order 1 × 2.
Hence, AB is of order 2 × 1 and BC is of order 3 × 2.
5 2 2 1 T T T
9. If A = c m and B = e o verify that (AB) = B A .
7 3 1 1
5 2 2 1
Solution: A = c m, B = e o
7 3 1 1
A and B are square matrices of same order 2 × 2.
Hence, the product AB is defined.
5 2 2 1 10  2 5+2 8 3
Now, AB = c me o=e o=e o
7 3 1 1 14  3 7+3 11  4
8 11
Thus, (AB)T = e o g (1)
3 4
2 1 5 7
Now, BT = e o ; AT = c m
1 1 2 3
2 1 5 7 10  2 14  3
Thus, BT AT = e oc m=e o
 1 1 2 3 5 + 2 7+3
8 11
= e o g (2)
3 4
BA = c 3  2 mc5 2 m = c 15  14 66
m=c
1 0
m = I ...(2)
7 5 7 3  35 + 35  14 + 15 0 1
From (1) and (2), we have AB = BA = I .
Thus, the given matrices are inverses to each other under matrix multiplication.
1 0 x
11. Solve: ^ x 1h e o c m = ^ 0h .
2 3 5
1 0 x x+0
Solution: ^ x 1h e o c m = (0) & (x 1) e o = (0)
2 3 5  2x  15
x
& (x 1) e o = (0) & ((x)(x) + (1) (–2x–15)) = (0)
 2x  15
& (x2 – 2x – 15) = ( 0 )
Thus, x2  2x  15 = 0 & (x + 3) (x  5) = 0 & x = 3, 5 .
1 4 1 6 2 2 2
12. If A = e o and B = e o , then prove that (A + B) ! A + 2AB + B .
 2 3 3  2
1 4 1 6
Solution: Now, A + B = e o+e o
2 3 3 2
11 4+6 0 2
= e o=c m
2 + 3 32 1 1
1 + 18  6  12 19  18
= e o=e o
3  6 18 + 4  9 22
9  16  26 28 19  18
Now, A2 + 2AB + B2 = e o+e o+e o
 8 17 22  36  9 22
9  26 + 19  16 + 28  18 2 6
= e o= c m ... (2)
 8 + 22  9 17  36 + 22 5 3
From (1) and (2) , we get (A + B) 2 ] A2 + 2AB + B2
3 3 8 7 2 3
13. If A = c m, B = c m and C = c m , find (A + B) C and AC + BC .
7 6 0 9 4 6
Is (A + B) C = AC + BC ?
3+8 3+7 11 10
Solution: A+B = e o=c m
7+0 6+9 7 15
11 10 2  3 22 + 40  33 + 60
(A + B) C = c mc m=e o
7 15 4 6 14 + 60  21 + 90
62 27
= c m g (1)
74 69
3 3 2 3 6 + 12  9 + 18 18 9
AC = c mc m=e o=c m
7 6 4 6 14 + 24  21 + 36 38 15
8 7 2 3 16 + 28  24 + 42 44 18
BC = c mc m=e o=c m
0 9 4 6 0 + 36 0 + 54 36 54
18 9 44 18 62 27
AC + BC = c m+c m=c m g (2)
38 15 36 54 74 69
Exercise 4.4
Choose the correct answer.
1. Which one of the following statements is not true?
(A) A scalar matrix is a square matrix (B) A diagonal matrix is a square matrix
(C) A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix (D) A diagonal matrix is a scalar matrix.
Solution: A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix.
But a diagonal matrix need not be a scalar matrix. ( Ans. (D) )
2. Matrix A = 6 aij @ is a square matrix if
m#n
(A) m 1 n (B) m 2 n (C) m = 1 (D) m = n
Solution: In a square matrix, number of rows and number of columns are equal.
Thus, A = 6 aij @ is a square matrix if m = n. ( Ans. (D) )
m#n
1 2 1 2
Solution: B = A = e o=e o . ( Ans. (B) )
3 4 3 4
4 2
12. If A = e o , then A2 is
6 3
16 4 8 4 4 2 4 2
(A) c m (B) e o (C) e o (D) e o
36 9 12  6 6 3 6 3
4 2 4 2 16  12  8 + 6 4 2
Solution: A2 = AA = e
oe o=e o=e o
6 3 6 3 24  18  12 + 9 6 3
( Ans. (D) )
13. A is of order m # n and B is of order p # q , addition of A and B is possible only if
(A) m = p (B) n = q (C) n = p (D) m = p, n = q
1 2 2 3 2 3 4 5
(A) c m (B) c m (C) c m (D) c m
3 4 3 4 4 5 6 7
a11 a12 2 3
Solution: A = c m=c m ( Ans. (B) )
a21 a22 3 4
1 0 a b 1 0
17. c mc m=e o , then the values of a, b, c and d respectively are
0 1 c d 0 1
(A)  1, 0, 0,  1 (B) 1, 0, 0, 1 (C)  1, 0, 1, 0 (D) 1, 0, 0, 0
a  b 1 0
Solution: c m=e o . Equating the corresponding elements, we get
c d 0 1
a = 1, b = 0, c = 0 and d = 1 . ( Ans. (A) )
7 2 1 0
18. If A = c m and A + B = e o , then the matrix B =
1 3 2 4
1 0 6 2 8  2 8 2
(A) c m (B) e o (C) e o (D) e o
0 1 3 1 1 7 1 7
1 0 7 2 8  2
Solution: B = e oc m=e 1 o . ( Ans. (C) )
2 4 1 3 7
2
19. If ^ 5 x 1 h f  1 p = ^ 20 h , then the value of x is
3
(A) 7 (B)  7 (C) 1 (D) 0
7
2
Solution: ^ 5 x 1 h f  1 p = ^ 20 h
3
(10  x + 3) = (20) & 13  x = 20 & x = 7 ( Ans. (B) )
20. Which one of the following is true for any two square matrices A and B of same
order?
T T T T T T T
(A) (AB) = A B (B) (A B) = A B
T T T
(C) (AB) T = BA (D) (AB) = B A
T T T
Solution: By Reversal law for transpose of matrices, (AB) = B A . ( Ans. (D) )
Midpoint is ` 0 + 0 , 0 + 4 j = (0, 2)
2 2
Thus the midpoint of line segment joining the points is (0, 2) .
2. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are
(i) ^1, 3h,^2, 7h and ^12 ,  16h (ii) ^3,  5h,^ 7, 4h and ^10,  2h
Solution: (i) Let (x1, y1) = (1, 3), (x2, y2) = (2, 7) and (x3, y3) = (12,  16)
y + y2 + y3
Centroid is ` x1 + x2 + x3 , 1 j = ` 1 + 2 + 12 , 3 + 7  16 j = (5,  2) .
3 3 3 3
(ii) Let (x1, y1) = (3,  5), (x2, y2) = ( 7, 4) and (x3, y3) = (10,  2)
Centroid is ` 3  7 + 10 ,  5 + 4  2 j = 8 6 ,  3 B = (2,  1) .
3 3 3 3
3. The centre of a circle is at ( 6, 4). If one end of a diameter of the circle is at the
origin, then find the other end.
Solution: Let (x, y) be the other end of the diameter.
Centre of the circle is the midpoint of the diameter.
0+y
Thus, c 0 + x , m = ( 6, 4) . Equating x and y coordinates, we get
2 2
0 + x = 6 & x = 12 and 0 + y = 4 & y = 8.
2 2
Thus, the other end of the diameter is ( 12, 8)
4. If the centroid of a triangle is at (1, 3) and two of its vertices are ( 7, 6) and (8, 5),
then find the third vertex of the triangle.
Solution: Let the third vertex be (x, y) .
Given that Centroid of the triangle is (1, 3)
6+5+y 11 + y
Thus, c  7 + 8 + x , m = (1, 3) & c1 + x , m = (1, 3)
3 3 3 3
Equating x and ycoordinates, we get
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 133
www.tnschools.co.in
1 + x = 1 & x = 2 and 11 + y
= 3 & y = 2.
3 3
Thus, the third vertex of the triangle is (2,  2) .
5. Using the section formula, show that the points A(1,0), B(5,3), C(2,7) and
D( 2, 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order.
Solution: We know that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.
Thus, Q = `  4 + 0 , 0 + 6 j = ( 2, 3) .
2 2
Now, P is the midpoint of AQ.
Thus, P = `  4  2 , 0 + 3 j = `  6 , 3 j = ` 3, 3 j .
2 2 2 2 2
Since R is the midpoint of QB, R is `  2 + 0 , 3 + 6 j = ` 1, 9 j .
2 2 2
Hence, the required points are P( 3, 3 ), Q ( 2, 3), R ( 1, 9 ) .
2 2
Note: The point P divides AB internally in the ratio 1:3 and the point R divides AB
internally in the ratio 3 : 1. Using section formula, one can find the points P and R.
11. Find the ratio in which the xaxis divides the line segment joining the points (6, 4) and
(1,  7) .
Solution: Let A (6, 4) and B (1,  7) be the given points.
Let P(x, 0) divide AB internally in the ratio l : m
l (1) + m (6) l ( 7) + m (4)
Using section formula, we have P (x, 0) = P c , m
l+m l+m
Equating the ycoordinates, we get  7l + 4m = 0 &  7l = 4m & l = 4 .
l+m m 7
Thus, the xaxis divides the line segment in the ratio 4 : 7 internally.
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 135
www.tnschools.co.in
12. In what ratio is the line joining the points ( 5, 1) and (2 , 3) divided by the yaxis?
Also, find the point of intersection.
Solution: Let A ( 5, 1) and B (2, 3) be the given points.
Let P(0, y) divide AB internally in the ratio l : m.
l (2) + m ( 5) l (3) + m (1)
By section formula, we have P (0, y) = P c , m ... (1)
l+m l+m
Equating the xcoordinates, we get 2l  5m = 0 & 2l  5m = 0 & l = 5 .
l+m m 2
Thus, the required ratio is l : m = 5 : 2.
5 (3) + 2 (1)
Also from (1), we have P (0, y) = P c0, m = P (0, 17 ) .
5+2 7
Hence, the required point of intersection is `0, 17 j .
7
13. Find the length of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are (1,  1) , (0, 4) and
( 5, 3).
Solution: Let A (1,  1) , B (0, 4) and C ( 5, 3) be the vertices of the triangle.
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, CA and AB respectively.
Exercise 5.2
(iii) Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take them in order.
Let the vertices be A(– 4, –5), B(–1, –6) and C(4, 5).
4 1 4 4
The area of TABC = 1 ) 3
2 5 6 5 5
= 1 [(24  5  20)  (5  24  20)] = 1 (38) = 19 .
2 2
Thus, the area of the triangle is 19 sq.units.
2. Vertices of the triangles taken in order and their areas are given below. In each
of the following find the value of a.
Vertices Area (in sq. units)
(i) (0 , 0) , (4, a), (6, 4) 17
(ii) (a, a), (4, 5), (6,–1) 9
(iii) (a, –3), (3, a), (–1,5) 12
Solution: (i) Let the given vertices be A(0 , 0) , B(4, a), C(6, 4).
Given that the area of TABC is 17 sq.units.
0 4 6 0
Thus, 1 ' 1 = 17
2 0 a 4 0
& 1 (16  6a) = 17 & 16  6a = 34 & a = 3.
2
Thus, the value of a is –3.
(ii) Let the vertices be A(a, a), B(4, 5) and C(6,–1).
Given that the area of TABC is 9 sq.units.
a 4 6 a
Thus, 1 ) 3=9
2 a 5 1 a
& 1 [(5a  4 + 6a)  (4a + 30  a)] = 9 & 8a  34 = 18 & a = 13 .
2 2
Thus, the value of a is 13 .
2
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 137
(iii) Let the vertices be A (a, –3), B (3, a), C (–1 , 5).
Given that the area of TABC is 12 sq.units.
a 3 1 a
Thus, 1 ) 3 = 12
2 3 a 5  3
& 1 [(a2 + 15 + 3)  ( 9  a + 5a)] = 12
2
& a2  4a + 3 = 0 & (a  3)(a  1) = 0 & a = 3 and a = 1
Hence,the values of a are 1, 3.
3. Determine if the following set of points are collinear or not.
(i) (4, 3), (1, 2) and (–2, 1) (ii) (–2, –2), (–6, –2) and (–2, 2)
(iii) ` 3 , 3j ,(6, –2) and (–3, 4)
2
Solution: (i) Let A(4, 3), B(1, 2) and C(–2, 1) be the given points
4 1 2 4
The area of TABC = 1 ' 1
2 3 2 1 3
= 1 (8 + 1  6)  (3  4 + 4) = 0
2
Hence, the given three points A,B,C are collinear.
(ii) Let the given points be A(2, 2), B(6, 2) and C(2, 2).
The area of TABC
2 6 2 2
= 1) 3 = 1 [(4  12 + 4)  (12 + 4  4)]
2 2 2 2 2 2
Thus, 1 'h a 0 h
1 = 0
2 0 b k 0
& (hb + ak + 0)  (0 + 0 + kh) = 0
& hb + ak = kh
Since h, k ! 0, divide both sides by hk. We get, a + b = 1 .
h k
7. Find the area of the triangle formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a
triangle whose vertices are ^0,  1h, ^2, 1h and ^0, 3h . Find the ratio of this area to
the area of the given triangle.
Solution: Let the vertices of the triangle be A^0,  1h, B^2, 1h and C^0, 3h .
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of the sides BC, CA and AB respectively.
Solution: Midpoint M of AB is M` 1  2 , 8 + 4 j = M`  1 , 6j
2 2 2
Midpoint N of AC is N` 8 + 1 ,  5 + 8 j = N` 9 , 3 j
2 2 2 2
3 3  12
6
Now, the slope of the line MN is m1 = 2
9 = 2
10 = 9 ... (1)
2 + 12 2
10
13. A triangle has vertices at (6 , 7), (2 ,  9) and ( 4 , 1). Find the slopes of its
medians.
Solution: Let the vertices be A(6 , 7), B(2 ,  9) and C( 4 , 1).
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respectively.
Then AD, BE and CF are the medians of the T ABC.
The midpoint of BC is D` 2  4 ,  9 + 1 j = D ( 1,  4) .
2 2
The midpoint of CA is E`  4 + 6 , 1 + 7 j = E (1, 4) .
2 2
The midpoint of AB is F` 6 + 2 , 7  9 j = F (4,  1) .
2 2
144 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
Slope of AD =  4  7 =  11 = 11 . Slope of BE = 4 + 9 = 13 = 13 .
1  6 7 7 1  2 1
Slope of CF =  1  1 =  2 =  1 .
4+4 8 4
Hence, the slopes of the medians are 11 ,  13 and  1 .
7 4
14. The vertices of a 3 ABC are A( 5 , 7), B( 4 ,  5) and C(4 , 5). Find the
slopes of the altitudes of the triangle.
Solution: Let AD, BE and CF be the altitudes of DABC
Slope of AB =  5  7 = 12
4 + 5
Since the altitude CF is perpendicular to AB, the slope of CF = 1 .
12
Slope of BC = 5 + 5 = 10 = 5 .
4+4 8 4
Since the altitude AD is perpendicular to BC, the slope of AD = 4 .
5
Slope of AC = 5  7 = 2 .
4+5 9
Since the altitude BE is perpendicular to CA, the slope of BC = 9 .
2
Hence, the slopes of the altitudes are 1 ,  4 , 9 .
12 5 2
15. Using the concept of slope, show that the vertices (1 , 2), ( 2 , 2), ( 4 ,  3)
and ( 1,  3) taken in order form a parallelogram.
Solution: Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take the vertices in order.
Let the vertices be A ( 4 ,  3), B ( 1,  3), C (1 , 2) and D ( 2 , 2).
Slope of AB =  3 + 3 = 0 ; Slope of CD = 2  2 = 0.
