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(iii)
Contents

Solutions

1. Sets and Functions ...... 1

2. Sequences and Series of Real Numbers ...... 22

3. Algebra ...... 54

4. Matrices ...... 115

5. Coordinate Geometry ...... 133

6. Geometry ...... 161

7. Trigonometry ...... 179

8. Mensuration ...... 199

9. Practical Geometry ...... 221

10. Graphs ...... 241

11. Statistics ...... 258

12. Probability ...... 269

Classification of Questions ...... 283

Creative Questions ...... 350

Model Question Papers ...... 371

Departmental Model Question Paper - Evaluation ...... 393

(vi)
1.Sets and
SETS AND Functions
FUNCTIONS
1
Exercise 1.1
1. If A 1 B, then show that A , B = B (use Venn diagram).
Solution: A , B = B

         
2. If A 1 B, then find A + B and A \ B (use Venn diagram).
Solution: A + B = A A\B = z


3. Let P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} and R = {a, e, f, s} . Find the following:
(i) P \ R (ii) Q + R (iii) R \ ^ P + Qh
Solution: (i) Given, P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} and R = {a, e, f, s}
Now, P \ R = {t ! P; t g R} , the set of all elements of P which are not in R.
= {b, c} .
(ii) Q + R .
Now, Q + R is the set of elements which belong to both the sets Q and R.
Thus, Q + R = Q, the empty set.
(iii) R \ ^ P + Qh .
Now, P + Q is empty. Thus, R \ (P + Q) = R = {a, e, f, s} .
4. If A = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , then find
(i) A , ^ B + Ch , (ii) A + ^ B , Ch , (iii) A \ ^C \ Bh .
Solution: (i) Now, B + C = {2, 4, 6} + {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {2, 4, 6}.
Thus, A , (B + C) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} , {2, 4, 6} = {2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
(ii) Now, B , C = {2, 4, 6} , {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
Thus, A + (B , C) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} + {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} = {4, 6}
(iii) Now, C \ B = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} \ {2, 4, 6} = {1, 3, 5}
Hence, A \ (C \ B) = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9} \ {1, 3, 5} = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}.
5. Given A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} , verify the commutative property
of set union.
Solution: Given A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} .
Let us verify that A , B = B , A .
Solution - Sets and Functions 1
Now, A , B = {a, x, y, r, s} , {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} .
= {a, x, y, r, s, 1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} g (1)
B , A = {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} , {a, x, y, r, s}
= {a, x, y, r, s, 1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A , B = B , A . That is, the set union is commutative.
6. Verify the commutative property of set intersection for
A = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} and B = {2, 5, 3, - 2, m, n, o, p} .
Solution: Let us verify that A + B = B + A .
Now, A + B = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} + {2, 5, 3, - 2, m, n, o, p}
= {2, 3, m, n, o} g (1)
B + A = {2, 5, 3, - 2, m, n, o, p} + {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7}
= {2, 3, m, n, o} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A + B = B + A . That is, the set intersection is commutative.
7. For A = {x ; x is a prime factor of 42} , B = {x ; 5 1 x # 12, x ! N} and
C = {1, 4, 5, 6} , verify A , ^ B , Ch = ^ A , Bh , C .
Solution: A = {2, 3, 7}, B = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, C = {1, 4, 5, 6}
Let us verify that A , (B , C) = (A , B) , C .
Now,     B , C = {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} , {1, 4, 5, 6}
= {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Thus, A , (B , C) = {2, 3, 7} , {1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} g (1)
Now, A , B = {2, 3, 7} , {6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
= {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}
Thus, (A , B) , C = {2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} , {1, 4, 5, 6}
= {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A , (B , C) = (A , B) , C . (Note: The set union is associative)
8. Given P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g} . Verify the associative
property of set intersection.
Solution: Given that P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g}
Let us verify the associative property of set intersection (P + Q) + R = P + (Q + R)
Now,   P + Q = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e, i, o, u} = {a, e}
Thus, (P + Q) + R = {a, e} + {a, c, e, g} = {a, e} g (1)
Now,   Q + R = {a, e, i, o, u} + {a, c, e, g} = {a, e}
Thus, P + (Q + R) = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e} = {a, e} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get (P + Q) + R = P + (Q + R) .
Thus, the set intersection is associative.

2 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


9. For A = {5, 10, 15, 20}; B = {6, 10, 12, 18, 24} and C = {7, 10, 12, 14, 21, 28} ,
verify whether A \ ^ B \ Ch = ^ A \ Bh \ C . Justify your answer.
Solution:
Given that A = {5, 10, 15, 20}, B = {6, 10, 12, 18, 24} and C = {7, 10, 12, 14, 21, 28}
Now, B \ C = {6, 10, 12, 18, 24} \ {7, 10, 12, 14, 21, 28}
= {6, 18, 24}
Thus, A \ (B \ C) = {5, 10, 15, 20} \ {6, 18,24} = {5, 10, 15, 20} g (1)
A\B = {5, 10, 15, 20} \ {6, 10, 12, 18, 24} = {5, 15, 20}
Thus, (A \ B) \ C = {5, 15, 20}\{7,10,12,14,21,28} = {5, 15, 20} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A \ (B \ C) ! (A \ B) \ C .
10. Let A = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1}, B = {- 2, - 1, 0}, and C = {- 6, - 4, - 2} . Find
A \ ^ B \ Ch and (A \ B) \ C . What can we conclude about set difference operation?
Solution: Given that A = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1}, B = {- 2, - 1, 0} and
C = {- 6, - 4, - 2} .
Now, B\C = {- 2, - 1, 0} \ {- 6, - 4 - 2} = {- 1, 0}
Thus, A\ (B\C) = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1} \ {- 1, 0} = {- 5, - 3, - 2} g (1)
A\B = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1} \ {- 2, - 1, 0} = {- 5, - 3}
Thus, (A\B) \C = {- 5, - 3} \ {- 6, - 4, - 2} = {- 5, - 3} g (2)
From (1) and (2) we get, A\ (B\C) ! (A\B) \C .
Thus, the set difference is not associative.
11. For A = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and
C = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}, show that (i) A , ^ B + Ch = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , Ch (ii) A + ^ B , Ch
= ^ A + Bh , ^ A + Ch (iii) Verify A , ^ B + Ch = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , Ch using Venn diagram
(iv) Verify A + ^ B , Ch = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + Ch using Venn diagram.
Solution: Given that A = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} , B = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and
C = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7} .
(i) B + C = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} + {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}
= {- 1, 3, 4, 5} g (1)
So, A , (B + C) = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} + {- 1, 3, 4, 5}
= {- 3, - 1, 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10}
A , B = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} , {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
= {- 3, - 2, - 1, 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10}
A , C = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} , {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}
= {- 3, - 1, 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10}
(A , B) + (A , C)={- 3, - 2, - 1, 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} + {- 3, - 1, 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10}
= {- 3, - 1, 0, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A , (B + C) = (A , B) + (A , C) .
Solution - Sets and Functions 3
(ii) B , C = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}
= {- 2, - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
Thus, A + (B , C) = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} + {- 2, - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
= {- 1, 4, 6} g (1)
A + B = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} + {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
= {- 1, 4, 6}
A + C = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10} + {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7}
= {- 1, 4}
Thus, (A + B) , (A + C) = {- 1, 4, 6} , {- 1, 4} = {- 1, 4, 6} g (2)
From (1) and (2) we get, A + (B , C) = (A + B) , (A + C) .
(iii) Venn diagram of A , (B + C) = (A , B) + (A , C)

From (2) and (5), we get A , (B + C) = (A , B) + (A , C) .


(iv) Venn diagram of A + (B , C) = (A + B) , (A + C)

From (2) and (5), we get A + (B , C) = (A + B) , (A + C)


4 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 1.2

1. Represent the following using Venn diagrams


(i) U = {5, 6, 7, 8, g, 13}, A = {5, 8, 10, 11} and B = {5, 6, 7, 9, 10}
(ii) U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, M = {b, d, f, g} and N = {a, b, d, e, g}
Solution: (i) (ii)


2. Write a description of each shaded area. Use symbols U, A, B, C, , , + , l and \ as
necessary. (Many answers are possible. One such description is given below)

3. Draw Venn diagram of three sets A, B and C illustrating the following:


(i) A + B + C (ii) A and B are disjoint but both are subsets of C (iii) A + ^ B \ Ch
(iv) ^ B , Ch \ A (v) A , ^ B + Ch (vi) C + ^ B \ Ah (vii) C + ^ B , Ah .

Solution - Sets and Functions 5


Solution:

4. Use Venn diagram to verify ^ A + Bh , ^ A \ Bh = A .


Solution:

From (1) and (2), we get (A + B) , (A\B) = A .


5. Let U = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} , A = {8,16, 24} and B = {4,16, 20, 28} .
Find ^ A , Bhl and ^ A + Bhl .
Solution:
Given that U = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28}, A = {8, 16, 24} and B = {4, 16, 20, 28} .
Now, A , B = {8, 16, 24} , {4, 16, 20, 28} = {4, 8, 16, 20, 24, 28}
Thus, (A , B)l = U \ (A , B) = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} \ {4, 8, 16, 20, 24, 28} = {12}
Now, A + B = {8, 16, 24} + {4, 16, 20, 28} = {16}
Thus, (A + B)l = U \ (A + B) = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} \ {16} = {4, 8, 12,20, 24, 28}
6. Given that U = U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} , A = {a, b, f, g} and B = {a, b, c},
verify De Morgan’s laws of complementation.
Solution: De Morgan’s laws of complementation are
(i) (A , B)l = Al + Bl (ii) (A + B)l = Al , Bl
U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, A = {a, b, f, g,} and B = {a, b, c} .
6 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
(i) A , B = {a, b, f, g} , {a, b, c} = {a, b, c, f, g}
(A , B)l = U \ A , B = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} \ {a, b, c, f, g} = {d, e, h} g (1)
Al = U \ A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} \ {a, b, f, g} = {c, d, e, h}
Bl = U \ B = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} \ {a, b, c} = {d, e, f, g, h}
Al + Bl = {c, d, e, h} + {d, e, f, g, h} = {d, e, h} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get (A , B)l = Al + Bl .
(ii) A + B = {a, b, f, g} + {a, b, c} = {a, b}
(A + B)l = U \ A + B = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} \ {a, b} = {c, d, e, f, g, h} g (3)
Al = U \ A = {c, d, e, h}; Bl = U \ B = {d, e, f, g, h}
Al , Bl = {c, d, e, h} , {d, e, f, g, h} = {c, d, e, f, g, h} g (4)
From (3) and (4), we get (A + B)l = Al , Bl .
7. Verify De Morgan’s laws for set difference using the sets given below:
A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7} and C = {3, 9, 10, 12, 13} .
Solution: De Morgan’s laws for set difference are
(i) A\ (B , C) = (A\B) + (A\C) , (ii) A\ (B + C) = (A\B) , (A\C)
Now, A = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7} and C = {3, 9, 10, 12, 13}
(i) B , C = {1, 2, 5, 7} , {3, 9, 10, 12, 13} = {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13}
So, A\ (B , C) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} \ {1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12,13} = {11, 15} g
(1)
A\ B = {1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} \ {1, 2, 5, 7} = {3, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15}
A\ C = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} \ {3, 9, 10, 12, 13} = {1, 5, 7, 11, 15}
(A\B) + (A\C) = {3, 9, 11, 13, 15} + {1, 5, 7, 11, 15} = {11, 15} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get A\ (B , C) = (A\B) + (A\C) .
(ii) B + C = {1, 2, 5, 7} + {3, 9, 10, 12,13} = Q
A\ (B + C) = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} \ Q = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} g (3)
(A\B) , (A\C) = {3, 9, 11, 13, 15} , {1, 5, 7, 11, 15} = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15} g (4)
From (3) and (4), we get A\ (B + C) = (A \ B) , (A \ C) .
8. Let U = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50} , B = {1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30} and
C = {7, 8, 15, 20, 35, 45, 48} . Verify A \ ^ B + Ch = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ Ch .
Solution: Given, A = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50}, B = {1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30}
and C = {7, 8, 15, 20, 35, 45, 48} .
B + C = {1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30} + {7, 8, 15, 20, 35, 45, 48} = {15, 20}
A\ (B + C) = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50}\ {15, 20}
= {10, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50} g (1)
A\B = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50}\ {1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30}
= {25, 35, 40, 45, 50}
A\C = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50}\ {7, 8, 15, 20, 35, 45, 48}
= {10, 25, 30, 40, 50}

Solution - Sets and Functions 7


(A \ B) , (A \ C) = {25, 35, 40, 45, 50} , {10, 25,30, 40, 50}
= {10, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50} g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get, A \ (B + C) = (A \ B) , (A \ C) .
9. Using Venn diagram, verify whether the following are true:
(i) A , ^ B + Ch = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , Ch
(ii) A + ^ B , Ch = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + Ch
(iii) ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl
(iv) A \ ^ B , Ch = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ Ch
Solution: (i)

From (2) and (5), we get A , (B + C) = (A , B) + (A , C) .

(ii)

From (2) and (5), we get A + (B , C) = (A + B) , (A + C) .

8 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


(iii)

From (2) and (5), we get (A , B)l = Al + Bl .


(iv)

From (2) and (5), we get A\ (B , C) = (A\B) + (A\C) .

Exercise 1.3
1. If A and B are two sets and U is the universal set such that n^U h = 700 ,
n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 and n^ A + Bh = 100, find n^ Al + Blh .
Solution: n (A , B) = n (A) + n (B) - n (A + B) = 200 + 300 - 100
= 500 - 100 = 400
n (Al + Bl ) = n (A , B)l = n (U) - n (A , B) = 700 - 400 = 300
Aliter: n (Al + Bl ) = n (Al ) + n (Bl ) - n (Al , Bl ) = n (Al ) + n (Bl ) - n (A + B)l
= 500 + 400 - 600 = 300
2. Given n^ Ah = 285, n^ Bh = 195, n^U h = 500, n^ A , Bh = 410, find n^ Al , Blh .
Solution: n (A + B) = n (A) + n (B) - n (A , B) = 285 + 195 - 410 = 70
n (Al , Bl ) = n [(A + B)l ] = n (U) - n (A + B) = 500 - 70 = 430
Solution - Sets and Functions 9
3. For any three sets A, B and C if n^ Ah = 17 , n^ Bh = 17, n^Ch = 17, n^ A + Bh = 7 ,
n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + Ch = 5 and n^ A + B + Ch = 2 , find n^ A , B , Ch .
Solution: n (A , B , C) = n (A) + n (B) + n (C) - n (A + B) -
n (B + C) - n (A + C) + n (A + B + C) .
= 17 + 17 + 17 - 7 - 6 - 5 + 2 = 53 - 18 = 35.
4. Verify n^ A , B , Ch = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^Ch - n^ A + Bh -
n^ B + Ch - n^ A + Ch + n^ A + B + Ch for the sets given below:
(i) A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8} and C = {6, 7, 8, 9}
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x} .
Solution: (i) A = {4, 5, 6}, n (A) = 3, B = {5, 6, 7, 8}, n (B) = 4 and
C = {6, 7, 8, 9}, n (C) = 4
Now, A , B , C = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}, n (A , B , C) = 6 g (1)
A + B = {4, 5, 6} + {5, 6, 7, 8} = {5, 6}, n (A + B) = 2
B + C = {5, 6, 7, 8} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6, 7, 8}, n (B + C) = 3
A + C = {4, 5, 6} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6}, n (A + C) = 1
Thus, A + B + C = {4, 5, 6} + {5, 6, 7, 8} + {6, 7, 8, 9} = {6}, n (A + B + C) = 1
Now, n (A) + n (B) + n (C) - n (A + B) - n (B + C) - n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
= 3 + 4 + 4 - 2 - 3 - 1 + 1 = 6 g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get,
n (A , B , C) =n (A) + n (B) + n (C) - n (A + B) - n (B + C) - n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x} ; n (A) = 5, n (B) = 3, n (C) = 3
A + B = {a, b, c, d, e} + {x, y, z} = { }, n (A + B) = 0
B + C = {x, y, z} + {a, e, x} = {x}, n (B + C) = 1
A + C = {a, b, c, d, e} + {a, e, x} = {a, e}, n (A + C) = 2
A , B , C = {a, b, c, d, e} , {x, y, z} , {a, e, x} = {a, b, c, d, e, x, y, z}
Thus, n (A , B , C) = 8 g (1)
n (A) + n (B) + n (C) - n (A + B) - n (B + C) - n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
= 5 + 3 + 3 - 0 - 1 - 2 + 0 = 8 g (2)
From (1) and (2), we get n (A , B , C)
= n (A) + n (B) + n (C) - n (A + B) - n (B + C) - n (A + C) + n (A + B + C)
5. In a college, 60 students enrolled in chemistry, 40 in physics, 30 in biology, 15 in
chemistry and physics, 10 in physics and biology, 5 in biology and chemistry. No
one enrolled in all the three. Find how many are enrolled in at least one of the
subjects.
Solution: Let C, P and B be the set of students enrolled in Chemistry, Physics and
Biology respectively. Thus, n (C) = 60, n (P) = 40, n (B) = 30 ,
n (C + P) = 15, n (P + B) = 10, n (C + B) = 5, n (C + P + B) = 0
n (C , P , B) = n (C) + n (P) + n (B) - n (C + P) - n (P + B) - n (B + C) + n (C + P + B)
= 60 + 40 + 30 - 15 - 10 - 5 + 0 = 100
Hence, Number of students enrolled in atleast one of the subjects = 100.
10 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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6. In a town 85% of the people speak Tamil, 40% speak English and 20% speak
Hindi. Also, 32% speak English and Tamil, 13% speak Tamil and Hindi and
10% speak English and Hindi, find the percentage of people who can speak all
the three languages.
Solution: Let E denote the set of people speaking English, T denote the people
speaking Tamil and H denote the people speaking Hindi.
Thus, n (T) = 85, n (E) = 40, n (H) = 20
Also, n (E + T) = 32, n (T + H) = 13, n (E + H) = 10, n (E , T , H) = 100 .
n (E , T , H) = n (E) + n (T) + n (H) - n (E + T) - n (T + H) - n (H + E) + n (E + T + H)
100 = 40 + 85 + 20 - 32 - 13 - 10 = 90 + n (E + T + H)
Thus, n (E + T + H) = 100 - 90 = 10
Therefore, the percentage of people who can speak all the three languages = 10%.
7. An advertising agency finds that, of its 170 clients, 115 use Television, 110 use
Radio and 130 use Magazines. Also, 85 use Television and Magazines, 75 use
Television and Radio, 95 use Radio and Magazines, 70 use all the three. Draw
Venn diagram to represent these data. Find (i) how many use only Radio?
(ii) how many use only Television? (iii) how many use Television and magazine but
not radio?
Solution: Let, T - Clients of Television
R - Clients of Radio
M - Clients of Magazines
Then, n (U) = 170, n (T) = 115
n (R) = 110, n (M) = 130
n (T + M) = 85, n (T + R) = 75
n (R + M) = 95, n (T + R + M) = 70
From the Venn diagram
(i) Number of clients using only radio = 10
(ii) Number of clients using only television = 25
(iii) Number of clients using only magazines but not radio = 15

8. In a school of 4000 students, 2000 know French, 3000 know Tamil and 500 know
Hindi, 1500 know French and Tamil, 300 know French and Hindi, 200 know
Tamil and Hindi and 50 know all the three languages.
(i) How many do not know any of the three languages? (ii) How many know at
least one language? (iii) How many know only two languages?

Solution - Sets and Functions 11


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Solution:
Let F be the set of students who know French.

T - Students who know Tamil

H - Students who know Hindi

Now, n (U) = 4000, n (F) = 2000

n (T) = 3000, n (H) = 500

n (F + T) = 1500, n (F + H) = 300

n (T + H) = 200, n (F + T + H) = 50

n (F , T , H) = n (F) + n (T) + n (H) - n (F + T) - n (T + H) - n (F + H) + n (F + T + H)


= 2000 + 3000 + 500 - 1500 - 300 - 200 + 50 =3550.
Thus, n (F , T , H)l = n (U) - n (F , T , H) = 4000 - 3550 = 450 .

(i) Number of students do not know any of the three languages = 450
(ii) Number of students who know atleast one language = 3550
(iii) Number of students who know only two languages = 1850

9. In a village of 120 families, 93 families use firewood for cooking, 63 families use
kerosene, 45 families use cooking gas, 45 families use firewood and kerosene, 24
families use kerosene and cooking gas, 27 families use cooking gas and firewood.
Find how many use firewood, kerosene and cooking gas.
Solution: Let, F denote the Families using Firewood.
K - Families using Kerosene.

G - Families using Gas.

` n (F) = 93, n (K) = 63, n (G) = 45

n (F + K) = 45, n (K + G) = 24

n (T + H) = 27, n (F , K , G) = 120

n (F , K , G)

= n (F) + n (K) + n (G) - n (F + K) - n (K + G) - n (F + G) + n (F + K + G)

& 93 + 63 + 45 - 45 - 24 - 27 + n (F + K + G) = 120.

n (F + K + G) = 120 - 105 = 15 .

Thus, the number of families using all the three is 15.


12 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Exercise 1.4

1. State whether each of the following arrow diagrams define a function or not.
Justify your answer.
Solution: (i) (ii)

The element c in P has no image inQ. Every element in the domain L has a unique
Thus , it is not a function. image in M. Therefore, it is a function.

2. For the given function F = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }, write the domain and
the range.
Solution: Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} , Range = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9} .
3. Let A = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 }; B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 } and fi : A " B , i = 1,2,3.
State the type of function for the following (give reason): (i) f1 = {(10, 1), (11, 2),
(12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3)}, (ii) f2 = {(10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1)},
(iii) f3 = {(10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5)}.
Solution:
(i) f1 = {(10, 1), (11, 2), (12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3)}
The elements 12 and 14 in A have same image 3 in B.
Hence, it is not one-one.
The element 0 ! B has no pre-image in A. Thus, it is not onto.
Hence, it is neither one-one nor onto.

(ii) f2 = {(10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1)}
Since f2 (x) = 1, for every x ! A , f2 is a constant function.

(iii) f3 = {(10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5)}
Distinct elements in A have distinct images in B under f3 .
Thus, f3 is one-one.
Also, f3 (A) = B .
Thus, f3 is onto.
Hence, f3 is one-one and onto. ( f3 is a bijective function)
Solution - Sets and Functions 13
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4. If X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, Y = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } determine which of the following relations


from X to Y are functions? Give reason for your answer. If it is a function, state
its type. (i) R1 = { ^ x, yh | y = x + 2 , x ! X , y ! Y }, (ii) R2 = { (1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3),
(4, 3), (5, 5) }, (iii) R3 = { (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7) }, (iv) R4 = { (1, 3), (2, 5),
(4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1)}.
Solution: (i) R1 = {(x, y) | y = x + 2, x ! X, y ! Y}
Given that y = x + 2
When x = 2 , y = 4 g Y . Thus, it is not a function.
Also, note that element 4 in X has no image in Y.
(ii) R2 = {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 3), (5, 5)}
Every element in X has unique image. Thus, R2 is a function.
Since the elements 1 and 2 have same image 1, it is not one-one.
Since the element 7 has no pre-image, it is not onto.
Thus, it is neither one-one nor onto.

(iii) R3 = {(1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7)}
The element 1 ! X has two images 1, 3 in Y.
Thus, it is not a function.

(iv) R4 = {(1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1)}
Every element has unique image. Thus, R4 is a function.
Distinct elements in X have distinct images in Y .
Thus, it is one-one.
Each element in Y has atleast one pre-image in X.
Thus, it is onto. Hence, it is a bijective function.
5. If R = {(a, - 2), (- 5, b), (8, c), (d, - 1)} represents the identity function, find the
values of a, b, c and d .
Solution: Given R is an identity function. Thus, R (x) = x, 6x .
Hence, a =- 2, b =- 5, c = 8 and d =- 1 .
6. A = { –2, –1, 1, 2 } and f = $` x, 1 j : x ! A . . Write down the range of f .
x
Is f a function from A to A ?
Solution: Given that f = ` x, 1 j . So, f (x) = 1 .
x x
Thus, f (- 2) = 1 1
=- ; f (1) = = 1. 1
-2 2 1
f (- 1) = 1 =- 1; f (2) = 1 .
-1 2
1
Thus, the range of f = $- , - 1, 1, . . 1
2 2
However, - 1 , 1 g A . Hence, it is not a function from A to A. .
2 2
14 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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7. Let f = { (2, 7), (3, 4), (7, 9), (–1, 6), (0, 2), (5, 3) } be a function from
A = { –1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 } to B = { 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 }. Is this (i) an one-one function
(ii) an onto function (iii) both one-one and onto function?
Solution:
(i) Distinct elements in A have distinct images in B.
Thus, it is an one-one function.
(ii) Every element in B has atleast one pre-image in A
Thus, f is onto function.
(iii) From (i) and (ii) we have, it is a bijective.
8. Write the pre-images of 2 and 3 in the function
f = { (12, 2), (13, 3), (15, 3), (14, 2), (17, 17) }.
Solution:
Pre-images of 2 are 12 and 14.
Pre-images of 3 are 13 and 15.
9. The following table represents a function from A = {5, 6, 8, 10} to B = {19, 15, 9, 11}
where f^ xh = 2x - 1 . Find the values of a and b .
x 5 6 8 10
f(x) a 11 b 19
Solution: Given, f (x) = 2x - 1, 6x ! A
f (5) = 2 # 5 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9
f (8) = 2 # 8 - 1 = 16 - 1 = 15
Thus, the values of a and b are 9 and 15 respectively.
Note: A function of the form f (x) = px + 1, x ! R, is called linear function.
Such function are always one to one.
10. Let A = { 5, 6, 7, 8 }; B = { –11, 4, 7, –10,–7, –9,–13 } and f = {( x, y ) : y = 3 - 2x ,
x ! A , y ! B } (i) Write down the elements of f (ii) What is the co-domain?
(iii) What is the range? (iv) Identify the type of function.
Solution: Given, A = {5, 6, 7, 8}, B = {- 11, 4, 7, - 10, - 7, - 9, - 13}
Here, y = f (x) = 3 - 2x, 6 x ! A
Now, f (5) = - 7, f (6) =- 9
Now, f (7) = - 11, f (8) =- 13
(i) f = {(5, - 7), (6, - 9), (7, - 11), (8, - 13)}
(ii) Co-domain = {- 11, 4, 7, - 10, - 7, - 9, - 13}
(iii) Range = {- 7, - 9, - 11, - 13}
(iv) Distinct elements have distinct images under f .
Thus, f is one-one.
(Here, the function is not onto.)

Solution - Sets and Functions 15


11. State whether the following graphs represent a function. Give reason for your
answer.

(i) Given graph satisfies the vertical line test.


Thus, it is a function.

(ii) Given graph satisfies the vertical line test.


Thus, it is a function.

(iii) In this graph, the vertical line l cuts the graph at two points A
and B .
Thus, it is not a function.

(iv) The vertical line l cuts the graph at three points A, B and C
.
Thus, it is not a function.

(v) Given graph satisfies the vertical line test.