1 + 4 2  1
Since the slopes of AB and CD are equal, AB is parallel to CD. ... (1)
Slope of BC = 2 + 3 = 5 ; Slope of AD = 2 + 3 = 5 .
1+1 2 2 + 4 2
Since the slopes of BC and AD are equal, BC is parallel to AD. ... (2)
From (1) and (2), we get the opposite sides of the quadrilateral ABCD are
parallel. Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
16. Show that the opposite sides of a quadrilateral with vertices AA( 2 , 4),
B(5 ,  1), C(6 , 4) and D( 1, 1) taken in order are parallel.
Solution: Given the poinst are A( 2 , 4), B(5 ,  1), C(6 , 4) and D( 1, 1).
Slope of AB =  1 + 4 = 3 ; Slope of CD = 1  4 =  3 = 3 .
5+2 7 1  6 7 7
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 145
Thus, the slopes of AB and CD are equal. Hence, AB is parallel to CD ...(1)
Exercise 5.4
1. Write the equations of the straight lines parallel to xaxis which are at a distance
of 5 units from the xaxis.
Solution: Equation of a straight line parallel to xaxis is y = k .
Thus, the equations of the straight lines parallel to xaxis which are at a
distance of 5 units from the xaxis are given by y = 5, y = 5.
2. Find the equations of the straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes and passing
through the point (5,2).
Solution: Equation of the straight line passing through (–5, –2) and parallel to
xaxis is y = 2 .
Equation of the straight line passing through (–5, –2) and parallel to yaxis is
x = 5 .
3. Find the equation of a straight line whose (i) slope is 3 and yintercept is 4,
(ii) angle of inclination is 60c and yintercept is 3.
Solution: (i) Given that slope m = 3 and the yintercept c = 4.
Equation of a straight line in the slopeintercept form is y = mx + c.
Thus, the required equation is y = 3x + 4 or 3x + y  4 = 0 .
(ii) Given that the angle of inclination is 60cand yintercept is 3.
Thus, the slope m = tan 60c = 3 and the yintercept c = 3.
Equation of the straight line in slopeintercept form is y = mx + c .
Thus, the required equation is y = 3 x + 3 or 3 x  y + 3 = 0.
4. Find the equation of the line intersecting the y axis at a distance of 3 units above
the origin and tan i = 1 , where i is the angle of inclination.
2
Solution: Given that the slope, m = tan i = 1 ; yintercept, c = 3 .
2
Equation of the straight line in slopeintercept form is y = mx + c.
Then M` 1  2 ,  3 + 5 j = M (  1 , 1) .
2 2 2
The median RM is the straight line joining the points R(3, 4) and M`  1 , 1j .
2
Thus, the equation of RM is
y4 x  ( 3) y4 2 (x + 3)
= 1 & = & 6x + 5y  2 = 0.
14 2  ^ 3h
 3 5
10. By using the concept of the equation of the straight line, prove that the given three
points are collinear. (i) (4, 2), (7, 5) and (9, 7) (ii) (1, 4), (3, 2) and (3, 16).
Solution: (i) Let us find the equation of the straight line joining the points (4, 2), (7, 5).
y2
The equation is = x  4 & x  y  2 = 0. g (1)
52 74
Put x = 9, y = 7 in (1). We have, 9  7  2 = 0 .
Thus, the point (9, 7) lies on the line joining the points (4, 2) and (7, 5).
Hence, the three points (4, 2), (7, 5) and (9, 7) are collinear.
(ii) Let us find the equation of the straight line joining the points (1, 4), (3, 2).
The equation of the straight line joining the points (1, 4), (3, 2) is
y4
= x  1 & 6x + 2y  14 = 0. & 3x + y  7 = 0. g (1)
2  4 31
Put x = 3, y = 16 in (1). We get , 3 ( 3) + 16  7 = 0.
Thus, the point (3, 16) lies on the line joining the points (1, 4), (3, –2).
Hence, the points (1, 4), (3, 2) and (3, 16) are collinear.
x + y = 1.
a b
& x + y = 1 & 9x  2y + 3 = 0
 13 3
2
(iii) Given that xintercept, a = 2 and yintercept, b = 3 .
5 4
x y
The equation of the straight line in intercepts form is + = 1.
a b
x y
& 2 + 3 = 1 & 15x  8y  6 = 0.
5 4
12. Find the x and yintercepts of the straight line
(i) 5x + 3y  15 = 0 (ii) 2x  y + 16 = 0 (iii) 3x + 10y + 4 = 0
Solution: (i) Given equation is 5x + 3y  15 = 0 & 5x + 3y = 15.
y
Dividing both sides by 15, we get x + = 1 g (1)
3 5
y
Comparing (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 , we have
a b
xintercept, a = 3 . yintercept, b = 5 .
(ii) Given equation is 2x  y + 16 = 0 & 2x  y = 16
Dividing both sides by –16, we get x + y = 1 g (1)
 8 16
y
Comparing (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 ,we have
a b
xintercept, a = 8 . yintercept, b = 16 .
(iii) Given equation is 3x + 10y + 4 = 0 & 3x + 10y = 4
10y x + y = 1 g (1)
Dividing both sides by –4, we get 3x + =1 &
4 4 ^ 43 h ^ 25 h
y
Comapring (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 , we have
a b
xintercept, a = 4 . yintercept, b = 2 .
3 5
Note: One can get xintercept by substituting y = 0 and the yintercept by substituting
x = 0 in the equation of the straight line.
Solution: The diagonals AC and BD of the rhombus ABCD bisect each other at right
angle. The slope of AC = 2  6 = 1 . Thus, the slope of BD = 1 .
1  3
Now, the midpoint of AC = ` 3  1 , 6 + 2 j = (1, 4) .
2 2
The equation of the line along BD and passing through (1, 4) with slope –1 is
y  4 = 1 (x  1) & y  4 = x + 1 & x + y  5 = 0 .
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 151
20. Find the equation of the line whose gradient is 3 and which passes through P,
2
where P divides the line segment joining A(2, 6) and B (3, 4) in the ratio 2 : 3
internally.
Solution: The point P divides AB in the ratio 2:3 internally.
Slope of 3x + 6y + 2 = 0 is m2 = 1 .
2
Since m1 = m2 , the given two straight lines are parallel.
a2 3 b2 6 3 a2 b2
3. Show that the straight lines 3x  5y + 7 = 0 and 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 are perpendicular.
Solution: Slope of 3x  5y + 7 = 0 is m1 =  3 = 3 .
5 5
Slope of 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 is m2 =  15 =  5 .
9 3
Now, m1 # m2 = ` 3 j`  5 j = 1. Thus, the straight lines are perpendicular.
5 3
Note: a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 3 (15) + ( 5) (9) = 0 . Thus, the lines are perpendicular.
y
4. If the straight lines = x  p and ax + 5 = 3y are parallel, then find a .
2
y
Solution: Given straight lines are = x  p and ax + 5 = 3y
2
m1 = 1  3 =  2 .
4h 4h
7
Slope of the straight line 7x  9y  19 = 0 is m2 = 9 .
Since the straight lines are perpendicular to each other, we have
m1 m2 = 1 & `  2 j` 7 j = 1 &  14 = 1 & h = 22 .
4h 9 36  9h 9
8. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 3x  y + 7 = 0 and passing
through the point (1,  2).
Solution: Equation of the straight line parallel to 3x  y + 7 = 0 is 3x  y + k = 0.
Since it passes through (1, –2), we have
3 (1)  ( 2) + k = 0 & k = 5.
Thus, the equation of the required straight line is 3x  y  5 = 0
Solving (1) and (2), we get the point of intersection as (–1, –1).
Slope of the line 3x  5y + 11 = 0 is m =  3 = 3 .
5 5
Thus, the slope of the required line (perpendicular line) is  5 .
3
Hence, the equation of the line passing through (–1, –1)
with slope  5 is
3
y + 1 =  5 (x + 1) & 5x + 3y + 8 = 0.
3
13. Find the equation of the straight line joining the point of intersection of the
lines 3x  y + 9 = 0 and x + 2y = 4 and the point of intersection of the lines
2x + y  4 = 0 and x  2y + 3 = 0 .
Solution: Given equations can be rewritten as
3x  y = 9 g (1) ; x + 2y = 4 g (2) .
2x + y = 4 g (3) ; x  2y = 3 g (4) .
Solving (1) and (2), the point of intersection is (–2, 3).
Solving (3) and (4), the point of intersection is (1, 2).
The equation of the straight line joining the points (–2, 3) and (1, 2) is
y3 y3
= x+2 & = x+2
23 1+2  1 3
& x + 3y  7 = 0
Thus, the required equation is x + 3y  7 = 0 .
14. If the vertices of a 3 ABC are A(2,  4), B(3, 3) and C( 1, 5), then find the equation
of the straight line along the altitude from the vertex B.
Solution: Let BD be the altitude from the vertex B.
Midpoint D of BC is D` 8 + 8 , 4 + 10 j = D (8, 7) .
2 2
Exercise 5.6
Choose the correct answer.
1. The midpoint of the line joining ^a,  bh and ^3a, 5bh is
(A) ^ a, 2bh (B) ^2a, 4bh
(C) ^2a, 2bh (D) ^ a,  3bh
3. If the line segment joining the points A^3, 4h and B^14,  3h meets the xaxis at P, then
the ratio in which P divides the segment AB is
(A) 4 : 3 (B) 3 : 4 (C) 2 : 3 (D) 4 : 1
Solution: If a line intersects xaxis, then y = 0 .
l ( 3) + m (4)
& = 0 &  3l + 4m = 0 & 3l = 4m & l = 4 ( Ans. (A) )
l+m m 3
6. Area of the triangle formed by the points (0,0), ^2, 0h and ^0, 2h is
(A) 1 sq. units (B) 2 sq. units (C) 4 sq. units (D) 8 sq. units
0 2 0 0
Solution :Area is 1 ' 1 = 1 (4) = 2
2 0 0 2 0 2
(or) 1 ab = 1 (2) (2) = 2 units. ( Ans. (B) )
2 2
7. Area of the quadrilateral formed by the points ^1, 1h , ^0, 1h , ^0, 0h and ^1, 0h is
(A) 3 sq. units (B) 2 sq. units (C) 4 sq. units (D) 1 sq. units
1 0 0 1 1
Solution: Area is 1 ' 1 = 1 (2) = 1
2 1 1 0 0 1 2
(or) Area of the square a2 = (1) 2 = 1 unit. ( Ans. (D) )
8. The angle of inclination of a straight line parallel to xaxis is equal to
(A) 0c (B) 60c (C) 45c (D) 90c
Solution: The angle of inclination of line parallel to xaxis is 0c. ( Ans. (A) )
9. Slope of the line joining the points ^3,  2h and ^ 1, ah is  3 , then the value of a is
2
equal to
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4
16. The centre of a circle is ( 6, 4). If one end of the diameter of the circle is at ( 12, 8),
then the other end is at
(A) ( 18, 12) (B) ( 9, 6) (C) ( 3, 2) (D) (0, 0)
Solution: Midpoint of the line joining ( 12, 8) and (x, y) is
8+y
c  12 + x , m = ( 6, 4) & x = 0, y = 0. ( Ans. (D) )
2 2
17. The equation of the straight line passing through the origin and perpendicular to the
straight line 2x + 3y  7 = 0 is
(A) 2x + 3y = 0 (B) 3x  2y = 0
(C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y  5 = 0
Solution: The required line is 3x  2y + k = 0. As it passes through the origin,
k = 0 ( Ans. (B) )
Solution  Coordinate Geometry 159
18. The equation of a straight line parallel to yaxis and passing through the point ^ 2, 5h is
(A) x  2 = 0 (B) x + 2 = 0
(C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y  5 = 0
Solution: Equation of the line parallel to yaxis is x = k
The line passes through (–2, 5). Thus, x = 2 & x + 2 = 0. ( Ans. (B) )
19. If the points (2, 5), (4, 6) and ^a, ah are collinear, then the value of a is equal to
(A)  8 (B) 4 (C)  4 (D) 8
Geometry 6
Exercise 6.1
1. In a TABC , D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that
DE < BC .
(i) If AD = 6 cm, DB = 9 cm and AE = 8 cm, then find AC.
(ii) If AD = 8 cm, AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm, then find CE.
(iii) If AD = 4x – 3, BD = 3x – 1 , AE = 8x – 7 and EC = 5x – 3, then find the value
of x.
Solution: (i) In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
AD = AE & EC = AE # DB & EC = 8 # 9 = 12cm.
DB EC AD 6
` AC = AE + EC = 8 + 12 = 20 cm
(ii) Given that AD = 8 cm, AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm
So, BD = AB  AD = 12  8 = 4cm
In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
AD = AE & EC = AE # DB & EC = 12 # 4 = 6 cm.
DB EC AD 8
` CE = 6cm
(iii) Given AD = 4x – 3, BD = 3x – 1 , AE = 8x – 7 and EC = 5x – 3.
In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we get
AD = AE & 4x  3 = 8x  7
DB EC 3x  1 5x  3
& (4x  3)(5x  3) = (8x  7) (3x  1)
& 4x2  2x  2 = 0
2
& 2x  x  1 = 0
& (x  1) (2x + 1) = 0
Thus, x = 1 , x = 1 . Since x !  1 (distance), we have x = 1 .
2 2
2. In the figure, AP = 3 cm, AR = 4.5cm, AQ = 6cm, AB = 5 cm, and AC = 10 cm.
Find the length of AD.
Solution: From the given data, we have AB = 5 and AC = 10 = 5 .
AP 3 AQ 6 3
Now, in TABC, AB = AC
AP AQ
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, PQ  BC
Let RD = x. In 3 ABD, PR < BD . So, AB = AD & 5 = 4.5 + x
AP AR 3 4.5
& 13.5 + 3x = 22.5 or 3x = 9. & x = 3.
Thus, AD = AR + RD = 4.5 + 3 = 7.5cm .
Solution  Geometry 161
Aliter : We have PB = AB  AP = 5  3 = 2 cm, QC = AC  AQ = 10  6 = 4 cm.
AQ AQ
Now, AP = 3 and = 6 = 3 . So, in TABC, AP =
PB 2 QC 4 2 PB QC
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, PQ  BC
AH = AK & 10 = 12 [a AH = AQ + QH = 6+ 4 = 10]
HB KC HB 18
& HB = 10 # 18 = 15cm.
12
Hence, PB = HB  HP = 15  5 = 10cm
PD = PF g (2)
DA FR
From (1) and (2), we get PE = PF
EQ FR
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, we have EF < QR .
8. In the figure, DE < AB and DF < AC . Prove that EF < BC .
Solution: In TABP, DE < AB . By Thales theorem, we have
PD = PE g (1)
DA EB
Also, given that in TCAP, DF < AC . By Thales theorem, we have
PD = PF g (2)
DA FC
rom (1) and (2), we get PE =
F PF
EB FC
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, we have EF < BC .
Solution  Geometry 163
www.tnschools.co.in
NP = MN
OP MO
& 12 + OP = MN [ a NP = NO + OP = 12 + OP ]
OP MO
& 12 + OP = 10
OP 6
& 72 + 6 # OP = 10 # OP & 4 # OP = 72
Thus, OP = 18 cm
12. In a quadrilateral ABCD, the bisectors of +B and +D intersect on AC at E.
Prove that AB = AD .
BC DC
Solution: DE is the internal bisector of +D .
In TADC, by ABT, we have AE = AD g (1)
EC DC
BE is the internal bisector of +B .
In TABC, by ABT, we have AE = AB g (2)
EC BC
From (1) and (2), we get AB = AD .
BC DC
13. The internal bisector of +A of TABC meets BC at D and the external bisector
of +A meets BC produced at E. Prove that BD = CD .
BE CE
Solution: In TABC , AD is the internal bisector of +A .
In TABC, by ABT, we have
BD = AB g (1)
DC AC
In TABC, AE is the external bisector of +A .