Thus, it is a function.
12. Represent the function f = { (–1, 2), (– 3, 1), (–5, 6), (– 4, 3) } as (i) a table (ii) an
arrow diagram.
Solution: f = {(- 1, 2), (- 3, 1), (- 5, 6), (- 4, 3)}
(i) Table
x -1 -3 -5 -4
f (x) 2 1 6 3
(ii) Arrow diagram

13. Let A = { 6, 9, 15, 18, 21 }; B = { 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 } and f : A " B be defined by


f^ xh = x - 3 . Represent f by (i) an arrow diagram, (ii) a set of ordered pairs,
3
16 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
(iii) a table (iv) a graph .
Solution: Given A = {6, 9, 15, 18, 21}, B = {1, 2, 4, 5, 6} .
Let us find the images under f .
Now,  f (x) = x - 3 , x ! A
3
Thus, f (6) = 6 - 3 = 1, f (9) = 9 - 3 = 2
3 3
f (15) = 15 - 3 = 4, f (18) = 18 - 3 = 5, f (21) = 21 - 3 = 6
3 3 3
(i) An arrow diagram

(ii) Set of ordered pairs f = {(6, 1), (9, 2), (15, 4), (18, 5), (21, 6)}
(iii) Table
x 6 9 15 18 21
f (x) 1 2 4 5 6
(iv) Graph

Here, the graph is the collection of all points (6, 1), (9, 2), (15, 4), (18, 5), (21, 6)
in x -y plane.
14. Let A = {4, 6, 8, 10 } and B = { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }. If f : A " B is defined by f^ xh = 1 x + 1
2
then represent f by (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs and
(iii) a table.
Solution: f (x) = x + 1, x ! A
2
Thus, f (4) = 4 + 1 = 3, f (6) = 6 + 1 = 4
2 2
f (8) = 8 + 1 = 5, f (10) = 10 + 1 = 6 .
2 2
(i) An arrow diagram:

Solution - Sets and Functions 17


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(ii) Set of ordered pairs: f = {(4, 3), (6, 4), (8, 5), (10, 6)} .
(iii) Table:
x 4 6 8 10
f (x) 3 4 5 6

4x 2 - 1 ; - 3 # x 1 2
15. A function f : 6- 3, 7h " R is defined as follows f^ xh = *3x - 2 ; 2#x#4
2x - 3 ; 41x17
f (3) + f (- 1)
Find (i) f^5h + f^6h (ii) f^1 h - f^- 3h (iii) f^- 2h - f^4h (iv) .
2f (6) - f (1)
Solution: Let us find the values of the function at the required points.
When x =- 3, - 2, - 1 and 1 , the function is f (x) = 4x2 - 1 .
Thus, f (- 3) = 35, f (- 2) = 15, f (- 1) = 3, f (1) = 3.
When, x = 3, 4 , the function is f (x) = 3x - 2,
Thus, f (3) = 7 and f (4) = 10 .
When x = 5 and 6 , the function f (x) = 2x - 3 .
Thus, f (5) = 7, f (6) = 9
(i) f (5) + f (6) = 7 + 9 = 16
(ii) f (1) - f (- 3) = 3 - 35 =- 32
(iii) f (- 2) - f (4) = 15 - 10 = 5
f (3) + f (- 1) 7 + 3 = 10 = 2 .
(iv) =
2f (6) - f (1) 2 (9) - 3 15 3

x 2 + 2x + 1 ; - 7 # x 1 - 5
16. A function f : 6- 7, 6h " R is defined as follows f (x) = * x + 5 ; -5 # x # 2
x - 1; 2 1 x16 .
4 f (- 3) + 2 f (4)
Find (i) 2 f (- 4) + 3 f (2) (ii) f (- 7) - f (- 3) (iii) .
f (- 6) - 3 f (1)
Solution: When x =- 7, - 6 , f (x) = x2 + 2x + 1
Thus, f (- 7) = (- 7) 2 + 2 (- 7) + 1 = 49 - 14 + 1 = 36 and
f (- 6) = (- 6) 2 + 2 (- 6) + 1 = 36 - 12 + 1 = 25 .
When x =- 4, - 3, 2 and 1 the function is f (x) = x + 5
Thus, f (- 4) = - 4 + 5 = 1, f (- 3) = 2 , f (1) = 6 and f (2) = 7.
When x = 4, the function is f (x) = x - 1. So, f (4) = 3.
(i) Now, 2f (- 4) + 3f (2) = 2 # 1 + 3 # 7 = 23 .
(ii) Now, f (- 7) - f (- 3) = 36 - 2 = 34.
4f (- 3) + 2f (4) 4 # 2 + 2 # 3 = 8 + 6 = 14 = 2
(iii) Now, =
f (- 6) - 3f (1) 25 - 3 # 6 25 - 18 7

18 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Exercise 1.5
1. For two sets A and B , A , B = A if and only if
(A) B 3 A (B) A 3 B (C) A ! B (D) A + B = z
Solution:

( Ans. (A) )
2. If A 1 B , then A + B is
(A) B (B) A\B (C) A (D) B\A
Solution:

( Ans. (C) )
3. For any two sets P and Q , P + Q is
(A) " x : x ! P or x ! Q , (B) " x : x ! P and x b Q ,
(C) " x : x ! P and x ! Q , (D) " x : x b P and x ! Q ,
Solution: By definition, P + Q = {x : x ! P and x ! Q} ( Ans. (C) )

4. If A = { p, q, r, s }, B = { r, s, t, u }, then A\B is
(A) {p, q} (B) {t, u} (C) {r, s} (D) {p, q, r, s}
Solution: A\B is the set of elements in A but not in B . ( Ans. (A) )

5. If n 6 P (A) @ = 64, then n^ Ah is


(A) 6 (B) 8 (C) 4 (D) 5
Solution: n [P (A)] = 2 n (A) 6
= 64 = 2 ` n (A) = 6 . ( Ans. (A) )

6. For any three sets A, B and C, A + ^ B , C h is
(A) ^ A , Bh , ^ B + C h (B) ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h
(C) A , (B + C) (D) ^ A , Bh + ^ B , C h
Solution: A + (B , C) = (A + B) , (A + C) . ( Ans. (B) )
7. For any two sets A and B , {(A \ B) , (B \ A)} + (A + B) is
(A) z (B) A , B (C) A + B (D) Al + Bl
Solution:

( Ans. (A) )

Solution - Sets and Functions 19


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8. Which one of the following is not true ?
(A) A \ B = A + Bl (B) A \ B = A + B
(C) A \ B = (A , B) + Bl (D) A \ B = (A , B) \ B
Solution: We know that A \ B = A + Bl ; A \ B ! A + B ( Ans. (B) )

9. For any three sets A, B and C , B \ ^ A , C h is

(A) ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h (B) ^ B \ Ah + ^ B \ C h
(C) ^ B \ Ah + ^ A \ C h (D) ^ A \ Bh + ^ B \ C h
Solution: De Morgan’s Law : B\ (A , C ) = (B\A) + (B\C) ( Ans. (B) )

10. If n(A) = 20 , n(B) = 30 and n (A , B) = 40, then n (A + B) is equal to

(A) 50 (B) 10 (C) 40 (D) 70.


Solution: n (A + B) = n (A) + n (B) - n (A , B) = 20 + 30 - 40 = 10 ( Ans. (B) )
11. If { ( x , 2), (4, y ) } represents an identity function, then (x, y) is

(A) (2, 4) (B) (4, 2) (C) (2, 2) (D) (4, 4)


Solution: In an identity function, each element is associated with itself. ( Ans. (A) )
12. If { (7, 11), (5, a ) } represents a constant function, then the value of ‘a ’ is

(A) 7 (B) 11 (C) 5 (D) 9


Solution: In a constant function all the images are same ( Ans. (B) )
13. Given f (x) = ^- 1hx is a function from N to Z . Then the range of f is

(A) { 1} (B) N (C) { 1, – 1 } (D) Z


Solution: For x ! N, f (x) = (- 1) x = ! 1. ( Ans. (C) )
14. If f = { (6, 3), (8, 9), (5, 3), (–1, 6) }, then the pre-images of 3 are

(A) 5 and –1 (B) 6 and 8 (C) 8 and –1 (D) 6 and 5.


Solution: The pre-images of 3 is 5 and 6. ( Ans. (D) )
15. Let A = { 1, 3, 4, 7, 11 }, B = {–1, 1, 2, 5, 7, 9 } and f : A " B be given by

f = { (1, –1), (3, 2), (4, 1), (7, 5), (11, 9) }. Then f is
(A) one-one (B) onto
(C) bijective (D) not a function ( Ans. (A) )
Solution:

20 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


16. The given diagram represents

             
    (A) an onto function (B) a constant function
(C) an one-one function (D) not a function

Solution: 2 has two images 4 and 2. It is not a function. ( Ans. (D) )

17. If A = { 5, 6, 7 }, B = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }and f : A " B is defined by f (x) = x - 2 , then


the range of f is

(A) { 1, 4, 5 } (B) { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }
(C) { 2, 3, 4 } (D) { 3, 4, 5 }

Solution: f (5) = 3, f (6) = 4, f (7) = 5 . ( Ans. (D) )



18. If f (x) = x2 + 5 , then f (- 4) =
(A) 26 (B) 21
(C) 20 (D) – 20

Solution: f (x) = x2 + 5
& f (- 4) = (- 4) 2 + 5 = 21. ( Ans. (B) )

19. If the range of a function is a singleton set, then it is


(A) a constant function (B) an identity function
(C) a bijective function (D) an one-one function

Solution: Constant function. ( Ans. (A) )

20. If f : A " B is a bijective function and if n(A) = 5 , then n(B) is equal to


(A) 10 (B) 4
(C) 5 (D) 25

Solution: If A and B are finite sets and f is bijective, then n (A) = n (B) ( Ans. (C) )

Solution - Sets and Functions 21


Sequences and Series
2 of Real Numbers
Exercise 2.1
1. Write the first three terms of the following sequences whose n th terms are given
n ^ n - 2h n+2 ^- 1hn n^ n + 2h
by (i) an = (ii) cn = ^- 1hn 3 (iii) zn = .
3 4
n^ n - 2h
Solution: (i) Given that an = for n= 1,2,3,g .
3
When n = 1, 2 and 3, we get
1 (1 - 2) 1 (- 1)
a1 = = = -1
3 3 3
2 (2 - 2) 2 (0)
a2 = = =0
3 3
3 (3 - 2) 3 (1)
a3 = = =1
3 3
Hence, the first three terms of the sequence are - 1 , 0 and 1 .
3
(ii) Given that c = (- 1) n 3 n + 2 . When n = 1, 2 and 3, we get
n
c1 = (- 1)1 (3)1 + 2 =- (3) 3 =- 27
c = (- 1) 2 (3) 2 + 2 = (3) 4 = 81
2
c = (- 1) 3 (3) 3 + 2 =- (3) 5 =- 243
3
Hence, the first three terms of the sequence are –27, 81, –243.
( 1) n n (n + 2)
(iii) Given that z = - . If we put n = 1, 2 and 3, we get
n 4
( 1)1 (1)(1 + 2) (- 1) (3) - 3
z1 = - = =
4 4 4
( 1) 2 (2)(2 + 2) (2)(4)
z2 = - = =2
4 4
( 1) 3 (3) (3 + 2) ^- 1h (3) (5) - 15
z = - = = .
3 4 4 4

Hence, the first three terms of the sequence are - 3 , 2 and - 15 .


4 4
2. Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences whose n th terms are given by
(i) an = n + 2 ; a7 , a9    (ii) an = ^- 1hn 2 ^n + 1h ; a5 , a8
n+3
2n + 3
n 2
(iii) an = 2n - 3n + 1; a5 , a7. (iv) an = (- 1) (1 - n + n ); a5 , a8
2

Solution: (i) Given that a = n + 2 for n = 1, 2, 3, g .


n 2n + 3
When n = 7, a = 7 + 2 = 9
7 2 (7) + 3 17
When n = 9, a = 9 + 2 = 11 .
9 2 (9) + 3 21
22 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
(ii) Given that, an = (- 1) n 2 n + 3 (n + 1) for n = 1, 2, 3, g
When n = 5, a = (- 1) 5 (2) 8 (5 + 1) = (- 1) (256) (6) =- 1536
5
When n = 8, a = (- 1) 8 (2) 8 + 3 (8 + 1) = (2)11 (9) = (2048) (9) = 18432 .
8
(iii) Given that, a = 2n2 - 3n + 1 for n = 1, 2, 3, g
n
When n = 5, a = 2 (5) 2 - 3 (5) + 1 = 2 (25) - 15 + 1 = 50 - 15 + 1 = 36
5
When n = 7, a = 2 (7) 2 - 3 (7) + 1 = 2 (49) - 21 + 1 = 98 - 20 = 78 .
7
n 2
(iv) Given that, an = (- 1) (1 - n + n ) for n = 1, 2, 3, g .
5 2
When n = 5, a5 = (- 1) (1 - 5 + 5 ) = (- 1) (- 4 + 25) = (- 1) (21) =- 21
8 2
When n = 8, a8 = (- 1) (1 - 8 + 8 ) = (- 7 + 64) = 57 .

3. Find the 18th and 25th terms of the sequence defined by


n (n + 3) , n ! N and n is even
an = * 22n , n ! N and n is odd.
n +1
n (n + 3), n ! N and n is even
Solution: Given that an = * 2n , n ! N and n is odd.
2
n +1
If n is even, a = n (n + 3) .
n
So, a18 = 1 8 (18 + 3) = 18 (21) = 378 .

If n is odd, a = 2n .
n 2
n +1
2 (25)
So, a25 = 2 = 50 = 50 = 25 . 
25 + 1 625 + 1 626 313
4. Find the 13th and 16th terms of the sequence defined by

bn = )
2
n, if n ! N and n is even

n (n + 2), if n ! N and n is odd.

Solution: Given that bn = )n ,


2
if n ! N and n is even
n (n + 2), if n ! N and n is odd.
So, b13 = n (n + 2) = 13 (13 + 2) = 195 and b16 = n2 = 162 = 256.
5. Find the first five terms of the sequence given by
a1 = 2, a2 = 3 + a1 and an = 2an - 1 + 5 for n 2 2 .
Solution: Given that a1 = 2, a2 = 3 + a1 and an = 2an - 1 + 5 for n 2 2 .
So, a2 = 3 + 2 = 5
a3 = 2a2 + 5 = 2^5h + 5 = 15
a4 = 2a3 + 5 = 2^15h + 5 = 35
a5 = 2^35h + 5 = 75
Hence, the first five terms of the sequence are 2, 5, 15, 35 and 75.
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 23
6. Find the first six terms of the sequence given by
a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an = an - 1 + an - 2 for n 2 3 .
Solution: Given that a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an = an - 1 + an - 2 for n 2 3 .
So, a4 = a3 + a2 = 1 + 1 = 2
a5 = a4 + a3 = 2 + 1 = 3
a6 = a5 + a4 = 3 + 2 = 5
Hence, the first six terms of the sequence are 1, 1, 1, 2, 3 and 5.

Exercise 2.2

1. The first term of an A.P is 6 and the common difference is 5. Find the A.P and its
general term.
Solution: The general form of an A.P is a, a + d, a + 2d, a + 3d, g .
Given that a = 6 and d = 5. Thus, the A.P is 6, ^6 + 5h, 6 + 2^5h, 6 + 3^5h, g
That is, the required A.P. is 6, 11, 16, 21, g
The general term tn = a + (n - 1) d
= 6 + ^n - 1h^5h
= 6 + 5n - 5 = 5n + 1 , n = 1 , 2 , 3 , g .
2. Find the common difference and 15th term of the A.P. 125, 120, 115, 110, g .
Solution: Given that the sequence 125, 120, 115, 110, g is an A.P.
Here, a = 125, d = t2 - t1 = 120 - 125 = - 5
The general term is
tn = a + ^n - 1h d .
Thus, t15 = 125 + ^15 - 1h^- 5h = 125 + 14^- 5h = 125 - 70 = 55 .

3. Which term of the arithmetic sequence 24, 23 1 , 22 1 , 21 3 , g . is 3?


4 2 4
Solution: Given arithmetic sequence is 24, 23 1 , 22 1 , 21 3 , g
4 2 2
Here, a = 24, d = 23 1 - 24 = - 3 and the last term l = 3 .
4 4
If n is the number of terms in an A.P, then

n = l - a + 1
d

& n = 3 - 24 + 1 = ` - 21 # 4j + 1 = 28 + 1 = 29
-3 -3
4
Thus, 29th term of the sequence is 3.

24 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


4. Find the 12th term of the A.P. 2 , 3 2 , 5 2 , g .
Solution: Given A.P is 2 , 3 2 , 5 2 , g . Here, a = 2 , d = 3 2 - 2 = 2 2
The nth term of the A.P is tn = a + (n - 1) d
Thus, t12 = 2 + ^12 - 1h 2 2
= 2 + 11^2 2 h = 2 + 22 2
t12 = 23 2 .
5. Find the 17th term of the A.P. 4, 9, 14, g .
Solution: Given A.P is 4, 9, 14, g . Here, a = 4, d = 9 - 4 = 5
The general term tn of an A.P is
tn = a + ^n - 1h d
Thus, t17 = 4 + ^17 - 1h^5h = 4 + 16^5h = 84 .
6. How many terms are there in the following Arithmetic Progressions?

(i) - 1, - 5 , - 2 , g, 10 . (ii) 7, 13, 19, g , 205.


6 3 3
Solution: (i) The given arithmetic sequence is - 1, - 5 , - 2 , g, 10 .
6 3 3

Here, a =- 1, d = - 5 + 1 = 1 and l = 10 .
6 6 3
Now, n = l-a +1
d
10 + 1
Thus, n= 3 + 1 = 13 (6) + 1 = 26 + 1 = 27 .
1 3
6
Hence, the sequence has 27 terms.
(ii) Given A.P. is 7, 13, 19, g, 205 .
Here, a = 7, d = 13 - 7 = 6 and l = 205.
The number of terms in the given A.P. is n = l - a + 1
d
= 205 - 7 + 1 = 198 + 1 = 34
6 6
Hence, there are 34 terms in the given sequence.

7. If 9th term of an A.P. is zero, prove that its 29th term is double (twice) the 19th term.
Solution: Given that t9 = 0 & a + 8d = 0 or a =- 8d .
Now, t29 = a + 28d =- 8d + 28d = 20d
= 2 610d @ = 2 6- 8d + 18d @
= 2 6 a + 18d @ = 2t19   
Hence, t29 = 2 t19 .
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 25
8. The 10th and 18th terms of an A.P. are 41 and 73 respectively. Find the 27th term.
Solution: Given that t10 = 41 and t18 = 73 .
& a + ^10 - 1h d = 41 and & a + ^18 - 1h d = 73
& a + 9d = 41 g (1) ; & a + 17d = 73 g (2)
Now, (2) - (1) & 8d = 32 & d = 4 .
Also, (1) & a + 9 (4) = 41
& a = 41 - 36 = 5
Thus, t27 = a + ^27 - 1h d = 5 + 26^4h = 5 + 104 = 109 .
Hence, the 27th term is 109.
9. Find n so that the nth terms of the following two A.P.’s are the same.
1, 7, 13, 19,g and 100, 95, 90, g .
Solution: First consider the A.P. 1, 7, 13, 19, g .
Here, a = 1, d = 7 - 1 = 6 . So, the nth term of the A.P. is tn = 1 + ^n - 1h^6h .
Now, consider the A.P. 100, 95, 90, g . Here, a = 100, d = 95 - 100 =- 5 .
Thus, the nth term of this A.P. is sn = 100 + ^n - 1h^- 5h
Given that tn = sn
& 1 + ^n - 1h^6h = 100 + ^n - 1h^- 5h
& 1 + 6n - 6 = 100 - 5n + 5
& 11n = 110 & n = 10.
10. How many two digit numbers are divisible by 13?
Solution: Two digit numbers divisible by 13 are 13, 26, 39, g 91. . This is an A.P.
Here, a = 13, d = 13 and l = 91 .
Now, n = l - a + 1 .
d
= 91 - 13 + 1 = 78 + 1 = 6 + 1 = 7 .
13 13
Hence, there are 7 two-digit numbers divisible by 13.
11. A TV manufacturer has produced 1000 TVs in the seventh year and 1450 TVs
in the tenth year. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed
number every year, find the number of TVs produced in the first year and in the
15th year.
olution: Since the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every year, the
S
number of TV sets manufactured in 1st year, 2nd year, 3rd year ... will form an A.P.
Let us denote the number of TV sets manufactured in the nth year by tn .

26 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Then, t7 = 1000 and t10 = 1450
Thus, we have t7 = a + 6d = 1000 g (1)
t10 = a + 9d = 1450 g (2)
(2) - (1) & 3d = 450
& d = 150.
Substituting d = 150 in (1), we get
a + 6 (150) = 1000
a = 1000 - 900
= 100.
Therefore, the production of TV sets in the first year is 100.
Now, t15 = a + 14d = 100 + 14^150h = 100 + 2100 = 2200.
So, the production of TV sets in the 15th year is 2200.
12. A man has saved ` 640 during the first month, ` 720 in the second month and
` 800 in the third month. If he continues his savings in this sequence, what will be his
savings in the 25th month?
olution: The amount saved by the man during first month, second month, third
S
month, ... are 640, 720, 800, ... . This is an A.P. with a = 640, d = 720 – 640 = 80.
Thus, t25 = 640 + ^25 - 1h^80h
= 640 + 24^80h = 640 + 1920
= 2560
Hence, his saving in the 25th month is ` 2560.

13. The sum of three consecutive terms in an A.P. is 6 and their product is –120. Find
the three numbers.
olution: Let
S a - d, a, a + d be the three consecutive terms.
Now, ^a - d h + a + ^a + d h = 6 & 3a = 6 & a = 2

Also ^a - d h^ ah^a + d h = - 120


& a^a2 - d2h = - 120
& 2^4 - d2h = - 120 & 4 - d2 =- 60
& d2 = 64 & d = ! 8
When d = 8, the three numbers are - 6, 2, 10 .
When d =- 8 , the three numbers are 10, 2, - 6 .

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 27


14. Find the three consecutive terms in A. P. whose sum is 18 and the sum of their
squares is 140.
Solution: Let the three consecutive terms be a - d, a, a + d. Then
^a - d h + ^ah + ^a + d h = 18
& 3a = 18 & a = 6
2
Also, ^a - d h2 + a + ^a + d h2 = 140
& a2 - 2ad + d2 + a2 + a2 + 2ad + d2 = 140
& 3a2 + 2d2 = 140
& 3^36h + 2d2 = 140
& 2d2 = 140 - 108 & 2d2 = 32 & d = ! 4
When d = 4 , the terms are, 2, 6, 10.
When d =- 4 , the terms are, 10, 6, 2.
15. If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times its nth term, then show that
the (m + n)th term of the A.P. is zero.
Solution: Given that m tm = n tn
& m 6 a + ^ m - 1h d @ = n 6 a + ^ n - 1h d @
& am + m^m - 1h d = na + n^n - 1h d
& ^ m - nh a + 6 m^ m - 1h - n^n - 1h@ d = 0
& ^ m - n h a + 6 m2 - m - n2 + n @ d = 0
& ^ m - nh a + 6^ m2 - n2h - ^ m - nh@ d = 0
& ^ m - nh a + ^ m - nh6 m + n - 1 @ d = 0
& a + ^ m + n - 1h d = 0
& tm + n = 0 .
16. A person has deposited `25,000 in an investment which yields 14% simple interest
annually. Do these amounts (principal + interest) form an A.P.? If so, determine
the amount of investment after 20 years.
25, 000 # 14 # 1
Solution: I = P # R # T =
100 100
= 250 # 14 = 3500
Amount = P+I
= 25,000 + 3500 = 28,500
So, the amount at the end of the first year = ` 28,500
The amount at the end of the second year = 28,500 + 3500 = ` 32,000
Similarly, we can obtain the amount at the end of 3rd year, 4th year, 5th year and so on.
28 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Therefore, the amount at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th ... year respectively are 28,500,
32,000, 35,500, g .
It is an A.P as the difference between any two consecutive terms in the list is 3500.
Here, d = 3500, a = 28, 500
Now, to find the amount at the end of 20 years, we shall find t20 .
Thus, t20 = a + 19d
= 28,500 + 19 (3500) = 28500 + 66500 = ` 95,000.
2 2
17. If a, b, c are in A.P. then prove that (a - c) = 4 (b - ac) .
Solution: Given that a, b, c are in A.P.
So, 2b = a+c g (1)
& 4b2 = ^a + ch2
& 4b2 - 4ac = ^a + ch2 - 4ac
& 4^b2 - ach = ^a - ch2
Aliter: L.H.S. = 4^b2 - ach
= 4b2 - 4ac
= ^a + ch2 - 4ac ( using equation (1) )
= ^a - ch2 = R.H.S.

18. If a, b, c are in A.P., then prove that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.


bc ca ab
Solution: Given that a, b, c are in A.P. So a , b , c are also in A.P.
abc abc abc
& 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.
bc ca ab
19. If a , b , c are in A.P. then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.
2 2 2
b+c c+a a+b
Solution: Given that a2, b2, c2 are in A.P.
So, b2 - a2 = c2 - b2 (common difference)
& ^b + ah^b - ah = ^c + bh^c - bh

& b-a = c-b [dividing by ^a + bh^b + ch^c + ah ]


^b + ch^c + ah ^a + bh^c + ah

& b+c-c-a = c+a-a-b


^b + ch^c + ah ^c + ah^a + bh
^ b + c h - ^c + a h ^c + a h - ^ a + b h
& =
^b + ch^c + ah ^c + ah^a + bh
& 1 - 1 = 1 - 1
c+a b+c a+b c+a

& 2 = 1 + 1 . Thus, 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.


c+a a+b b+c b+c c+a a+b
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 29
20. If a = b = c , x ! 0, y ! 0, z ! 0 and b = ac , then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.
x y z 2
x y z
Solution: Given a = b = c , x ! 0, y ! 0, z ! 0 . Let a = b = c z = k (say)
x y z x y
1 1 1
& a = k x, b = k y, c = k z
Also given that b2 = ac
2
Thus, ^k1/yh = k 1x k 1z
2 1 1
& k y = k x + z
& 2 = 1 + 1
y x z
Hence, 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.
x y z
Exercise 2.3

1. Find out which of the following sequences are geometric sequences. For those
geometric sequences, find the common ratio.
(i) 0.12, 0.24, 0.48, g . (ii) 0.004, 0.02, 0.1, g . (iii) 1 , 1 , 2 , 4 , g .
2 3 9 27
(iv) 12, 1, 1 , g . (v) 2 , 1 , 1 , g . (vi) 4, - 2, - 1, - 1 , g .
12 2 2 2 2
Solution: (i) Here, 0.24 = 0.48 = g = 2
0.12 0.24
Thus, the common ratio is 2. Therefore the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
(ii) The given sequence is 0.004, 0.02, 0.1, g
Now, 0.02 = 0.1 = g = 5
0.004 0.02
Thus, the common ratio is 5. Therefore, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
(iii) Considering the ratio of the consecutive terms, we see that
1 2 4
     3 = 9 = 27 =g= 2
1 1 2 3
2 3 9
2
So, the common ratio is . Therefore, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
3
1
(iv) We have 1 = 12 = g = 1 . Thus, the common ratio is 1 .
12 1 12 12
Hence, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.
1 1
(v) We have 2 = 2 2 =g= 1
2 1 2
2
Thus, the common ratio is 1 .
2
Hence, the given sequence is a geometric sequence.

30 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


(vi) Since - 2 ! - 1 , the given sequence has no common ratio.
4 -2
Hence, it is not a geometric sequence.

2. Find the 10th term and common ratio of the geometric sequence 1 , - 1 , 1, - 2, g .
4 2
Solution: The common ratio of the sequence,
-1
r = 2 = 1 = - 2 = g =- 2
1 -1 1
4 2
The first term of the sequence is 1 .
4
The general term of the sequence is tn = a r n - 1, n = 1, 2, 3g
Thus, t10 = ` 1 j^- 2h10 - 1 = 12 ^- 2h9 =- 27 .
4 2
3. If the 4th and 7th terms of a G.P. are 54 and 1458 respectively, find the G.P.
Solution: Given that t4 = 54 and t7 = 1458 .
Using the formula tn = a r n - 1, n = 1, 2, 3g for the general term we have,
6
a r3 = 54 and a r6 = 1458 & a r3 = 1458 & r3 = 27 & r = 3
ar 54
Now, a r3 = 54
& a^33h = 54
& a = 54 = 2
27
Hence, the required geometric sequence is 2, ^2h^3 h, ^2h^3 h2, ^2h^3 h3 g
i.e., 2, 6, 18, 54, g
4. In a geometric sequence, the first term is 1 and the sixth term is 1 , find the
3 729
G.P.

Solution: First term is 1 and sixth term is 1 . So a = 1 and a r5 = 1


3 729 3 729

Now, a r5 = 1 & 1 r5 = 1
729 3 729

& r5 = 1 & r5 = 1 5 & r = 1


243 `3 j 3
2
Thus, the required G.P. is ` 1 j, ` 1 j ` 1 j, ` 1 j ` 1 j , g . i.e., 1 , 1 , 1 ,g
3 3 3 3 3 3 9 27
5. Which term of the geometric sequence,
(i) 5, 2, 4 , 8 , g , is 128 ? (ii) 1, 2, 4, 8, g , is 1024 ?
5 25 15625
Solution: (i) The given Geometric sequence is 5, 2, 4 , 8 , g 128
5 25 15625
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 31
www.tnschools.co.in

4
Here, a = 5, r = = 5 = g = 2
2
5 2 5
n-1
The general term is tn = a r , n = 1, 2, 3, g

Thus, a rn - 1 = 128 = 27
15625 (625) (25)
n - 1 7
& 5` 2 j = 26
5 5
2 n - 1 7
& `5j = `2j
5
& n-1 = 7 & n = 8

(ii) The given geometric sequence is 1, 2, 4, 8, g 1024

First term a = 1 and the common ratio r = 2 = 4 = g = 2


1 2
The general term is tn = a r n - 1, n = 1, 2, 3g we get

Thus, a rn - 1 = 1024 = 210


& ^2hn - 1 = 210
& n-1 = 10 & n = 11 .
Then, the 11 term of the given geometric sequence is 1024.
th

6. If the geometric sequences 162, 54, 18,g and 2 , 2 , 2 , g have their nth term
81 27 9
equal, find the value of n.
Solution: Consider the geometric sequence 162, 54, 18, g

Here, a = 162, r = 54 = 18 = g = 1 .
162 54 3
n-1
So tn = 162` 1 j g (1)
3

Now, consider the geometric sequence 2 , 2 , 2 , g


81 27 9
2 2
Here, a = 2 , r = 27 = 9 = g = 3
81 2 2
81 27
tn = 2 ^3 hn - 1 g (2)
81
Given that n term of the two sequence are equal.
th

n-1
Thus, 162` 1 j = 2 ^3 hn - 1
3 81
& 162 = 2 3n - 1
3n - 1 81
2 162 # 81
& ^3 n - 1h =
2

32 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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2
& ^3 n - 1h = 812
& 3n - 1 = 81 = 34
& n-1 = 4 & n=5
Hence, 5th term of the above G.P’s are equal.
7. The fifth term of a G.P. is 1875. If the first term is 3, find the common ratio.
Solution: Given the first term and fifth term of the G.P are 3 and 1875 respectively.
Therefore, a = 3, t5 = a r4 = 1875
& 3 r4 = 1875
& r4 = 625 = 54 & r = 5
Thus, the common ratio is 5.
8. The sum of three terms of a geometric sequence is 39 and their product is 1. Find
10
the common ratio and the terms.
Solution: Let the three terms of the G.P be a , a, ar . Then
r
a + a + ar = 39
r 10
a` 1 + 1 + r j = 39
r 10
2
& c r + r + 1 m = 39 g (1)
r 10
Also, a
` r j^ah^ar h = 1
& a3 = 1 or a = 1
Substituting a = 1 in equation (1) we get,
^ r2 + r + 1 h
(1) & = 39
r 10
& 10r2 + 10r + 10 = 39r
& 10r2 - 29r + 10 = 0
& ^2r - 5h^5r - 2h = 0
& r = 5 or 2
2 5
When r = 5 , the terms are 2 , 1, 5 ; When r = 2 , the terms are 5 , 1, 2
2 5 2 5 2 5
9. If the product of three consecutive terms in G.P. is 216 and sum of their products
in pairs is 156, find them.
Solution: Let the three terms of the G.P be a , a, ar .
r
Then ` a j^ah^ar h = 216
r
& a3 = 216 & a = 6

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 33


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Also, ` a j^ah + ^ah^ar h + ^ar h` a j = 156


r r
2
& a 2 2
+ a r + a = 156
r
& a2 ` 1 + r + 1j = 156
r
2
& 36 c r + r + 1 m = 156
r
2
& r + r + 1 = 13
r 3
2
& 3r + 3r + 3 = 13r
& 3r2 - 10r + 3 = 0
& ^3r - 1h^r - 3h = 0
Thus, r = 3 or 1
3
When r = 3, the terms are 2, 6, 18; When r = 1 , the terms are 18, 6, 2
3
10. Find the first three consecutive terms in G.P. whose sum is 7 and the sum of their
reciprocals is 7 .
4
Solution: Assume that the three consecutive terms of the G.P are a , a, ar . Then
r
a + a + ar = 7
r
& a` 1 + 1 + r j = 7
r
2
& ac r + r + 1 m = 7 g (1)
r
Also, r +1 + 1 = 7
a a ar 4

a8 rB
& 1 r+1+1 = 7
4
& 1;r +r+1E = 7
2
g (2)
a r 4
On dividing (1) by (2) we get a2 = 7 # 4
7
& a2 = 4 & a = ! 2
Since the sum of the terms are positive, a = 2
2
Now, 2c r + r + 1 m = 7
r
& 2r 2 + 2 r + 2 = 7 r
& 2r2 - 5r + 2 = 0
& ^2r - 1h^r - 2h = 0
& r = 2 or 1
2
By taking a = 2, r = 2 the three terms of the G.P. are 1, 2, 4
By taking a = 2, r = 1 , the three terms of the G.P. are 4, 2, 1.
2
34 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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11. The sum of the first three terms of a G.P. is 13 and sum of their squares is 91.
Determine the G.P.
Solution: Let the first three terms of the G.P be a, ar, ar2 .
Given that a^1 + r + r2h = 13 g (1)
a2 ^1 + r2 + r4h = 91 g (2)
Using (1) and (2) we get,
a2 ^1 + r2 + r4h = 91 = 7
2 169 13
a2 ^1 + r + r2h
^ 2h^ 2h
& 1 + r + r 1 - r2 + r = 7
^1 + r + r2h 13

& 1 - r + r2 = 7
1 + r + r2 13
& 3r2 - 10r + 3 = 0
& ^r - 3h^3r - 1h = 0
& r = 3 or 1
3
When r = 3 , the three terms are 1, 3, 9; when r = 1 , the three terms are 9, 3, 1.
3
12. If `1000 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the rate of 5%
compounded annually, find the maturity amount at the end of 12 years.
Solution: The principal is ` 1000. Interest for the first year is 1000 ` 5 j
100
Amount at the end of the first year is
1000 + 1000` 5 j = 1000`1 + 5 j
100 100
Interest for second year = 1000 `1 + 5 j` 5 j
500 100
So, the amount at the end of the second year
= 1000`1 + 5 j + 1000`1 + 5 j` 5 j
100 100 100
= 1000`1 + 5 j`1 + 5 j
100 100
2
= 1000`1 + 5 j
100
Continuing in this way, we see that the amount at the end of 12th year
12 12
= ` 1000`1 + 5 j = ` 1000 ` 105 j
100 100
Note: Without using above method, one can easily find that total amount using the
formula A = P^1 + ihn Where A is the amount, P is the principal i = r , r is the
100
annual interest rate and n is the number of years.
12 12
A = 1000 `1 + 5 j = ` 1000 ` 105 j
100 100

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 35


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13. A company purchases an office copier machine for ` 50,000. It is estimated that
the copier depreciates in its value at a rate of 15% per year. What will be the
value of the copier after 15 years?
Solution: ` Value of the copier at the end of first year t1 = 50, 000 # ` 85 j
100
Value of the machine at the end of second year

t2 = `50000 # 85 j # 85
100 100
2
= 50000 # ` 85 j
100
15
Thus, the value of the machine at the end of 15th year, t15 = ` 50000` 85 j .
100
14. If a, b, c, d are in a geometric sequence, then show that
^a - b + ch^ b + c + dh = ab + bc + cd.
Solution: Given a, b, c, d are in geometric sequence. Let r be the common ratio of the
given sequence. Then, b = ar, c = ar2, d = ar3
Now, ^a - b + ch^b + c + d h = ^a - ar + ar2h^ar + ar2 + ar3h
= a2 r^1 - r + r2h ^1 + r + r2h
= a 2 r + a 2 r3 + a 2 r 4
= ab + bc + cd .
Aliter: Given that a, b, c, d are in G.P. So, b2 = ac , ad = bc and c2 = bd
Now, ^a - b + ch ^b + c + d h
= ab + ac + ad - b2 - bc - bd + bc + c2 + cd
= ab + ^ac - b2h + ^ad - bch + ^- bd + c2h + bc + cd
= ab + bc + cd .

15. If a, b, c, d are in a G.P., then prove that a + b, b + c, c + d, are also in G.P.


Solution: Given that a, b, c, d are in G.P.
Let r be the common ratio of the given G.P.
Then, b = ar, c = ar2, d = ar3

We have b+c = ar + ar2


a+b a + ar
ar^1 + r h
= =r
a^1 + r h
2
Also, c+d ar2 + ar3 = ar ^1 + r h = r
=
b+c ar + ar2 ar^1 + r h
Hence, a + b, b + c, c + d are in G.P.
36 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Exercise 2.4

1. Find the sum of the first (i) 75 positive integers (ii) 125 natural numbers.
Solution: (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 75 is an Arithmetic series
Here, a = 1, d = 2 - 1 = 1 and n = 75

Now, Sn = n 6 2a + ^ n - 1 h d @
2
& s75 = 75 62 (1) + ^75 - 1h (1) @
2
= 75 62 + 74 @ = 75 676 @ = 675 # 38 @
2 2
Thus, S75 = 2850.
Remarks: Also note that the above problem can be solved by using the formula
Sn = n 6 a + l @ . Here, n = 75, a = 1 .
2
` S75 = 75 61 + 75 @ = 75 ^76h = 2850
2 2
(ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 125 is an Arithemetic series
Here, a = 1, d = 1, n = l = 125
125 61 + 125 @
`` Sn = 2 6 a + l @j
Now, S125 = n
2
= 125 # 126 = 125 # 63
2
Thus, S125 = 7875.
2. Find the sum of the first 30 terms of an A.P. whose nth term is 3 + 2n .
Solution: Given that the nth term of an A.P is 3 + 2n .
Now, tn = 3 + 2n = 5 + (n - 1) (2) of the form a + (n - 1) d

S30 = 30 62^5h + ^30 - 1h^2h@


2
= 15 610 + 58 @ = 15 # 68
Aliter: t1 = a = 5
S30 = 1020 d = t2 - t1 = 4
3. Find the sum of each arithmetic series S30 = 1020

(i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 . (ii) 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 terms.


4 2
Solution: (i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 is an A.P
Here, a = 38, d = 35 - 38 =- 3, l = 2

Now, l = a + (n - 1) d & n = l - a + 1 = 2 - 38 + 1 =13


d -3
Thus, S13 = 13 62 + 38 @ ( Sn = n 6 a + l @ )
2 2
= 13 640 @ = = 260
2
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 37
(ii) Given arithmetic series is 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 terms
4 2
Here, 1
a = 6, d = 5 - 6 = - 3 and n = 25 .
4 4
Now, Sn = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @
2
Thus, S25 = 25 82^6h + ^25 - 1h` - 3 jB
2 4
= 25 812 + 24` - 3 jB = 25 612 - 18 @ =- 75 .
2 4 2
4. Find the Sn for the following arithmetic series described.
(i) a = 5, n = 30, l = 121 (ii) a = 50, n = 25, d =- 4
Solution: (i) Given that a = 5, n = 30, l = 121
Now, Sn = n 6 a + l @
2
& S30 = 30 65 + 121 @ = 15 6126 @ = 1890.
2
(ii) Given that a = 50, n = 25 and d =- 4
Sn = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @
Now,
2
& S25 = 25 62^50h + ^25 - 1h^- 4h@
2
= 25 6100 + 24^- 4h@ = 25 6100 - 96 @ = 25 64 @ = 50
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
5. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the series 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + g .
Solution: The given series can be written in the form of
     ^1 - 4h + ^9 - 16h + ^25 - 36h + . . . . . to 20 terms.
= ^- 3h + ^- 7h + ^- 11h + . . . . . to 20 terms.
This is an A.P with a =- 3 , d =- 4 and n = 20 .

We have Sn = n 62a + (n - 1) d @
2
& S20 = 20 6^- 6h + 19 (- 4) @ = 10^- 82h = – 820.
2
Aliter: 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + g + 392 - 402
2 2 2 2

= 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + g + 392 + 402
      - 2^22 + 42 + 62 + g + 402h
= 12 + 22 + 32 + g + 402 - 2^22h^12 + 22 + g + 202h
^40h^41h^81h ^20h^21h^41h
= - 8
6 6
= ^20h^41h627 - 28 @ =- 820 .

38 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


6. In an arithmetic series, the sum of first 11 terms is 44 and that of the next 11 terms
is 55. Find the arithmetic series.
Solution: We have Sn = n 62a + (n - 1) d @
2
Thus, S11 = 44 & 11 62a + ^11 - 1h^d h@ = 44 & a + 5d = 4 g (1)
2
Also, S22 = S11 + 55 = 44 + 55 = 99
& 22 62a + ^22 - 1h d @ = 99 & 2a + 21d = 9 g (2)
2
Solving (1) and (2), we get a = 39 and d = 1 .
11 11
The required arithmetic series is a + (a + d) + (a + 2d) + g

= 39 + ` 39 + 1 j + ` 39 + 2 j + g = 39 + 40 + 41 + 42 + g .
11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
7. In the arithmetic sequence 60, 56, 52, 48,g , starting from the first term, how
many terms are needed so that their sum is 368?
Solution: Given arithmetic sequence is 60, 56, 52, 48,g
Here, a = 60, d = 56 - 60 = 52 - 56 = g =- 4
Also, Sn = 368 .
Let us find the number of terms needed.
Now, Sn = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @
2
& 368 = n 62^60h + ^n - 1h^- 4h@
2
& n 6120 - 4n + 4 @ = 368
2
& n 6124 - 4n @ = 368 & n^62 - 2nh = 368
2
& 2n2 - 62n + 368 = 0 & n2 - 31n + 184 = 0
& ^n - 8h^n - 23h = 0 & n = 8 or 23
Hence, 8 terms or 23 terms are needed to get the sum 368.
8. Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 9.
Solution: The sequence of 3 digit numbers which are divisible by 9 are
108, 117, 126, g, 999 .
This is an A.P., where a = 108, d = 9 and l = 999 .
Also, l = a + (n - 1) d & n = l - a + 1
d
& = 999 - 108 + 1 = 891 + 1 = 99 + 1 = 100
9 9
Now, Sn = n (a + l) & S100 = 100 6999 + 108 @
2 2
= 50^1107h = 55350 .

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 39


9. Find the sum of first 20 terms of the arithmetic series in which 3rd term is 7 and 7th
term is 2 more than three times its 3rd term.
Solution: Given that t3 = 7 and t7 = 2 + 3 t3 = 23
Now, tn = a + ^n - 1h d
Thus, a + 2d = 7 g (1)
a + 6d = 23 g (2)
(2) - (1) & 4d = 16 & d = 4
Substituting d = 4 in (1), we get a + 2^4h = 7 & a = - 1

Now, Sn = n { 2a + (n - 1) d } & S20 = 20 62^- 1h + 19^4h@ = 10 6- 2 + 76 @ = 740.


2 2
10.Find the sum of all natural numbers between 300 and 500 which are divisible by 11
Solution: The natural numbers between 300 and 500 which are divisible by 11 are
308, 319, 330, g , 495. They form an A.P.
Here, the first term, a = 308, last term, l = 495 and the common difference, d =11.
Also, l = a + (n - 1) d & n = l - a + 1 = 495 - 308 + 1 = 18
d 11
Now, Sn = 6 a + l @
n & S18 = 6308 + 495 @ = 9 6803 @ = 7227.
18
2 2
11. Solve: 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148 .
Solution: The terms of the series form an A.P. with first term, a = 1 and
the common difference, d = 5
Given that 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148
Now, Sn = 148 & n 62a + ^n - 1h d @ = 148
2
& n 62^1 h + ^n - 1h 5 @ = 148
2
& n ^5n - 3h = 148 & 5n2 - 3n - 296 = 0
2
& ^5n + 37h^n - 8h = 0 & n = 8 or - 37
5
Thus, n = 8 [Here, n = - 37 is not possible]
5
Hence, x = t8 = a +7d = 1+7(5) = 36.
12. Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 200 which are not divisible by 5.
Solution: Let T be the sum of all natural numbers between 100 and 200.
Thus, T = 101 + 102 + 103 + g + 199 , where the terms form an A.P. with
a = 101 , l = 199 and n = 99.
Then, T = 99 ^101 + 199h = 99 # 150 = 14850 .
2
Let S be the sum of natural numbers between 100 and 200 which are divisible by 5.
Then, S = 105 + 110 + 115 + g + 195 .
40 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Here, the terms form an A.P. with a = 105, d = 5, l = 195 .
Also, l = a + (n - 1) d & n = l - a + 1 = 195 - 105 + 1 = 18 + 1 = 19 .
d 5
Now, Sn = n 6 a + l @ & S = 19 6195 + 105 @ = 19 # 150 = 2850 .
2 2
ence, the sum of the natural numbers between 100 and 200 which are not divisible
H
by 5 is T - S = 14850 - 2850 = 12000.

13. A construction company will be penalised each day for delay in construction of
a bridge. The penalty will be `4000 for the first day and will increase by `1000
for each following day. Based on its budget, the company can afford to pay a
maximum of `1,65,000 towards penalty. Find the maximum number of days by
which the completion of work can be delayed.
Solution: Penalty amounts to be levied for consecutive days form an Arithmetic
series with a = 4000, d = 1000 .
Let n be the maximum number of days for which the work can be delayed.
Then, Sn = 1,65,000 ( given )
& n 62^4000h + ^n - 1h^1000h@ = 1,65,000
2
& n 68000 + 1000n - 1000 @ = 3,30,000
& n2 + 7n - 330 = 0
& ^n + 22h^n - 15h = 0 & n = 15 or - 22
Maximum number of days for which the work can be delayed is 15.
14. A sum of `1000 is deposited every year at 8% simple interest. Calculate the
interest at the end of each year. Do these interest amounts form an A.P.?
If so, find the total interest at the end of 30 years.
Solution: Every year `1000 is deposited at 8% simple interest.
Interest for the first year, t1 = 1000 # 8 = 80
100
Interest for the second year, t2 = 2000 # 8 = 160
100
Thus, the interest amounts 80 , 160 , 240, g at the end of each year form an A.P.
with a = 80 and d = 80 .
The total interest is Sn = n { 2a + (n - 1) d } & S30 = 30 6160 + 29^80h@ = `7200
2 2
2
15. The sum of first n terms of a certain series is given as 3n - 2n .
Show that the series is an arithmetic series.
Solution: Given that Sn = 3n2 - 2n .
So, Sn - 1 = 3^n - 1h2 - 2^n - 1h
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 41
= 36 n2 - 2n + 1 @ - 2n + 2 = 3n2 - 8n + 5
Now, the nth term is tn = Sn - Sn - 1
= 3n2 - 2n - 63n2 - 8n + 5 @
= 6n - 5 = 6n - 6 + 1 = 1 + ^n - 1h 6 .
So, tn is of the term a + ^n - 1h d .
Hence, the given series is an Arithmetic series with a = 1, d = 6 .
16. If a clock strikes once at 1 o’clock, twice at 2 o’clock and so on, how many times
will it strike in a day?
Solution: Number of times the clock strikes each hour form an A.P.
Then, for the first 12 hours, the arithmetic series is 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 12 .
Thus, Sn = n 6 a + l @ & S12 = 12 61 + 12 @ = 6^13h = 78 .
2 2
Hence, the clock strikes in a day ( in 24 hours) = 2 # 78 = 156 times.
17. Show that the sum of an arithmetic series whose first term is a , second term b and
^a + ch^ b + c - 2ah
the last term is c , is equal to .
2 ^ b - ah
Solution: Given that t1 = a, t2 = b and the last term tn = l = c
Now, the common difference, d = t2 - t1 = b - a
Thus, tn = a + ^n - 1h d = c & a + ^n - 1h^b - ah = c

& n - 1 = c - a & n = b + c - 2a
b-a b-a
Hence, Sn = n 6 a + l @
2
^b + c - 2ah
= ^ a + ch
2^ b - ah
18. If there are ^2n + 1h terms in an arithmetic series, then prove that the ratio of the
sum of odd terms to the sum of even terms is ^n + 1h : n .
Solution: Given that the arithmetic series has ^2n + 1h terms.
Let T, S denote the sum of odd terms and even terms respectively.
Now, T = t1 + t3 + t5 + g + t2n + 1

= ` n + 1 j 6t1 + t2n + 1 @ (There are n + 1 terms)


2
= ` n + 1 j 6 a + {a + (2n) d } @
2
62^a + nd h@ = ^n + 1h^a + nd h .
^ n + 1h
=
2
Now, S = t2 + t4 + t6 + g + t2n
= n 6t2 + t2n @ ( There are n terms)
2
42 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
= n 6{a + d} + {a + ^2n - 1h d} @
2
= n 62a + 2nd @ = n^a + nd h
2
Hence, T = ^n + 1h^a + nd h = n + 1 .
S n^a + nd h n
19. The ratio of the sums of first m and first n terms of an arithmetic series is
2 2
m : n . Show that the ratio of the mth and nth terms is ^2m - 1h : ^2n - 1h .
Solution: Given the ratio of the sums of first m and first n terms of arithmetic
series is m2: n2m
.
Sm 2 62a + ^m - 1h d @ 2
That is, = m2   & 2 = m2
Sn n n 6 2a + ^ n - 1 h d @ n
2
2a + ^m - 1h d
& = m
2a + ^ n - 1 h d n

& 2an + mnd - nd = 2am + mnd - md


& 2an - nd = 2am - md
& 2a ^ n - m h = ^ n - m h d & 2a = d
tm a + ^ m - 1h d
Thus, =
tn a + ^ n - 1h d
a + ^m - 1h^2ah
=
a + ^n - 1h^2ah
a 61 + 2m - 2 @ 2m - 1
= = .
a 61 + 2n - 2 @ 2n - 1
20. A gardener plans to construct a trapezoidal shaped structure in his garden. The
longer side of trapezoid needs to start with a row of 97 bricks. Each row must be
decreased by 2 bricks on each end and the construction should stop at 25th row.
How many bricks does he need to buy?
Solution: The number of bricks to be used in each row form an A.P.
Thus, the arithmetic series is 97 + 93 + 89 + g to 25 terms.
Here, a = 97, d =- 4 and n = 25 .
Now, Sn = n 62a + ^n - 1h d @
2
& S25 = 25 62^97h + ^25 - 1h^- 4h@
2
= 25 6194 - 96 @
2
= 25 698 @
2
Thus, the number of bricks needed = 1225 bricks.
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 43
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Exercise 2.5

1. Find the sum of the first 20 terms of the geometric series 5 + 5 + 5 + g .


2 6 18
Solution: Given geometric series is 5 + 5 + 5 + g
2 6 18
5 5
Here, 5
a= , r= 6 = 18 = g = 1 and n = 20.
2 5 5 3
2 6
^ nh
We have, Sn = a 1 - r
1-r
5 ;1 - 1 20 E 5 ;1 - 1 20 E
` j `3 j
= 15 ;1 - ` 1 j E
2 20
Thus, S20 = 3 = 2
1- 1 2 4 3
3 3

2. Find the sum of the first 27 terms of the geometric series 1 + 1 + 1 + g .


9 27 81
Solution: For the given geometric series 1 + 1 + 1 + g ,
9 27 81
1
we have, a = 1 , r= 27 = 1 and n = 27.
9 1 3
9
1 ;1 - 1 27 E 1 ;1 - 1 27 E
` j `3 j
= 1 ;1 - ` 1 j E .
^ n h 27
Thus, Sn = a 1 - r & S27 = 9 3 = 9
1-r 1- 1 2 6 3
3 3
3. Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below.
(i) a = 3, t8 = 384, n = 8 . (ii) a = 5, r = 3 , n = 12 .
Solution: (i) Given a = 3, t8 = 384, n = 8 .
Now, t8 = a $ r8 - 1 = a r 7
& a r7 = 384 & ^3 h r7 = 384
& r7 = 128 & r7 = 27 & r = 2
6 8@
& S8 = 3 1 - 2 = 3 6256 - 1 @ = 765 .
^ nh
Thus, Sn = a 1 - r
1-r 1-2
(ii) Given that a = 5, r = 3 , n = 12
6 12 @
& S12 = 5 3 - 1 = 5 6312 - 1 @ .
^ n h
Thus, Sn = a r - 1
r-1 3-1 2
4. Find the sum of the following finite series
(i) 1 + 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + g + ^0.1h9 (ii) 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms.
Solution: (i) Given series 1 + 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + g + ^0.1h9 is a geometric series
Here, a = 1, r = 0.1 and tn = ^0.1h9
44 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Now, tn = a # r n - 1 & (0.1) 9 = ^1 h^0.1hn - 1
& n - 1 = 9 & n = 10 .
^ nh ^1 h61 - ^0.1h 10 @
1 - ^0.1h10
Thus, Sn = a 1 - r & S10 = = .
1-r 1 - ^0.1h 0.9
(ii) Given series is 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms
Let S20 = 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms.
Multiplying and dividing by 9, we get

S20 = 1 [ 9 + 99 + 999 + g to 20 terms]


9
1
= [ ^10 - 1h + ^100 - 1h + ^1000 - 1h + g 20 terms]
9
= 1 6^10 + 102 + 103 + g 20 terms) - 20 @
9
= '; 10 # 10 - 1 E - 20 1 .
1 ^ 20 h
9 10 - 1
^ n h
( Here, sum of n terms of G.P. is a r - 1 )
r-1
= 10 6^1020 - 1h@ - 20 .
81 9
5. How many consecutive terms starting from the first term of the series
(i) 3 + 9 + 27 + g would sum to 1092 ? (ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + g would sum to 728 ?
Solution: (i) Let us find n such that 3 + 9 + 27 + g + tn = 1092
Now, the given series is a geometric series with a = 3, r = 9 = 27 = g = 3.
3 9
Given that Sn = 1092
a^r n - 1h =1092 6 n @
& & 3 3 - 1 = 1092
r-1 3-1
& 3 n - 1 = 728 & 3 n = 729 = 36
Thus, the number of terms needed to get the sum is, n = 6
(ii) Given series 2 + 6 + 18 + g is a geometric series with
a = 2, r = 6 = 3, and Sn = 728 .
2
a ^r n - 1h 6 n @
Thus, Sn = & 2 3 - 1 = 728 & 3 n - 1 = 728
r-1 3-1
& 3 n = 729 = 36 & n = 6
Thus, the number of terms needed to get the sum is, n = 6 .
6. The second term of a geometric series is 3 and the common ratio is 4 .
5
Find the sum of first 23 consecutive terms in the given geometric series.
Solution: Given that t2 = 3, r = 4 and n = 23
5
Now, t2 = 3 & ar = 3 & a = 3 = 15 .
4 4
5
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 45
;1 -`4 j E
23
15
= 4 ;1 - ` 4 j E
^1 - r nh 23
Thus, Sn = a 15 5
& S23 =
1-r 4 1- 4 1 5
5 5
= 75 ;1 - ` 4 j E .
23

4 5
7. A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio. The
sum of the first two terms is 9 and sum of the last two terms is 36. Find the series.
Solution: Let the four terms of the G.P. be a ,ar , ar2 , ar3 .
Given that a + ar = 9 g (1) ; ar2 + ar3 = 36 g (2)
Thus, (2) & r2 ^a + ar h = 36
& r2 ^9h = 36 & r2 = 4 & r = ! 2
Since r > 0, r = 2. Thus, a + ar = 9 & a = 3.
Hence, the required series is 3 + 3(2) + 3(22 ) + 3(23 ) = 3 + 6 + 12 + 24.
8. Find the sum of first n terms of the series
(i) 7 + 77 + 777 + g . (ii) 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .
Solution: (i) Given series is 7 + 77 + 777 + g to n terms
Taking 7 as a common factor and multipling and dividing by 9 , we get

Sn = 7 69 + 99 + 999 + g to n terms]
9
= 7 6^10 - 1h + ^100 - 1h + ^1000 - 1h + g to n terms]
9
= 7 6 (10 + 100 + 1000 + g n terms) - (1 + 1 + 1gn terms) ]
9
= 7 610 + 102 + 103 + gn terms - n @
9
= 7 ;10 c 10 n - 1 m - n E
9 10 - 1
^ n h
( Here, sum of n terms of G.P. is a r - 1 )
r-1
= 70 ^10 n - 1h - 7n
81 9
(ii) Given series is 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .

Let Sn = 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g to n terms

Then Sn = ^1 - 0.6h + ^1 - 0.06h + ^1 - 0.006h + g to n terms

= (1 + 1 + 1 + g to n terms) - (0.6 + 0.06 + 0.006 + g to n terms)

= n - 6 ; 1 + 1 2 + 1 3 + g to n terms]
10 10 10
46 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
1 81 - 1 n B
= n - 6 > 10 H
` 10 j
= n - 6 8 1 `1 - ` 1 j jB = n - 2 81 - ` 1 j B
n n

1- 1 9 10 3 10
10
^ n h
( Here, sum of n terms of G.P. is a r - 1 )
r-1
9. Suppose that five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic and each sick
person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the
second week and so on. By the end of 15th week, how many people will be affected
by the epidemic?
Solution: The number of people affected by the epidemic during each week form a
geometric series.
Thus, the total number of people affected by the epidemic in 15 weeks is,
S15 = 5 + ^4 # 5h + ^4 # 20h + ^4 # 80h + g to 15 terms
= 5 + 20 + 80 + g to 15 terms.
It is geometric series with a = 5, r = 4 , n = 15
6 15 @
Thus, Sn = a r - 1 & S15 = 5 4 - 1 = 5 6415 - 1 @ .
^ n h
r-1 4-1 3
10. A gardener wanted to reward a boy for his good deeds by giving some mangoes.
He gave the boy two choices. He could either have 1000 mangoes at once or he
could get 1 mango on the first day, 2 on the second day, 4 on the third day, 8
mangoes on the fourth day and so on for ten days. Which option should the boy
choose to get the maximum number of mangoes?
Solution: If the boy receives mangoes daily for 10 days, then
the total number of mangoes is S10 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + g to 10 terms.
The above series is a geometric series with a = 1, r = 2 and n = 10 .
^ n h (1)6210 - 1 @
Thus, Sn = a r - 1 & S10 = = 210 - 1 = 1023.
r-1 2-1
Hence, the boy should opt for getting mangoes daily for 10 days.
11. A geometric series consists of even number of terms. The sum of all terms is 3
times the sum of odd terms. Find the common ratio.
Solution: Assume that the number of terms in the geometric series is 2n .
Given that S2n = 3 (sum of odd terms)

& S2n = 3 6t1 + t3 + t5 + g + t2n - 1 @

a c 1 - r m = 3 6 a + ar2 + ar4 + g + ar2n - 2 @


2n
&
1-r

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 47


& = 3a 61 + r2 + ^r2h + g^r2h @
2 n-1

n
& = 3a )= 1 - r 2 G3 & 3 = 1
^ 2h
& r=2
1-r 1+r
Thus, the common ratio is 2.