By ABT, we have BE = AB g (2)
CE AC
From (1) and (2), we get
BD = BE & BD = DC (or) BD = CD
DC CE BE CE BE CE
14. ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB =AD. If AE and AF are internal bisectors of
+BAC and +DAC respectively, then prove that EF < BD .
Solution: In TABC, AE is the internal bisector of +BAC .
So, by ABT, we have
AB = BE g (1)
AC EC
AD = DF or AB = DF g (2) [ AB = AD ]
AC FC AC FC
Exercise 6.2
1. Find the unknown values in each of the following figures. All lengths are given in
centimetres. (All measures are not in scale)
a
(i) (ii) (iii)
& ED = 16 # 81 = 4 # 9 = 36 .
So, BE = ED
13. A roof has a cross section as shown in the diagram, (i) Identify the similar
triangles, (ii) Find the height h of the roof.
Solution: (i) We know that if a perpendicular is drawn from
the vertex of a right angled triangle to its hypotenuse, then the
triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the
whole triangle.
Thus from the given figure, we have the similar triangles
(i) TWZY + TYZX , (ii) TWYX + TYZX and (iii) TWZY + TWYX (or)
(i) DXWY + DYWZ , (ii) TYWZ + TXYZ and (iii) TXWY + TXYZ
Exercise 6.4
1. If a straight line intersects the sides AB and AC of a TABC at D and E respectively and
is parallel to BC, then AE =
AC
(A) AD (B) AD (C) DE (D) AD
DB AB BC EC
Solution: By Thales theorem, AE = AD ( Ans. (B) )
AC AB
2. In TABC , DE is < to BC, meeting AB and AC at D and E. If AD = 3 cm, DB = 2 cm and
AE = 2.7 cm , then AC is equal to
(A) 6.5 cm (B) 4.5 cm (C) 3.5 cm (D) 5.5 cm
Solution: By Thales Theorem
AD = AE & EC = AE # BD = 2.7 # 2 = 1.8cm
BD EC AD 3
Thus, AC = AE + EC = 2.7 + 1.8 = 4.5cm ( Ans. (B) )
19. The areas of two similar triangles are 16 cm2 and 36 cm2 respectively. If the
altitude of the first triangle is 3 cm, then the corresponding altitude of the other
triangle is
(A) 6.5 cm (B) 6 cm (C) 4 cm (D) 4.5 cm
Solution:
Area of the first triangle ^ Altitude of the first triangleh2
=
Area of the second triangle ^Corresponding altitude of the second triangleh2
20. The perimeter of two similar triangles TABC and TDEF are 36 cm and 24 cm
respectively. If DE = 10 cm, then AB is
(A) 12 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 15 cm (D) 18 cm
Trigonometry 7
Exercise 7.1
1. Determine whether each of the following is an identity or not.
2 2 2 2
(i) cos i + sec i = 2 + sin i , (ii) cot i + cos i = sin i .
2
Solution: (i) When i = 45 o , cos2 i + sec2 i = c 1 m + ^ 2 h = 1 + 2 = 2.5
2
2 2
and 2+ sin i =2 + 1
2
2 2
Thus, if i = 45 o , cos i + sec i ! 2 + sin i
2 2
Hence, cos i + sec i = 2 + sin i is not an identity.
2
(ii) When i = 30 o , cot i + cos i = ^ 3 h +
2 3 = 3 + 3 and sin2 i = ` 1 j = 1
2
2
2 2 2 4
Thus, if i = 30 o , cot i + cos i ! sin i .
2
Note: One can use
2
Hence, cot i + cos i = sin i is not an identity.
2
i = 90c also.
2 2 2 2
2. Prove the following identities (i) sec i + cosec i = sec i cosec i
2 2
Solution: We consider sec i + cosec i
2 2
= 1 + 1 = sin i + cos i = 1
cos2 i sin2 i cos2 i sin2 i cos2 i sin2 i
2 2
= sec i. cosec i
Note: In this problem, sum and product of two terms are equal.
(ii) sin i = cosec i + cot i .
1  cos i
Solution: We consider sin i
1  cos i
=
2 2
tan i + cot i + 2
=
2 2
tan i + cot i + 2 tan i cot i ^a tan i cot i = 1h
= ^tan i + cot i h2 = tan i + cot i
2
(vi) 1 + cos i  sin i = cot i .
sin i ^1 + cos ih
2
Solution: We consider 1 + cos i  sin i Aliter:
sin i^1 + cos i h (cot i) {sin i (1 + cos i)}
2 2
= 1  sin i + cos i = cos i + cos i = (cos i) (1 + cos i)
sin i^1 + cos i h sin i^1 + cos i h
= cos i + cos2 i
cos i (cos i + 1)
= = cos i = cot i = cos i + 1  sin2 i
sin i^1 + cos i h sin i
(vii) sec i ^1  sin ih^sec i + tan ih = 1 .
Solution: We consider sec i ^1  sin i h^sec i + tan i h
1 ^1  sin i h^sec i + tan i h Aliter:
=
cos i [sec i (1  sin i)] (sec i + tan i)
= c 1  sin i m^sec i + tan i h = (sec i  tan i) (sec i + tan i)
cos i cos i = sec2 i  tan2 i = 1
= ^sec i  tan i h ^sec i + tan i h
= ^sec i  tan i h = 1
2 2
= cos i + cos i
1 + sin i 1  sin i
cos i^1  sin i h + cos i^1 + sin i h
=
^1 + sin i h ^1  sin i h
= 1 # 1 + 1 = sec i cosec i + 1
cos i sin i
0 0
sin ^90  ih cos ^90  ih
(iii) + = cos i + sin i .
1  tan i 1  cot i
0 0
sin ^90  i h cos ^90  i h
Solution: We consider +
1  tan i 1  cot i
= cos i + sin i
0
tan ^90  ih cosec i + 1
(iv) + = 2 sec i.
cosec i + 1 cot i
0
tan ^90  i h cosec i + 1
Solution: We consider +
cosec i + 1 cot i
cot i Aliter:
= + cosec i + 1
cosec i + 1 cot i cot2 i + (1 + cosec i) 2
=
cos i + 1 + sin i cot i (1 + cosec i)
=
1 + sin i cos i (cosec2 i  1) + (1 + 2 cosec i + cosec2 i)
=
cos 2 i + ^1 + sin i h2 cot i (1 + cosec i)
=
cos i^1 + sin i h 2 cosec i (1 + cosec i)
= = 2 sec i
2 2 cot i (1 + cosec i)
= cos i + 1 + sin i + 2 sin i
cos i ^1 + sin i h
2 ^1 + sin i h
= = 2 sec i
cos i ^1 + sin i h
= 2 sin i cos i = 2
sin i cos i
(vii) sin i  cos i + 1 = 1 .
sin i + cos i  1 sec i  tan i
Solution: We consider sin i  cos i + 1
sin i + cos i  1
sin i  cos i + 1 Aliter:
= cos i cos i cos i
sin i + cos i  1 Now (sec i  tan i) (sin i  cos i + 1)
cos i cos i cos i 2
= tan i  1 + sec i  sin i + sin i  tan i
(Divide each term of both cos i
numerator and denominator by cos i ) 2
= sin i  1 + c 1  sin i m
cos i
= tan i  1 + sec i
tan i + 1  sec i = sin i  1 + cos i
Thus sin i  cos i + 1 = 1
= tan i + sec i  1 sin i  1 + cos i sec i  tan i
tan i + 1  sec i
tan i + sec i  (sec2 i  tan2 i)
= ( sec2 i  tan2 i = 1 )
tan i + 1  sec i
tan i + sec i  (sec i + tan i) (sec i  tan i)
=
tan i + 1  sec i
Solution  Trigonometry 183
(tan i + sec i) (1  (sec i  tan i))
=
tan i + 1  sec i
(tan i + sec i) (1  sec i + tan i)
=
tan i + 1  sec i
= tan i + sec i
= 1 (a sec2 i  tan2 i = 1)
sec i  tan i
0
2
= sin i # cos i
cos i cos2 i  sin2 i
= sin i cos i
2 2
cos i  sin i
sin i sin (90c  i)
= (a sin2 i = 1  cos2 i)
cos2 i  ^1  cos2 i h
sin i sin (90c  i)
=
2 cos2 i  1
sin i sin (90c  i)
=
2 sin2 (90c  i)  1
(ix) 1  1 = 1  1 .
cosec i  cot i sin i sin i cosec i + cot i
Solution: Now cosec2 i  cot2 i = 1 & (cosec i  cot i) (cosec i + cot i) = 1 ... (1)
We consider 1  1
cosec i  cot i sin i
(cosec i  cot i) (cosec i + cot i)
=  1 by (1)
cosec i  cot i sin i
= (cosec i + cot i)  cosec i
^cosec i  cot i h
= cosec i 
1
= 1  1 by (1)
sin i cosec i + cot i
184 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
AliterI AliterII
1 + 1 1  1
cosec i  cot i cosec i + cot i cosec i  cot i sin i
n 1
Solution: Let us eliminate a from the given relations.
Given that tan i = n tan a and sin i = m sin a .
Solution  Trigonometry 185
www.tnschools.co.in
Exercise 7.2
1. A ramp for unloading a moving truck, has an angle of elevation of 30°. If the top
of the ramp is 0.9 m above the ground level, then find the length of the ramp.
Solution: Let C be the top of the ramp and AC be the length of the ramp.
Given that +CAB = 30c and BC = 0.9 m.
16. From the top of a tower of height 60 m, the angles of depression of the top and the
bottom of a building are observed to be 30c and 60crespectively. Find the height
of the building.
Solution: Let AE be the building and BD be the tower.
Draw EC  AB such that AE = BC. Let AE = h metres.
Then, BC = h metres.
G iven that BD = 60m, +DEC = 30 o and +DAB = 60 o .
Now, CD = BD  BC = 60  h
Exercise 7.3
Choose the correct answer.
2 2
1. ^1  sin i h sec i =
2 2
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) tan i (D) cos i
2 2
Solution: ^1  sin i h sec i = cos i sec i = 1 ( Ans (B) )
2 2
2 2
2. ^1 + tan i h sin i =
2 2 2 2
(A) sin i (B) cos i (C) tan i (D) cot i
2
Solution: ^1 + tan i h sin i = sec i sin i = sin 2i = tan i
2 2
( Ans (C) )
2 2 2
cos i
2 2
3. ^1  cos i h^1 + cot i h =
2 2
(A) sin i (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) tan i
2 2 2 2
Solution: ^1  cos i h^1 + cot i h = sin i cosec i = 1 ( Ans (C) )
4. sin ^90c  i h cos i + cos ^90c  i h sin i =
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 2 (D) –1
Solution: sin ^90c  i h cos i + cos ^90c  i h sin i = cos i cos i + sin i sin i = 1
( Ans (A) )
2
5. 1  sin i =
1 + cos i
(A) cos i (B) tan i (C) cot i (D) cosec i
2
Solution: 1  sin i = 1  ^1 + cos i) (1  cos i h = 1  (1  cos i) = cos i
1 + cos i 1 + cos i
( Ans (A) )
4 4
6. cos x  sin x =
2 2 2 2
(A) 2 sin x  1 (B) 2 cos x  1 (C) 1 + 2 sin x (D) 1  2 cos x.
4 4
Solution: cos x  sin x = (cos x + sin x)(cos x  sin x)
2 2 2 2
(A) 25 m (B) 25 3 m
(C) 25 m (D) 25 2 m
3
Solution: tan 60 o = AC & AC = 25 tan 60 o = 25 3 m ( Ans (B) )
25
12. In the adjoining figure +ABC =
(A) 45c (B) 30c
(C) 60c (D) 50c
Solution: tan +ABC = 100 3 & tan +ABC = 3 & +ABC = 60 o ( Ans (C) )
100
13. A man is 28.5 m away from a tower. His eye level above the ground is 1.5 m. The
angle of elevation of the tower from his eyes is 45c. Then the height of the tower is
(A) 30 m (B) 27.5 m (C) 28.5 m (D) 27 m
Solution: Height of the tower = x + y tan i
= 1.5 + 28.5 # tan 45 o = 1.5 + 28.5 = 30m ( Ans (A) )
14. In the adjoining figure, sin i = 15 . Then BC =
17
(A) 85 m (B) 65 m
(C) 95 m (D) 75 m
( Ans (D) )
2
18. 1 + tan2 i =
1 + cot i
(A) cos2 i (B) tan2 i
(C) sin2 i (D) cot2 i
2 2
Solution: 1 + tan2 i = sec i = sin2 i = tan2 i ( Ans (B) )
1 + cot i cosec2 i cos2 i
19. sin2 i + 1 =
1 + tan2 i
(A) cosec2 i + cot2 i (B) cosec2 i  cot2 i
(C) cot2 i  cosec2 i (D) sin2 i  cos2 i
Solution:
sin2 i + 1 = sin2 i + 12 = sin2 i + cos2 i = 1 = cosec2 i  cot2 i
2
1 + tan i sec i
( Ans (B) )
20. 9 tan i  9 sec i =
2 2
(A) 1 (B) 0
(C) 9 (D) –9
Solution: 9 tan2 i  9 sec2 i = 9 (sec2 i  tan2 i) = 9 ( Ans (D) )
Mensuration 8
Exercise 8.1
1. A solid right circular cylinder has radius 14 cm and height 8 cm. Find its curved
surface area and total surface area.
Solution: Given that radius r = 14 cm and height h = 8 cm
Curved Surface Area, CSA = 2rrh
= 2 × 22 ×14×8= 704 sq.cm
7
Total Surface Area, TSA = 2rr (h + r)
= 2 × 22 ×14(8+14)
7
Thus, the Total Surface Area = 88 × 22 = 1936 cm2.
2. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 660 sq.cm. If its diameter
of the base is 14 cm, find the height and curved surface area of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that TSA = 660 cm2, 2r = 14 or r = 7
Total Surface Area, 2r r(h + r) = 660
& 2× 22 ×7×(h + 7) = 660
7
& h = 660 – 7 = 8 cm
2×22
Thus, the Curved Surface Area 2rrh = 2× 22 ×7×8 = 352 cm2.
7
3. Curved surface area and circumference at the base of a solid right circular cylinder
are 4400 sq.cm and 110 cm respectively. Find its height and diameter.
Solution: Given that Curved SurfaceArea, CSA = 4400 cm2
Circumference of the base of the cylinder, 2rr = 110 cm
& 2× 22 ×r = 110
7
& diameter, 2r = 110×7 = 35 cm
22
Now, Curved Surface Area, 2rrh = 110×h = 4400
Thus, the height of the cylinder h = 4400 = 40 cm.
110
4. A mansion has 12 right cylindrical pillars each having radius 50 cm and height
3.5 m. Find the cost to paint the lateral surface of the pillars at ` 20 per sq.m.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a right circular pillar respectively.
Given that r = 50 cm = 0.5 m and h = 3.5 m
Curved surface area of the pillar = 2rrh = 2× 22 ×0.5×3.5 = 11 m2
7
Cost of painting per sq.m = ` 20
Hence, the cost of painting for 12 pillars = 12×20×11 = ` 2640.
& 2× 22 × h `h + h j = 1540
7 4 4
& 5h2 = 1540 # 7 # 4 & h2 =140×7× 4 = 28×7×4
4 2 # 22 5
Hence, the height of the cylinder, h = 28×7×4 = 28 cm.
7. The radii of two right circular cylinders are in the ratio of 3 : 2 and their heights
are in the ratio 5 : 3. Find the ratio of their curved surface areas.
Solution: Let r1 , r2 be the radii of the cylinders and let h1 , h2 be their heights.
Given that r1 : r2 = 3 : 2 and h1 : h2 = 5 : 3.
he ratio of the curved surface areas = 2rr1 h1 : 2rr2 h2
T
= 3 × 5 : 2 × 3 = 5 : 2.
8. The outer curved surface area of a hollow cylinder is 540r sq.cm. Its internal
diameter is 16 cm and height is 15 cm. Find the total surface area.