12. If S1, S2 and S3 are the sum of first n, 2n and 3n terms of a geometric series
respectively, then prove that S1 ^ S3 - S2h = ^ S2 - S1h2 .
^ nh ^ 2nh ^ 3n h
Solution: Given that S1 = a 1 - r , S2 = a 1 - r and S3 = a 1 - r
1-r 1-r 1-r
nh 3n h
^ ^
Now, S1 ^ S3 - S2h = ' a 1 - r 1 ' a 1 - r a^1 - r2nh 1
-
1-r 1-r 1-r

= ) a 1 - r2 3 61 - r3n - 1 + r2n @ = ) a 1 - r2 3 6 r2n - r3n @


2^ nh 2^ nh

^1 - r h ^1 - r h
2 2n ^ nh ^ nh 2 2n ^ nh2
= a r 1 - r 2 1 - r = a r 1 -2r g (1)
^1 - r h ^1 - r h
2n n
Also S2 - S1 = a c 1 - r m - a c 1 - r m
1-r 1-r

= a 61 - r2n - 1 + r n @ = a r 61 - r n @
n
1-r 1-r
2
& a2 r2n ^1 - r nh
^ S2 - S1h = = S1 ^ S3 - S2h . (using (1))
2
^1 - r h2

Exercise 2.6

1. Find the sum of the following series.


2 2 2 2
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45 (ii) 16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25
(iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100 (iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490
2 2 2 2 3 3 3
(v) 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39 (vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35
n^ n + 1h
Solution: (i) We have, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = .
2
45^45 + 1h
Thus, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45 = = 45 # 23 = 1035 .
2
2 2 2 2
(ii) 16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25
= (12 + 22 + 32 + g + 252) - ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 152h
25 15 n
= / k2 - / k2 . { / k2 = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) . }
k=1 k=1 1 6
25^25 + 1h ^50 + 1h 15^15 + 1h ^30 + 1h
= -
6 6
^25h ^26h ^51h ^15h ^16h ^31h
= - = 5525 - 1240 = 4285 .
6 6
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(iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100
50 n n^ n + 1h
2 ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 50h = 2 / k .
= ( /k = )
1 k=1 2
2 ^50h ^50 + 1h
= = 2550 .
2
(iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490
= 7 ^1 + 2 + 3 + g + 70h = 7 / k = 7 ; E
70 70^70 + 1h n n^ n + 1h
( /k = )
1 2 k=1 2
= 7 # 35 # 71 = 17395 .
2 2 2 2
(v) 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39
= ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 392h - ^22 + 42 + 62 + g + 382h - ^12 + 32h

/ k2 - 22 612 + 22 + 32 + g + 192 @ - 10 = / k2 - 4/ k2 - 10
39 39 19
=
1 1 1
n
{ / k2 = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) }
1 6

-4; E - 10
39^39 + 1h ^78 + 1h 19 ^19 + 1h ^38 + 1h
=
6 6
= 20540 - 9880 - 10 = 10650 .
3 3 3
(vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35
= ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 353h - ^13 + 23 + g + 153h
35 15 n n^ n + 1h 2
= / k3 - / k3 ) / k3 = c m 3
1 1 k=1 2

E - ;
15 ^15 + 1h 2
= ; E = 8 35 # 36 B - 8 15 # 16 B
35 (35 + 1) 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
= ^35 # 18h2 - ^15 # 8h2 = ^630h2 - ^120h2
= (630 + 120)(630 - 120) = 382500.
2. Find the value of k if
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084 (ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
3 3 3 3
Solution: (i) Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084
k
& / n3 = 6084
1

;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 6084 = 782
2
& k (k + 1) = 156 = 12 # 13 & k = 12 .
3 3 3 3
(ii) Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
k
& / n3 = 2025
1

;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 2025 = 452 & k^k + 1h = 9 # 10
2
Thus, k = 9
Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 49
3 3 3 3
3. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p .
Solution: Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171
p
& / n = 171
1
p^ p + 1h
& = 171
2

;
p^ p + 1h 2
& E = 1712
2
Thus, 1 3 + 23 + 33 + g + p3 = 1712 = 29241.
3 3 3 3
4. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k .
3 3 3 3
Solution: Given that 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281

;
k ^ k + 1h 2
& E = 8281 = 912
2
k ^ k + 1h
& = 91
2
& 1 + 2 + 3 + gk = 91
5. Find the total area of 12 squares whose sides are 12 cm, 13cm, g, 23cm. respectively.
Solution: Given that the sides of 12 squares are 12cm, 13cm, 14cm, g, 23cm.
Total area of 12 squares = 122 + 132 + 142 + g + 232
= ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 232h - ^12 + 22 + 32 + g + 112h
23 11 n
= / k2 - / / k2 { / k2 = n (n + 1) (2n + 1) }
1 1 1 6
23^23 + 1h^46 + 1h 11^11 + 1h^22 + 1h
= -
6 6
= 23 # 24 # 47 - 11 # 12 # 23
6 6
= 4324 - 506 = 3818 cm 2 .
6. Find the total volume of 15 cubes whose edges are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm
respectively.
Solution: The edges of 15 cubes are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm respectively.
Total volume of 15 cubes = 163 + 173 + 183 + g + 303
= ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 303h - ^13 + 23 + 33 + g + 153h
30 15 n n^ n + 1h 2
= / k3 - / k3 ) / k3 = c m 3
1 1 k=1 2

= ; E -;
30^30 + 1h 2 15^15 + 1h 2
E
2 2
= ^15 # 31h2 - ^15 # 8h2 = ^465h2 - ^120h2
= 216225 - 14400 = 201825 cm3 .
50 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 2.7
Choose the correct answer.
1. Which one of the following is not true?
(A) A sequence is a real valued function defined on N .
(B) Every function represents a sequence.
(C) A sequence may have infinitely many terms.
(D) A sequence may have a finite number of terms.
Solution: A real valued function defined on N is a sequence. ( Ans. (B) )

2. The 8th term of the sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, g is


(A) 25 (B) 24 (C) 23 (D) 21
Solution: In Fibonacci sequence, Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2, n > 2. ( Ans. (D) )

3. The next term of 1 in the sequence 1 , 1 , 1 , 1 , g is


20 2 6 12 20
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) 1
24 22 30 18
Solution: The general term is tn = 1 ( Ans. (C) )
n (n + 1)

4. If a, b, c, l, m are in A.P, then the value of a - 4b + 6c - 4l + m is


(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0
Solution: a - 4b + 6c - 4l + m
= (a + m) - 4 (b + l) + 6c = 2c - 4 (2c) + 6c = 0 ( Ans. (D) )

5. If a, b, c are in A.P. then a - b is equal to


b-c
(A) a (B) b (C) a (D) 1 ( Ans. (D) )
b c c
6. If the nth term of a sequence is 100 n +10, then the sequence is
(A) an A.P . (B) a G.P.
(C) a constant sequence (D) neither A.P. nor G.P.
Solution: 100n + 10 = 110 + 100(n–1) is of the form a + (n–1)d . ( Ans (A) )
In fact, tn = an + b , n = 1, 2, g ,where a and b are constants, is nth term of an A.P

a
7. If a1, a2, a3, g are in A.P. such that 4 = 3 , then the 13th term of the A.P. is
a7 2
(A) 3 (B) 0 (C) 12a1 (D) 14a1
2
Solution: 2( a + 3d ) = 3( a + 6d ) & 3a + 18d – 2a – 6d = 0
& a + 12d = 0 ( Ans (B) )

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 51


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8. If the sequence a1, a2, a3, g is in A.P. , then the sequence a5, a10, a15, g is
(A) a G.P. (B) an A.P.
(C) neither A.P nor G.P. (D) a constant sequence
Solution: a5, a10, a15, g = a + 4d, a+ 9d, a+ 14d,g .
This an A.P with common difference = 5d . ( Ans (B) )
(Terms of an A.P. selected at equal intervals consecutively, again form an A.P. )

9. If k+2, 4k–6, 3k–2 are the three consecutive terms of an A.P, then the value of k is
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5
Solution: (k+2) + (3k–2) = 2(4k–6) & 4k = 8k – 12 & k = 3. ( Ans (B) )

10. If a, b, c, l, m. n are in A.P., then 3a+7, 3b+7, 3c+7, 3l+7, 3m+7, 3n+7 form
(A) a G.P. (B) an A.P.
(C) a constant sequence (D) neither A.P. nor G.P
Solution: If an A.P is Multiplied by a constant or Added by a constant,
the resulting sequence is an A.P ( Ans (B) )

11. If the third term of a G.P is 2, then the product of first 5 terms is
2 5
(A) 5 (B) 2 (C) 10 (D) 15

Solution: G.P : a , a , a, ar, ar2 . The third term a = 2. So,the product a5 = 25 .


r2 r
(Here, the product of first (2n+1)) terms is 2(2n + 1) ) ( Ans (B) )

12. If a, b, c are in G.P, then a - b is equal to


b-c
(A) a (B) b (C) a (D) c
b a c b
b
a`1 - j a (1 r)
Solution: a - b = a = - = a . Note; b ar, c ar2 ( Ans (A) )
= =
b-c c
b`1 - j b (1 - r) b
b
13. If x, 2x + 2 , 3x + 3 are in G.P, then 5x, 10x + 10 , 15x + 15 form
(A) an A.P. (B) a G.P.

(C) a constant sequence (D) neither A.P. nor a G.P.

Solution: The terms 5x, 10x + 10 , 15x + 15 are obtained by multiplying the
original sequence by 5. ( Ans (B) )

52 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


14. The sequence –3, –3, –3,g is
(A) an A.P. only (B) a G.P. only
(C) neither A.P. nor G.P (D) both A.P. and G.P.
Solution: A constant sequence is both A.P and G.P. ( Ans (D) )

15. If the product of the first four consecutive terms of a G.P is 256 and if the common ratio
is 4 and the first term is positive, then its 3rd term is
(A) 8 (B) 1
16
(C) 1 (D) 16
32

Solution: Let the G.P be a3 , a , ar, ar3 ; a4 = 256 & a = 4. ar = 16. ( Ans (D) )
r r

16. In a G.P, t2 = 3 and t3 = 1 . Then the common ratio is


5 5
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) 5 ( Ans (B) )
5 3

2 3 4 5
17. If x ! 0 , then 1 + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x + sec x is equal to
2 3 4 2 4
(A) (1 + sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (B) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)
3 5 3 4
(C) (1 - sec x) (sec x + sec x + sec x) (D) (1 + sec x) (1 + sec x + sec x)
6 (1 sec2 x) (1 + sec2 x + sec4 x)
Solution: Expression = 1 - sec x = - ( Ans (B) )
1 - sec x 1 - sec x

th
18. If the n term of an A.P. is tn = 3 - 5n , then the sum of the first n terms is

(A) n 61 - 5n @ (B) n^1 - 5nh (C) n ^1 + 5nh (D) n ^1 + nh


2 2 2
Solution: a = t1 =- 2; Sn = n (a + l) = n (- 2 + 3 - 5n) = n (1 - 5n) ( Ans (A) )
2 2 2

m-n m m+n
19. The common ratio of the G.P. a ,a ,a is
m -m n -n
(A) a (B) a (C) a (D) a ( Ans (C) )

3 3 3
20. If 1 + 2 + 3 +. . . + n = k then 1 + 2 + g + n is equal to
2 3 k ^ k + 1h
(A) k (B) k (C) (D) ^k + 1h3
2
( Ans (A) )

Solution - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 53


3 Algebra 3. ALGEBRA
Exercise 3.1
Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method.
1. x + 2y = 7 , x - 2y = 1 .
Solution: x + 2y = 7 g (1)
x - 2y = 1 g (2)
Now, (1) + (2) & 2x = 8 & x = 4.
When x = 4, (1) & 4 + 2y = 7 & y = 3.
2
Thus, the solution is `4, 3 j .
2
2. 3x + y = 8 , 5x + y = 10 .
Solution: 3x + y = 8 g (1)
5x + y = 10 g (2)
(1) – (2) & - 2x = – 2 & x=1
When x = 1, (1) & 3 + y = 8 & y=5
Thus, the solution is (1, 5).
y
3. x + = 4 , x + 2y = 5 .
2 3
Solution: The given equations are
y
x + = 4 g (1)
2
x + 2y = 5 g (2)
3
(1) # 2 & 2x + y = 8 g (3)
(2) # 3 & x + 6y = 15 g (4)
(3) - (4) # 2 & - 11y = - 22 & y = 2
When y = 2 , (4) & x + 6 (2) = 15 & x=3
Thus, the solution is (3, 2).
4. 11x - 7y = xy , 9x - 4y = 6xy .
Solution: Clearly x = 0, y = 0 satisfy both the equations.
So, (0,0) is a solution for the system.
Let us find the solution when x ^ 0, y ^ 0.
Dividing the given equations by xy, we get
11 - 7 = 1 and 9 - 4 = 6
y x y x
1
Let a = and b = . 1
x y
54 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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The given equations become,
- 7a + 11b = 1 g (1)
- 4a + 9b = 6 g (2)
(1) # 4 - (2) # 7 & - 19b = – 38 & b = 2
When b = 2, (1) & - 7a + 11 (2) = 1
& – 7a = 1 – 22 & a = 3
Now, a = 3 & x = 1 ; b=2 & y= 1.
3 2
Thus, the two solutions of the system are (0,0) , ` 1 , 1 j .
3 2
5. 3 + 5 = 20 , 2 + 5 = 15 , x ! 0, y ! 0 .
x y xy x y xy
Solution: Now, x ^ 0, y ^ 0. The given equations are
3 + 5 = 20 g (1)
x y xy
2 + 5 = 15 g (2)
x y xy
Since x ^ 0, y ^ 0, multiply both sides of the equations by xy.
We get, 5x + 3y = 20 g (3)
` 5x + 2y = 15 g (4)
(3) - (4) & y =5
When y = 5, (3) & 5x + 3 (5) = 20 & 5x = 5 & x = 1.
Thus, the solution is (1, 5).
6. 8x - 3y = 5xy , 6x - 5y =- 2xy .
Solution: Clearly x = 0, y = 0 is a solution of the system.
Let us assume that x ^ 0 and y ^ 0 .
8x - 3y = 5xy g (1)
6x - 5y = - 2xy g (2)
Divide both sides of the equations by xy.

We get, 8 - 3 = 5 & 3 - 8 =- 5 g (3)


y x x y
and 6 - 5 = -2 & 5 - 6 = 2 g (4)
y x x y
Let a = 1 and b = 1 , then
x y
(3) & 3a - 8 b = – 5 g (5)
(4) & 5a - 6b = 2 g (6)
(5) # 5 - (6) # 3 & - 22b = – 31 & b = 31
22

Solution - Algebra 55
When b = 31 , (5) & 3a - 8` 31 j = – 5 & a = 23 .
22 22 11
When a = 23 , we have 1 = 23 & x = 11 .
11 x 11 23

When b = 31 , we have 1 = 31 & y = 22 .


22 y 22 31

Thus, the two solutions are (0,0) , ` 11 , 22 j .


23 31
7. 13x + 11y = 70 , 11x + 13y = 74 .
Solution: The given equations are
13x + 11y = 70 g (1)
11x + 13y = 74 g (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get x + y = 6 g (3)
Subtracting (2) from (1), we get x - y =- 2 g (4)
(3) + (4) & x = 2
When x = 2, (4) & 2 - y = – 2 & y = 4.
Thus, the solution is (2, 4).
8. 65x - 33y = 97 , 33x - 65y = 1 .
Solution: The given equations are
65x - 33y = 97 g (1)
33x - 65y = 1 g (2)
(1) + (2) & x - y = 1 g (3)
(1) - (2) & x + y = 3 g (4)
Adding (3) and (4), we get x = 2 . When x = 2, (4) & y = 1.
Thus, the solution is (2, 1).

9. 15 + 2 = 17 , 1 + 1 = 36 , x ! 0, y ! 0 .
x y x y 5
Solution: The given equations are
15 + 2 = 17 g (1)
x y
1 + 1 = 36 g (2)
x y 5
Let a = 1 and b = 1 .
x y
(1) & 15a + 2b = 17 g (3)
(2) & a + b = 36 g (4)
5
(3) - (4) # 15 & 13b = – 91 & b = 7
-
56 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
When b = 7, (4) & 5a + 5 (7) = 36 & a = 1
5
When a = 1 , 1 = 1 & x = 5. When b = 7, 1 = 7 & y = 1 .
5 x
5 y 7
Thus, the solution is1
`5, 7 j .

10. 2 + 2 = 1 , 3 + 2 = 0, x ! 0, y ! 0 .
x 3y 6 x y
Solution: The given equations are,

2 + 2 = 1 g (1)
x 3y 6
3 + 2 = 0 g (2)
x y
Let a = 1 and b = 1 . Now, (1) & 2a + 2 b = 1 g (3)
x y 3 6
(2) & 3a + 2b = 0 g (4)
2b = 1 & b =- 1 .
(3) # 3 - (4) # 2 & -
2 4
When b =- 1 , (4) & 3a + 2`- 1 j = 0 & 3a = 1 & a = 1 .
4 4 2 6
Thus, a = 1 & x = 6 and b =- 1 & y =- 4.
6 4
Hence, the solution is (6, – 4).

Exercise 3.2

1. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method.


(i) 3x + 4y = 24 , 20x - 11y = 47 (ii) 0.5x + 0.8y = 0.44 , 0.8x + 0.6y = 0.5
5y y
(iii) 3x - =- 2, x + = 13 (iv) 5 - 4 =- 2, 2 + 3 = 13
2 3 3 2 6 x y x y
Solution: (i) The given system of equations is
3x + 4y - 24 = 0
20x - 11y - 47 = 0. Using cross multiplication method, we have
x y 1
   & 4 - 24 3 4
- 11 - 47 20 - 11

x y 1
& = =
4 (- 47) - (- 11) (- 24) (- 24) (20) - (- 47) (3) 3 (- 11) - (20) (4)
x = y
& = 1
- 452 - 339 - 113
& x = - 452 = 4, y = - 339 = 3
- 113 - 113
Thus, the solution is (4, 3).
Solution - Algebra 57
(ii) The given system of equation is
0.5x + 0.8y - 0.44 = 0
0.8x + 0.6y - 0.5 = 0
Multiply both sides of the given equations by 100.
We get, 50x + 80y - 44 = 0
80x + 60y - 50 = 0.
x y 1
& 80 - 44 50 80
60 - 50 80 60
x y 1
& = =
80 (- 50) - 60 (- 44) 80 (- 44) - 50 (- 50) 50 (60) - 80 (80)

x = y 1
& =
- 1360 - 1020 - 3400

& x = - 1360 = 0.4 ; y = - 1020 = 0.3


- 3400 - 3400
Thus, the solution is (0.4, 0.3).

9x - 10y 2x + 3y
(iii) = – 2, = 13 .
6 6 6
The given system of equations can be written as
9x - 10y + 12 = 0
2x + 3y - 13 = 0
x y 1
& - 10 12 9 - 10
3 - 13 2 3
x y 1
& = =
130 - 36 24 + 117 27 + 20
& x = 94 = 2 ; y = 141 = 3.
47 47
Thus, the solution is (2, 3).

(iv) Let a = 1 and b = 1 .


x y
The given system of equations is
5a - 4b + 2 = 0
2a + 3b - 13 = 0
To solve for the unknowns a and b, let us write the coefficients as
a b 1
& -4 2 5 -4
3 - 13 2 3

58 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


a = b = 1 & a = b = 1
& 52 - 6 4 + 65 15 + 8 46 69 23
& a = 46 = 2 ; b = 69 = 3.
23 23
Now, a = 2 & x = 1 ; b = 3 & y= 1 .
2 3
Thus, the solution is ` 1 , 1 j .
2 3
2. Formulate the following problems as a pair of equations, and hence find their
solutions:
(i) One number is greater than thrice the other number by 2. If 4 times the smaller
number exceeds the greater by 5, find the numbers.
Solution: Let x be the greater number and y be the smaller number.
Given that x - 3y = 2 & x - 3y - 2 = 0 g (1)
4y - x = 5 & - x + 4y - 5 = 0 g (2)
Now, (1) + (2) & y = 7
When y = 7 , (1) & x = 23.
Thus, the required numbers are 23 and 7.
(ii) The ratio of income of two persons is 9 : 7 and the ratio of their expenditure is
4 : 3. If each of them manages to save ` 2000 per month, find their monthly
income.
Solution: Let x and y be the income of two persons.
Given that x : y = 9 : 7
& 7x = 9y & 7x - 9y = 0 g (1)
Also, it is given that
(x - 2000) : (y - 2000) = 4 : 3
& 3x - 6000 = 4y - 8000
& 3x - 4y + 2000 = 0 g (2)
To solve (1) and (2), let us write the coefficients as
x y 1
-9 0 7 -9
-4 2000 3 -4
x y 1
& = =
- 18000 + 0 0 - 14000 - 28 + 27

& x = - 18000 = 18, 000 ; y = - 14000 = 14, 000.


-1 -1
Hence, their monthly incomes are ` 18,000 and ` 14,000.
Solution - Algebra 59
(iii) A two digit number is seven times the sum of its digits. The number formed by
reversing the digits is 18 less than the given number. Find the given number.
Solution: Let x be the digit in the tenth place and y be the digit in the unit place.
Thus, the number is 10x + y .
Given that 10x + y = 7 (x + y)
& x - 2y = 0 g (1)
Again, given that 10y + x = 10x + y - 18
& - x + y + 2 = 0 g (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get y = 2 and hence, x = 4.
Thus, the required number is 42.

(iv) Three chairs and two tables cost ` 700 and five chairs and three tables cost
` 1100. What is the total cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables?
Solution: Let the cost of a chair be ` x and cost of a table be ` y.
Given that 3x + 2y = 700 & 3x + 2y - 700 = 0 g (1)
and 5x + 3y = 1100 & 5x + 3y - 1100 = 0 g (2)
To solve (1) and (2), let us write the coefficients as follows
x y 1
2 - 700 3 2
3 - 1100 5 3
x y 1
& = =
- 2200 + 2100 - 3500 + 3300 9 - 10

Thus, x = - 100 = 100 ; y = - 200 = 200. .


-1 -1

Cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables = 2 (100) + 3 (200) = 200 + 600 = 800 .


Hence, Cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables = ` 800.
(v) In a rectangle, if the length is increased and the breadth is reduced each by 2 cm
2
then the area is reduced by 28 cm . If the length is reduced by 1cm and the
2
breadth increased by 2 cm , then the area increases by 33 cm . Find the area of
the rectangle.
Solution: Let the length of the rectangle be x cm and breadth of the rectangle be y cm.
Then, area = xy
Given that, (x + 2)(y - 2) = xy - 28
& xy - 2x + 2y - 4 = xy - 28
& - x + y + 12 = 0 g (1)
60 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Given that (x - 1)(y + 2) = xy + 33
& xy + 2x - y - 2 = xy + 33
& 2x - y - 35 = 0 g (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get x = 23.
When x = 23, (1) & y = 11 .
Thus, the length of the rectangle = 23 cm, breadth of the rectangle = 11 cm.
Hence, the area of the rectangle = 253 cm 2 .
(vi) A train travelled a certain distance at a uniform speed. If the train had been
6 km/hr faster, it would have taken 4 hours less than the scheduled time. If the
train were slower by 6 km/hr, then it would have taken 6 hours more than the
scheduled time. Find the distance covered by the train.
Solution: Let the speed of the train be x km/hr. and time taken be y hrs.
Distance = Speed × Time = xy
Given that, (x + 6) (y - 4) = xy
& xy - 4x + 6y - 24 = xy
& - 4x + 6y - 24 = 0
& - 2x + 3y - 12 = 0 g (1)
Given that (x - 6) (y + 6) = xy
& xy + 6x - 6y - 36 = xy
& x - y - 6 = 0 g (2)
(1) + (2) # 2 & y = 24
When y = 24 , (2) & x = 30 .
Thus, the total distance covered by the train, xy = 24 # 30 = 720 km

Exercise 3.3

1. Find the zeros of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the basic
relationships between the zeros and the coefficients.
2
(i) x - 2x - 8 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2 - 2x - 8 = (x - 4) (x + 2)
Clearly, p (4) = 0 and p (- 2) = 0 .
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = x2 - 2x - 8 are 4 and – 2.
Sum of zeros = 4 – 2 = 2 g (1)
Product of zeros = (4) (– 2) = – 8 g (2)

Solution - Algebra 61
The basic relationships:
( 2)
Sum of zeros = - coefficient of x2 = - - = 2 g (3)
coefficient of x 1
Product of zeros = constant term 2 = - 8 =- 8 g (4)
coefficient of x 1

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(ii) 4x - 4x + 1 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x2 - 4x + 1 = (2x - 1) (2x - 1)
Clearly, p^ xh = 0 when x = 1 , 1 (twice) .
2 2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 4x - 4x + 1 are 1 and 1 .
2
2 2
Sum of zeros = 1 + 1 = 1 g (1)
2 2
Product of zeros = 1 # 1 = 1 g (2)
2 2 4
( 4)
coefficient of x2 = - -
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - = 1 g (3)
coefficient of x 4

Product of zeros = constant term = 1 g (4)


coefficient of x2 4

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(iii) 6x - 3 - 7x .
Solution: Let p (x) = 6x2 - 7x - 3 = (2x - 3) (3x + 1)
So, p` 3 j = 0 and p ` - 1 j = 0
2 3
2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 6x - 7x - 3 are 3 and - 1 .
2 3
Sum of zeros = 3 1
- = 7 g (1)
2 3 6
Product of zeros = 3 #- 1 =- 1 g (2)
2 3 2
( 7)
coefficient of x2 = - - = 7
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - g (3)
coefficient of x 6 6

Product of zeros = constant term 2 = - 3 = - 1 . g (4)


coefficient of x 6 2

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(iv) 4x + 8x .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x2 + 8x = 4x (x + 2)
Thus, p (0) = 0 and p (- 2) = 0 .
Hence, the zeros of p (x) = 4x2 + 8x are 0 and – 2.
62 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Sum of zeros = 0 – 2 = – 2 g (1)
Product of zeros = (0) (– 2) = 0 g (2)

coefficient of x2 = - 8 =- 2
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - g (3)
coefficient of x 4

Product of zeros = constant term 2 = 0 = 0 g (4)


coefficient of x 4

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(v) x - 15 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2 - 15 = (x + 15 ) (x - 15 ) .
Thus, p (- 15 ) = 0 and p ( 15 ) = 0 .

Hence, the zeros of p (x) = x2 - 15 are - 15 and 15 .

Sum of zeros = - 15 + 15 = 0 g (1)

Product of zeros = (- 15 ) ( 15 ) =- 15 . g (2)

coefficient of x2 = 0 = 0
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - g (3)
coefficient of x 1

Product of zeros = constant term = - 15 =- 15 g (4)


coefficient of x2 1

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(vi) 3x - 5x + 2 .
Solution: p (x) = 3x2 - 5x + 2 = (3x - 2) (x - 1)
Let
Clearly, p` 2 j = 0 and p (1) = 0 .
3
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 3x2 - 5x + 2 are 2 and 1.
3
Sum of zeros = 2 5
+ 1 = . g (1)
3 3
Product of zeros = ` 2 j (1) = 2 g (2)
3 3
( 5)
coefficient of x2 = - -
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - = 5 g (3)
coefficient of x 3 3

Product of zeros = constant term = 2 g (4)


coefficient of x2 3

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(vii) 2x - 2 2 x + 1 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 2x2 - 2 2 x + 1 = ( 2 x - 1) ( 2 x - 1)

Solution - Algebra 63
Clearly, p c 1 m = 0 ( twice)
2
Thus, the zeros of p (x) = 2x2 - 2 2 x + 1 are 1 and 1 .
2 2
Sum of zeros = 1 + 1 = 2 = 2 g (1)
2 2 2
Product of zeros = c 1 mc 1 1
m = 2 g (2)
2 2
( 2 2)
coefficient of x2 = - -
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - = 2 g (3)
coefficient of x 2

Product of zeros = constant term = 1 g (4)


coefficient of x2 2

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2
(viii) x + 2x - 143 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x2 + 2x - 143 = (x + 13) (x - 11)
Clearly, p (- 13) = 0 and p (11) = 0 .

Thus, the zeros of p (x) = x2 + 2x - 143 are – 13 and 11.

Sum of zeros = – 13 + 11 = – 2 g (1)

Product of zeros = (– 13) (11) = – 143 g (2)

coefficient of x2 = - 2 =- 2
Basic relationships: sum of zeros = - g (3)
coefficient of x 1

Product of zeros = constant term 2 = - 143 =- 143 g (4)


coefficient of x 1

From (1) and (3) and also from (2) and (4), the basic relationships are verified.
2. Find a quadratic polynomial each with the given numbers as the sum and product
of its zeros respectively.
(i) 3, 1.
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 3 and ab = 1 .
Thus,   p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 3x + 1 .
(ii) 2, 4.
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 2 and ab = 4 .
Thus,   p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 2x + 4 .