Solution: Let R and r be the outer and inner radii and h be the height of the hollow
cylinder respectively.
Given that height h = 15cm, internal diameter 2r = 16 cm i.e., r = 8cm
200 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Outer curved surface area = 540r cm2 & 2rRh = 540r
Outer radius R = 540r = 18cm
2 # 15 # r
Thus, Total surface area = 2r (R + r) (R  r + h)
= 2r (18 + 8)^18  8 + 15h
= 2 # r # 26 # 25 =1300r
Hence, the total surface area = 1300r cm2.
9. The external diameter of a cylindrical shaped iron pipe is 25 cm and its length is
20 cm. If the thickness of the pipe is 1cm, find the total surface area of the pipe.
Solution: Let R, r and h be the external, internal radii and length
of the pipe respectively. Given that 2R = 25cm & R = 12.5cm
and thickness w = 1 cm.
Internal radius, r = R – w = 12.5 – 1 = 11.5cm
Total surface area = 2r (R + r) (R  r + h)
= 2 # 22 # (12.5 + 11.5) (20 + 12.5  11.5)
7
Hence, the total surface area = 3168cm2.
10. The radius and height of a right circular solid cone are 7 cm and 24 cm respectively.
Find its curved surface area and total surface area.
Solution: Given that, radius r = 7 cm and height h = 24 cm.
Slant height, l = h2 + r2 = 72 + 242 = 25cm
Curved surface area = rrl
= 22 # 7 # 25 = 550 cm2
7
Total surface area = rr (l + r)
= 22 # 7 # (25 + 7) = 704 cm2.
7
11. If the vertical angle and the radius of a right circular cone are 60c and 15 cm
respectively, then find its height and slant height.
Solution: In the figure, OAB is the cone.
Draw OC = CB . Given that the vertical angle +AOB = 60c and AC = 15 cm. So
+AOC = +AOB = 60c = 30c
2 2
Consider the right angled DOAC . We have
tan 30° = AC & 1 = 15
OC 3 OC
& OC = 15 3
Hence, the height of the cone is 15 3 cm.
Solution  Mensuration 201
Also, sin 30° = AC & 1 = 15
AO 2 AO
& AO = 30
Hence, the slant height of the cone is 30 cm.
Aliter: TOAB is an equilateral triangle.
Since AB = 2AC = 30 cm, we have the slant height AO = 30 cm.
Height of the cone = 30 # 3 = 15 3 cm.
2 3 a)
( If a is a side of an equilateral triangle, then its height is
2
12. If the circumference of the base of a solid right circular cone is 236 cm and its slant
height is 12 cm , find its curved surface area.
Solution: Given that slant height, l = 12 cm and
Circumference = 236 cm
2rr = 236 & rr = 118 cm
Curved surface area, rrl = 118 # 12 = 1416 cm2.
13. A heap of paddy is in the form of a cone whose diameter is 4.2 m and height is
2.8 m. If the heap is to be covered exactly by a canvas to protect it from rain, then
find the area of the canvas needed.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a heap of paddy.
Given that height h = 2.8m and diameter 2r = 4.2 m or r = 2.1m
Slant height l = h2 + r2 = 2.82 + 2.12 = 3.5 m
Area of the canvas, rrl = 22 # 2.1 # 3.5 = 23.1 sq.m.
7
ence, the area of the canvas needed to protect the heap of paddy from rain is 23.1m2
H
14. The central angle and radius of a sector of a circular disc are 180c and 21 cm
respectively. If the edges of the sector are joined together to make a hollow cone,
then find the radius of the cone.
Solution: Given that the central angle of the sector i = 180c and the radius of the
sector r = 21 cm. By joining the edges of the sector, a hollow cone is formed.
Let R be the radius of the cone.
Circumference of the base of the cone =
Arc length of the sector
& 4 # 22 # r2 = 98.56
7
98.56 # 7
& r = 4 # 22 = 7.84 = 2.8
Hence, Radius r = 2.8cm.
17. If the curved surface area of a solid hemisphere is 2772 sq.cm, then find its total
surface area.
Solution: Let r be the radius of the solid hemisphere.
Given that curved surface area of the solid hemisphere 2rr2 = 2772cm2
& rr2 = 2772 = 1386
2
2
Total surface area 3rr = 3 × 1386 = 4158 cm2.
18. Radii of two solid hemispheres are in the ratio 3 : 5. Find the ratio of their curved
surface areas and the ratio of their total surface areas.
Solution: Let r1 and r2 be the radii. Given that r1 : r2 = 3:5
Ratio of the curved surface area = 2rr12 : 2rr22 = 32 : 52 = 9 : 25
19. Find the curved surface area and total surface area of a hollow hemisphere whose
outer and inner radii are 4.2 cm and 2.1 cm respectively.
Solution: Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow hemisphere
iven that R = 4.2cm and r = 2.1cm
respectively. G
Curved surface area, 2r (R2 + r2) = 2 r (4.22 + 2.12)
= 2 r (17.64 + 4.41)
Hence, the curved surface area = 44.1r cm2.
Hence, the total cost of painting for the dome = 49.28 × 5 = ` 246.40.
Exercise 8.2
1. Find the volume of a solid cylinder whose radius is 14 cm and height 30 cm.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the solid cylinder respectively.
Given that radius r = 14cm and height h = 30cm.
Volume of the cylinder = rr2 h
= 22 # 14 # 14 # 30 = 18480 cm3.
7
2. A patient in a hospital is given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm.
If the bowl is filled with soup to a height of 4 cm, then find the quantity of soup to
be prepared daily in the hospital to serve 250 patients?
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a cylinderical bowl respectively.
Given that diameter 2r = 7cm, Radius r = 7 cm and Height h = 4cm.
2
The quantity of the soup = rr2 h
= 22 # 7 # 7 # 4 = 154 cm3
7 2 2
3 = 154 × 250 = 38500 cm3
Quantity of the soup needed to
serve 250 patients daily
Thus, the quantity of the soup needed = 38500 = 38.5 litres.
1000
3. The sum of the base radius and the height of a solid right circular solid cylinder is
37 cm.If the total surface area of the cylinder is 1628 sq.cm, then find the volume
of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that the sum of the radius and height (r + h) = 37 cm.
The total surface area of the cylinder = 1628 sq.cm.
204 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
Solution: Let r1 , r2 be the radii and h1 , h2 be the heights of the two right circular
cylinders respectively. Given that r1 : r2 = 2 : 3 and h1 : h2 = 5 : 3.
r1 h1
& = 2 & r1 = 2 r2 and = 5 & h1 = 5 h2
r2 3 3 h2 3 3
Now, the ratio of the volumes of the cylinders = 2rr1 h1 : 2rr22 h2
2
2
= 2 r ` 2 j r22 # 5 h2 : 2 rr22 h2
3 3
Thus, the ratio of the volumes of the cylinders is 20 : 1 = 20 : 27
27
6. The radius and height of a cylinder are in the ratio 5 : 7. If its volume is
4400 cu.cm, find the radius of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that r:h=5:7 & h= 7r
5
Volume of the cylinder, rr h = 4400
2
& 22 # r2 # 7 r = 4400
7 5
& r3 = 4400 # 7 # 5 = 1000
22 # 7
Thus, the radius of the cylinder, r = 10 cm.
Solution  Mensuration 205
7. A rectangular sheet of metal foil with dimension 66 cm # 12 cm is rolled to form a
cylinder of height 12 cm. Find the volume of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that the dimension of the sheet is 66cm # 12cm . So, l = 66cm, b = 12cm
( After the rectangular sheet rolled into a hollow
cylinder , the length of the rectangular sheet is equal
to the base circumference of the hollow cylinder.)
Thus, base circumference, 2rr = l
& 2 # 22 # r = 66
7
& r = 66 # 7 = 21
2 # 22 2
Height of the cylinder = length of the rectangular sheet & h = b = 12 cm.
2
Thus ,the volume of the cylinder = rr2 h = 22 # ` 21 j # 12 = 4158 cm3
7 2
8. A lead pencil is in the shape of right circular cylinder. The pencil is 28 cm long and
its radius is 3 mm. If the lead is of radius 1 mm, then find the volume
of the wood used in the pencil.
Solution: Let R and h be the radius and height of the pencil which is in
the form of a right circular cylinder.
Let r be the radius of the lead.
Given that R = 3 mm , h = 28 cm = 280 mm and r = 1 mm.
Now, the volume of wood = rh^ R2  r2h = 22 # 280 # ^32  12h
7
= 22 # 40 # 8 = 7040
Thus, the volume of the wood = 7040 mm3 = 7.04 cm3.
9. Radius and slant height of a right circular cone are 20 cm and 29
cm respectively. Find its volume.
olution: Let r, h and l be the radius, height and slant height of the
S
right circular cone respectively.
Given that r = 20 cm and l = 29 cm.
Now, h= l2  r2 = 292  202 = 21 cm
11. A vessel is in the form of a frustum of a cone. Its radius at one end and the height
are 8 cm and 14 cm respectively. If its volume is 5676 cm3, then find the radius at
3
the other end.
Solution: Let R, r be the radii and h be the height of the vessel which is in the form of
a frustum. Given that R = 8 cm, h = 14cm and volume = 5676 cm3
3
Now, 1
Volume = rh (R + r + Rr) =
2 2 5676
3 3
& 1 # 22 # 14 # (8 + r + 8 # r) =
2 2 5676
3 7 3
& 64 + r2 + 8r = 5676 # 3 # 7 = 129
3 # 22 # 14
& r2 + 8r + 64 = 129 & r2 + 8r  65 = 0
& h3 = 100.48 # 3 # 9 = 8 # 27
3.14 # 4
& h = 3
8 # 27 = 2 × 3 = 6cm
15. The volume of a cone with circular base is 216 r cu.cm. If the base radius is 9 cm,
then find the height of the cone.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the cone respectively.
Given that r = 9 cm
Now, Volume of the cone, 1 rr2 h = 216r
3
& 1 # r # 92 # h = 216r
3
Thus, the height of the cone, h = 216r # 3 = 8 cm
r#9#9
16. Find the mass of 200 steel spherical ball bearings, each of which has radius 0.7 cm,
given that the density of steel is 7.95 g/cm . (Mass = Volume × Density)
3
Solution: Let r be the radius of a spherical ball bearing. Given that r = 0.7cm
Volume of a ball bearing = 4 rr3
3
= 4 # 22 # 0.7 # 0.7 # 0.7
3 7
Thus, the volume of 200 ball bearings = 88 # .049 # 200 = 287.46 cm3
0
3
Density of 1cm3 = 7.95 g
Thus, Mass of 200 ball bearings = 287.46 × 7.95 = 2285.316 g
= 2285.316 = 2.29 kg.
1000
17. The outer and the inner radii of a hollow sphere are 12 cm and 10 cm. Find its
volume.
Solution:
Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow sphere.
Given that R = 12 cm and r = 10 cm
19. Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be cut out of a cube
whose edge is 14 cm.
Solution: Given that edge (side) of the cube = 14 cm.
= r # 1.8 (2 # 1.8 + 3)
= r # 1.8 # 6.6 = 11.88 r cm2.
2. A solid is in the shape of a cylinder surmounted on a hemisphere. If the diameter
and the total height of the solid are 21 cm, 25.5 cm respectively, then find its
volume.
Solution: Hemispherical portion: Diameter 2r = 21cm & r = 21 cm
2
Conical portion: Radius r = 21 cm, height h = 15cm
2
The volume of the solid = e Volume of the o + e Volume of the o
hemisphere cylinder
= 2 rr3 + rr2 h = rr2 ( 2 r + h)
3 3
= 22 # 21 # 21 ` 2 # 21 + 15j
7 2 2 3 2
= 33 # 21 # 22 = 7623 cm3.
2
3. A capsule is in the shape of a cylinder with two hemispheres stuck to each of its
ends. If the length of the entire capsule is 14 mm and the diameter of the capsule
is 5 mm, find its surface area.
Solution: Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the solid sphere and wire
respectively. Let h be length (height) of the wire.
= 6 # 6 # 15 = 6 # 6 # 15 = 10
1 # 3 # 3 (12 + 2 # 3) 3 # 18
3
Thus, the number of the cones needed is 10.
15. A container with a rectangular base of length 4.4 m and breadth 2 m is used to
collect rain water. The height of the water level in the container is 4 cm and the
water is transferred into a cylindrical vessel with radius 40 cm. What will be the
height of the water level in the cylinder?
Solution:
Cylindrical vessel: Let radius, r = 40 cm,
and height of the water level, h = 4cm
Rectangular Let length, l = 4.4 m = 440 cm,
breadth, b = 2 m = 200 cm and height h1= 4cm.
After the rain water transferred into the cylindrical vessel,
17. A cylindrical shaped well of depth 20 m and diameter 14 m is dug. The dug out
soil is evenly spread to form a cuboidplatform with base dimension 20m # 14m.
Find the height of the platform.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the well.
Let l1, b and h1 be the length, breadth and height of the platform
respectively.
Cylinderical well : 2r = 14m & r = 7m, h = 20m
Platform: Length, l = 20 m, breadth, b = 14m
Volume of the cuboid platform = Volume of the cylindrical well
& lbh1 = rr2 h
& 20 × 14 × h1 = 22 # 7 # 7 # 20
7
& h1 = 22 # 7 # 7 # 20 = 11
7 20 # 14
Thus, the height of the platform is 11 m.
216 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Exercise 8.4
Choose the correct answer.
1. The curved surface area of a right circular cylinder of radius 1 cm and height 1 cm is
equal to
(A) r cm2 (B) 2r cm2 (C) 3r cm3 (D) 2 cm2
Solution: CSA = 2rrh = 2 # r # 1 # 1 = 2r cm2 ( Ans. (B) )
2. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder whose radius is half of its
height h is equal to
(A) 3 rh sq. units (B) 2 rh2 sq. units
2 3
(C) 3 rh sq.units (D) 2 rh sq.units
2
2 3
Solution: radius r = h
2
TSA = 2rr (h + r) = 2r h `h + h j = rh` 3h j = 3 rh2 sq.units. ( Ans. (C) )
2 2 2 2
3. Base area of a right circular cylinder is 80 cm2 . If its height is 5 cm, then the volume
is equal to
(A) 400 cm3 (B) 16 cm3 (C) 200 cm3 (D) 400 cm3
3
Solution: Base area = rr = 80 cm , Volume v = rr h = 80 # 5 = 400 cm3. ( Ans. (A) )
2 2 2
4. If the total surface area a solid right circular cylinder is 200 r cm and its radius is 5 cm,
2
19. If the total surface area of a solid hemisphere is 12r cm2 then its curved surface area
is equal to
(A) 6r cm2 (B) 24r cm2
(C) 36r cm2 (D) 8r cm2
Solution: TSA, 3rr2 = 12r cm2 .
Do you know?
Pythagorean triplets
We know that ( a, b, c ) is a Pythagorean triplet if a2 + b2 = c2
Practical Geometry 9
Exercise 9.1
1. Draw a circle of radius 4.2 cm, and take any point on the circle. Draw the tangent
at that point using the centre.
Solution: Radius = 4.2 cm
Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 4.2 cm.
(ii) Take a point P on the circle and join OP.
(iii) Draw an arc of a circle with centre at P cutting OP at L.
!!
(iv) Mark M and N on the arc such that LM = MN = PL
(v) Draw the bisector PT of the angle +MPN .
(vi) Produce TP to T l to get the required tangent T l PT .
Solution  Practical Geometry 221
2. Draw a circle of radius 4.8 cm. Take a point on the circle. Draw the tangent at that
point using the tangentchord theorem.
Solution: The radius of the circle = 4.8 cm.
Construction:
(i) With O as the centre, draw a circle of radius 4.8 cm.
(ii) Take a point P on the circle.
(iii) Through P, draw any chord PQ.
(iv) Mark a point R distinct from P and Q on the circle so that P, Q and R are in
counter clockwise direction.
(v) Join PR and QR.
!
(vi) At R, draw an arc AB which intersects RQ and RP at A and B respectively.
(vii) With P as centre and RA (= RB) as radius draw an arc which intersect PQ at
C.
(viii) With C as centre and AB as radius draw an arc which intersects the previous
arc at D.
(ix) Produce PD to T l and T to get the required tangent line T l PT.
Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 5 cm.
(ii) Mark a point P at a distance of 13 cm from O and join OP.
Solution  Practical Geometry 223
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP. Let it meet OP at M.
(iv) With M as centre and MO as radius, draw another circle.
(v) Let the two circles intersect at A and B.
(vi) Join PA and PB . They are the required tangents.
Length of the tangent, PA = 12 cm.
Verification: In the right angled TOPA ,
2 2
PA = OP  OA = 132  52 = 169  25 = 144 ` PA = 12 cm .
4. Draw the two tangents from a point which is 10 cm away from the centre of a circle
of radius 6 cm. Also, measure the lengths of the tangents.
Exercise 9.2
2. Construct a DPQR such that PQ = 6 cm, +R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is
4 cm .
Given: PQ = 6 cm, R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is 4 cm.
Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment PQ = 6 cm.
(ii) Draw PX such that +QPX = 60°.
(iii) Draw PY = PX .
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of PQ intersecting PY at O and PQ at M.
Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment PQ = 4 cm.
(ii) Draw PX such that +QPX = 25c.
(iii) Draw PY = PX .
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of PQ intersecting PY at O and PQ at M.
(v) With O as centre and OP as radius, draw the circle .
(vi) The major arc PKQ contains the vertical angle 25c.
(vii) On the perpendicular bisector MO, mark a point H such that MH = 4.5 cm.
(viii) Draw RHRl parallel to PQ meeting the circle at Rand at Rl .
(ix) Complete the TPQR , which is one of the required triangles.
228 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
4. Construct a DABC such that BC = 5 cm. +A = 45c and the median from A to BC
is 4cm .
Given: BC = 5 cm, +A = 45c, The median from A to BC = 4 cm.
Construction:
Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment BC = 5 cm.
(ii) Through B draw BX such that +CBX = 40c.
(iii) Draw BY= BX.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC intersecting BY at O and BC at M.
(v) With O as centre and OB as radius, draw the circle.
(vi) The major arc BKC of the circle, contains the vertical angle 40c.
(vii) With M as centre, draw an arc of radius 6 cm meeting the circle at A and Al .
(viii) 3 ABC or TAl BC is the required triangle.
(ix) Produce CB to CZ.
(x) Draw AE = CZ .
(xi) Length of the altitude AE is 3.8 cm.
230 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Exercise 9.3
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 6.5 cm.
(ii) With P and Q as centres, draw arcs with radii 7 cm and 5.5 cm respectively,
to intersect at R. Join PR and QR.
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR to intersect at O.
(iv) With O as the centre and OP (= OQ = OR) as radius draw the circumcircle of
DPQR .
(v) With P as the centre and radius 4.5 cm. draw an arc intersecting the circumcircle
at S.
(vi) Join PS and RS.
Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Solution  Practical Geometry 231
www.tnschools.co.in
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm
(ii) With A as centre and radius 4.8 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 8 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at D.
(iv) Join AD and BD.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and AD intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OA(=OB=OC) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DABD .
(vii) With D as centre and 5.5 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at C.
(viii) Join CD and BC.
(ix) Now,ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 5.5 cm.
(ii) Through P draw PX such that +QPX = 45c.
(iii) With Q as centre and radius 4.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting PX at R and join
QR.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre and OP (= OQ= OR) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DPQR .
(vi) With P as centre and radius 3 cm, draw an arc intersecting the circle at S.
(vii) Join PS and RS.
(viii) Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 7 cm.
(ii) Through A draw AX such that +A = 80c.
(iii) With A as centre and radius 4.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting AX at D and join
AD.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AD and BD intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre and OA (= OB = OD) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DABD .
(vi) With B as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc intersecting the circle at C.
(vii) Join CD and BC.
(viii) Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment KL = 5.5 cm
(ii) With K as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With L as centre and radius 4.2 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at M.
(iv) Join KM and LM.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of KM and LM intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OK(=OL=OM) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DKLM .
(vii) With L as centre and 5.3 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at N.
(viii) Join KN and MN.
(ix) Now, KLMN is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment EF = 7 cm.
(ii) With E as centre and radius 4.8 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With F as centre and radius 6.5 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at H.
(iv) Join EH and FH.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of EF and EH intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OE(=OF=OH) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DEFH .
(vii) With E as centre and 6.6 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at G.
(viii) Join HG and FG.
(ix) Now, EFGH is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
236 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
7. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, given AB = 6 cm, +ABC = 70c,
BC = 5 cm and +ACD = 30c
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 6 cm, BC = 5 cm, +ABC = 70c and
+ACD = 30c.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm.
(ii) From B, draw BX such that +ABX = 70c.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc intersecting BX at C.
(iv) Join AC.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as centre and OA (= OB = OC) as radius, draw a circumcircle.
(vii) From C, draw CY such that +ACD = 30c which intersects the circle at D.
(viii) Join AD.
Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 5 cm.
(ii) From P, draw PX such that +QPX = 35c
(iii) With Q as centre and radius 4 cm, draw an arc intersecting PX at R.
(iv) Join QR.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as centre and OP (= OQ = OR) as radius, draw a circumcircle.
(vii) From R, draw RY such that +PRY = 70cwhich intersects the circle at S.
(viii) Join PS.
Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
(vi) From C, draw CZ such that +ACZ = 30c which intersects the circle at D.
10. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, where AB = 6.5 cm, +ABC = 110c,
BC = 5.5 cm and AB  CD.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 6.5 cm, BC = 5.5 cm and +ABC = 110c.
and AB  CD.
Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6.5 cm.
(ii) From B, draw BX such that +ABX = 110c.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 5.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting BX at C.
(iv) Draw perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre, and OA (= OB = OC) as radius, draw a circumcircle of
DABC .
(vi) Draw CY such that CY < AB intersecting the circle at D.
Join AD.
(vii) Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
240 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Graphs 10
Exercise 10.1
Points: ( 3, 27), ( 2, 12), ( 1, 3), (0, 0), (1, 3), (2, 12), (3, 27)
Points: ( 3,  36), ( 2,  16), ( 1,  4), (0, 0), (1,  4), (2,  16), (3,  36)
(iii) y = ^ x + 2h^ x + 4h = x 2 + 6x + 8
Let y = x2 + 6x + 8
Solution:
x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2
x2 25 16 9 4 1 0 1 4
6x – 30 – 24 – 18 – 12 –6 0 6 12
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
y 3 0 –1 0 3 8 15 24
Points: ( 5, 3), ( 4, 0), ( 3,  1), ( 2, 0), ( 1, 3), (0, 8), (1, 15), (2, 24)
242 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
2
(iv) y = 2x  x + 3 .
Solution:
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
2x2 18 8 2 0 2 8 18
x 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
y 24 13 6 3 4 9 18
Points: ( 3, 24), ( 2, 13), ( 1, 6), (0, 3), (1, 4), (2, 9), (3, 18)
.
The points of intersection of the line and the parabola are ( 1, 1) and (5, 25) .
The xcoordinates of the points are – 1 and 5. Thus,Solution set is {– 1, 5}
2 2
4. Draw the graph of y = x + 2x  3 and hence find the roots of x  x  6 = 0 .
Solution: y = x2 + 2x  3
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
2x –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6
–3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3
y 0 –3 –4 –3 0 5 12
Solution  Graph 247
Points: ( 3, 0), ( 2,  3), ( 1,  4), (0,  3), (1, 0), (2, 5), (3, 12)
Solve: y = x2 + 2x  3
0 = x2  x  6
y = 3x + 3
Let us draw the graph of the straight line y = 3x + 3 .
Now, form the table for the line y = 3x + 3 .
x –2 –1 0 1 2
y = 3x + 3 –3 0 3 6 9
Points: ( 2,  3), ( 1, 0), (0, 3), (1, 6), (2, 9)
The points of intersection of the line and the parabola are ( 2,  3) and (3, 12) .
The xcoordinates of the points are – 2 and 3. Thus, Solution set is {– 2, 3}.
2 2
5. Draw the graph of y = 2x + x  6 and hence solve 2x + x  10 = 0 .
Solution: y = 2x2 + x  6
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
2x2 18 8 2 0 2 8 18
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
–6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6
y 9 0 –5 –6 –3 4 15
248 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
Points: ( 3, 9), ( 2, 0), ( 1,  5), (0,  6), (1,  3), (2, 4), (3, 15)
Solve: y = 2x2 + x  6
0 = 2x2 + x  10
y = 4
y = 4 is a straight line parallel to xaxis.
The straight line and parabola intersect at points (–2.5, 4) and (2, 4).
So, the xcoordinates of the points are – 2.5 and 2. Thus, Solution set is {– 2.5, 2}.
2 2
6. Draw the graph of y = x  x  8 and hence find the roots of x  2x  15 = 0 .
Solution:
x –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x2 16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25
x 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5
–8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8
y 12 4 –2 –6 –8 –8 –6 –2 4 12
Points: ( 4, 12), ( 3, 4), ( 2,  2), ( 1,  6), (0,  8)
(1,  8), (2,  6), (3,  2), (4, 4), (5, 12)
The straight line and parabola intersects at points (– 3, 4) and (5, 12).
The xcoordinates of the points are – 3 and 5.
Thus, Solution set is {– 3, 5}.
Exercise 10.2
1. A bus travels at a speed of 40 km / hr. Write the distancetime formula and draw
the graph of it. Hence, find the distance travelled in 3 hours.
Solution:
x 1 2 3 4
y 40 80 120 160
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.
Note:
In this problem, the graph is a
straight line passing through the origin.
y
Thus, y \ x & y = kx & = k .
x
Draw the graph and hence (i) Find the cost of seven note books. (ii) How many
note books can be bought for ` 165.
Solution:
x 2 4 6 8 10 12
y 30 60 90 120 150 180
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.
Draw the graph for the above table and hence find
(i) the value of y if x = 4 , (ii) the value of x if y = 12.
Solution:
x 1 3 5 7 8
y 2 6 10 14 16
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.
y = 20
x
x 1 2 4 5 10 20
y 20 10 5 4 2 1
From the table, we observe that as x increases, y decreases.
This type of variation is called indirect variation.
From the graph, when x = 5, y = 4 , when y = 10, x = 2 .
6.
11 Statistics
Exercise 11.1
1. Find the range and coefficient of range of the following data.
(i) 59, 46, 30, 23, 27, 40, 52,35, 29
Solution: (i) The largest value L = 59. The smallest value S = 23
Thus, Range = L  S = 59  23 = 36
Coefficient of range = L  S = 59  23 = 36 = 18
L+S 59 + 23 82 41
= 0.4390 = 0.44
(ii) 41.2, 33.7, 29.1, 34.5, 25.7, 24.8, 56.5, 12.5
Solution: From the given data
The largest value L = 56.5
The smallest value S = 12.5
Now, Range = L  S = 56.5  12.5 = 44
Coefficient of range = L  S = 56.5  12.5 = 44
L+S 56.5 + 12.5 69
= 0.6376 = 0.64
2. The smallest value of a collection of data is 12 and the range is 59. Find the
largest value of the collection of data.
Solution: The smallest value, S = 12, Range, R = 59.
We have R = L S
` L = S + R = 12 + 59 = 71
Thus, the largest value, L = 71
3. The largest of 50 measurements is 3.84 k
g. If the range is 0.46 kg, find the smallest
measurement.
Solution: The Largest value, L = 3.84 kg, Range R= 0.46 kg.
So, Smallest value, S = L  R = 3.84 – 0.46 = 3.38
Thus, the smallest value, S = 3.38 kg.
4. The standard deviation of 20 observations is 5 . If each observation is multiplied
by 2, find the standard deviation and variance of the resulting observations.
Solution: Given that SD of 20 observations is 5 .
If each observation is multiplied by 2, then SD of new data is 2 5 .
Variance = (SD)2 = (2 5 )2
= 4 # 5 = 20 .
258 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
5. Calculate the standard deviation of the first 13 natural numbers.
Solution:
2
The SD of the first n natural numbers v = n 1
12
2 2
Thus, SD of the first 13 natural numbers v = n 1 = 13  1
12 12
= 168 = 14 = 3.74
12
6. Calculate the standard deviation of the following data.
(i) 10, 20, 15, 8, 3, 4 (ii) 38, 40, 34 ,31, 28, 26, 34.
Solution: (i) First we arrange the given data in ascending order 3,4,8,10,15,20
Arithmetic mean, xr = Rx = 3 + 4 + 8 + 10 + 15 + 20 = 60 = 10
n 6 6
d = x  xr = x  10
x d = x  10 d2
3 49 v = Rd2
7 n
4 6 36
8 4 = 214
2 6
10 0 0
15 25 b 5.97
5
20 10 100
2
Rd = 214
x d = x  xr = x  33 d2
26 7 49
v = Rd2
28 5 25 n
31 2 4
= 154
34 1 1 7
34 1 1
= 22
38 5 25
40 7 49 b 4.69
2
Rd = 154
x 3 8 13 18 23
f 7 10 15 10 8
Solution: Let us find the Standard Deviation by using assumed mean method
Let us take A = 13 as the assumed mean d = x  A = x  13
x f d = x – 13 d2 fd fd
2
3 7  10 100  70 700
8 10 5 25  50 250
13 15 0 0 0 0
18 10 5 25 50 250
23 8 10 100 80 800
Rf =50 Rfd =10 2
Rfd =2000
Standard deviation, v =
/ fd2  e / fd o2
/f /f
= 2000  10 2
50 ` 50 j
= 1
40  25 = 999 = 31.61
25 5
Thus, v  6.321
8. The number of books bought at a book fair by 200 students from a school are
given in the following table.
No. of books 0 1 2 3 4
No. of students 35 64 68 18 15
Calculate the standard deviation.
Solution: Let us calculate the Standard Deviation by using assumed mean method.
Let us take A = 2 as the assumed mean d = x  A = x  2
x f d=x–2 d2 fd fd
2
0 35 2 4  70 140
1 64 1 1  64 64
2 68 0 0 0 0
3 18 1 1 18 18
4 15 2 4 30 60
Rf =200 Rfd = – 86 2
Rfd = 282
2
Rfd Rfd 2
Standard deviation v = c m
Rf Rf
260 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
= 282   86 2 = 282  7396
200 ` 200 j 200 (200) 2
2 4 8 64 – 32 256
4 4 6 36 – 24 144
6 5 4 16 – 20 80
8 15 2 4 – 30 60
10 8 0 0 0 0
12 5 2 4 10 20
14 4 4 16 16 64
16 5 6 36 30 180
Rf =50 Rfd = 50 2
Rfd = 804
2
2 Rfd Rfd 2
v = c m
Rf Rf
= 804   50 2
50 ` 50 j
= 804  1 = 754 = 15.08
50 50
Thus, Variance = 15.08
10. The time (in seconds) taken by a group of people to walk across a pedestrian
crossing is given in the table below.
Time (in sec.) 510 1015 1520 2025 2530
No. of people 4 8 15 12 11
Calculate the variance and standard deviation of the data.
Solution: Let A = 17.5 , the midvalue of the interval 15  20
Here, c = 5
Now, d = x  A = x  17.5
c 5
Variance, v = =
Rfd 2 G
2
2 Rfd
c m # c2
Rf Rf
= ; 80  ` 18 j E # 5 = c 80  3242 m # 25
2 2
50 50 50 50
= 4000 2 324 # 25 = 4000  324 # 25 = 3676
50 50 # 50 100
2
v = 36.76
Thus, Standard Deviation, v = 36.76  6.063
11. A group of 45 house owners contributed money towards green environment of
their street. The amount of money collected is shown in the table below.