64 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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(iii) 0, 4.
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a+b = 0 and ab = 4 .
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - x (0) + 4 = x2 + 4 .
(iv) 2 , 1 .
5
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a+b = 2 and ab = 1
5
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 2 x + 1 .
5
(v) 1 , 1 .
3
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 1 and ab = 1
3
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 1 x + 1 .
3
(vi) 1 , - 4.
2
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 1 and ab =- 4
2
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 1 x - 4 .
2
(vii) 1 ,- . 1
3 3
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a + b = 1 and ab =- 1
3 3
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 1 x - 1 .
3 3
(viii) 3 , 2 .
Solution: Let a and b be the zeros of a quadratic polynomial p (x) .
Given that a+b = 3 and ab = 2
Thus, p (x) = x2 - (a + b) x + ab = x2 - 3 x + 2 .
Exercise 3.4
1. Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division.
3 2
(i) ( x + x - 3x + 5 ) ' ( x - 1 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 + x2 - 3x + 5 .
The zero of the divisor (x - 1) is 1.
1 1 1 –3 5
0 1 2 –1
1 2 –1 4 " Remainder
2
Thus, Quotient = x + 2x - 1 , Remainder = 4.
Solution - Algebra 65
3 2
(ii) (3x - 2x + 7x - 5 ) ' ( x + 3 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 3x3 - 2x2 + 7x - 5 .
The zero of the divisor (x + 3) is – 3.
–3 3 –2 7 –5
0 –9 33 – 120
3 – 11 40 – 125 " Remainder
Thus, Quotient = 3x2 - 11x + 40 , Remainder = – 125.
3 2
(iii) (3x + 4x - 10x + 6 ) ' ( 3x - 2 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 - 10x + 6 .
The zero of the divisor (3x - 2) is 2 .
3
2 3 4 – 10 6
3
0 2 4 –4
3 6 –6 2 " Remainder
So, 3x3 + 4x2 - 10x + 6 = ` x - 2 j^3x2 + 6x - 6h + 2.
3
= (3x - 2) 1 (3x2 + 6x - 6) + 2 .
3
Thus, the required quotient = 1 (3x + 6x - 6) = x2 + 2x - 2 .
2
3
The remainder = 2.
3 2
(iv) (3x - 4x - 5 ) ' (3x + 1 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 3x3 - 4x2 - 5 .
The zero of the divisor (3x + 1) is - 1 .
3
- 1 3 –4 0 –5
3
0 –1 5 -5
3 9

3 –5 5 - 50 " Remainder
3 9
So, (3x3 - 4x2 - 5) = ` x + 1 j`3x2 - 5x + 5 j - 50
3 3 9
= (3x + 1) 1 `3x2 - 5x + 5 j - 50
3 3 9
Thus, the required quotient = 1 3x - 5x + j = x - x + 5 .
2 5 2 5
3` 3 3 9
The remainder = - . 50
9
4 2
(v) (8x - 2x + 6x - 5 ) ' (4x + 1 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 8x4 - 2x2 + 6x - 5 .
The zero of the divisor (4x + 1) is - 1 .
4
66 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
-1 8 0 –2 6 –5
4
0 –2 1 3 - 51
2 8 32

8 –2 -3 51 - 211 " Remainder


2 8 32
So, 8x4 - 2x2 + 64 - 5 = ` x + 1 j`8x3 - 2x2 - 3 x + 51 j - 211
4 2 8 32
= (4x + 1) 1 `8x - 2x - 3 x + 51 j - 211 3 2
4 2 8 32
1 3 2
Thus, the required quotient = `8x - 2x - x + 3 51 3 1 2 3 51
4 2 8
j = 2x - 2 x - 8 x + 32
The remainder = - 211 .
32
4 3 2
(vi) (2x - 7x - 13x + 63x - 48 ) ' (2x - 1 ).
Solution: Let p (x) = 2x4 - 7x3 - 13x2 + 63x - 48 .
The zero of the divisor (2x - 1) is 1 .
2
1 2 –7 – 13 63 – 48
2
0 1 –3 –8 55
2

2 –6 – 16 55 - 41 " Remainder
2
So, 2x4 - 7x3 - 13x2 + 63x - 48 = ` x - 1 j (2x3 - 6x2 - 16x + 55) - 41
2 2
1
= (2x - 1) (2x - 6x - 16x + 55) - 41
3 2
2 2
Thus, the required quotient = 1 (2x - 6x - 16x + 55) = x - 3x - 8x + 55 .
3 2 3 2
2 2
The remainder = - . 41
2
4 3 2
2. If the quotient on dividing x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 by x + 4 is
3 2
x - ax + bx + 6 , then find a, b and also the remainder.
Solution: Let p (x) = x4 + 10x3 + 35x2 + 50x + 29 .
The zero of the divisor (x + 4) is – 4.
–4 1 10 35 50 29
0 –4 – 24 – 44 – 24
1 6 11 6 5 " Remainder
So, x4 + 10x3 + 35x2 + 50x + 29 = (x + 4) (x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6) + 5
Thus, the quotient is x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 .
But, x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6 = x3 - ax2 + bx + 6 .
Comparing the respective coefficients, we get a =- 6 and b = 11 .
The remainder is 5.
Solution - Algebra 67
4 2 3 2
3. If the quotient on dividing, 8x - 2x + 6x - 7 by 2x + 1 is 4x + px - qx + 3 ,
then find p , q and also the remainder.
Solution: Let p (x) = 8x4 - 2x2 + 6x - 7 .
The zero of the divisor (2x + 1) is - 1 .
2
-1 8 0 –2 6 –7
2
0 –4 2 0 –3
8 –4 0 6 – 10 " Remainder

So, 8x4 - 2x2 + 6x - 7 = ` x + 1 j (8x3 - 4x2 + 6) - 10


2
= (2x + 1) 1 (8x3 - 4x2 + 6) - 10
2
1
Thus, the quotient is (8x - 4x + 6) = 4x3 - 2x2 + 3 . The remainder is –10.
3 2
2
But, 4x - 2x + 3 = 4x3 + px2 - qx + 3 .
3 2

Comparing the respective coefficients, we get p =- 2 and q = 0 .


The remainder is – 10.

Exercise 3.5
1. Factorize each of the following polynomials.
3 2
(i) x - 2x - 5x + 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 2x2 - 5x + 6 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 1 - 2 - 5 + 6 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 –2 –5 6
0 1 –1 –6
1 –1 –6 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 - x - 6 = x2 - 3x + 2x - 6 = (x + 2) (x - 3) .
Thus, x3 - 2x2 - 5x + 6 = (x - 1)(x + 2) (x - 3) .
(ii) 4x3 - 7x + 3 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x3 - 7x + 3 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) = 4 - 7 + 3 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 4 0 –7 3
0 4 4 –3
4 4 –3 0 " Remainder
The other factor is 4x2 + 4x - 3 = 4x2 + 6x - 2x - 3 = (2x + 3) (2x - 1) .
Thus, 4x3 - 7x + 3 = (x - 1)(2x + 3) (2x - 1) .

68 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


3 2
(iii) x - 23x + 142x - 120 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 23x2 + 142x - 120 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) = 1 - 23 + 142 - 120 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 – 23 142 – 120
0 1 – 22 120
1 – 22 120 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 - 22x + 120 = x2 - 12x - 10x + 120 = (x - 12) (x - 10) .
Thus, x3 - 23x2 + 142x - 120 = (x - 1) (x - 12) (x - 10) .
3 2
(iv) 4x - 5x + 7x - 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 4x3 - 5x2 + 7x - 6 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) = 4 - 5 + 7 - 6 = 0 .
Thus, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 4 –5 7 –6
0 4 –1 6
4 –1 6 0 " Remainder
Thus, the other factor is 4x2 - x + 6 .
Hence, 4x3 - 5x2 + 7x - 6 = (x - 1)(4x2 - x + 6) .
3
(v) x - 7x + 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 7x + 6 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) = 1 - 7 + 6 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 0 –7 6
0 1 1 –6
1 1 –6 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 + x - 6 = x2 + 3x - 2x - 6 = (x + 3) (x - 2) .
Thus, x3 - 7x + 6 = (x - 1)(x - 2) (x + 3) .
3 2
(vi) x + 13x + 32x + 20 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 + 13x2 + 32x + 20 .
Sum of the coefficients of odd powers of x is 1 + 32 = 33.
Sum of the coefficients of even powers of x is 13 + 20 = 33
Since they are equal, (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) .
–1 1 13 32 20
0 –1 – 12 – 20
1 12 20 0 " Remainder
Solution - Algebra 69
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The other factor is x2 + 12x + 20 = x2 + 10x + 2x + 20 .


= x (x + 10) + 2 (x + 10) = (x + 10) (x + 2) .
Thus, x3 + 13x2 + 32x + 20 = (x + 1)(x + 10) (x + 2) .
3 2
(vii) 2x - 9x + 7x + 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 2x3 - 9x2 + 7x + 6 .
Since p (1) ! 0, p (- 1) ! 0, neither (x - 1) nor (x + 1) is a factor of p (x) .
So, we have to search for other values of x by trial and error method.
When x = 2, p (2) = 0. Thus, (x - 2) is a factor of p (x) .
2 2 –9 7 6
0 4 – 10 –6
2 –5 –3 0 " Remainder
The other factor is 2x2 - 5x - 3 = (x - 3) (2x + 1) .
Hence, 2x3 - 9x2 + 7x - 6 = (x - 2)(x - 3) (2x + 1) .
3
(viii) x - 5x + 4 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 5x + 4 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 1 - 5 + 4 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 0 –5 4
0 1 1 –4
1 1 –4 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 + x - 4 .
Thus, x3 - 5x + 4 = (x - 1)(x2 + x - 4) .
3 2
(ix) x - 10x - x + 10 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 10x2 - x + 10 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 1 - 10 - 1 + 10 = 0 .
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 1 – 10 –1 10
0 1 –9 – 10
1 –9 – 10 0 " Remainder
2
The other factor is x - 9x - 10 = (x - 10) (x + 1)
Thus, x3 - 10x2 - x + 10 = (x - 1)(x - 10) (x + 1) .
(x) 2x3 + 11x 2 - 7x - 6 .
Solution: Let p (x) = 2x3 + 11x2 - 7x - 6 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 2 + 11 - 7 - 6 = 0 .
70 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
So, (x - 1) is a factor of p (x) .
1 2 11 –7 –6
0 2 13 6
2 13 6 0 " Remainder
The other factor is 2x2 + 13x + 6 = (x + 6) (2x + 1) .
Thus, 2x3 + 11x2 - 7x - 6 = (x - 1) (x + 6) (2x + 1) .
3 2
(xi) x + x + x - 14 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 + x2 + x - 14 .
Clearly, p (1) ! 0. So, (x - 1) is not a factor.
Also, p (- 1) ! 0 . Thus, (x + 1) is not a factor.
However, p (2) = 0 . Thus, (x - 2) is a factor of p (x) .
2 1 1 1 – 14
0 2 6 14
1 3 7 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 + 3x + 7 .
Hence, x3 + x2 + x - 14 = (x - 2) (x2 + 3x + 7) .
3 2
(xii) x - 5x - 2x + 24 .
Solution: Let p (x) = x3 - 5x2 - 2x + 24 .
Sum of the coefficients of p (x) is 1 - 5 - 2 + 24 ! 0 .
Thus, (x - 1) is not a factor of p (x) .
Also, p (- 1) = - 1 - 5 + 2 + 24 ! 0 . Thus, x + 1 is not a factor.
By trial and error, we see that p (- 2) = 0. Thus, (x + 2) is a factor of p (x) .
–2 1 –5 –2 24
0 –2 14 – 24
1 –7 12 0 " Remainder
The other factor is x2 - 7x + 12 = (x - 3) (x - 4) .
Thus, x3 - 5x2 - 2x + 24 = (x + 2) (x - 3) (x - 4) .

Exercise 3.6

1. Find the greatest common divisor of


2 4 2 5 3
(i) 7x yz , 21x y z .
Solution: 7x2 yz4 = 7 # x2 yz4
21x2 y5 z3 = 7 # 3 # x2 y5 z3
GCD = 7x2 yz3 .

Solution - Algebra 71
2 3 2 2
(ii) x y , x y , x y .
Solution: GCD = x2 y .
4 3 2 5 3
(iii) 25bc d , 35b c , 45c d .
Solution: 25bc4 d3 = 52 # bc4 d3
35b2 c5 = 5 # 7b2 c5
45c3 d = 5 # 3 2 c3 d
GCD = 5c3 .
5 3 4 2 3 2 2
(iv) 35x y z , 49x yz , 14xy z .
Solution: 35x5 y3 z4 = 7 # 5 # x5 y3 z4
49x2 yz3 = 7 # 7 # x2 yz3
14xy2 z2 = 7 # 2 # xy2 z2
GCD = 7xyz2 .
2. Find the GCD of the following
2 2
(i) c - d , c^c - dh .
Solution: c2 - d2 = (c + d) (c - d)
c (c - d) = c (c - d)
GCD = (c - d) .
4 3
(ii) x - 27a x , ^ x - 3ah2 .
Solution: x4 - 27a3 x = x (x3 - 33 a3) = x (x - 3a) (x2 + 3ax + 9a2)
(x - 3a) 2 = (x - 3a) (x - 3a)
GCD = (x - 3a) .
2 2
(iii) m - 3m - 18 , m + 5m + 6 .
Solution: m2 - 3m - 18 = (m - 6) (m + 3)
m2 + 5m + 6 = (m + 2) (m + 3)
GCD = (m + 3) .
2 3 2
(iv) x + 14x + 33 , x + 10x - 11x .
Solution: x2 + 14x + 33 = (x + 11) (x + 3)
x3 + 10x2 - 11x = x (x + 11) (x - 1)
GCD = (x + 11) .
2 2 2 2
(v) x + 3xy + 2y , x + 5xy + 6y .
Solution: x2 + 3xy + 2y2 = (x + y) (x + 2y)
x2 + 5xy + 6y2 = (x + 3y) (x + 2y)
GCD = (x + 2y) .
72 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2 2
(vi) 2x - x - 1 , 4x + 8x + 3 .
Solution: 2x2 - x - 1 = (2x + 1) (x - 1)
4x2 + 8x + 3 = (2x + 1) (2x + 3)
GCD = (2x + 1) .
2 2 2
(vii) x - x - 2 , x + x - 6 , 3x - 13x + 14 .
Solution: x2 - x - 2 = (x - 2) (x + 1)
x2 + x - 6 = (x - 2) (x + 3)
3x2 - 13x + 14 = (x - 2) (3x - 7)
GCD = (x - 2) .
3 2 4
(viii) x - x + x - 1 , x - 1 .
Solution: x3 - x2 + x - 1 = (x2 + 1) (x - 1)
x4 - 1 = (x2 + 1) (x - 1)(x + 1)
GCD = (x2 + 1) (x - 1) .
4 3 2 6 5 4
(ix) 24^6x - x - 2x h , 20^2x + 3x + x h .
Solution: 24 (6x4 - x3 - 2x2) = 4 # 6 # x2 (2x + 1) (3x - 2) .
20 (2x6 + 3x5 + x4) = 4 # 5 # x4 (2x + 1) (x + 1)
GCD = 4x2 (2x + 1) .
(x) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4 .
Solution: (a - 1) 5 (a + 3) 2 = (a - 1) 2 ^a - 1h3 (a + 3) 2
(a - 1) 3 (a + 3) 4 (a - 2) 2 = (a - 1) 3 (a + 3) 2 ^a + 3h 2 (a - 2) 2
GCD = (a - 1) 3 (a + 3) 2
3. Find the GCD of the following pairs of polynomials using division algorithm.
3 2 2
(i) x - 9x + 23x - 15 , 4x - 16x + 12 .
Solution: Let f (x) = x3 - 9x2 + 23x - 15 .
and g (x) = 4x2 - 16x + 12 = 4 (x2 - 4x + 3) .
So, the divisor is x2 - 4x + 3.
x-5
x2 - 4x + 3 x3 - 9x2 + 23x - 15
x3 - 4x2 + 3x
  - 5x2 + 20x - 15
  - 5x2 + 20x - 15
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = x2 - 4x + 3 .
Solution - Algebra 73
3 2 2
(ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 , 3x + 13x + 10 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 3x3 + 18x2 + 33x + 18 .
and g (x) = 3x2 + 13x + 10 .
So, the divisor is g (x) = 3x2 + 13x + 10 .

x+ 5
3
3x2 + 13x + 10 3x3 + 18x2 + 33x + 18
3x3 + 13x2 + 10x
(–) (–) (–)

  5x2 + 23x + 18
  5x2 + 65x + 50
3 3

4x + 4
3 3
& 4 (x + 1) ! 0. Note that 4 is not a divisor of g (x).
3 3
3x + 10

x + 1 3x2 + 13x + 10
3x2 + 3x
(–) (–)
  10x + 10
  10x + 10
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = x + 1 .
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 , 6x + 12x + 6x + 12 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2 (x3 + x2 + x + 1) .
and g (x) = 6 (x3 + 2x2 + x + 2) .
Note that 2 is a common factor of f (x) and g (x) .
Here, the divisor is x3 + x2 + x + 1 .
1
x3 + x2 + x + 1 x3 + 2x2 + x + 2
x3 + x 2 + x + 1
  x2 + 1 ! 0

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x+1
x 2 + 1 x3 + x 2 + x + 1
x3 +x

x2 + 1
x2 + 1

0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD (f (x), g (x)) = 2 (x2 + 1) .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) x - 3x + 4x - 12 , x + x + 4x + 4x .
Solution: Let f (x) = x3 - 3x2 + 4x - 12
and g (x) = x (x3 + x2 + 4x + 4)
Thus, the divisor is x 3 + x 2 + 4x + 4
1
x3 + x2 + 4x + 4 x3 - 3x2 + 4x - 12
x3 + x2 + 4x + 4
- 4x 2 - 16
& - 4 (x2 + 4) ! 0. Note that - 4 is not a factor of f (x).
x+1
x2 + 4 x3 + x2 + 4x + 4
x3 + 4x
(–) (–)

x2 +4
x2 +4
(–) (–)
0
Remainder is zero.
Thus, GCD ( f (x), g (x) ) = x2 + 4 .

Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following.
3 2
1. x y , xyz .
Solution: x3 y2 , xyz. Hence, LCM = x3 y2 z .
Solution - Algebra 75
2 3 3
2. 3x yz , 4x y .
Solution: 3x2 yz ; 4x3 y3 .
Thus, LCM = 3 # 4x3 y3 z = 12x3 y3 z .
2 2 2
3. a bc , b ca , c ab .
Solution: a2 bc = a2 bc ; b2 ca = ab2 c ; c2 ab = abc2
Thus, LCM = a2 b2 c2 .
4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4
4. 66a b c , 44a b c , 24a b c .
Solution: 66a4 b2 c3 = 11 # 2 # 3 # a4 b2 c3
44a3 b4 c2 = 11 # 2 # 2 # a3 b4 c2
24a2 b3 c4 = 2 # 3 # 2 # 2 # a2 b3 c4
Thus, LCM = 11 # 2 # 2 # 3 # 2 # a4 b4 c4 = 264a4 b4 c4 .
m+1 m+2 m+3
5. a , a , a .
Solution: a m + 1 = a m # a ; a m + 2 = a m # a2
a m + 3 = a m # a3
Thus, LCM = a m # a3 = a m + 3 .
2 2 2
6. x y + xy , x + xy .
Solution: x2 y + xy2 = xy (x + y)
x2 + xy = x (x + y)
Thus, LCM = xy (x + y) .
2
7. 3^a - 1h , 2^a - 1h2 , ^a - 1h .
2
Solution: 3^a - 1h , 2^a - 1h2 , ^a - 1h .
Now, a2 - 1 = (a - 1) (a + 1) .
Thus, LCM = 6 (a - 1) 2 (a + 1) .
2 2 2 2 3 3
8. 2x - 18y , 5x y + 15xy , x + 27y .
Solution: 2x2 - 18y2 = 2 (x + 3y) (x - 3y)
5x2 y + 15xy2 = 5xy (x + 3y)
x3 + 27y3 = (x + 3y) (x2 - 3xy + 9y2)
LCM = 2 # 5 # xy (x + 3y) (x - 3y) (x2 - 3xy + 9y2)
Thus, LCM = 10xy (x + 3y) (x - 3y) (x2 - 3xy + 9y2) .

9. ^ x + 4h2 ^ x - 3h3 , ^ x - 1h^ x + 4h^ x - 3h2 .


Solution: (x + 4) 2 (x - 3) 3 ; (x - 1)(x + 4) (x - 3) 2
Thus, LCM = (x + 4) 2 (x - 3) 3 (x - 1) .
76 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2 2 2 2 4 3
10. 10^9x + 6xy + y h , 12^3x - 5xy - 2y h , 14^6x + 2x h .
Solution: 10 (9x2 + 6xy + y2) = 2 # 5 (3x + y) 2
12 (3x2 - 5xy - 2y2) = 22 # 3 (3x + y) (x - 2y)
14 (6x4 + 2x3) = 2 # 7 # 2x3 (3x + 1)
LCM = 22 # 7 # 5 # 3x3 (3x + y) 2 (3x + 1) (x - 2y)
Thus, LCM = 420x3 (3x + y) 2 (x - 2y) (3x + 1) .

Exercise 3.8

1. Find the LCM of each pair of the following polynomials.


2 2
(i) x - 5x + 6 , x + 4x - 12 whose GCD is x - 2 .
Solution: Let f (x) = x2 - 5x + 6, g (x) = x2 + 4x - 12
and GCD = x - 2
We know that LCM # GCD = f (x) # g (x)
f (x) # g (x) (x2 - 5x + 6)(x2 + 4x - 12)
Thus, LCM =
=
G.C.D. x-2
(x - 3) (x - 2) (x + 6) (x - 2)
=
x-2
Hence, LCM = (x - 3) (x - 2) (x + 6) .
4 3 2 4 2 2
(ii) x + 3x + 6x + 5x + 3 , x + 2x + x + 2 whose GCD is x + x + 1 .
Solution: Let f (x) = x4 + 3x3 + 6x2 + 5x + 3
g (x) = x4 + 2x2 + x + 2 and GCD is x2 + x + 1
f (x) # g (x)
Thus, LCM =
G.C.D.
Now, GCD divides both f (x) and g (x) . Let us divide f (x) by GCD.

x2 + 2x + 3
x2 + x + 1 x4 + 3x3 + 6x2 + 5x + 3
x 4 + x3 + x 2
  2x3 + 5x2 + 5x
  2x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x
      3x2 + 3x + 3
      3x2 + 3x + 3
0
(x + x + 1) (x + 2x + 3) (x4 + 2x2 + x + 2)
2 2
LCM =
(x2 + x + 1)
Thus, LCM = (x2 + 2x + 3) (x4 + 2x2 + x + 2) .
Solution - Algebra 77
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3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 15x + 2x - 35 , x + 8x + 4x - 21 whose GCD is x + 7 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2x3 + 15x2 + 2x - 35
g (x) x3 + 8x2 + 4x - 21 and GCD. is x + 7
=
f (x) # g (x)
Thus, LCM =
GCD
Now, GCD divides both f (x) and g (x) . Let us divide f (x) by GCD.

2x 2 + x - 5
x + 7 2x3 + 15x2 + 2x - 35
2x3 + 14x2
x2 + 2x
x2 + 7x
- 5x - 35
- 5x - 35
0
(x + 7) (2x + x - 5) (x3 + 8x2 + 4x - 21)
2
LCM =
x+7
Hence, LCM = (2x2 + x - 5) (x3 + 8x2 + 4x - 21) .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) 2x - 3x - 9x + 5 , 2x - x - 10x - 11x + 8 whose GCD is 2x - 1 .
Solution: Let f (x) = 2x3 - 3x2 - 9x + 5 .
g (x)= 2x4 - x3 - 10x2 - 11x + 8 and GCD = 2x - 1
f (x) # g (x)
Thus, LCM =
GCD
Now, GCD divides both f (x) and g (x) . Let us divide g (x) by GCD.

x3 - 5x - 8
2x - 1 2x4 - x3 - 10x2 - 11x + 8
2x 4 - x 3
2
- 10x - 11x
- 10x2 + 5x
- 16x + 8
- 16x + 8
0
(2x - 1) (x3 - 5x - 8) (2x3 - 3x2 - 9x + 5)
LCM =
(2x - 1)
Thus, LCM = (x3 - 5x - 8)(2x3 - 3x2 - 9x + 5) .

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2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD
and one polynomial p^ xh respectively.
(i) ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h2 , ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h , ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h .
Solution: LCM = (x + 1) 2 (x + 2) 2 ; GCD = (x + 1) (x + 2)
and p (x) = (x + 1) 2 (x + 2)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
2 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = (x + 1) (x + 2) (x + 1) (x + 2)
p (x) (x + 1) 2 (x + 2)
2
Thus, q (x) = (x + 1) (x + 2) .
(ii) ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h3 , ^4x + 5h^3x - 7h2 , ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h2 .
Solution: LCM = (4x + 5) 3 (3x - 7) 3 ; GCD = (4x + 5) (3x - 7) 2
and p (x) = (4x + 5) 3 (3x - 7) 2
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
(4x + 5) 3 (3x - 7) 3 (4x + 5) (3x - 7) 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD =
p (x) (4x + 5) 3 (3x - 7) 2
Thus, q (x) = (3x - 7) 3 (4x + 5) .
4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 4
(iii) ^ x - y h^ x + x y + y h , x - y , x - y .
Solution: LCM = (x4 - y4) (x4 + x2 y2 + y4) ; GCD = (x2 - y2)
and p (x) = x4 - y4
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
4 4 4 2 2 4 2 2
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = (x - y ) (x + x y + y ) (x - y )
p (x) x4 - y4
4 2 2 4 2 2
Thus, q (x) = (x + x y + y )(x - y ) .
3 2 3 2
(iv) ^ x - 4xh^5x + 1h , ^5x + xh , ^5x - 9x - 2xh .
Solution: LCM = (x3 - 4x) (5x + 1) = x (x + 2) (x - 2) (5x + 1)
GCD = (5x2 + x) = x (5x + 1)
and p (x) = 5x3 - 9x2 - 2x = x (5x + 1) (x - 2)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
x (x + 2) (x - 2) (5x + 1) (x) (5x + 1)
& q (x) = LCM
= # GCD =
p (x) x (5x + 1) (x - 2)
Thus, q (x) = x (x + 2) (5x + 1) .
2 3 2
(v) ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 3x + 3h , ^ x - 1h , ^ x - 4x + 6x - 3h .
Solution: LCM = (x - 1)(x - 2) (x2 - 3x + 3) ; GCD = x - 1
and p (x) = x3 - 4x2 + 6x - 3 = (x - 1) (x2 - 3x + 3)
We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
Solution - Algebra 79
(x 1)(x - 2) (x2 - 3x + 3) (x - 1)
& q (x) = LCM # GCD = -
p (x) (x - 1) (x2 - 3x + 3)
Thus, q (x) = (x - 1) (x - 2) .
2
(vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x - 4h , ^ x + 1h , ^ x + 1h^ x - 2h .

Solution: LCM = 2 (x + 1) (x2 - 4) = 2 (x + 1) (x + 2) (x - 2)

GCD = x + 1 and p (x) = (x + 1) (x - 2)


We know that LCM # GCD = p (x) # q (x) .
2 (x + 1)(x + 2) (x - 2) (x + 1)
& q (x) = LCM # GCD =
p (x) (x + 1)(x - 2)
Thus, q (x) = 2 (x + 1) (x + 2) .

Exercise 3.9
Simplify the following into their lowest forms.
2
(i) 6x2 + 9x .
3x - 12x
Solution: 6x2 + 9x = 3x (2x + 3) = 2x + 3 .
3x2 - 12x 3x (x - 4) x-4
2
(ii) x4 + 1 .
x -1
Solution: x2 + 1 = x2 + 1 = 21 .
4 2 2
3
x -1 (x + 1) (x - 1) x -1
(iii) x -1 .
2
x +x+1
2
Solution: x3 - 1 = (x - 1)(x + x + 1) = (x - 1) .
x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1
3
(iv) x 2- 27 .
x -9
2
Solution: x3 - 27 = (x - 3) (x + 3x + 9) = x2 + 3x + 9 .
x2 - 9 (x + 3) (x - 3) x+3
4 2
(v) x 2+ x + 1 .
4 2 2 2 2
(Hint: x + x + 1 = ^ x + 1h - x )
x +x+1
2 2
Solution: x4 + x2 + 1 = (x + x + 1) (x - x + 1) = x2 - x + 1 .
x2 + x + 1 x2 + x + 1
3
(vi) x +8 .
4 2
x + 4x + 16
x3 + 8 x3 + 23 (x + 2) (x2 - 2x + 4)
Solution: = =
x4 + 4x2 + 16 (x2 + 4) 2 - (2x) 2 (x2 + 2x + 4)(x2 - 2x + 4)
= 2 x + 2 .
x + 2x + 4

80 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2
(vii) 2x2 + x - 3 .
2x + 5x + 3
Solution: 2x2 + x - 3 = (2x + 3) (x - 1) = x - 1 .
2x2 + 5x + 3 (2x + 3) (x + 1) x+1
4
(viii) 2x - 162 .
2
^ x + 9h^2x - 6h
4 2 ((x2) 2 - 92)
Solution: 2 2x - 162 =
(x + 9)(2x - 6) (x2 + 9) 2 (x - 3)
2 (x2 + 9) (x + 3) (x - 3)
= = (x + 3) .
2 (x2 + 9) (x - 3)
2
^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h
(ix) 2
.
^ x - 4h^ x - 2x - 3h
(x 3) (x2 - 5x + 4) (x 3) (x - 4) (x - 1)
Solution: - = - = x-1.
2
(x - 4) (x - 2x - 3) (x - 4) (x - 3) (x + 1) x+1
2
^ x - 8h^ x + 5x - 50h
(x) 2
.
^ x + 10h^ x - 13x + 40h
(x - 8) (x2 + 5x - 50) (x 8) (x + 10) (x - 5)
Solution: = - = 1.
2
(x + 10) (x - 13x + 40) (x + 10) (x - 8) (x - 5)
2
(xi) 4x2 + 9x + 5 .
8x + 6x - 5

Solution: 4x2 + 9x + 5 = (4x + 5) (x + 1) = x + 1 .