Amount
020 2040 4060 6080 80100
(`)
No. of house
2 7 12 19 5
owners
Calculate the variance and standard deviation.
Solution: Let us take the assumed mean A = 50 and c = 20.
d = x  A = x  50
c 20
Class mid d=
interval value f x–A x  50 d2 fd fd
2
x 20
020 10 2 – 40 2 4 4 8
2040 30 7 – 20 1 1 7 7
4060 50 12 0 0 0 0 0
6080 70 19 20 1 1 19 19
80100 90 5 40 2 4 10 20
Rf = 45 Rfd = 18 2
Rfd = 54
Variance, v = =
Rfd 2 G 2
2
2 Rfd
c m #c
Rf Rf
x 5
2024 22 15 – 10 2 4  30 60
2529 27 25 –5 1 1  25 25
3034 32 28 0 0 0 0 0
3539 37 12 5 1 1 12 12
4044 42 12 10 2 4 24 48
4549 47 8 15 3 9 24 72
Rf = 100 /fd =5 2
Rfd = 217
= =
Rfd 2 G 2
2
m # c = ; 217  ` 5 j E # 5
2 Rfd 2 2
Variance, v c
Rf Rf 100 100
2
= ^2.17  (0.05 h # 25 = ^2.17  (0.0025h # 25
= 2.1675 # 25
2
Thus, v = 54.1875  54.19
13. Mean of 100 items is 48 and their standard deviation is 10. Find the sum of all the
items and the sum of the squares of all the items.
Solution: The Mean of 100 items, x = 48
;a xr = E
The sum of 100 items / x = 48 × 100 = 4800 . Rx
n
Given that Standard Deviation, v = 10
22
Now, Variance, v = Rx  c Rx m = 100
2
n n
2 2
& Rx  4800 2 = 100 ( Rx  2304 = 100
100 ` 100 j 100
2
& Rx = 100 + 2304 = 2404
100
2
Thus, Rx = 2404 × 100 = 2,40,400
Solution  Statistics 263
14. The mean and standard deviation of 20 items are found to be 10 and 2 respectively.
At the time of checking it was found that an item 12 was wrongly entered as 8.
Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation.
Solution: Let us find the correct mean.
/x
Mean of 20 items, xr = = 10
n
/x
& = 10
20
& / x = 10 × 20 = 200
Now, corrected Rx = 200 + 4 = 204
x d = x  24 d
2
20 4 16
18 6 36
32 8 64
24 0 0
26 2 4
Rx = 120 2
Rd = 120
Arithmetic mean, x = Rx = 120 = 24
n 5
2
Standard deviation, v = Rd C.V. = v # 100
n x
v = 120 = 4.9 # 100 = 490
5 24 24
v = 24 = 4.9 = 20.416 b 20.42
17. If the coefficient of variation of a collection of data is 57 and its S.D is 6.84, then
find the mean.
Solution: G
iven that the coefficient of variation = 57, v = 6.84
v # 100 = 57 & 6.84 # 100 = 57
x x
x = 684 = 12
57
18. A group of 100 candidates have their average height 163.8 cm with coefficient of
variation 3.2. What is the standard deviation of their heights?
Solution: T
he average height of 100 candidates = 163.8, i.e. x = 163.8
Coefficient of variation = 3.2
& v # 100 = 3.2
xr
& v # 100 = 3.2
163.8
= 3.2 # 163.8 = 5.2416 b 5.24
v
100
19. Given Rx = 99 , n = 9 and R (x  10) 2 = 79. Find Rx 2 and R (x  x ) 2 .
Solution: Given that Rx = 99 and n = 9.
Thus, x = Rx = 99 = 11 .
n 9
2
Let us find Rx .
2
Now, R (x  10) = 79
R (x2  20x + 100) = 79
20. The marks scored by two students A, B in a class are given below.
A 58 51 60 65 66
B 56 87 88 46 43
Who is more consistent?
Solution:
Student  A Student  B
/x /x
x = = 300 = 60 x = = 320 = 64
n 5 n 5
x d = x  60 d
2
x d = x  64 d
2
51 9 81 43  21 441
58 2 4 46  18 324
60 0 0 56 8 64
65 5 25 87 23 529
66 6 36 88 24 576
Rx = 300 2
Rd = 146 Rx = 320 2
Rd = 1934
C.V = v # 100 = 5.4 # 100 = 9 g (1) C.V = v # 100 = 19.67 # 100 = 30.73 g (2)
x 60 x 64
From (1) and (2), we see that the coefficient of variation for A is less than the
coefficient of variation for B.
Thus, Student A is more consistant.
Exercise 11.2
Choose the correct answer.
1. The range of the first 10 prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 , 29 is
(A) 28 (B) 26 (C) 29 (D) 27
Solution: R = L  S = 29  2 = 27 ( Ans. (D) )
2. The least value in a collection of data is 14.1. If the range of the collection is 28.4,
then the greatest value of the collection is
(A) 42.5 (B) 43.5 (C) 42.4 (D) 42.1
Solution: S = 14.1, R = 28.4, R = L – S & L = R + S
&L = 28.4 + 14.1 = 42.5 ( Ans. (A) )
3. The greatest value of a collection of data is 72 and the least value is 28. Then the
coefficient of range is
(A) 44 (B) 0.72 (C) 0.44 (D) 0.28
Solution: L = 72, S = 28
Coefficient range = L  S = 72  28 = 44 = 0.44 ( Ans. (C) )
L + S 72 + 28 100
4. For a collection of 11 items, Rx = 132 , then the arithmetic mean is
(A) 11 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 13
Solution: n = 11 Rx = 132
Let F1, O, T and F2 be the events of selecting a fifty paise, onerupee, tworupees and
fiverupees coins respectively.
Thus, n (F1) = 100 ; n (O) = 50; n (T) = 20; n (F2) = 10 .
(i) Probability that the drawn coin is a fiftypaise coin,
n (F1)
P (F1) = = 100 = 5 .
n (S) 180 9
(ii) The probability that the drawn coin is a fiverupees coin,
n (F2)
P (F2) = = 10 = 1 .
n (S) 180 18
Probability that the drawn coin is not a fiverupees coin,
P (F 2) = 1  P (F2) = 1  1 = 17 .
18 18
Exercise 12.2
(The problems in this exercise can also be solved directly using the definition of
classical probability and without using the addition theorem.)
1. If A and B are mutually exclusive events such that P (A) = 3 and P (B) = 1 , then
5 5
find P (A , B) .
Solution: If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then P (A + B) = 0
Now, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A + B) = 3 + 1  0 = 4 .
5 5 5
2. If A and B are two events such that P (A) = , P (B) = and P (A , B) = 1 , then
1 2
4 5 2
find P (A + B) .
Solution: We know that P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A + B) .
Thus, P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A , B)
= 1 +21 = 3 .
4 5 2 20
3. If P (A) = 1 , P (B) = 7 , P (A , B) = 1, then find (i) P (A + B) (ii) P (Al , Bl ) .
2 10
Solution: (i) P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A , B)
= 1 + 7  1 = 5 + 7  10 = 2 = 1 .
2 10 10 10 5
(ii) P (Al , Bl ) = P (A + B)l ( (A + B)l = Al , Bl )
= 1  P (A + B) ( P (Al ) = 1  P (A) )
= 1 1 = 4.
5 5
4. If a die is rolled twice, find the probability of getting an even number in the first
time or a total of 8.
Solution: Let S be the sample space consisting of all possible outcomes.
S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), . . , (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), . ., (2, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), . . , (6, 6)} ; n (S) = 36
= 100 + 50  25 = 5 .
200 200 200 8
7. Two dice are rolled simultaneously. Find the probability that the sum of the
numbers on the faces is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4.
Solution: Sample space, S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), g, (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), g, (6, 6)}; n (S) = 36.
Let A be the event that the sum is divisible by 3.
Let B be the event that the sum is divisible by 4.
A = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 5), (5, 1), (2, 4), (4, 2), (3, 3), (3, 6), (6, 3), (4, 5), (5, 4), (6, 6)}
B = {(1, 3), (3, 1), (2, 2), (2, 6), (6, 2), (3, 5), (5, 3), (4, 4), (6, 6)} .
Thus, n (A) = 12 ; n (B) = 9 ; A + B = (6, 6) ; n^ A + Bh = 1 .
= 20 + 22  15 = 9 .
30 30 30 10
9. In a class, 40% of the students participated in Mathematicsquiz, 30% in Science
quiz and 10% in both the quiz programmes. If a student is selected at random
from the class, find the probability that the student participated in Mathematics
or Science or both quiz programmes.
Solution: Let S be the sample space.
Let M and S1 be the events that the selected student participated in mathematics and
science quiz programmes respectively.
Given that n (S) = 100 , n (S1) = 30 , n^ M h = 40 and n (M + S1) = 10
Thus, P (M) = 40 ; P (S1) = 30 and P (M + S1) = 10 .
100 100 100
Now, the required probability, P (M , S1) = P (M) + P (S1)  P (M + S1)
= 40 + 30  10 = 60 = 3 .
100 100 100 100 5
10. A card is drawn at random from a wellshuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the
probability that it will be a spade or a king.
Solution: Given that n (S) = 52 .
Let A be the event of getting a spade. So, n (A) = 13 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 13
n (S) 52
Let B be the event of getting a king. So, n (B) = 4 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 4
n (S) 52
n (A + B)
Number of spade king, n (A + B) = 1. So, P (A + B) = = 1
n (S) 52
Required probability, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A + B)
= 13 + 4  1 = 4 .
52 52 52 13
11. A box contains 10 white, 6 red and 10 black balls. A ball is drawn at random.
Find the probability that the ball drawn is white or red.
Solution: Let S be the sample space,
Let W, R and B denote that the drawn ball is white, red and black respectively.
Given that n (S) = 26 ; n (W) = 10 ; n (R) = 6 ; n (B) = 10 .
n (W)
Thus, P (W) = = 10
n (S) 26
n (R)
P (R) = = 6
n (S) 26
n (B)
P (B) = = 10 .
n (S) 26
Here, W + R is an impossible event. Thus, P (W + R) = 0 .
= 10 + 6 = 8 .
26 26 13
12. A two digit number is formed with the digits 2, 5, 9 (repetition is allowed). Find
the probability that the number is divisible by 2 or 5.
Solution: Let S be the sample space.
Let A and B be the events that the number is divisible by 2 and by 5 respectively.
Given that S = {22, 25, 29, 55, 52, 59, 99, 92, 95} ; n (S) = 9
= 3 + 3 0 = 2.
9 9 3
= 2 + 3 = 5
13 13 13
= 2 + 2 = 4 .
13 13 13
14. The probability that a new car will get an award for its design is 0.25, the
probability that it will get an award for efficient use of fuel is 0.35 and the
probability that it will get both the awards is 0.15. Find the probability that (i) it
will get atleast one of the two awards, (ii) it will get only one of the awards.
Solution: Let A be the event of getting award for design.
Let B be the event of getting award for efficient use of fuel.
Given P (A) = 0.25 , P (B) = 0.35 and P (A + B) = 0.15
(i) Probability of getting atleast one award,
P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B)  P (A + B) = 0.25 + 0.35  0.15 = 0.45
(ii) Probability of getting only one of the awards,
P (A + B ) + P (A + B) = [P (A)  P (A + B)] + [P (B)  P (A + B)]
= (0.25  0.15) + (0.35  0.15) = 0.10 + 0.20 = 0.3
15. The probability that A, B and C can solve a problem are 4 , 2 and 3 respectively.
5 3 7
The probability of the problem being solved by A and B is 8 , B and C is 2 ,
15 7
A and C is 12 . The probability of the problem being solved by all the three is
35
8 . Find the probability that the problem can be solved by atleast one of them.
35
Solution: Gi ven, P (A) = 4 , P (B) = 2 , P (C) = 3 , P (A + B) = 8 ,
5 3 7 15
P (B + C) = 2 , P (A + C) = 12 and P (A + B + C) = 8 .
7 35 35
Now, P (A , B , C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C)  P (A + B)
 P (B + C)  P (A + C) + P (A + B + C).
101
= 4 + 2 + 3  8  2  12 + 8 = 105 .
5 3 7 15 7 35 35
(A) 5 (B) 4
12 12
(C) 3 (D) 3
12 4
Solution: P (R ) = 1  P (R) = 1  3 = 3 . ( Ans. (D) )
12 4
12. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. The probability of getting a doublet is
(A) 1 (B) 1
36 3
(C) 1 (D) 2
6 3
Solution: n (S) = 36 . Let A be the event of getting a double. n (A) = 6
A = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5), (6, 6)} ; n (A) = 6. P (A) = 6 = 1 . ( Ans. (C) )
36 6
13. A fair die is thrown once. The probability of getting a prime or composite number is
(A) 1 (B) 0
(C) 5 (D) 1
6 6
Solution: S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Since 1 is neither a prime nor a composite number,
required probability = 5 . ( Ans. (C) )
6
14. Probability of getting 3 heads or 3 tails in tossing a coin 3 times is
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 1
8 4 8 2
Solution: S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT}; n (S) = 8.
16. The probability that a leap year will have 53 Fridays or 53 Saturdays is
17. The probability that a nonleap year will have 53 Sundays and 53 Mondays is
18. The probability of selecting a queen of hearts when a card is drawn from a pack of 52
playing cards is
Exercise 1.1
1. If A 1 B, then show that A , B = B (use Venn diagram).
Exercise 1.2
1. Represent the following using Venn diagrams (each subdivision carries two mark)
(i) U = {5, 6, 7, 8, ......13}, A = {5, 8, 10, 11}, and B = {5, 6, 7, 9, 10}
(ii) U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, M = {b, d, f, g}, and N = {a, b, d, e, g}
3. Draw Venn diagram of three sets A, B and C illustrating the following:
(each subdivisions carries two mark)
(i) A + B + C (ii) A and B are disjoint but both are subsets of C
(iii) A + ^ B \ C h (iv) ^ B , C h \ A (v) A , ^ B + C h
(vi) C + ^ B \ Ah (vii) C + ^ B , Ah
5. Let U = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} , A = {8, 16, 24}
and B = {4, 16, 20, 28} . Find ^ A , Bh ' and ^ A + Bhl . (each subdivision carries two mark)
exercise 1.3
1. If A and B are two sets and U is the universal set such that n^U h = 700 ,
n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 and n^ A + Bh = 100, find n^ Al + Blh .
n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + C h = 5 and n^ A + B + C h = 2 , find n^ A , B , C h .
Let R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 10), (4, 9)} 3 A # B be a relation. Show that R
is a function and find its domain, codomain and the range of R .
(i) f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) }
2
Example 1.21 Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, B = N and f : A " B be defined by f (x) = x .
Find the range of f . Identify the type of function.
Exercise 1.4
1. State whether each of the following arrow diagrams define a function or not. Justify
your answer. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2. For the given function F = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }, write the domain and
range.
3. Let A = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 }; B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 } and fi : A " B , i = 1,2,3.
State the type of function for the following (give reason):
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) f1 = { (10, 1), (11, 2), (12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3) }
(ii) f2 = { (10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1) }
(iii) f3 = { (10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5) }
Classification of Questions  Sets and Functions 285
4. If X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, Y = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } determine which of the following relations
from X to Y are functions? Give reason for your answer. If it is a function, state its
type. (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) R1 = { ^ x, yh  y = x + 2 , x ! X , y ! Y }
(ii) R2 = { (1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 3), (5, 5) }
(iii) R3 = { (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7) }
(iv) R4 = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }
5. If R = {(a,  2), ( 5, b), (8, c), (d,  1)} represents the identity function, find the
values of a, b, c and d .
6. A = { –2, –1, 1, 2 } and f = $` x, 1 j : x ! A . . Write down the range of f . Is f a
x
function from A to A ?