8x2 + 6x - 5 (4x + 5) (2x - 1) 2x - 1
2
^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 9x + 14h
(xii) 2
.
^ x - 7h^ x - 3x + 2h
(x - 1)(x - 2)(x2 - 9x + 14) (x 1) (x - 2) (x - 7) (x - 2)
Solution: = - = (x - 2) .
2
(x - 7) (x - 3x + 2) (x - 7) (x - 2) (x - 1)

Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
2
(i) x - 2x # 3x + 6 .
x+2 x-2 2
Solution: x - 2x # 3x + 6 = x (x - 2) # 3 (x + 2) = 3x .
x+2 x-2 x+2 x-2
2 2
(ii) x 2- 81 # x2 + 6x + 8
x -4 x - 5x - 36
2 2
Solution: x - 81 # x + 6x + 8 = (x + 9) (x - 9) # (x + 4) (x + 2)
2
x -4
2
x - 5x - 36 (x + 2) (x - 2) (x - 9) (x + 4)
= x + 9 .
x-2
Solution - Algebra 81
2 2
(iii) x 2- 3x - 10 # x -3 2x + 4
x - x - 20 x +8
2 2
Solution: x - 3 x - 10 # x - 2x + 4 = (x - 5) (x + 2) # x 2 - 2x + 4
2
x - x - 20
3
x +8 (x - 5) (x + 4) (x + 2) (x2 - 2x + 4)

= 1 .
x+4

(iv) x 2 - 16 # x 2 - 4 # x 2 - 4x + 16
x 2 - 3x + 2 x3 + 64 x 2 - 2x - 8
2 2 2
Solution: 2 x - 16 # x3 - 4 # x 2- 4x + 16
x - 3x + 2 x + 64 x - 2x - 8
=
(x + 4) (x - 4)
#
(x + 2) (x - 2)
# x2 - 4x + 16
(x - 2)(x - 1) (x + 4) (x2 - 4x + 16) (x - 4) (x + 2)

= 1 .
x-1
2 2
(v) 3x 2 + 2x - 1 # 2x 2 - 3x - 2
x -x-2 3x + 5x - 2
2 2
(3x - 1) (x + 1) (2x + 1) (x - 2)
Solution: 3x 2 + 2x - 1 # 2x2 - 3x - 2 = #
x -x-2 3x + 5x - 2 (x - 2) (x + 1) (3x - 1) (x + 2)

= 2x + 1 .
x+2
4
(vi) 2x - 1 # x - 8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x - 3 x - 2x
4
Solution: 2x - 1 # x - 8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x - 3 x - 2x
2
= 2x - 1 # x (x - 2) (x + 2x + 4) # x + 3 = 1.
x 2 + 2x + 4 (2x - 1) (x + 3) x (x - 2)
2. Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
2
(i) x ' x .
x + 1 x2 - 1
2
Solution: x ' x = x # ^ x + 1h (x - 1) = x - 1 .
x + 1 x2 - 1 x+1 x2 x
2
(ii) x2 - 36 ' x + 6
x - 49 x + 7
2
(x 6) (x - 6) (x + 7)
Solution: x2 - 36 # x + 7 = + = x - 6 .
x - 49 x + 6 ( x + 7) ( x - 7) ( x + 6) x-7
2 2
(iii) x -2
4x - 5 ' x - 3x - 10
2
x - 25 x + 7x + 10
Solution:
(x2 - 4x - 5) (x2 + 7x + 10) (x - 5) (x + 1) (x + 5) (x + 2) (x + 1)
# 2 = # = .
2
(x - 25) (x - 3x - 10) ( x + 5) ( x - 5) (x - 5) (x + 2 ) (x - 5)

82 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2 2
(iv) x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12
x - 4x - 77 x - 2x - 15
2 2
Solution: x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12
x - 4x - 77 x - 2x - 15
(x + 7) (x + 4) (x - 5) (x + 3)
= # = x-5 .
(x - 11) (x + 7) (x + 3) (x + 4) x - 11
2 2
(v) 2x2 + 13x + 15 ' 2x2 - x - 6
x + 3x - 10 x - 4x + 4
2 2
Solution: 2x2 + 13x + 15 ' 22x - x - 6
x + 3x - 10 x - 4x + 4
(2x + 3) (x + 5) (x - 2) (x - 2)
= # = 1.
(x + 5) (x - 2) (2x + 3) (x - 2)
2 2
(vi) 3x -
2
x - 4 ' 4x - 4
2
9x - 16 3x - 2x - 1
2 2
3x - x - 4 ' 4x - 4
Solution:
2 2
9x - 16 3x - 2x - 1
(3x - 4) (x + 1) (3x + 1) (x - 1)
= # = 3x + 1 .
(3x + 4) (3x - 4) 4 (x + 1)(x - 1) 4 (3x + 4)

2 2
(vii) 2x 2 + 5x - 3 ' 2x 2 + x - 1
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x - 3
2 2
2x + 5x - 3 ' 2x + x - 1 = (2x - 1) (x + 3) # (2x + 3) (x - 1)
Solution:
2 2
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x - 3 (2x + 3) (x + 3) (2x - 1) (x + 1)

= x - 1 .
x+1

Exercise 3.11

1. Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.


3
(i) x + 8 .
x-2 2-x
3
Solution: x + 8 = x3 - 8 = x3 - 23
x-2 2-x x-2 x-2 x-2
2
(x - 2) (x + 2x + 4)
= = x + 2x + 4 .
2
x-2

(ii) x+2 + 2 x-3 .


2
x + 3x + 2 x - 2x - 3
Solution: 2 x + 2 + 2 x-3 = x+2 + x-3
x + 3x + 2 x - 2x - 3 (x + 2 ) (x + 1 ) (x - 3) (x + 1)

= 1 + 1 = 2 .
x+1 x+1 x+1
Solution - Algebra 83
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2 2
(iii) x -2 x - 6 + x 2+ 2x - 24 .
x -9 x - x - 12
2 2
Solution: x -2
x - 6 + x + 2x - 24
2
x -9 x - x - 12
(x - 3) (x + 2) (x + 6) (x - 4)
= + = x+2 + x+6
(x + 3) (x - 3) (x - 4) (x + 3) x+3 x+3

= x + 2 + x + 6 = 2x + 8 = 2 (x + 4) .
x+3 x+3 x+3

(iv) 2
x-2 + 2 x+3 .
x - 7x + 10 x - 2x - 15

Solution: x-2 + 2 x+3 = x-2 + x+3


2
x - 7x + 10 x - 2x - 15 ( x - 5) ( x - 2) ( x - 5) (x + 3)

= 1 + 1 = 2 .
x-5 x-5 x-5
2 2
(v) 2x2 - 5x + 3 - 2x 2 - 7x - 4 .
x - 3x + 2 2x - 3x - 2
2 2
Solution: 2x2 - 5x + 3 - 2x2 - 7x - 4
x - 3x + 2 2x - 3x - 2
(2x - 3) (x - 1) (2x + 1) (x - 4)
= - = 2x - 3 - x - 4
(x - 2)(x - 1) (2x + 1) (x - 2) x-2 x-2

= 2x - 3 - x + 4 = x + 1 .
x-2 x-2
2 2
(vi) x - 4 - x - 11x + 30 .
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x - x - 20
2 2
Solution: x - 4 - x - 11x + 30
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x - x - 20
(x + 2)(x - 2) (x - 6) (x - 5)
= - = x-2 - x-6
(x + 2)(x + 4) (x - 5) (x + 4) x+4 x+4

= x-2-x+6 = 4 .
x+4 x+4
2
(vii) > 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 H - ` 3x - 2 j .
x+1 x -1 x-1

Solution: = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G - ` 3x - 2 j
2

x+1 x -1 x-1

= 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 -
(3x - 2)
x+1 (x + 1)(x - 1) x-1
(2x + 5)(x - 1) + x2 + 1 - (3x - 2) (x + 1)
=
(x + 1)(x - 1)
84 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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= 2x2 - 2x + 5x - 5 + x2 + 1 - 3x2 - 3x + 2x + 2
(x + 1)(x - 1)
2x - 2 2 (x - 1)
= = = 2 .
(x + 1)(x - 1) (x + 1) (x - 1) x+1

(viii) 1 + 1 - 2 2 .
x 2 + 3x + 2 x 2 + 5 x + 6 x + 4x + 3
Solution: 1 + 2 1 - 2 2
2
x + 3x + 2 x + 5x + 6 x + 4x + 3
= 1 + 1 - 2
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 2) (x + 3) (x + 3) (x + 1)
x + 3 + x + 1 - 2 (x + 2)
=
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)

= 2x + 4 - 2x - 4 = 0 .
(x + 1)(x + 2) (x + 3)
3 3 2
2. Which rational expression should be added to x 2 - 1 to get 3x +2 2x + 4 ?
x +2 x +2
Solution: Let p (x) be the required rational expression.

Then, x3 - 1 + p (x) = 3x3 + 2x2 + 4


x2 + 2 x2 + 2

& p (x) = 3x3 + 2x2 + 4 - x3 - 1


x2 + 2 x2 + 2
= 3x3 + 2x2 + 4 - x3 + 1
x2 + 2
Hence, p (x) = 2x 3 + 2x 2 + 5 .
x2 + 2
3 2
3. Which rational expression should be subtracted from 4x - 7x + 5 to get
2
2x - 1
2x - 5x + 1 ?
Solution: Let p (x) be the required rational expression.
3 2
Then, 4x - 7x + 5 - p (x) = 2x2 - 5x + 1
2x - 1
3 2
& p (x) = 4x - 7x + 5 - (2x2 - 5x + 1)
(2x - 1)
3 2 3 2
= 4x - 7x + 5 - 4x + 12x - 7x + 1
(2x - 1)
2
Hence, p (x) = 5x - 7x + 6 .
2x - 1
y 2Q
4. If P = x , Q = , then find 1 - 2 .
x+y x+y P - Q P - Q2

Solution: 1 - 2Q = 1 -
2Q
P-Q P -Q2 2 P - Q (P + Q) (P - Q)

Solution - Algebra 85
www.tnschools.co.in

P + Q - 2Q P-Q
= =
(P + Q) (P - Q) (P + Q)(P - Q)

= 1 = 1 = 1
P+Q x + y x+y
x+y x+y x+y
Thus, 1 - 2Q = 1.
P - Q P2 - Q2

Exercise 3.12

1. Find the square root of the following:


6 8 10
(i) 196a b c .
Solution: 196a6 b8 c10 = 142 a6 b8 c10 = 14 a3 b4 c5
(ii) 289^a - bh4 ^ b - ch6 .
Solution: 289^a - bh4 ^b - ch6 = 172 (a - b) 4 (b - c) 6
= 17 (a - b) 2 (b - c) 3 .
(iii) ^ x + 11h2 - 44x .
Solution: ^ x + 11h2 - 44x = x2 + 22x + 121 - 44x = x2 - 22x + 121
= (x - 11) 2 = (x - 11) .
(iv) ^ x - yh2 + 4xy .
Solution: ^ x - yh2 + 4xy = x2 - 2xy + y2 + 4xy = x2 + 2xy + y2
= (x + y) 2 = (x + y) .
8 6 4 8
(v) 121x y ' 81x y .
8 6 4 8 121x8 y6 112 x4 = 11 x2 .
Solution: 121x y ' 81x y = =
81x4 y8 9 2 y2 9 y

64^a + bh4 ^ x - yh8 ^ b - ch6


(vi) .
25^ x + yh4 ^a - bh6 ^ b + ch10
64^a + bh4 ^ x - yh8 ^b - ch6
Solution:
25^ x + yh4 ^a - bh6 ^b + ch10

82 (a + b) 4 (x - y) 8 (b - c) 6 2 4
8 (a + b) (x - y) (b - c) .
3
= =
52 (x + y) 4 (a - b) 6 (b + c)10 5 (x + y) 2 (a - b) 3 (b + c) 5

2. Find the square root of the following:


2
(i) 16x - 24x + 9 .
2
Solution: 16x - 24x + 9 = (4x - 3) 2 = (4x - 3) .

86 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2 2 2
(ii) ^ x - 25h^ x + 8x + 15h^ x - 2x - 15h .
Solution: ^ x2 - 25h^ x2 + 8x + 15h^ x2 - 2x - 15h
= (x + 5) (x - 5) (x + 3) (x + 5) (x - 5) (x + 3)
= (x + 5) 2 (x - 5) 2 (x + 3) 2 = (x + 5) (x - 5) (x + 3) .
2 2 2
(iii) 4x + 9y + 25z - 12xy + 30yz - 20zx .
2 2 2
Solution: 4x + 9y + 25z - 12xy + 30yz - 20zx
= (2x) 2 + (- 3y) 2 + (- 5z) 2 + 2 (2x) (- 3y) + 2 (- 3y) (- 5z) + 2 (- 5z) (2x)
= (2x - 3y - 5z) 2 = 2x - 3y - 5z .
(iv) x + 14 + 2 .
4

x 2
x + 14 + 2 = (x2) 2 + d 12 n + 2 (x2) d 12 n
4
Solution:
x x x
= 2 1 2 2 1
cx + 2 m = cx + 2 m .
x x
2 2 2
(v) ^6x + 5x - 6h^6x - x - 2h^4x + 8x + 3h .
Solution: ^6x2 + 5x - 6h^6x2 - x - 2h^4x2 + 8x + 3h
= (2x + 3) (3x - 2) (3x - 2) (2x + 1) (2x + 1) (2x + 3)
= (2x + 3) 2 (3x - 2) 2 (2x + 1) 2 = (2x + 3) (3x - 2) (2x + 1) .
2 2 2
(vi) ^2x - 5x + 2h^3x - 5x - 2h^6x - x - 1h .
2 2 2
Solution: ^2x - 5x + 2h^3x - 5x - 2h^6x - x - 1h
= (2x - 1) (x - 2) (3x + 1) (x - 2) (2x - 1) (3x + 1)
= (2x - 1) 2 (x - 2) 2 (3x + 1) 2 = (2x - 1) (x - 2) (3x + 1) .

Exercise 3.13
1. Find the square root of the following polynomials by division method.
4 3 2
(i) x - 4x + 10x - 12x + 9 .
Solution: x2 - 2x + 3
x2 x4 - 4x3 + 10x2 - 12x + 9
x4
2x2 - 2x   - 4x3 + 10x2
  - 4x3 + 4x2
2x2 - 4x + 3         6x2 - 12x + 9
        6x2 - 12x + 9
          0
Thus, x4 - 4x3 + 10x2 - 12x + 9 = x2 - 2x + 3 .
Solution - Algebra 87
4 3 2
(ii) 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x + 1 .
Solution: 2x2 + 2x + 1
2x2 4x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 1
4x4
4x2 + 2x   8x3 + 8x2
  8x3 + 4x2
4x2 + 4x + 1         4x2 + 4x + 1
        4x2 + 4x + 1
          0
Thus, 4x4 + 8x3 + 8x2 + 4x + 1 = 2x2 + 2x + 1 .
4 3 2
(iii) 9x - 6x + 7x - 2x + 1 .
Solution: 3x2 - x + 1
3x2 9x4 - 6x3 + 7x2 - 2x + 1
9x4
6x2 - x   - 6x3 + 7x2
  - 6x3 + x2
6x2 - 2x + 1         6x2 - 2x + 1
        6x2 - 2x + 1
          0
Thus, 9 x 4 - 6 x 3 + 7 x 2 - 2 x + 1 = 3x 2 - x + 1 .
2 3 4
(iv) 4 + 25x - 12x - 24x + 16x .
Solution: 4x2 - 3x + 2
4x2 16x4 - 24x3 + 25x2 - 12x + 4
16x4
8x2 - 3x   - 24x3 + 25x2
  - 24x3 + 9x2
8x2 - 6x + 2         16x2 - 12x + 4
        16x2 - 12x + 4
          0
Thus, 16x4 - 24x3 + 25x2 - 12x + 4 = 4x2 - 3x + 2 .

88 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2. Find the values of a and b if the following polynomials are perfect squares.
4 3 2 4 3 2
(i) 4x - 12x + 37x + ax + b . (ii) x - 4x + 10x - ax + b .
4 3 2 4 3 2
(iii) ax + bx + 109x - 60x + 36 . (iv) ax - bx + 40x + 24x + 36 .
Solution: (i) 2x2 - 3x + 7
2x2 4x4 - 12x3 + 37x2 + ax + b
4x4
4x2 - 3x   - 12x3 + 37x2
  - 12x3 + 9x2
4x2 - 6x + 7         28x2 + ax + b
        28x2 - 42x + 49
          0
Since the given polynomial is a perfect square, we must have a =- 42 and b = 49 .
Thus, a =- 42 and b = 49 .
(ii)
x2 - 2x + 3
x2 x4 - 4x3 + 10x2 - ax + b
x4
2x2 - 2x   - 4x3 + 10x2
  - 4x3 + 4x2
2x2 - 4x + 3         6x2 - ax + b
        6x2 - 12x + 9
          0
ince the given polynomial is a perfect square, we must have a = 12 and b = 9 .
S
Thus, a = 12 and b = 9 .
6 - 5x + 7x2
(iii)         6 36 - 60x + 109x2 + bx3 + ax4
36
12 - 5x   - 60x + 109x2
  - 60x + 25x2
12 - 10x + 7x2         84x2 + bx3 + ax4
        84x2 - 70x3 + 49x4
          0
ince the given polynomial is a perfect square, we must have a = 49 and b =- 70 .
S
Thus, a = 49 and b =- 70 .
Solution - Algebra 89
(iv)

6 + 2x + 3x2
6 36 + 24x + 40x2 - bx3 + ax4
36
12 + 2x   24x + 40x2
  24x + 4x2
12 + 4x + 3x2         36x2 - bx3 + ax4
        36x2 + 12x3 + 9x4
          0
Since the given polynomial is a perfect square, we must have a = 9 and b =- 12 .
Thus, a = 9 and b =- 12 .

Exercise 3.14

Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.


(i) ^2x + 3h2 - 81 = 0.
Solution: (2x + 3) 2 - 81 = 0 Aliter:
& 4x2 + 12x + 9 - 81 = 0 (2x + 3) 2 - 92 = 0
& 4x2 + 24x - 12 - 72 = 0 & (2x + 3 + 9) (2x + 3 - 9) = 0
& (x + 6) (4x - 12) = 0 & (2x + 12) (2x - 6) = 0
& x + 6 = 0 or 4x - 12 = 0 & x =- 6 or x = 3
& x =- 6 or x = 3
Hence, solution set is {– 6, 3}.
2
(ii) 3x - 5x - 12 = 0.

Solution: 3x2 - 5x - 12 = 0

& (x - 3) (3x + 4) = 0 & x = 3 or x =- 4


3
4
Hence, solution set is $- , 3 . .
3
2
(iii) 5 x + 2x - 3 5 = 0.

Solution: 5 x2 + 2x - 3 5 = 0

& (x + 5 ) ( 5 x - 3) = 0 & x =- 5 or x = 3
5
Hence, solution set is '- 5 , 3 1 .
5

90 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2
(iv) 3^ x - 6h = x^ x + 7h - 3 . (v) 3x - 8 = 2.
x
Solution: 3 (x2 - 6) = x (x + 7) - 3 Solution: 3x - 8 = 2
x
& 3x2 - x2 - 7x - 18 + 3 = 0 & 3x2 - 2x - 8 = 0
& 2x2 - 7x - 15 = 0 (x - 2) (3x + 4) = 0
& (x - 5) (2x + 3) = 0 & x = 2 or x =- 4
3
& x = 5 or x =- 3 Hence, solution set is $- 4 , 2 . .
2 3
Hence, solution set is $- 3 , 5..
2 (vii) x + x + 1 = 34 .
x+1 x 15
(vi) x + 1 = 26 . x
x 5 Solution: + x + 1 = 34
x+1 x 15
Solution: x+ 1 = 26
x 5 x2 + x2 + 2x + 1 = 34
& 5x2 - 26x + 5 = 0 &
x2 + x 15
& (x - 5) (5x - 1) = 0 & 30x2 + 30x + 15 = 34x2 + 34x
& x = 5 or x = 1 & (2x + 5) (2x - 3) = 0
5
Hence, solution set is $ 1 , 5 . . & x =- 5 or x = 3
5 2 2
Hence, solution set is $- 5 , 3 . .
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
(viii) a b x - ^a + b h x + 1 = 0.
Ô®Î: a2 b2 x2 - (a2 + b2) x + 1 = 0 & (a2 x - 1) (b2 x - 1) = 0.
& x = 12 or x = 12 . Hence, the solution set is ' 12 , 12 1 .
a b a b
(ix) 2^ x + 1h - 5^ x + 1h = 12.
2

Solution: 2 (x + 1) 2 - 5 (x + 1) = 12 Aliter: Let y = x + 1 . Then,


2 2
& 2 (x + 2x + 1) - 5x - 5 - 12 = 0 2y - 5y - 12 = 0
2
& 2x - x - 15 = 0 & (2y + 3) (y - 4) = 0
& (x - 3) (2x + 5) = 0 & (2x + 5) (x - 3) = 0
Thus, x = 3 or x =- 5    Thus, x = 3 or x =- 5 .
2 2
Hence, the solution set is $3, - 5 . .
2
(x) 3^ x - 4h2 - 5^ x - 4h = 12.
Solution: 3 (x - 4) 2 - 5 (x - 4) = 12 Aliter: Let y = x - 4 . Then,
& 3x2 - 24x + 48 - 5x + 20 - 12 = 0 3y2 - 5y - 12 = 0
& 3x2 - 29x + 56 = 0 & (3y + 4) (y - 3) = 0
& (3x - 8)(x - 7) = 0 & (3x - 8)(x - 7) = 0
Thus, x = or x = 7    Thus, x = 8 or x = 7
8
3 3
Hence, the solution set is $ 8 , 7 . .
3

Solution - Algebra 91
Exercise 3.15

1. Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square.


2
(i) x + 6x - 7 = 0.
Solution: x2 + 6x - 7 = 0

& x2 + 2 (3x) = 7
& x2 + 2 (3x) + 9 = 7 + 9
& (x + 3) 2 = 16
& x + 3 = ! 4 & x = 1 or x =- 7 .
Hence, the solution set is {– 7, 1}.
2
(ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0.
Solution: x2 + 3x + 1 = 0

& x2 + 2` 3 xj + 9 = - 1 + 9
2 4 4
3 2 5
& ` x + 2 j = 4

& x + 3 = ! 5
2 2
& x = - 3 ! 5 & x = - 3 - 5 or x = - 3 + 5 .
2 2 2 2
Hence, the solution set is ' - 3 - 5 , - 3 + 5 1 .
2 2
2
(iii) 2x + 5x - 3 = 0.
Solution: 2x2 + 5x - 3 = 0

& x2 + 5 x - 3 = 0 (Divide both sides by 2)


2 2
8 2 ` 2 jB
& x2 + 5 x + 25 = 25 + 3    Note that 1 5 2 = 25 .
2 16 16 2 16
5 2 49
& ` x + 4 j = 16

& x + 5 = ! 7 & x = -5 ! 7
4 4 4 4
1
& x = or x =- 3 . Hence, the solution set is $- 3, 1 . .
2 2
2 2 2
(iv) 4x + 4bx - a - b = 0.
^ h
Solution: 4x2 + 4bx - (a2 - b2) = 0 (Divide both sides by 4)
2 2
& x2 + bx = a - b
4
2 2 2 2
& x2 + bx + b = a - b + b
4 4 4

92 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


& b 2 a2
` x + 2 j = 4

& x + b = ! a & x = - b ! a
2 2 2 2
(a b)
Thus, x = a - b or x =- +
2 2
(a b)
Hence, the solution set is ' - + , a - b 1 .
2 2
2
(v) x - ^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0.
Solution: x2 - ( 3 + 1) x + 3 = 0    
2 2
& x2 - ( 3 + 1) x + c 3 + 1 m = c 3 + 1 m - 3
2 2

; x - c 3 + 1 mE = 3 + 2 3 + 1 - 4 3
2
&
2 4

; x - c 3 + 1 mE = c 3 - 1 m
2 2
&
2 2

& x - c 3 + 1 m = ! c 3 - 1 m
2 2

& x = c 3 + 1 m ! c 3 - 1 m
2 2
Thus, x = 3 or x = 1 . Hence, the solution set is {1, 3 } .
(vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2 .
x-1
Solution: 5x + 7 = 3x + 2
x-1
& 5x + 7 = (3x + 2) (x - 1)
& 3x2 - 6x - 9 = 0
2
& x2 - 2x - 3 = 0      ( Note that  ` - 2 j = 1 )
2
& x2 - 2x + 1 = 1 + 3
& (x - 1) 2 = 4
& x - 1 = ! 2 & x =1!2
Thus, x = 3 or x =- 1 .
Hence, the solution set is {- 1, 3} .
2. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.
2
(i) x - 7x + 12 = 0.
Solution: x2 - 7x + 12 = 0. The equation is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 1, b =- 7, c = 12

x = - b ! b2 - 4ac
2a
Solution - Algebra 93
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= 7 ! 49 - 48 = 7 ! 1
2 2
& x = 8 or x = 6 & x = 4 or x = 3.
2 2
Thus, the solution set is "4, 3 , .
2
(ii) 15x - 11x + 2 = 0.
Solution: 15x2 - 11x + 2 = 0. It is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 15, b =- 11, c = 2

Thus, x = -b ! b2 - 4ac
2a

=11 ! 121 - 120 = 11 ! 121 - 120 = 11 ! 1


2 (15) 30 30
& x = 12 or x = 10 & x = 2 or x = 1 .
30 30 5 3
Thus, the Solution set is $ 2 , 1 . .
5 3
(iii) x + 1 = 2 1 .
x 2
Solution: x+ 1 = 21
x 2
2
& x + 1 = 5
x 2
& 2x - 5x + 2 = 0 , which is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
2

Here, a = 2, b =- 5, c = 2

Thus, x = -b ! b2 - 4ac
2a
5 ! 25 - 16 = 5 ! 9 = 5 ! 3
=
4 4 4
& x = 2 or x = 1
2
1
Thus, the Solution set is $ , 2 . .
2
2 2 2
(iv) 3a x - abx - 2b = 0.
Solution: 3a2 x2 - abx - 2b2 = 0. It is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .

Here, A = 3a2, B =- ab, C =- 2b2 .

Now, x = -B ! B2 - 4AC
2A
ab ! a2 b2 - 4 (3a2) (- 2b2)
=
2 (3a2)
= ab ! a2 b2 + 24a2 b2 = ab ! 5ab
6a 2 6a2

94 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


& x = ab + 25ab = b or x = ab - 25ab = - 2b .
6a a 6a 3a

Thus, the Solution set is $ - 2b , b . .


3a a
2 2
(v) a^ x + 1h = x^a + 1h .
Solution: a (x2 + 1) = x (a2 + 1)
& ax2 + a = x (a2 + 1)
& ax2 - x (a2 + 1) + a = 0. It is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0
Here, A = a, B =- (a2 + 1), C = a

Now, x = - B ! B2 - 4AC
2A
(a2 1) ! (a2 + 1) 2 - 4a2
= +
2a
(a2 + 1) ! a 4 + 2a 2 + 1 - 4a 2
=
2a
(a2 + 1) ! a 4 - 2a 2 + 1 (a2 + 1) ! (a2 - 1) 2
= =
2a 2a
(a2 + 1) ! (a2 - 1)
=
2a
2
Thus, x = 2a = a or x = 2 = 1
2a 2a a
1
Hence, the Solution set is $ , a . .
a
2 2 2
(vi) 36x - 12ax + ^a - b h = 0.
2
Solution: 36x2 - 12ax + (a2 - b2) = 0. It is of the form Ax + Bx + C = 0 .
Here, A = 36, B =- 12a, C = (a2 - b2)

Now, x = - B ! B2 - 4AC
2A
12a ! 144a2 - 4 (36)(a2 - b2)
=
2 (36)
2 2 2
= 12a ! 144a - 144a + 144b
72
2
= 12a ! 144b = 12a ! 12b
72 72
12 (a + b) (a + b) 12 (a - b) (a - b)
Thus, x = = or x = =
72 6 72 6

Hence, the Solution set is $ a - b , a + b . .


6 6

Solution - Algebra 95
(vii) x - 1 + x - 3 = 10 .
x+1 x-4 3
Solution: x - 1 + x - 3 = 10
x+1 x-4 3
(x - 1)(x - 4) + (x - 3) (x + 1)
& = 10
(x + 1)(x - 4) 3

& x2 - 5x + 4 + x2 - 2x - 3 = 10
x2 - 3x - 4 3

& 2x2 - 7x + 1 = 10
x2 - 3x - 4 3
& 6x2 - 21x + 3 = 10x2 - 30x - 40
& 4x2 - 9x - 43 = 0    ( ax2 + bx + c = 0 form )
Here, a = 4, b =- 9, c =- 43

Now, x = - b ! b2 - 4ac
2a
9 ! 81 - 4 (4) (- 43)
= = 9 ! 769
2 (4) 8
Thus, x = 9 + 769 or 9 - 769
8 8
Hence, the Solution set is ' 9 - 769 , 9 + 769 1.
8 8
2 2 2 2 2
(viii) a x + ^a - b h x - b = 0.
Solution: a2 x2 + (a2 - b2) x - b2 = 0. This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .
Here, A = a2, B = a2 - b2, C =- b2

Now, x = - B ! B2 - 4AC
2A

(a2 - b2) ! (a2 - b2) 2 - 4 (a2) (- b2)


= -
2 (a2)
(b2 - a2) ! a4 + 2a2 b2 + b4 (b2 - a2) ! (a2 + b2)
= =
2a2 2a 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Thus, x = b - a +2a + b = b2 or x = b - a -2a - b =- 1
2a a 2a
2
Hence, the Solution set is )- 1, b2 3 .
a

Exercise 3.16

1. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 65 . Find the number.