8. Write the preimages of 2 and 3 in the function
f = { (12, 2), (13, 3), (15, 3), (14, 2), (17, 17) }.
9. The following table represents a function from A = { 5, 6, 8, 10 } to
B = { 19, 15, 9, 11 } where f^ xh = 2x  1 . Find the values of a and b .
x 5 6 8 10
f(x) a 11 b 19
11. State whether the following graphs represent a function. Give reason for your answer.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
12. Represent the function f = { (–1, 2), (– 3, 1), (–5, 6), (– 4, 3) } as (i) a table, (ii) an
arrow diagram.
Exercise 1.1
7. For A = {x ; x is a prime factor of 42} , B = {x ; 5 1 x # 12, x ! N} and
C = {1, 4, 5, 6} , verify A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C .
8. Given P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g} . Verify the associative
property of set intersection.
9. For A = {5,10,15, 20}; B = {6,10,12, 18, 24} and C = {7,10,12,14, 21, 28}, verify
whether A \ ^ B \ C h = ^ A \ Bh \ C . Justify your answer.
10. Let A = { 5,  3,  2,  1}, B = { 2,  1, 0}, and C = { 6,  4,  2} . Find
A \ ^ B \ C h and (A \ B) \ C . What can we conclude about set difference operation?
11. For A = { 3,  1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = { 1,  2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and C = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7},
show that (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h (ii) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h
Find the value of (i) f (5) , (ii) f^3 h , (iii) f^1 h , (iv) f^2h  f^4h ,
4 f ( 3) + 2 f (4)
Find (iii) .
f ( 6)  3 f (1)
Proof by picture
n # (n + 1)
Let us illustrate the result : 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = with the following diagram
2
Hence, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 9 = 9 # 10
2
290 10th Std. Mathematics  SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in
Exercise 2.1
1. Write the first three terms of the following sequences whose nth terms are given by
(each subdivision carries two marks)
n^ n  2h n+2 ^ 1hn n^n + 2h
(i) an = (ii) cn = ^ 1hn 3 (iii) zn =
3 4
2. Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences whose nth terms are given by
(each subdivision carries two marks)
an = n + 2 ; a7 , a9
n+3
(i) (ii) an = ^ 1hn 2 ^n + 1h ; a5 , a8
2n + 3
n 2
(iii) an = 2n  3n + 1; a5 , a7. (iv) an = ( 1) (1  n + n ); a5 , a8
2
bn = )
2
n, if n ! N and n is even
n (n + 2), if n ! N and n is odd.
5. Find the first five terms of the sequence given by
a1 = 2, a2 = 3 + a1 and an = 2an  1 + 5 for n 2 2 .
6. Find the first six terms of the sequence given by
a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an = an  1 + an  2 for n 2 3 .
Example 2.3 Which of the following sequences are in an A.P.? (each subdivision carries
two marks) (i) 2 , 4 , 6 , g . (ii) 3m  1, 3m  3, 3m  5, g .
3 5 7
Example 2.4 Find the first term and common difference of the A.P. (each subdivision
carries two marks) (i) 5, 2,  1,  4, g . (ii) 1 , 5 , 7 , 3 , g, 17
2 6 6 2 6
Exercise 2.2
1. The first term of an A.P. is 6 and the common difference is 5. Find the A.P. and its
general term.
2. Find the common difference and 15th term of the A.P. 125, 120, 115, 110, g .
3. Which term of the arithmetic sequence 24, 23 1 , 22 1 , 21 3 , g . is 3?
4 2 4
4. Find the 12th term of the A.P. 2 , 3 2 , 5 2 , g .
5. Find the 17th term of the A.P. 4, 9, 14, g .
6. How many terms are there in the following Arithmetic Progressions? (each subdivision
carries two marks) (i)  1,  5 ,  2 , g, 10 . (ii) 7, 13, 19, g , 205.
6 3 3
10. How many two digit numbers are divisible by 13?
12. A man has saved `640 during the first month, `720 in the second month and `800 in
the third month. If he continues his savings in this sequence, what will be his savings
in the 25th month?
16. A person has deposited `25,000 in an investment which yields 14% simple interest
annually. Do these amounts (principal + interest) form an A.P.? If so, determine the
amount of investment after 20 years.
2 2
17. If a, b, c are in A.P. then prove that (a  c) = 4 (b  ac) .
18. If a, b, c are in A.P. then prove that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.
bc ca ab
Example 2.9 Which of the following sequences are geometric sequences?
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(a) (i) 5, 10, 15, 20, g . (ii) 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, g .
(b) (i) 5, 10, 15, 20, g . (iii) 7, 21 , 3 7 , 3 21 , g .
(c) (ii) 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, g . (iii) 7, 21 , 3 7 , 3 21 , g .
Exercise 2.4
1. Find the sum of the first (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 75 positive integers (ii) 125 natural numbers.
2. Find the sum of the first 30 terms of an A.P. whose nth term is 3 + 2n .
3. Find the sum of each arithmetic series (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 . (ii) 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 terms.
4 2
4. Find the Sn for the following arithmetic series described.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) a = 5, n = 30, l = 121 (ii) a = 50, n = 25, d = 4
7. In the arithmetic sequence 60, 56, 52, 48,g , starting from the first term, how many
terms are needed so that their sum is 368?
13. A construction company will be penalised each day for delay in construction of
a bridge. The penalty will be `4000 for the first day and will increase by `1000 for
each following day. Based on its budget, the company can afford to pay a maximum
of `1,65,000 towards penalty. Find the maximum number of days by which the
completion of work can be delayed.
14. A sum of `1000 is deposited every year at 8% simple interest. Calculate the interest
at the end of each year. Do these interest amounts form an A.P.? If so, find the total
interest at the end of 30 years.
Classification of Questions  Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 293
www.tnschools.co.in
2
15. The sum of first n terms of a certain series is given as 3n  2n. Show that the series
is an arithmetic series.
16. If a clock strikes once at 1 o’clock, twice at 2 o’clock and so on, how many times will
it strike in a day?
Example 2.22 Find the sum of the first 25 terms of the geometric series
16  48 + 144  432 + g .
Example 2.23 Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below:
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) a = 2, t6 = 486, n = 6 (ii) a = 2400, r = – 3, n = 5
Example 2.28 An organisation plans to plant saplings in 25 streets in a town in such a
way that one sapling for the first street, two for the second, four for the
third, eight for the fourth street and so on. How many saplings are needed
to complete the work?
Exercise 2.5
1. Find the sum of the first 20 terms of the geometric series 5 + 5 + 5 + g .
2 6 18
2. Find the sum of the first 27 terms of the geometric series 1 + 1 + 1 + g .
9 27 81
3. Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below. (each subdivision carries two
marks) (i) a = 3, t8 = 384, n = 8 . (ii) a = 5, r = 3 , n = 12 .
5. How many consecutive terms starting from the first term of the series
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 3 + 9 + 27 + g would sum to 1092 ? (ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + g would sum to 728 ?
6. The second term of a geometric series is 3 and the common ratio is 4 . Find the sum
5
of first 23 consecutive terms in the given geometric series.
Example 2.29 Find the sum of the following series (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60 (iii) 31 + 33 + g + 53.
2 2 2 2
Example 2.30 Find the sum of the following series (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25
3 3 3 3
Example 2.31 Find the sum of the series. (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 20
3 3 3 3
Example 2.33 (ii) If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100, then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n.
Exercise 2.6
1. Find the sum of the following series. (each question carries two marks)
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45 (iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100 (iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490
2. Find the value of k if (each question carries two marks)
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084 , (ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
3 3 3 3
3. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p .
Exercise 2.2
7. If 9th term of an A.P. is zero, prove that its 29th term is double (twice) the 19th term.
8. The 10th and 18th terms of an A.P. are 41 and 73 respectively. Find the 27th term.
9. Find n so that the nth terms of the following two A.P.’s are the same.
1, 7, 13, 19,g and 100, 95, 90, g .
11. A TV manufacturer has produced 1000 TVs in the seventh year and 1450 TVs in the
tenth year. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every
year, find the number of TVs produced in the first year and in the 15th year.
13. The sum of three consecutive terms in an A.P. is 6 and their product is –120. Find the
three numbers.
14. Find the three consecutive terms in an A. P. whose sum is 18 and the sum of their
squares is 140.
15. If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times its nth term, then show that the
(m + n) th term of the A.P. is zero.
2 2 2
19. If a , b , c are in A.P. then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.
b+c c+a a+b
20. If a = b = c , x ! 0, y ! 0, z ! 0 and b = ac , then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.
x y z 2
x y z
Example 2.11 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the seventh term is 16 . Find
3 81
the geometric sequence.
Example 2.12 The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. If there
were 30 bacteria present in the culture initially, how many bacteria will be
present at the end of 14th hour?
Example 2.13 An amount `500 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the
rate of 10% compounded annually. What will be the value of this deposit at
the end of 10th year?
Example 2.14 The sum of first three terms of a geometric sequence is 13 and their product
12
is  1. Find the common ratio and the terms.
Example 2.15 If a, b, c, d are in geometric sequence, then prove that
^b  ch2 + ^c  ah2 + ^d  bh2 = ^a  d h2
Exercise 2.3
6. If the geometric sequences 162, 54, 18,g . and 2 , 2 , 2 , g have their nth term
81 27 9
equal, find the value of n.
8. The sum of three terms of a geometric sequence is 39 and their product is 1. Find the
10
common ratio and the terms.
Example 2.17 Find the sum of the first 2n terms of the following series.
2 2 2 2
1  2 + 3  4 + ... .
Example 2.18 In an arithmetic series, the sum of first 14 terms is  203 and the sum of the
next 11 terms is –572. Find the arithmetic series.
Example 2.19 How many terms of the arithmetic series 24 + 21 + 18 + 15 + g , be taken
continuously so that their sum is – 351.
Example 2.20 Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 8.
Example 2.21 The measures of the interior angles taken in order of a polygon form an
arithmetic sequence. The least measurement in the sequence is 85c. The
greatest measurement is 215c. Find the number of sides in the given polygon.
Exercise 2.4
2 2 2 2
5. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the series 1  2 + 3  4 + g .
6. In an arithmetic series, the sum of first 11 terms is 44 and that of the next 11 terms is
55. Find the arithmetic series.
8. Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 9.
9. Find the sum of first 20 terms of the arithmetic series in which 3rd term is 7 and 7th term
is 2 more than three times its 3rd term.
10. Find the sum of all natural numbers between 300 and 500 which are divisible by 11.
11. Solve: 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148 .
12. Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 200 which are not divisible by 5.
17. Show that the sum of an arithmetic series whose first term is a , second term b and the
^a + ch^b + c  2ah
last term is c is equal to .
2^ b  ah
18. If there are ^2n + 1h terms in an arithmetic series, then prove that the ratio of the sum
of odd terms to the sum of even terms is ^n + 1h : n .
2 2
19. The ratio of the sums of first m and first n terms of an arithmetic series is m : n
show that the ratio of the mth and nth terms is ^2m  1h : ^2n  1h
20. A gardener plans to construct a trapezoidal shaped structure in his garden. The longer
side of trapezoid needs to start with a row of 97 bricks. Each row must be decreased
by 2 bricks on each end and the construction should stop at 25th row. How many
bricks does he need to buy?
Example 2.24 In the geometric series 2 + 4 + 8 + g , starting from the first term how
many consecutive terms are needed to yield the sum 1022?
Example 2.25 The first term of a geometric series is 375 and the fourth term is 192. Find
the common ratio and the sum of the first 14 terms.
Example 2.26 A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio.
The sum of the first two terms is 8 and the sum of the last two terms is 72.
Find the series.
Example 2.27 Find the sum to n terms of the series 6 + 66 + 666 +g
Exercise 2.5
4. Find the sum of the following finite series (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 1 + 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + g + ^0.1h9 (ii) 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms.
7. A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio. The sum
of the first two terms is 9 and sum of the last two terms is 36. Find the series.
8. Find the sum of first n terms of the series (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 7 + 77 + 777 + g . (ii) 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .
9. Suppose that five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic and each sick
person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the second
week and so on. By the end of 15th week, how many people will be affected by the
epidemic?
10. A gardener wanted to reward a boy for his good deeds by giving some mangoes. He
gave the boy two choices. He could either have 1000 mangoes at once or he could
get 1 mango on the first day, 2 on the second day, 4 on the third day, 8 mangoes on
the fourth day and so on for ten days. Which option should the boy choose to get the
maximum number of mangoes?
11. A geometric series consists of even number of terms. The sum of all terms is 3 times
the sum of odd terms. Find the common ratio.
12. If S1, S2 and S3 are the sum of first n, 2n and 3n terms of a geometric series respectively,
then prove that S1 ^ S3  S2h = ^ S2  S1h2 .
Exercise 2.6
1. Find the sum of the following series. (each question carries five marks)
2 2 2 2
(ii) 16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25
2 2 2 2
(v) 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39
3 3 3
(vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35
3 3 3 3
4. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k .
5. Find the total area of 12 squares whose sides are 12cm, 13cm, g, 23cm. respectively.
6. Find the total volume of 15 cubes whose edges are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm
respectively.
Exercise 3.1
Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method.
1. x + 2y = 7 , x  2y = 1 2. 3x + y = 8 , 5x + y = 10
y
3. x + = 4 , x + 2y = 5 4. 11x  7y = xy , 9x  4y = 6xy
2 3
Exercise 3.2
1. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 3x + 4y = 24 , 20x  11y = 47 (ii) 0.5x + 0.8y = 0.44 , 0.8x + 0.6y = 0.5
5y y
(iii) 3x  = 2, x + = 13
2 3 3 2 6
2
Example 3.11 Find the zeros of the quadratic polynomial x + 9x + 20 , and verify the basic
relationships between the zeros and the coefficients.
Example 3.12 Find a quadratic polynomial if the sum and product of zeros of it are –4 and
3 respectively.
Example 3.13 Find a quadratic polynomial with zeros at x = 1 and x = 1 .
4
Exercise 3.3
1. Find the zeros of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the basic relationships
between the zeros and the coefficients. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2 2
(i) x  2x  8 (ii) 4x  4x + 1 (iii) 6x  3  7x (iv) 4x + 8x
2 2 2 2
(v) x  15 (vi) 3x  5x + 2 (vii) 2x  2 2 x + 1 (viii) x + 2x  143
Exercise 3.4
1. Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
3 2 3 2
(i) ( x + x  3x + 5 ) ' ( x  1 ), (ii) (3x  2x + 7x  5 ) ' ( x + 3 )
3 2 3 2
(iii) (3x + 4x  10x + 6 ) ' ( 3x  2 ), (iv) (3x  4x  5 ) ' ( 3x + 1 )
4 2 4 3 2
(v) (8x  2x + 6x  5 ) ' ( 4x + 1 ), (vi) (2x  7x  13x + 63x  48 ) ' ( 2x  1 )
Example 3.16 (each subdivision carries two marks)
3 2
(i) Prove that x  1 is a factor of x  6x + 11x  6 .
3 2
(ii) Prove that x + 1 is a factor of x + 6x + 11x + 6 .