8
Solution: Let the number be x and its reciprocal be 1 .
x
96 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Given that x + 1 = 65
x 8
2
& x + 1 = 65
x 8
2
& 8x - 65x + 8 = 0
& (8x - 1) (x - 8) = 0
& 8x - 1 = 0 or x - 8 = 0 & x = 1 or x = 8
8
Thus, the required number is 8.

2. The difference of the squares of two positive numbers is 45. The square of the
smaller number is four times the larger number. Find the numbers.
Solution: Let x and y be the two positive numbers. Given that x < y
Given that x2 = 4y g (1)
and y2 - x2 = 45 g (2)
& y2 - 4y - 45 = 0    [ using the equation (1) ]
& (y - 9) (y + 5) = 0
& y - 9 = 0 or y + 5 = 0 & y = 9 or y = – 5
Since the numbers are positive, we take y = 9.
Substituting y = 9 in (1), we get, x2 = 4 # 9, & x=6
Thus, the required numbers are 6 , 9.
3. A farmer wishes to start a 100 sq.m rectangular vegetable garden. Since he has
only 30 m barbed wire, he fences the sides of the rectangular garden letting his
house compound wall act as the fourth side fence. Find the dimension of the
garden.
Solution: Let AB = x metre and BC = y metre be the length and breadth of the
rectangular garden. Let CD be the compound wall.
Given that the length of the fencing barbed wire = 30 m
& y + x + y = 30
& x + 2y = 30
& y = ` 30 - x j g (1)
2
Area of the vegetable garden = 100m2
& xy = 100
& x` 30 - x j = 100 ( using (1) )
2
& 30x - x2 = 200
& x2 - 30x + 200 = 0

Solution - Algebra 97
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& (x - 20) (x - 10) = 0


& x - 20 = 0 or x - 10 = 0 & x = 20 or x = 10
Substituting x = 10 in (1), we get, y = 30 - 10 = 10
2
Also, when x = 20 , (1) & y = 30 - 20 = 5 .
2
Thus, length and breadth of the rectangle are either 10m, 10m (or) 20m, 5m.
4. A rectangular field is 20 m long and 14 m wide. There is a path of equal width
all around it having an area of 111 sq. metres. Find the width of the path on the
outside.
Solution: Let AB = 20m and BC = 14m be the length and breadth of the rectangle
ABCD. Let x metre be the width of uniform path around ABCD.
Let PQ = 20 + 2x and QR = 14 + 2x be the length and breadth of the rectangle PQRS.
Given that the area of the path = 111 sq.m.
& Area of the rectangle PQRS – Area of the rectangle ABCD = 111m 2
& (20 + 2x) (14 + 2x) - (20 # 14) = 111
& 20 # 14 + 40x + 28x + 4x2 - 20 # 14 = 111
& 4x2 + 68x - 111 = 0
& (2x + 37) (2x - 3) = 0
& x = - 37 or x = 3
2 2
Since length can’t be negative, we take x = 3 .
2
Thus, the width of the path on the outside is 1.5m
5. A train covers a distance of 90 km at a uniform speed. Had the speed been
15 km/hr more, it would have taken 30 minutes less for the journey.
Find the original speed of the train.
Solution: Let the original speed of the train be x km/hr.
Let T1 be the time taken to cover the distance of 90 km when the speed is x km/hr.
Let T2 be the time taken to cover the same distance when the speed is x + 15 km/hr.
Since time = distance , we have T1 = 90 and T2 = 90 .
speed x x + 15
Given that T1 - T2 = 30
60
& 90 - 90 = 1
x x + 15 2
90 (x + 15) - 90x
& = 1
x (x + 15) 2

& 90x + 1350 - 90x = 1


x2 + 15x 2
2
& x + 15x - 2700 = 0
98 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
& (x + 60)(x - 45) = 0
& x = – 60 or x = 45
Since speed cannot be negative, we take x = 45.
Thus, the original speed of the train is 45 km/hr.
6. The speed of a boat in still water is 15 km/hr. It goes 30 km upstream and return
downstream to the original point in 4 hrs 30 minutes. Find the speed of the
stream.
Solution: Let the speed of the stream be x km/hr.
Given that the speed of the boat in still water is 15 km/hr.
Thus, the speed of the boat in the downstream and in the upstream are
(15 + x) km/hr and (15 - x) km/hr respectively.
Let T1 be the time taken to cover the distance of 30 km in the downstream.
Let T2 be the time taken to cover the same distance in the upstream.
Since time = distance , we have T1 = 30 and T2 = 30 .
speed 15 + x 15 - x
Now, given that T1 + T2 = 4 hrs. 30 hours = 4 1 hrs.
2
& 30 + 30 = 9
15 - x 15 + x 2
30 (15 + x) + 30 (15 - x)
& = 9
(15 - x) (15 + x) 2
2
& 9 (225 - x ) = 1800
& 225 - x2 = 200
& x = ! 5
Since the speed of the stream cannot be negative, we take x = 5.
Thus, the speed of the stream is 5 km/hr.
7. One year ago, a man was 8 times as old as his son. Now his age is equal to the
square of his son’s age. Find their present ages.
Solution:
Son Father
Present age x years y years
One year ago their ages (x - 1) years (y - 1) years
Given that y = x2 g (1)
and y - 1 = 8 (x - 1)
& y = 8x - 7 g (2)
2
Using (2) in (1), we get 8x - 7 = x

Solution - Algebra 99
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& x2 - 8x + 7 = 0 & (x - 7) (x - 1) = 0
& x=7 or x = 1
Since x = 1 is inadmissible, we take x = 7 .
Thus, Son’s age is 7 years ; Father’s age is = 72 = 49 years.
2
8. A chess board contains 64 equal squares and the area of each square is 6.25 cm .
A border around the board is 2 cm wide. Find the length of the side of the chess
board.
Solution: Let the length of side of the chess board = x cm.
Area of the each square = 6.25cm 2
Thus, the area of 64 squares = 64 # 6.25
& (x - 4) 2 = 400
& x-4 = ! 20 & x = 24 or – 16
Since, length of the sides of a board can’t be negative, so x = 24 cm.

9. A takes 6 days less than the time taken by B to finish a piece of work. If both A and
B together can finish it in 4 days, find the time that B would take to finish this
work by himself.
Solution: Let x be the number of days taken by B to finish the work .
Then, A takes (x - 6) days to finish the same work.

Amount of work done by A in 1 day 1 =


x-6
Amount of work done by B in 1 day = 1
x
Amount of work done by A and B in 1 day = 1
4
Thus, 1 +1 = 1
x-6 x 4

& x+x-6 = 1
x (x - 6) 4
& x2 - 14x + 24 = 0
& (x - 12) (x - 2) = 0
& x - 12 = 0 or x - 2 = 0 & x = 12 or x = 2
Since x = 2 is inadmissible, we take x = 12 .
Thus, B needs 12 days to finish the work by himself.

10. Two trains leave a railway station at the same time. The first train travels due
west and the second train due north. The first train travels 5 km/hr faster than
the second train. If after two hours, they are 50 km apart, find the average speed
of each train.

100 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Solution: Let the speed of the second train be x km/hr.

Then, the speed of the first train = (x + 5) km/hr.


Let O be the position of railway station.
Distance travelled by first train in 2 hrs = 2 (x + 5) = OA (say)
Distance travelled by second train in 2 hrs = 2x = OB (say)
By Pythagoras theorem, OA2 + OB2 = AB2
& [2 (x + 5)] 2 + (2x) 2 = 502
& 8x2 + 40x - 2400 = 0
2
& x + 5x - 300 = 0
& (x + 20) (x - 15) = 0
& x + 20 = 0 or x - 15 = 0 & x =- 20 or x = 15
Since speed cannot be negative, we take x = 15
Thus, Speed of second train is 15 km/hr
and the Speed of the first train is 20 km/hr.

Exercise 3.17

1. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation.


2
(i) x - 8x + 12 = 0 .
Solution: x2 - 8x + 12 = 0
Comparing the eqation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 1, b =- 8, c = 12

Now, D = b2 - 4ac = (- 8) 2 - 4 (1) (12) = 64 - 48 > 0


Thus, the roots are real and distinct.
2
(ii) 2x - 3x + 4 = 0 .
Solution: 2x2 - 3x + 4 = 0
Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 2, b =- 3, c = 4
Now, D = b2 - 4ac = (- 3) 2 - 4 (2) (4) < 0
Thus, the equation has no real roots.
2
(iii) 9x + 12x + 4 = 0 .

Solution: 9x2 + 12x + 4 = 0


Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 9, b = 12, c = 4
Now, D = b2 - 4ac = (12) 2 - 4 (9) (4) = 0
Thus, the roots are real and equal.

Solution - Algebra 101


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2
(iv) 3x - 2 6 x + 2 = 0 .
Solution: 3x2 - 2 6 x + 2 = 0
Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 3, b =- 2 6 , c = 2
Now, D = b2 - 4ac = (- 2 6 ) 2 - 4 (3) (2) = 4 (6) - 24 = 0
Thus, the roots are real and equal.

(v) 3 x - 2 x + 1 = 0 .
2
5 3
Solution: 3 x2 - 2 x + 1 = 0
5 3
Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 3 , b =- 2 , c = 1
5 3
2 2 2 3 4 12 88
Now, D = b - 4ac = `- j - 4` j (1) = - =- <0
3 5 9 5 45
Thus, the equation has no real roots.

(vi) ^ x - 2ah^ x - 2bh = 4ab .


Solution: (x - 2a)(x - 2b) = 4ab
& x2 - x (2a + 2b) + 4ab = 4ab & x2 - 2x (a + b) = 0
Comparing the equation with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 1, b =- 2 (a + b), c = 0

Now, D = b2 - 4ac = [- 2 (a + b)] 2 - 4 (1) (0) = 4 (a + b) 2 > 0


Thus, the roots are real and unequal.
2. Find the values of k for which the roots are real and equal in each of the following
equations.
2
(i) 2x - 10x + k = 0 .
Solution: 2x2 - 10x + k = 0
Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 2, b =- 10, c = k
Given that the equation has equal roots.
Thus, D = b2 - 4ac = 0 & (- 10) 2 - 4 (2)(k) = 0
& 8k = 100 & k = 25
2
2
(ii) 12x + 4kx + 3 = 0 .
Solution: 12x2 + 4kx + 3 = 0
Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 12, b = 4k, c = 3
Given that the equation has equal roots.
Thus, D = b2 - 4ac = 0
& (4k) 2 - 4 (12) (3) = 0
& k2 = 144 = 9
16
Hence, k = ! 3.
102 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2
(iii) x + 2k^ x - 2h + 5 = 0 .
Solution: x2 + 2k (x - 2) + 5 = 0
& x2 + 2kx - 4k + 5 = 0
& x2 + 2kx + (5 - 4k) = 0
Comparing with ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 1, b = 2k, c = 5 - 4k
Given that, the equation has equal roots.
Thus, D = b2 - 4ac = 0 & (2k) 2 - 4 (1) (5 - 4k) = 0
& k2 + 4k - 5 = 0
& (k + 5) (k - 1) = 0 & k =- 5 or k = 1 .
2
(iv) ^k + 1h x - 2^k - 1h x + 1 = 0 .
Solution: (k + 1) x2 - 2 (k - 1) x + 1 = 0
This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Here, a = k + 1, b =- 2 (k - 1), c = 1
Given that the equation has equal roots.
Thus, D = b2 - 4ac = 0
& [- 2 (k - 1)] 2 - 4 (k + 1)(1) = 0
& 4 (k - 1) 2 - 4 (k + 1) = 0
& (k - 1) 2 - (k + 1) = 0 & k2 - 3k = 0
Hence, k = 0 , 3.
2 2 2
3. Show that the roots of the equation x + 2^a + bh x + 2^a + b h = 0 are not real.
Solution: x2 + 2 (a + b) x + 2 (a2 + b2) = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 , we get A = 1, B = 2 (a + b), C = 2 (a2 + b2)
Now, D = B2 - 4AC
= [2 (a + b)] 2 - 4 (1) (2) (a2 + b2)
= 4 (a2 + 2ab + b2) - 8a2 - 8b2
= 4a2 + 8ab + 4b2 - 8a2 - 8b2
= - 4a2 + 8ab - 4b2 =- 4 (a2 - 2ab + b2)
= - 4 (a - b) 2 < 0 , for all a, b ! R .
Thus, the roots of the equation are not real numbers.
2 2 2
4. Show that the roots of the equation 3p x - 2pqx + q = 0 are not real .
Solution: Given equation is 3p2 x2 - 2pqx + q2 = 0
This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 , we get a = 3p2, b =- 2pq, c = q2
Now, D = b2 - 4ac
Solution - Algebra 103
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= (- 2pq) 2 - 4 (3p2) (q2)


= 4p2 q2 - 12p2 q2 =- 8p2 q2 < 0
Thus, the roots of the equation are not real numbers.
2 2 2 2 2
5. If the roots of the equation ^a + b h x - 2^ac + bdh x + c + d = 0 ,

where a, b, c, d are non-zero real numbers, are equal, then prove that a = c .
b d
Solution: (a2 + b2) x2 - 2 (ac + bd) x + c2 + d2 = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 , we get ,
A = a2 + b2, B =- 2 (ac + bd), C = c2 + d2
Now, D = B2 - 4AC = 0 ( the roots are equal )
& [- 2 (ac + bd)] 2 - 4 (a2 + b2) (c2 + d2) = 0
& 4 (ac + bd) 2 - 4 (a2 c2 + a2 d2 + b2 c2 + b2 d2) = 0
& a2 c2 + 2abcd + b2 d2 - a2 c2 - a2 d2 - b2 c2 - b2 d2 = 0
2 2 2 2
& - a d - b c + 2abcd = 0
& a2 d2 - 2abcd + b2 c2 = 0
& (ad - bc) 2 = 0 & ad - bc = 0
& ad = bc
& a = c . ( a, b, c, d are non zero)
b d
6. Show that the roots of the equation
^ x - ah^ x - bh + ^ x - bh^ x - ch + ^ x - ch^ x - ah = 0 are always real and they
cannot be equal unless a = b = c .
Solution: (x - a) (x - b) + (x - b) (x - c) + (x - c) (x - a) = 0
& x2 - ax - bx + ab + x2 - bx - cx + bc + x2 - cx - ax + ca = 0
& 3x2 - 2 (a + b + c) x + ab + bc + ca = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 .
Thus, we get A = 3, B =- 2 (a + b + c), C = ab + bc + ca .
Now, D = B2 - 4AC
= [- 2 (a + b + c)] 2 - 4 (3) (ab + bc + ca)
= 4 (a + b + c) 2 - 12 (ab + bc + ca)
= 4 [(a + b + c) 2 - 3 (ab + bc + ca)]
= 4 [a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ca]
= 2 [2a2 + 2b2 + 2c2 - 2ab - 2bc - 2ca]
104 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
= 2 [(a - b) 2 + (b - c) 2 + (c - a) 2] > 0
Thus, the roots are always real.
If a = b = c , then D = 0 . Thus, in this case the roots are equal.
2 2 2 2
7. If the equation ^1 + m h x + 2mcx + c - a = 0 has equal roots, then prove that
2 2 2
c = a ^1 + m h .
Solution: (1 + m2) x2 + 2mcx + c2 - a2 = 0
This is of the form Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 , where
A = (1 + m2), B = 2mc, C = c2 - a2
Given that the equations has equal roots
Thus, D = B2 - 4AC = 0
& (2mc) 2 - 4 (1 + m2)^c2 - a2h = 0
& 4m2 c2 - 4 (c2 - a2 + m2 c2 - a2 m2) = 0
& m2 c2 - c2 + a2 - m2 c2 + a2 m2 = 0
& - c2 + a2 + a2 m2 = 0
Thus, c2 = a2 (1 + m2) .
Exercise 3.18

1. Find the sum and the product of the roots of the following equations.
2
(i) x - 6x + 5 = 0 .
Solution: x2 - 6x + 5 = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 1, b =- 6, c = 5 . Let a and b be the roots.
( 6)
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b = - b =- - = 6
a 1
Product of the roots, ab = c = 5 = 5
a 1
Thus, sum and product of the roots are 6 and 5 respectively.
2
(ii) kx + rx + pk = 0 .
Solution: kx2 + rx + pk = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = k, b = r, c = pk . Let a and b be the roots.
Now, sum of the roots, a + b = - b =- r
a k
pk
Product of the roots, ab = c = =p
a k
Thus, sum and product of the roots are - r and p.
k
2
(iii) 3x - 5x = 0 .
Solution: 3x2 - 5x = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Solution - Algebra 105
Here, a = 3, b =- 5, c = 0 . Let a and b be the roots.
( 5)
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b = - b =- - =5
a 3 3
Product of the roots, ab = c 0
= =0
a 3
Thus, sum and product of the roots are 5 and 0.
3
2
(iv) 8x - 25 = 0 .
Solution: 8x2 - 25 = 0. This is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 8, b = 0, c = 25 . Let a and b be the roots.
Thus, sum of the roots, a + b = - b = 0 = 0    Note: x2 = 25 ,
a 8 8
Product of the roots, ab = c =- 25 Thus. x = 25 , - 25
a 8 8 8
Thus, Sum and product of the roots are 0 and - 25 .
8
2. Form a quadratic equation whose roots are
(i) 3 , 4 (ii) 3 + 7 , 3 - 7 (iii) 4 + 7 , 4 - 7
2 2
Solution: (i) Given roots are 3, 4. Let a , b be the roots.
Sum of the roots, a + b = 3 + 4 = 7
Product of the roots, ab = 3 (4) = 12
The required equation is x2 - (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
Thus, the equation is x2 - 7x + 12 = 0 .
(ii) Given roots are 3 + 7 , 3 - 7 . Let a = 3 + 7 and b = 3 - 7 .
Sum of the roots, a + b = 3 + 7 + 3 - 7 = 6
Product of the roots, ab = (3 + 7 ) (3 - 7 ) = 9 - 7 = 2
The required equation is x2 - (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
Thus, the equation is x2 - 6x + 2 = 0 .
(iii) Let a = 4 + 7 , b = 4 - 7 be the given roots.
2 2
Sum of the roots, a + b = 4 + 7 + 4 - 7 = 8 = 4
2 2 2
Product of the roots, ab = c 4 + 7 mc 4 - 7 m = 16 - 7 = 9
2 2 4 4
The required equation is x - (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.
2

& x2 - x (4) + 9 = 0 . Thus, the equation is 4x2 - 16x + 9 = 0 .


4
2
3. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 5x + 2 = 0 , then find the values of
2 2
(i) a + b (ii) a - b (iii) a +
b
b a b a
Solution: (i) 3x2 - 5x + 2 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0
Here, a = 3, b =- 5, c = 2 .
106 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Thus, a+b = - b =- (- 5) = 5 and ab = c = 2 .


a 3 3 a 3
2 2 2
a+b a +b (a + b) - 2ab
Now, = =
b a ab ab
5 2 2
` 3 j - 2` 3 j
= = ` 25 - 12 j 3 = 13 .
2 9 2 6
3
(ii) Now, (a - b) 2 = (a + b) 2 - 4ab
2
= ` 5 j - 4` 2 j = 25 - 24 = 1
3 3 9 9
Thus, a - b = !1
3
a 2 b2 a3 + b3 (a + b) 3 - 3ab (a + b)
(iii) + = =
b2 a ab ab
125 - 30
= 27 9 = 125 - 90 # 3 = 35 .
2 27 2 18
3
2 2 2
4. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 6x + 4 = 0, find the value of a + b .
Solution: 3x2 - 6x + 4 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0
Here, a = 3, b =- 6, c = 4 .
( 6)
Thus, a + b = - b =- - = 2
a 3
ab = c = 4
a 3
Now, a + b = (a + b) 2 - 2ab = 22 - 2` 4 j = 4
2 2
3 3
a2 + b2 4.
=
3
2
5. If a, b are the roots of 2x - 3x - 5 = 0, form an equation whose roots are
2 2
a and b .
Solution: 2x2 - 3x - 5 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0
Here, a = 2, b =- 3, c =- 5 .
( 3)
Now, a + b = - b =- - = 3
a 2 2
ab = c = - 5
a 2
To form the required equation, let us find the sum and product of the roots.
Sum of the roots, a2 + b2 = (a + b) 2 - 2ab
2
= ` 3 j - 2` - 5 j = 9 + 10 = 29
2 2 4 2 4
5 2 25
2 2 2
Product of the roots, (a ) (b ) = (ab) = ` -
2j
=
4
Thus, required equation is, x - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
2

Solution - Algebra 107


& x2 - ` 29 j x + 25 = 0
4 4
Thus, the equation is 4x2 - 29x + 25 = 0 .
2
6. If a , b are the roots of x - 3x + 2 = 0, form a quadratic equation whose roots
are - a and - b .
Solution: x2 - 3x + 2 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0
Here, a = 1, b =- 3, c = 2 .
( 3)
a + b = - b =- - = 3
a 1
ab = c 2
= =2
a 1
Let us find the equation whose roots are - a and - b .
Now, sum of the roots = - a - b =- (a + b) =- 3
Product of the roots = (- a) (- b) = ab = 2
Now, the required equation is, x2 - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
& x2 + 3x + 2 = 0.
Note : In the above problem, x2 + 3x + 2 = 0 can be obtained by replacing x by –x
2
in the given equation x - 3x + 2 = 0.
2
7. If a and b are the roots of x - 3x - 1 = 0, then form a quadratic equation
whose roots are 12 and 12 .
a b
Solution: x2 - 3x - 1 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0
Here, a = 1, b =- 3, c =- 1
( 3)
Now, a + b = - b =- - = 3 and ab = c = - 1 =- 1
a 1 a 1
Let us form an equation whose roots are 12 and 12 .
a b
a2 + b2
Sum of the roots, 12 + 12 =
a b (ab) 2
(a b) 2 - 2ab 32 - 2 (- 1)
= + = = 9 + 2 = 11
(ab) 2 (- 1) 2 1
2
Product of the roots, c 12 mc 12 m = c 1 m = 1
a b ab
Thus, the required equation is x2 - x (Sum of the roots) + (Product of the roots) = 0
& x2 - x (11) + 1 = 0
Thus, the equation is x2 - 11x + 1 = 0 .

108 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2
8. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 6x + 1 = 0, form an equation whose
(i) 1 , 1
2 2
roots are (ii) a b, b a (iii) 2a + b, 2b + a
a b
Solution: 3x2 - 6x + 1 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 3, b =- 6, c = 1
( 6)
Thus, a + b = - b =- - = 2 and ab = c = 1
a 3 a 3
(i) Let us form an equation whose roots are 1 and 1 .
a b
a b
Sum of the roots, 1 + 1 = + = 2 = 6
a b ab 1
3
Product of the roots, ` 1 jc 1 m = 1 = 1 = 3
a b ab 1
3
Thus, the required equation is x2 - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
& x2 - 6x + 3 = 0
Thus, the equation is x2 - 6x + 3 = 0 .

(ii) Let us form an equation whose roots are a2 b and b2 a .

Sum of the roots, a2 b + b2 a = ab (a + b) = 1 (2) = 2


3 3
3
Product of the roots, (a2 b)(b2 a) = a3 b3 = (ab) 3 = ` 1 j = 1
3 27
Thus, the required equation is, x2 - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
& x2 - ` 2 j x + 1 = 0
3 27
Thus, the equation is 27x2 - 18x + 1 = 0 .

(iii) Let us form an equation whose roots are 2a + b and 2b + a .


Sum of the roots, (2a + b) + (2b + a) = 3 (a + b) = 3 (2) = 6

Product of the roots, (2a + b) (2b + a) = 4ab + 2a2 + 2b2 + ab

= 2 [(a + b) 2 - 2ab] + 5ab = 2 8(2) 2 - 2` 2 jB + 5` 1 j


3 3
= 2 8 12 - 2 B + 5 = 25 .
3 3 3
Thus, the required equation is, x2 - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
& x2 - x (6) + 25 = 0
3

Thus, the equation is 3x2 - 18x + 25 = 0 .

Solution - Algebra 109


9. Find a quadratic equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the
2
equation 4x - 3x - 1 = 0.
Solution: 4x2 - 3x - 1 = 0 . It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 4, b =- 3, c =- 1 . Let a and b be the roots of 4x2 - 3x - 1 = 0 .
( 3)
Thus, a + b = - b =- - = 3 and ab = c = - 1
a 4 4 a 4
Let us form an equation whose roots are 1 and 1 .
a b
3
a b
Sum of the roots, 1 + 1 = + = 4 =- 3
a b ab -1
4
Product of the roots, ` 1 jc 1 m = 1 = 1 =- 4
a b ab -1
4
Now, the required equation is, x2 - (Sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0
& x2 - (- 3) x + (- 4) = 0
Thus, the equation is x2 + 3x - 4 = 0 .
Note: Replace x by 1 in the equation 4x2 - 3x - 1 = 0 to get x2 + 3x - 4 = 0 .
x 2
10. If one root of the equation 3x + kx - 81 = 0 is the square of the other, find k.
Solution: Let a and b = a2 be the roots of the equation 3x2 + kx - 81 = 0 .
It is in the form of ax2 + bx + c = 0 . Here, a = 3, b = k, c =- 81 .

Now, sum of the roots a + b = - b & a + a2 = - k     g (1)


a 3
Product of the roots, c
ab = & a (a ) = 2 - 81 =- 27 & a3 = (- 3) 3
a 3
Thus, a = –3
When a =- 3 , (1) & - k = (- 3) + (- 3) 2 & k =- 18.
3
2
11. If one root of the equation 2x - ax + 64 = 0 is twice the other, then find the value of a.
Solution: Let a and b = 2a be the roots of the equation 2x2 - ax + 64 = 0 .
It is in the form of Ax2 + Bx + C = 0 . Here, A = 2, B =- a, C = 64 .
( a)
Sum of the roots, a + b = - B & a + 2a =- - = a & a = a . g (1)
A 2 2 6
Product of the roots, ab = C & a (2a) = 64 & 2a2 = 32.
A 2
& a 2
` 6 j = 16 (using (1))
Thus, a = ! 24.   
2
12. If a and b are the roots of 5x - px + 1 = 0 and a - b = 1, then find p.
Solution: Given equation 5x2 - px + 1 = 0 is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0 .
Here, a = 5, b =- p, c = 1 .

110 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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p
Now, a+b = -` b j = g (1)
a 5
ab = 1 g (2)
5
Given that, a-b = 1 g (3)
Now, (a + b) 2 - 4ab = (a - b) 2
p2 4
& - = 1 ( using (1), (2) & (3) )
25 5
& p2 - 20 = 25 & p2 = 45

Thus, p = !3 5 .

Exercise 3.19
Chose the correct answer.

1. If the system 6x – 2y = 3, kx – y = 2 has a unique solution, then


(A) k = 3 (B) k ! 3 (C) k = 4 (D) k ! 4

Solution: 6x - 2y = 3, kx - y = 2 . Here a1 = 6, b1 =- 2, a2 = k, b2 =- 1 .
a1 b
For unique solution ! 1 & 6 ! -2 & k ! 3 (Ans. (B) )
a2 b2 k -1

2. A system of two linear equations in two variables is inconsistent if their graphs


(A) coincide (B) intersect only at a point
(C) do not intersect at any point (D) cut the x-axis

Solution: If the system is inconsistent, it does not have solution. (Ans. (C) )

3. The system of equations x –4y = 8 , 3x –12y =24


(A) has infinitely many solutions (B) has no solution
(C) has a unique solution (D) may or may not have a solution
Solution: a1 = 1, b1 =- 4, c1 =- 8, a2 = 3, b2 =- 12, c2 =- 24 .
a1 b c
= 1= 1 =1. (Here, the two equations are identical) (Ans. (A) )
a2 b2 c2 3
2
4. If one zero of the polynomial p^ xh = (k +4) x +13x+3k is reciprocal of the other, then
k is equal to
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5

Solution: (k + 4) x2 + 13x + 3k . Here, a = k + 4, b = 13, c = 3k .