4 3 5 2 7 2
Example 3.19 Find the GCD of the following : (ii) 15x y z , 12x y z
Exercise 3.6
2. Find the GCD of the following (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 4 3
(i) c  d , c ^c  d h (ii) x  27a x , ^ x  3ah2
2 2 2 3 2
(iii) m  3m  18 , m + 5m + 6 (iv) x + 14x + 33 , x + 10x  11x
2 2 2 2 2 2
(v) x + 3xy + 2y , x + 5xy + 6y (vi) 2x  x  1 , 4x + 8x + 3
Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following. (each subdivision carries two marks)
4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 2 2
4. 66a b c , 44a b c , 24a b c 6. x y + xy , x + xy
2
7. 3^a  1h , 2^a  1h2 , ^a  1h 9. ^ x + 4h2 ^ x  3h3 , ^ x  1h^ x + 4h^ x  3h2
2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD and
one polynomial p^ xh respectively. (each subdivision carries two marks)
Exercise 3.9
Simplify the following into their lowest forms. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 3
(i) 6x2 + 9x (ii) x +1
4
(iii) 2x  1
3x  12x x 1 x +x+1
3 4 2
(iv) x 2 27 (v) x 2+ x + 1 (Hint: x + x + 1 = ^ x + 1h  x )
4 2 2 2 2
x 9 x +x+1
3 2 4
(vi) 4 x +2 8 (vii) 2x2 + x  3 (viii) 2 2x  162
x + 4x + 16 2x + 5x + 3 ^ x + 9h^2x  6h
2 2
^ x  3h^ x  5x + 4h ^ x  8h^ x + 5x  50h 2
4x + 9x + 5
(ix) 2
(x) 2
(xi) 2
^ x  4h^ x  2x  3h ^ x + 10h^ x  13x + 40h 8x + 6x  5
2
^ x  1h^ x  2h^ x  9x + 14h
(xii) 2
^ x  7h^ x  3x + 2h
3 3 2 2
Example 3.26 Multiply (ii) a +b by a  b
2
a + 2ab + b
2 ab
Example 3.27 Divide (each subdivision carries two marks)
3 2
x +x+1
(i) 4x2  4 by x  1 (ii) x  1 by
x 1 x+1 x+3 3x + 9
Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2 2 2
(i) x  2x # 3x + 6 , (ii) x 2 81 # x2 + 6x + 8 , (iii) x 2 3x  10 # x 3 2x + 4
x+2 x2 x 4 x  5x  36 x  x  20 x +8
(i) x + 2 + x  1 (ii) x + 1 2 + 1
x+3 x2 ^ x  1h x+1
3 3 2
Example 3.29 What rational expression should be added to x2  1 to get 2x 2
x +3 ?
x +2 x +2
Exercise 3.11
1. Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
3
(i) x + 8 (ii) 2 x + 2 + 2 x3
x 2 2 2  x 2 x + 3x + 2 x  2x  3
(iii) x  2
x  6 + x + 2x  24 (iv)
2 2
x2 + 2 x+3
x 9 x  x  12 x  7x + 10 x  2x  15
2 2
(v) 2x2  5x + 3  2x2  7x  4
x  3x + 2 2x  3x  2
3 3 2
2. Which rational expression should be added to x2  1 to get 3x +2 2x + 4 ?
x +2 x +2
3 2
3. Which rational expression should be subtracted from 4x  7x + 5 to get
2
2x  1
2x  5x + 1 ?
2
Example 3.31 Find the square root of (iii) (2x + 3y)  24xy
Find the square root of (ii) x + 16  2
6
Example 3.32
x
Exercise 3.12
1. Find the square root of the following (each subdivision carries two marks)
(iii) ^ x + 11h2  44x (iv) ^ x  yh2 + 4xy
8 6 4 8 64^a + bh4 ^ x  yh8 ^b  ch6
(v) 121x y ' 81x y (vi)
25^ x + yh4 ^a  bh6 ^b + ch10
2. Find the square root of the following: (each subdivisions carries two marks)
2 2 2 2
(i) 16x  24x + 9 (iii) 4x + 9y + 25z  12xy + 30yz  20zx
(iv) x + 14 + 2
4
Exercise 3.14
Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.
Exercise 3.15
2. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
Example 3.42 The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5 1 . Find the number.
5
Example 3.45 Determine the nature of roots of the following quadratic equations
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2
(i) x  11x  10 = 0 , (ii) 4x  28x + 49 = 0 , (iii) 2x2 + 5x + 5 = 0
Exercise 3.17
1. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2
(i) x  8x + 12 = 0 , (ii), 2x  3x + 4 = 0 , (iii) 9x + 12x + 4 = 0 ,
Exercise 3.18
1. Find the sum and the product of the roots of the following equations.
2 2
(i) x  6x + 5 = 0 , (ii) kx + rx + pk = 0 ,
2 2
(iii) 3x  5x = 0 , (iv) 8x  25 = 0 . (each subdivision carries two marks)
2. Form a quadratic equation whose roots are
Example 3.4 Using elimination method, solve 101x + 99y = 499, 99x + 101y = 501.
Example 3.5 Solve 3^2x + yh = 7xy ; 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy using elimination method .
Exercise 3.1
Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method.
(each question carries Five marks)
5. 3 + 5 = 20 , 2 + 5 = 15 , x ! 0, y ! 0
x y xy x y xy
6. 8x  3y = 5xy , 6x  5y = 2xy
7. 13x + 11y = 70 , 11x + 13y = 74
8. 65x  33y = 97 , 33x  65y = 1
9. 15 + 2 = 17 , 1 + 1 = 36 , x ! 0, y ! 0
x y x y 5
10. 2 + 2 = 1 , 3 + 2 = 0, x ! 0, y ! 0
x 3y 6 x y
Example 3.9 A fraction is such that if the numerator is multiplied by 3 and the denominator
is reduced by 3, we get 18 , but if the numerator is increased by 8 and the
11
denominator is doubled, we get 2 . Find the fraction.
5
Example 3.10 Eight men and twelve boys can finish a piece of work in 10 days while six
men and eight boys can finish the same work in 14 days. Find the number of
days taken by one man alone to complete the work and also one boy alone to
complete the work.
Exercise 3.2
1. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method.
(iv) 5  4 = 2, 2 + 3 = 13
x y x y
2. Formulate the following problems as a pair of equations, and hence find their
solutions: (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) One number is greater than thrice the other number by 2. If 4 times the smaller
number exceeds the greater by 5, find the numbers.
(ii) The ratio of income of two persons is 9 : 7 and the ratio of their expenditure is 4 : 3. If
each of them manages to save ` 2000 per month, find their monthly income.
(iii) A two digit number is seven times the sum of its digits. The number formed by
reversing the digits is 18 less than the given number. Find the given number.
(iv) Three chairs and two tables cost ` 700 and five chairs and three tables cost ` 1100.
What is the total cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables?
(v) In a rectangle, if the length is increased and the breadth is reduced each by 2 cm
2
then the area is reduced by 28 cm . If the length is reduced by 1 cm and the breadth
2
increased by 2 cm , then the area increases by 33 cm . Find the area of the rectangle.
(vi) A train travelled a certain distance at a uniform speed. If the train had been
6 km/hr faster, it would have taken 4 hours less than the scheduled time. If the train
were slower by 6 km/hr, then it would have taken 6 hours more than the scheduled
time. Find the distance covered by the train.
4 3 2
Example 3.15 If the quotient on dividing 2x + x  14x  19x + 6 by 2x + 1 is
3 2
x + ax  bx  6 . Find the values of a and b, also the remainder.
Exercise 3.4
4 3 2 3 2
2. If the quotient on dividing x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 by x + 4 is x  ax + bx + 6 ,
then find a, b and also the remainder.
4 2 3 2
3. If the quotient on dividing, 8x  2x + 6x  7 by 2x + 1 is 4x + px  qx + 3 ,
then find p , q and also the remainder.
Classification of Questions  Algebra 305
www.tnschools.co.in
3 2
Example 3.17 Factorize 2x  3x  3x + 2 into linear factors.
Example 3.18 Factorize x3  3x2  10x + 24
Exercise 3.5
1. Factorize each of the following polynomials. (each subdivision carries five marks)
3 2
(i) x  2x  5x + 6 (ii) 4x3  7x + 3
3 2 3 2
(iii) x  23x + 142x  120 (iv) 4x  5x + 7x  6
3 3 2
(v) x  7x + 6 (vi) x + 13x + 32x + 20
3 2 3
(vii) 2x  9x + 7x + 6 (viii) x  5x + 4
3 2
(ix) x  10x  x + 10 (x) 2x3 + 11x2  7x  6
3 2 3 2
(xi) x + x + x  14 (xii) x  5x  2x + 24
2 2 2
Examples 3.19 Find the GCD of (iii) 6^2x  3x  2h , 8^4x + 4x + 1h , 12^2x + 7x + 3h
4 3 3 2
Example 3.20 Find the GCD of the polynomials x + 3x  x  3 and x + x  5x + 3 .
Example 3.21 Find the GCD of the following polynomials
4 3 2 4 3 2
3x + 6x  12x  24x and 4x + 14x + 8x  8x .
Exercise 3.6
2. Find the GCD of the following (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2
(vii) x  x  2 , x + x  6 , 3x  13x + 14
3 2 4
(viii) x  x + x  1 , x  1
4 3 2 6 5 4
(ix) 24^6x  x  2x h , 20^2x + 3x + x h
3. Find the GCD of the following pairs of polynomials using division algorithm.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
3 2 2
(i) x  9x + 23x  15 , 4x  16x + 12
3 2 2
(ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 , 3x + 13x + 10
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 , 6x + 12x + 6x + 12
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) x  3x + 4x  12 , x + x + 4x + 4x
3 3 3 3 4 2 2 4
Example 3.22 Find the LCM of the following. (iv) x + y , x  y , x + x y + y
Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following. (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2 2 3 3
8. 2x  18y , 5x y + 15xy , x + 27y
2 2 2 2 4 3
10. 10^9x + 6xy + y h , 12^3x  5xy  2y h , 14^6x + 2x h .
Exercise 3.8
1. Find the LCM of each pair of the following polynomials. (each subdivision carries five marks)
4 3 2 4 2 2
(ii) x + 3x + 6x + 5x + 3 , x + 2x + x + 2 whose GCD is x + x + 1 .
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 15x + 2x  35 , x + 8x + 4x  21 whose GCD is x + 7 .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) 2x  3x  9x + 5 , 2x  x  10x  11x + 8 whose GCD is 2x  1 .
2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD and
one polynomial p^ xh respectively. (each subdivision carries five marks)
(iii) ^ x4  y4h^ x4 + x2 y2 + y4h , x2  y2 , x4  y4 .
3 2 3 2
(iv) ^ x  4xh^5x + 1h , ^5x + xh , ^5x  9x  2xh .
2 3 2
(v) ^ x  1h^ x  2h^ x  3x + 3h , ^ x  1h , ^ x  4x + 6x  3h .
2
(vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x  4h , ^ x + 1h , ^ x + 1h^ x  2h .
3 2
Example 3.26 (iii) Multiply x  8 by x + 6x + 8
2 2
x 4 x + 2x + 4
2 2
Example 3.27 (iii) Divide x  1 by x  4x  5
2 2
x  25 x + 4x  5
Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
(iv) x2  16 # x2  4 # x2  4x + 16
x  3x + 2 x3 + 64
2
x 2  2x  8
2 2
(v) 3x + 2x  1 # 2x  3x  2
2 2
x x2 3x + 5x  2
4
(vi) 2x  1 # x  8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x  3 x  2x
2. Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2 2
(iii) x  4x  5 ' x  3x  10 (iv) x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12
2 2
x  25 x + 7x + 10 x  4x  77 x  2x  15
2 2
(vii) 2x2 + 5x  3 ' 2x2 + x  1
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x  3
2 2
Example 3.28 Simplify (iii) x 2
x  6 + x + 2x  24
2
x 9 x  x  12
Exercise 3.11
1. Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2
(vi) x  4  x  11x + 30
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x  x  20
(vii) = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G  ` 3x  2 j
2
x+1 x 1 x1
(viii) 1 + 2 1  2 2 .
x2 + 3x + 2 x + 5x + 6 x + 4x + 3
4. If P = x , Q = y , then find 1  2Q .
x+y x+y P  Q P2  Q2
2 2 2
Example 3.32 Find the square root of (iii) ^6x  x  2h^3x  5x + 2h^2x  x  1h
Exercise 3.12
2. Find the square root of the following: (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2
(ii) ^ x  25h^ x + 8x + 15h^ x  2x  15h
2 2 2
(v) ^6x + 5x  6h^6x  x  2h^4x + 8x + 3h
2 2 2
(vi) ^2x  5x + 2h^3x  5x  2h^6x  x  1h
4 3 2
Example 3.33 Find the square root of x  10x + 37x  60x + 36 .
4 3 2
Example 3.34 Find the square root of x  6x + 19x  30x + 25
2 3 4
Example 3.35 If m  nx + 28x + 12x + 9x is a perfect square,
then find the values of m and n.
Exercise 3.14
Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.
(each subdivision carries fivc marks)
(iv)
2
3^ x  6h = x^ x + 7h  3 x + x + 1 = 34
(vii)
x+1 x 15
2
Example 3.39 Solve the quadratic equation 5x  6x  2 = 0 by completing the square.
2 2 2
Example 3.40 Solve the equation a x  3abx + 2b = 0 by completing the square
Exercise 3.15
1 Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square .
(each subdivision carries fivc marks)
2 2
(i) x + 6x  7 = 0 (ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0
2 2 2 2
(iii) 2x + 5x  3 = 0 (iv) 4x + 4bx  ^a  b h = 0
(vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2
2
(v) x  ^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0
x1
(vii) x  1 + x  3 = 10 (viii) a x + ^a  b h x  b = 0
2 2 2 2 2
x+1 x4 3
Example 3.43 The base of a triangle is 4cm longer than its altitude. If the area of the triangle is
48 sq. cm, then find its base and altitude.
Example 3.44 A car left 30 minutes later than the scheduled time. In order to reach its
destination 150km away in time, it has to increase its speed by 25km/hr from
its usual speed. Find its usual speed.
Exercise 3.16
Exercise 3.18
2 2 2
5. If a , b are the roots of 2x  3x  5 = 0, form a equation whose roots are a and b .
2
6. If a , b are the roots of x  3x + 2 = 0, form a quadratic equation whose roots are  a
and  b .
2
7. If a and b are the roots of x  3x  1 = 0, then form a quadratic equation whose roots
are 12 and 12 .
a b 2
8. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x  6x + 1 = 0, form an equation whose
roots are (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 1 , 1
2 2
(ii) a b, b a (iii) 2a + b, 2b + a
a b
9. Find a quadratic equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the equation
2
4x  3x  1 = 0.
2
10. If one root of the equation 3x + kx  81 = 0 is the square of the other, find k.
2
11. If one root of the equation 2x  ax + 64 = 0 is twice the other, then find the value of a
2
12. If a and b are the roots of 5x  px + 1 = 0 and a  b = 1, then find p.
4. MATRICES
Two Mark Questions
Example 4.1 The table shows a fiveday forecast
indicating high (H) and low (L)
temperatures in Fahrenheit. Organise
the temperatures in a matrix where
the first and second rows represent
the High and Low temperatures
respectively and identify which day will be the warmest?
Example 4.2 The amount of fat, carbohydrate and protein in grams present in each food
item respectively are as follows:
Example 4.4 Construct a 2 # 3 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by aij = 2i  3j
8 5 2 T T T
Example 4.5 If A = e o , then find A and (A )
1 3 4
Exercise 4.1
1. The rates for the entrance tickets at a water theme park are listed below:
Week Days Week End
rates(`) rates(`)
Adult 400 500
Children 200 250
Senior Citizen 300 400
Write down the matrices for the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and senior
citizens. Also find the dimensions of the matrices.
2 3
9. If A = f 4 1 p, then find the transpose of A.
5 0
1 2 3
T T
10. If A = f 2 4  5 p, then verify that (A ) = A .
3 5 6
x 5 4 3 5 z
Example 4.6 Find the values of x, y and z if c m=c m
5 9 1 5 y 1
y 6  2x
Example 4.7 Solve : c m = e o
3x 31 + 4y
5 6 2 3 3 1 4 7
Example 4.10 If A = c m and B = c m , then find A + B.
1 0 4 2 2 8 2 3
Example 4.11 Matrix A shows the weight of four boys and four girls in kg at the beginning
of a diet programme to lose weight. Matrix B shows the corresponding
weights after the diet programme.
35 40 28 45 Boys 32 35 27 41 Boys
A=c m , B=c m
42 38 41 30 Girls 40 30 34 27 Girls
Find the weight loss of the Boys and Girls.