Let a and 1 be the zeros of the polynomial. (a) ( 1 ) = 3k & k = 2. (Ans. (A) )
a a k+4

Solution - Algebra 111


2
5. The sum of two zeros of the polynomial f^ xh = 2x + (p + 3) x + 5 is zero, then the
value of p is
(A) 3 (B) 4 (C) –3 (D) –4
Solution: 2x + (p + 3) x + 5 . Here a = 2, b = p + 3, c = 5 .
2

- (p + 3)
Sum of zeros = - b & = 0 & p + 3 = 0. (Ans. (C) )
a 2
2
6. The remainder when x - 2x + 7 is divided by x+4 is
(A) 28 (B) 29 (C) 30 (D) 31
Solution: By remainder theorem,
f (- 4) = (- 4) 2 - 2 (- 4) + 7 = 16 + 8 + 7 = 31 (Ans. (D) )
3 2
7. The quotient when x - 5x + 7x - 4 is divided by x–1 is
2 2 2 2
(A) x + 4x + 3 (B) x - 4x + 3 (C) x - 4x - 3 (D) x + 4x - 3
Solution: By synthetic division,
1 1 –5 7 –4
0 1 –4 3
Quotient " 1 " Remainder –4 3 –1
(Ans. (B) )
3 4
8. The GCD of ^ x + 1h and x - 1 is
3 3
(A) x - 1 (B) x + 1 (C) x +1 (D) x - 1
Solution: Let f (x) = (x3 + 1) = (x + 1)(x2 - x + 1)
g (x) = x4 - 1 = (x + 1) (x - 1)(x2 + 1) (Ans. (C) )
2 2 4 4
9. The GCD of x - 2xy + y and x - y is
2 2
(A) 1 (B) x+y (C) x–y (D) x - y
Solution: Let f (x) = x2 - 2xy + y2 = (x - y) 2
g (x) = x4 - y4 = (x - y) (x + y) (x2 + y2) (Ans. (C) )
3 3
10. The LCM of x - a and (x – a) 2 is
3 3 3 3
(A) (x - a ) ^ x + ah (B) (x - a ) ^ x - ah2
2 2 2 2
(C) ^ x - ah2 ^ x + ax + a h (D) ^ x + ah2 ^ x + ax + a h
Solution: Let f (x) = x3 - a3 = (x - a) (x2 + ax + a2)
g (x) = (x - a) 2 = (x - a) 2 (Ans. (C) )
Thus, LCM = (x - a) 2 (x 2 + ax + a2)
k k+3 k+5
11. The LCM of a , a ,a , where keN is
k+9 k k+6 k+5
(A) a (B) a (C) a (D) a
Solution: Let f (x) = a k ; g (x) = a k + 3 = a k # a3 .
h (x) = a k + 5 = a k # a5 (Ans. (D) )
Thus, LCM is a k + 5 .
112 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2
12. The lowest form of the rational expression x 2+ 5x + 6 is
x -x-6
(A) x - 3 (B) x + 3 (C) x + 2 (D) x - 3
x+3 x-3 x-3 x+2

Solution: x2 + 5x + 6 = (x + 3) (x + 2) (Ans. (B) )


x2 - x - 6 (x - 3) (x + 2)
3 3
13. If a + b and a3 - b3 are the two rational expressions, then their product is
a-b a +b
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(A) a2 + ab + b2 (B) a2 - ab + b2 (C) a2 - ab - b2 (D) a + ab + b
2 2
a - ab + b a + ab + b a + ab + b a - ab - b
3 3 (a + b) (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2)
Solution: a + b # a3 - b3 = # (Ans. (A) )
a-b a +b (a - b) (a + b) (a2 - ab + b2)
2
14. On dividing x - 25 by x + 5 is equal to
x+3 2
x -9
(A) (x –5)(x–3) (B) (x –5)(x+3) (C) (x +5)(x–3) (D) (x +5)(x+3)
2 (x + 5) (x - 5) (x + 3) (x - 3)
Solution: x - 25 ' x2+ 5 = # (Ans. (A) )
x+3 x -9 x+3 x+5
3 3
a
15. If is added with b , then the new expression is
a-b b-a
2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
(A) a + ab + b (B) a - ab + b (C) a + b (D) a - b

3 3 3 3 (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)
Solution: a + b = a - b = - (Ans. (A) )
a-b b-a a-b a-b a-b
2 2 2
16. The square root of 49 (x - 2xy + y ) is
2 2
(A) 7 x - y (B) 7^ x + yh^ x - yh (C) 7 (x + y) (D) 7 (x - y)

Solution: 49 (x2 - 2xy + y2) 2 = 72 (x - y) 4 = 7 (x - y) 2 ( Ans: (D))


2 2 2
17. The square root of x + y + z - 2xy + 2yz - 2zx
(A) x + y - z (B) x - y + z (C) x + y + z (D) x - y - z

Solution: x2 + y2 + z2 - 2xy + 2yz - 2zx


= x2 + (- y) 2 + (- z) 2 + 2 (x) (- 5) + 2 (- y) (- 2) + 2 (- 2) (x)
= (x - y - z) 2 = | x - y - z | ( Ans: (D))
4 8 6 2
18. The square root of 121 x y z (l - m) is
2 4 4 4 4
(A) 11x y z l - m (B) 11x y z (l - m)
3

2 4 6 2 4
(C) 11x y z l - m (D) 11x y z (l - m)
3

Solution: 121x4 y8 z6 (l - m) 2 = 112 x4 y8 z6 (l - m) 2 = 11x2 y4 z3 | l - m |


( Ans: (D))
Solution - Algebra 113
2
19. If ax + bx + c = 0 has equal roots, then c is equal
2 2 2 2
(A) b (B) b (C) - b (D) - b
2a 4a 2a 4a
Solution: Equation has equal roots & b - 4ac = 0
2
2
b2 = 4ac & c = b ( Ans: (B))
4a
2
20. If x + 5kx + 16 = 0 has no real roots, then
(A) k 2 8 (B) k 2 - 8
5 5
(C) - 8 1 k 1 8 (D) 0 1 k 1 8
5 5 5
Solution: x2 + 5kx + 16 = 0 . Here a = 1, b = 5k, c = 16 .
Equation has no real roots & b2 - 4ac < 0
2
(5k) 2 - 4 (1)(16) < 0 & 25 k2 < 64 & k2 < ` 8 j & - 8 < k < 8 . ( Ans: (C))
5 5 5
21. A quadratic equation whose one root is 3 , is
2 2
(A) x - 6x - 5 = 0 (B) x + 6x - 5 = 0
2 2
(C) x - 5x - 6 = 0 (D) x - 5x + 6 = 0
Solution: (A) and (B) cannot be factorised.
(C) x2 - 5x - 6 = (x - 6) (x + 1) (D) x2 - 5x + 6 = (x - 3) (x - 2) . ( Ans: (D))
2 2
22. The common root of the equations x - bx + c = 0 and x + bx - a = 0 is
(A) c + a (B) c - a (C) c + b (D) a + b
2b 2b 2a 2c
Solution: 2 2
a - ba + c = a + ba - a
Thus, a = c + a ( Ans: (A))
2 2b
23. If a, b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 a =
Y 0, then the wrong statement is
2
(A) a + b = b -22ac (B) ab = c
2 2
a a
b
(C) a + b = (D) 1 + 1 =- b
a a b c
Solution: a + b = - b ; ab = c ( Ans: (C))
a a
24. If a and b are the roots of ax + bx + c = 0 , then one of the quadratic
2

equations whose roots are 1 and 1 , is


a b
(A) ax2 + bx + c = 0 (B) bx2 + ax + c = 0
(C) cx2 + bx + a = 0 (D) cx2 + ax + b = 0
Solution: Replace x by 1 in ax2 + bx + c = 0 , to get cx2 + bx + a = 0 ( Ans: (C))
x 2
25. Let b = a + c . Then the equation ax + bx + c = 0 has equal roots, if
(A) a = c (B) a =- c (C) a = 2c (D) a =- 2c
Solution: b2 = 4ac & ^a + ch2 = 4ac & ^a - ch2 = 0 & a = c. ( Ans: (A))
114 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Matrices 4
Exercise 4.1
1. The rates for the entrance tickets at a water theme park are listed below:
Week Days Week End
rates (`) rates (`)
Adult 400 500
Children 200 250
Senior Citizen 300 400
Write down the matrices for the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and
senior citizens. Also find the dimensions of the matrices.
Solution: In Matrix form, the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and senior
citizens is given in the following two ways.
400 500
(i) A = f200 250 p. The dimension (order) of A is 3 # 2
300 400
400 200 300
(ii) B = c m . The dimension (order) of B is 2 # 3
500 250 400
2. There are 6 Higher Secondary Schools, 8 High Schools and 13 Primary Schools
in a town. Represent these data in the form of 3 # 1 and 1 # 3 matrices.
6
Solution: We can represent the given data in the form of 3 # 1 matrix as A = f 8 p
13
We can also represent the given data in the form of 1 # 3 matrix as B = ^6 8 13h
3. Find the order of the following matrices.
J 1 2 N
7 3 -2 6 K O
1 -1 5 -2 3
(i) e o (ii) f 8 p (iii) f 6 - 1 1 p (iv) ^3 4 5h (v) KK O
O
-2 3 4 9 7
9 2 4 5 K O
1 -1 5 L 6 4 P
Solution: (i) The matrix e o has 2 rows and 3 columns.
-2 3 4
Hence, the order of the matrix is 2 # 3.
7
(ii) The given matrix f8 p has 3 rows and 1 column.
9
Hence, the order of the matrix is 3 # 1.
3 -2 6
(iii) The given matrix f6 - 1 1 p has 3 rows and 3 columns.
2 4 5
Hence, the order of the matrix is 3 # 3.
Solution - Matrices 115
(iv) The given matrix ^3 4 5h has 1 row and 3 columns.
Hence, the order of the matrix is 1 # 3.
J 1 2N
K O
K- 2 3O
(v) Since the given matrix K has 4 rows and 2 columns, the order is 4 # 2.
9 7O
K O
L 6 4P
4. A matrix has 8 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?
Solution: The possible orders of the matrices having 8 elements are
1 # 8, 2 # 4, 4 # 2 and 8 # 1.
5. A matrix consists of 30 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?
Solution: The possible orders of the matrices having 30 elements are
1 # 30, 2 # 15, 3 # 10, 5 # 6, 6 # 5, 10 # 3, 15 # 2 and 30 # 1.
6. Construct a 2 # 2 matrix A = 6aij @ whose elements are given by
i-j
(i) aij = ij (ii) aij = 2i - j (iii) aij =
i+j
a a
Solution: In general a 2 # 2 matrix is given by A = e 11 12 o
a21 a22
(i) Now, ai j = ij , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
a11 = (1) (1) = 1, a12 = (1) (2) = 2, a21 = (2) (1) = 2, a22 = (2) (2) = 4
1 2
Hence, the required matrix A = c m
2 4
(ii) Now, ai j = 2i–j , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
a11 = 2 (1) - 1 = 1, a12 = 2 (1) - 2 = 0, a21 = 2 (2) - 1 = 3, a22 = 2 (2) - 2 = 2
1 0
Hence, the required matrix A = c m
3 2
i-j
(iii) Now, ai j = , where i = 1, 2 and j = 1, 2
i+j

a11 = 1 - 1 = 0 = 0, a12 = 1 - 2 =- 1 , a21 = 2 - 1 = 1 , a22 = 2 - 2 = 0


1+1 2 1+2 3 2+1 3 2+2
J -1 N
K0 3 OO
Hence, the required matrix A = K 1
K 0 O
L3 P
7. Construct a 3 # 2 matrix A = 6aij @ whose elements are given by
2
(i - 2j) 2i - 3j
(i) aij = i     (ii) aij = (iii) aij =
j 2 2
a11 a12
Solution: In general, a 3 × 2 matrix is given by A = fa21 a22 p
a31 a32
116 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
(i) Now, ai j = i , where i = 1, 2, 3 and j = 1, 2
j
a11 = = 1, a12 = 1 , a21 = 2 = 2, a22 = 2 = 1 , a31 = 3 = 3, a32 = 3
1
1 2 1 2 1 2
J 1N
K1 2 O
K O
Hence, the required matrix A = K 2 1 O
K O
K3 3 O
^i - 2jh2 L 2P
(ii) Now, aij = , where i = 1, 2, 3 and j = 1, 2
2
2
^1 - 2h ^1 - 4h2 ^2 - 2h2
a11 = = 1 , a12 = = 9 , a21 = = 0,
2 2 2 2 2

^2 - 4h2 ^3 - 2h2 ^3 - 4h2


a22 = = 4 = 2 , a31 = = 1 , a32 = =1
2 2 2 2 2 2
J1 9 N
K2 2O
K O
Hence, the required matrix A = K 0 2 O
K1 1 O
K O
2i - 3j L2 2 P
(iii) Now, aij = , where i = 1, 2, 3 and j = 1, 2
2

a11 = | 2 - 3 | = | - 1 | = 1 , a12 = | 2 - 6 | = | - 4 | = 2 , a21 = | 4 - 3 | = 1 ,


2 2 2 2 2 2 2

a22 = | 4 - 6 | = 2 = 1 , a31 = | 6 - 3 | = 3 , a32 = | 6 - 6 | = 0


2 2 2 2 2
J1 N
K 2 2O
K O
Hence, the required matrix A = K 1 1 O
K2 O
K 3 0O
L2 P
1 -1 3 2
8. If A = f 5 - 4 7 4 p, (i) find the order of the matrix (ii) write down the elements
6 0 9 8
a24 and a32 (iii) in which row and column does the element 7 occur?
1 -1 3 2
Solution: A = f5 - 4 7 4 p
6 0 9 8
(i) Since A has 3 rows and 4 columns, the order of A is 3 × 4
(ii) a24 = 4, which occurs in the second row and fourth column
a32 = 0, which occurs in the third row and second column.
(iii) The element 7 occurs in the second row and third column. i.e. a23 = 7 .
2 3
9. If A = f 4 1 p, then find the transpose of A.
5 0
Solution - Matrices 117
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Solution:
The transpose AT of a matrix A, is obtained by interchanging rows and columns of A.
2 4 5
Thus, AT = c m
3 1 0
1 2 3
T T
10. If A = f 2 4 - 5 p, then verify that (A ) = A .
3 -5 6
1 2 3
Solution: A = f2 4 - 5 p. ... (1)
3 -5 6
By interchanging rows and columns of the matrix A, we get
1 2 3
A T
= f2 4 - 5 p
3 -5 6
Again by interchanging rows and columns of the matrix AT , we get
1 2 3
(A )
T T
= f2 4 - 5 p ... (2)
3 -5 6
From (1) and (2), we have (AT)T = A

Exercise 4.2
1. Find the values of x, y and z from the matrix equation
5x + 2 y-4 12 -8
e o=c m
0 4z + 6 0 2
Solution: Since the matrices are equal, the corresponding elements are equal.
Equating the corresponding elements, we get
5x + 2 = 12 & 5x = 10 & x = 2
y - 4 =- 8 & y =- 4
4z + 6 = 2 & 4z =- 4 & z =- 1
Thus, x = 2, y =- 4, z =- 1
2x + y 5
2. Solve for x and y if e o=c m.
x - 3y 13
Solution: Since the matrices are equal, the corresponding elements are equal.
Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
2x + y = 5 & 2x + y - 5 = 0 and x - 3y = 13 & x - 3y - 13 = 0
Solving the equations by the method of cross multiplication, we get
x y 1 x = y = 1
= = &
13
- - 15 5
- + 26 6
- - 1 - 28 21 -7
Thus, x = - 28 = 4, y = 21 =- 3 .
-7 -7
118 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2 3 1 5
3. If A = e o-e o , then find the additive inverse of A.
-9 5 7 -1
2 3 1 5 2 3 -1 -5
Solution: A = e o-e o=e o+e o
-9 5 7 -1 -9 5 -7 1
2-1 3-5 1 -2
= e o = e o
-9 - 7 5 + 1 - 16 6
The additive inverse of A is –A. Hence, the additive inverse is
1 -2 -1 2
- A = - e o=e o
- 16 6 16 - 6
3 2 8 -1
4. Let A = c m and B = c m . Find the matrix C if C = 2A + B .
5 1 4 3
3 2 8 -1
Solution: Given that A = c m and B = c m.
5 1 4 3
Now,   C = 2A + B
3 2 8 -1 6 4 8 -1
= 2 c m+c m=c m+c m
5 1 4 3 10 2 4 3
6+8 4-1 14 3
= e o = c m
10 + 4 2 + 3 14 5
4 -2 8 2
5. If A = e o and B = e o , find 6A - 3B .
5 -9 -1 -3
4 -2 8 2
Solution: Given that A = e o and B = e o
5 -9 -1 -3
4 -2 8 2
Now, 6A - 3B = 6 e o - 3e o
5 -9 -1 -3
24 - 12 - 24 - 6 24 - 24 - 12 - 6 0 - 18
= e o+c m=e o=e o
30 - 54 3 9 30 + 3 - 54 + 9 33 - 45
2 -1 10
6. Find a and b if a c m+ b c m=c m.
3 1 5
2 -1 10
Solution: Given that a c m + b c m = c m
3 1 5
2a -b 10 2a - b 10
& c m+c m = c m & e o=c m
3a b 5 3a + b 5
Comparing the corresponding elements, we have
2a – b = 10 g (1)
3a + b = 5 g (2)
Adding (1) and (2), we get 5a = 15 & a = 3.
Substituting a = 3 in (2), we get 9 + b = 5 & b = – 4
Thus,   a = 3, b =- 4 .
Solution - Matrices 119
2 3 2 -2
7. Find X and Y if 2X + 3Y = c m and 3X + 2Y = e o.
4 0 -1 5
2 3
Solution: 2X + 3Y = c m ... (1)
4 0
2 -2
3X + 2Y = e o ... (2)
-1 5
We first eliminate Y. Now,
2 3 4 6
^1 h # 2 & 4X + 6Y = 2 c m=c m ... (3)
4 0 8 0
2 -2 6 -6
^2h # 3 & 9X + 6Y = 3 e o=e o ... (4)
-1 5 - 3 15
Subtracting (3) from (4), we get
6 -6 4 6
5X = e o-c m
- 3 15 8 0
6 -6 4 6 6 -6 -4 -6
= e o-c m=e o+e o
- 3 15 8 0 - 3 15 -8 0
J 2 12 N
2 - 12 K 5 - 5 O
5X = e o & X = K 11 O
- 11 15 K- 3O
L 5 P
Substituting X in (1), we get
2 - 12 -4 24
2 3 2 3 5 5 2 3 5
3Y = c
4 0
m - 2X = c
4 0
m - 2 f 11
3
p = c4 0 m + f 22 56 p
-5 5 -
2 - 4 3 + 24 6 39
= f 5 5 = f 42 5 p
5
4+ 22 0-6
p 6
5 5 -
J 6 39 N J 2 13 N
K 5 5 O = KK 5 5 OO
O
Thus, Y = 1 K 42
3K –6 O K 14 –2 O
L5 P L5 P
2
2x -9
8. Solve for x and y if e x2 o + 3 e o=c m.
y -y 4
x2 2x -9
Solution: Given that e 2 o + 3 e o = c m
y –y 4
x2 6x –9 x2 + 6x -9
    & e 2o + e o=c m & e 2 o=c m
y - 3y 4 y - 3y 4
Equating the corresponding elements, we get
x2 + 6x = –9 y2 - 3y = 4
& x2 + 6x + 9 = 0 & y2 - 3y - 4 = 0

120 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


& ^ x + 3h2 = 0 & ^ y + 1h^ y–4h = 0
& x =- 3, - 3 & y = –1, 4
3 2 1 -2 0 0
9. If A = c m, B = c m and O = c m , then verify: (i) A + B = B + A
5 1 2 3 0 0
(ii) A + (- A) = O = (- A) + A .
3 2 1 -2 0 0
Solution: Given that A = c m, B = c m and O = c m
5 1 2 3 0 0
3 2 1 -2 3+1 2-2 4 0
(i) A + B = c m+c m=e o=c m g (1)
5 1 2 3 5+2 1+3 7 4
1 -2 3 2 1 + 3 -2 + 2 4 0
B + A = c m+c m=e o=c m g (2)
2 3 5 1 2+5 3+1 7 4
From (1) and (2), we have A + B = B + A
3 2 -3 -2 3-3 2-2 0 0
(ii) A + (–A) = c m+e o=e o=c m = O g (3)
5 1 -5 -1 5-5 1-1 0 0
-3 -2 3 2 -3 + 3 -2 + 2 0 0
(–A) + A = e o+c m=e o= c m = O g (4)
-5 -1 5 1 -5 + 5 -1 + 1 0 0

From (3) and (4), we have A+(–A) = (–A) + A = O


4 1 2 2 0 4 1 2 -3
10. If A = f 1 - 2 3 p, B = f 6 2 8 p and C = f 5 0 2 p,
0 3 2 2 4 6 1 -1 1
then verify that A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C .
Solution: We have

2 0 4 1 2 -3 2+1 0+2 4-3 3 2 1


B + C = f6 2 8 p + f5 0 2 p = f6 + 5 2 + 0 8 + 2 p = f11 2 10 p
2 4 6 1 -1 1 2+1 4-1 6+1 3 3 7
4 1 2 3 2 1
Thus, A + (B + C) = f1 - 2 3 p + f11 2 10 p
0 3 2 3 3 7
4 +3 1+2 2+ 1 7 3 3
= f1 + 11 - 2 + 2 3 + 10 p = f12 0 13 p g (1)
0+ 3 3+3 2+ 7 3 6 9
4 1 2 2 0 4 4+2 1+0 2+4 6 1 6
Now, A + B = f1 - 2 3 p + f6 2 8 p = f1 + 6 - 2 + 2 3 + 8 p = f7 0 11 p
0 3 2 2 4 6 0+2 3+4 2+6 2 7 8
6 1 6 1 2 -3
Thus, (A + B) + C = f7 0 11 p + f5 0 2 p
2 7 8 1 -1 1
Solution - Matrices 121
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6+1 1+2 6-3 7 3 3


= f7 + 5 0 + 0 11 + 2 p = f12 0 13 p g (2)
2+1 7-1 8+1 3 6 9
From (1) and (2), we have A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C .

11. An electronic company records each type of entertainment device sold at three
of their branch stores so that they can monitor their purchases of supplies. The
sales in two weeks are shown in the following spreadsheets.
T.V. DVD Video games CD Players
Store I 30 15 12 10
Week I Store II 40 20 15 15
Store III 25 18 10 12
Store I 25 12 8 6
Week II Store II 32 10 10 12
Store III 22 15 8 10
Find the sum of the items sold out in two weeks using matrix addition.
Solution: The number of items sold by three stores during week I in matrix form is
TV DVD Video CD
30 15 12 10 Store I
A = f40 20 15 15 p Store II
25 18 10 12 Store III
Similarly, the number of items sold by three stores during week II in matrix form is
TV DVD Video CD
25 12 8 6 Store I
B = f32 10 10 12 p Store II
22 15 8 10 Store III
Thus, the matrix representation of the sum of the items sold by three stores
during week I and II is
30 15 12 10 25 12 8 6
A + B = f40 20 15 15 p + f32 10 10 12 p
25 18 10 12 22 15 8 10
30 + 25 15 + 12 12 + 8 10 + 6
= f40 + 32 20 + 10 15 + 10 15 + 12 p
25 + 22 18 + 15 10 + 8 12 + 10
TV DVD Video CD
55 27 20 16 Store I
= f72 30 25 27 p Store II
47 33 18 22 Store III

122 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


12. The fees structure for one-day admission to a swimming pool is as follows:
Daily Admission Fees in `
Member Children Adult
Before 2.00 p.m. 20 30
After 2.00 p.m. 30 40
Non-Member
Before 2.00 p.m. 25 35
After 2.00 p.m. 40 50

Write the matrix that represents the additional cost for non-membership.
Solution: Let the matrix A represents the fee structure for membership for one-day
admission to a swimming pool. Then,
    Children Adult
20 30 Before 2pm
A = c m
30 40 After 2pm
Let the matrix B represents the fee structure for non-membership for one-day
admission to a swimming pool. Then,
  Children Adult
25 35 Before 2pm
B = c m
40 50 After 2pm
Hence, the matrix that represents the additional cost for non-membership is given by
25 35 20 30 25 - 20 35 - 30
B – A = c m–c m=e o
40 50 30 40 40 - 30 50 - 40
    Children Adult
5 5 Before 2pm
= c m
10 10 After 2pm

Exercise 4.3
1. Determine whether the product of the matrices is defined in each case. If so, state
the order of the product.
(i) AB, where A = 6aij @ , B = 8 bij B (ii) PQ, where P = 6 pij @ , Q = 6 qij @
4x3 3x2 4x3 4x3

(iii) MN, where M = 6 mij @ , N = 6 nij @ (iv) RS, where R = 6 rij @ , S = 6 sij @
3x1 1x5 2x2 2x2

Solution: (i) Now, the number of columns in A and the number of rows in B are equal
So, the product AB is defined and the order of AB is 4 × 2.
(ii) Now, the number of columns in P and the number of rows in Q are not equal.
So, the product PQ is not defined.
(iii) Now, the number of columns in M and the number of rows in N are equal.
So, the product MN is defined and the order of MN is 3×5.
(iv) Now, the number of columns in R and the number of rows in S are equal.
So, the product RS is defined and the order of RS is 2 × 2.
Solution - Matrices 123
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2. Find the product of the matrices, if exists,
5 3 -2 4 1
(i) ^ 2 - 1h c m (ii) c m c m
4 5 1 2 7
4 2
2 9 -3 6
(iii) e o f- 6 7 p (iv) e o^ 2 - 7 h
4 -1 0 -3
-2 1
5
Solution: (i) Let A = (2 –1) and B = c m .
4
The order of A is 1 × 2 and the order of B is 2 × 1.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
5
Hence, the product AB is defined and AB = (2 –1) c m = ( (2)(5) + (–1)4 ) = ( 6 ).
4
3 -2 4 1
(ii) Let A = c m and B = c m.
5 1 2 7
The order of A is 2 × 2 and the order of B is 2 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
3 -2 4 1
Hence, the product AB is defined and AB = c mc m
5 1 2 7
(3) (4) + (- 2) (2) (3) (1) + (- 2)(7) 12 - 4 3 - 14 8 - 11
= e o =e o=c m
(5) (4) + (1)(2) (5) (1) + (1)(7) 20 + 2 5 + 7 22 12
4 2
2 9 -3
(iii) Let A = e o and B = f- 6 7 p.
4 -1 0
-2 1
The order of A is 2 × 3 and the order B is 3 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
Thus, the product AB is defined and
4 2
2 9 -3 8 - 54 + 6 4 + 63 - 3 - 40 64
AB = e o f- 6 7 p = e o=c m
4 -1 0 16 + 6 - 0 8 - 7 + 0 22 1
-2 1
6
(iv) Let A = e o and B = (2 – 7).
-3
The order of A is 2 × 1 and the order of B is 1 × 2.
The number of columns of A is equal to the number of rows of B.
Thus, the product AB is defined and
AB = c 6 m^2 - 7h = e 6 # 2 6 # ^- 7h 12 - 42
o=c m
-3 ^- 3h # 2 ^- 3h # ^- 7h -6 21
3. A fruit vendor sells fruits from his shop. Selling prices of Apple, Mango and
Orange are ` 20, ` 10 and ` 5 each respectively. The sales in three days are given
below
Day Apples Mangoes Oranges
1 50 60 30
2 40 70 20
3 60 40 10
Write the matrix indicating the total amount collected on each day and hence
find the total amount collected from selling of all three fruits combined.
124 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Solution: Let A be the matrix that represents the selling prices of Apple, Mango and
Orange in `.
Prices
20 Apple
Then, A = f10 p Mango
5 Orange
Let B be the matrix that represents the sales in three days.
  Apple Mango Orange
50 60 30 Day 1
Thus, B = f40 70 20 p Day 2
60 40 10 Day 3
Thus, the total amount collected on each day is given by the matrix T = BA.
50 60 30 20
Now, T = BA &   T = f40 70 20 pf10 p
60 40 10 5
1000 + 600 + 150 1750 Day 1
= f 800 + 700 + 100 p= f1600 p Day 2
1200 + 400 + 50 1650 Day 3
Hence, the total amount collected = ` (1750+1600+1650) = ` 5000
Aliter: The total sales of three fruits can be represented by the matrix
C = ( 50+40+60 60+70+40 30+20+10 )
= ( 150 170 60 )
Thus, the total amount collected from selling of all fruits is given by
T = CA
20
= (150 170 60) f10 p = (3000 + 1700 + 300) = (5000)
5
1 2 x 0 x 0
4. Find the values of x and y if c mc m=c m.
3 3 0 y 9 0
1 2 x 0 x 0 x + 0 0 + 2y x 0 x 2y x 0
Solution: c mc m=c m &e o=c m &c m=c m
3 3 0 y 9 0 3x + 0 0 + 3y 9 0 3x 3y 9 0
Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
3x = 9 & x = 3 and    2y = 0 & y = 0 .

5 3 x -5
5. If A = c m, X =c m and C = e o and if AX = C , then find the values of
7 5 y - 11
x and y.
5 3 x -5
Solution: Given A = c m , X = c m and C = e o
7 5 y - 11
5 3 x -5 5x + 3y -5
Now, AX = C & c mc m = e o & e o=e o
7 5 y - 11 7x + 5y - 11

Solution - Matrices 125


Comparing the corresponding elements, we get
5x + 3y = – 5 & 5x + 3y + 5 = 0
7x + 5y = –11 & 7x + 5y + 11 =0
olving the equations by the method of cross multiplication, we get
S
x y 1
3 5 5 3

5 11 7 5
y
&    x = = 1
33 - 25 35 - 55 25 - 21
y
&     x = = 1 & x = 8 = 2, y = - 20 =- 5
8 - 20 4 4 4
1 -1 2
6. If A = c m then show that A - 4A + 5I2 = O .
2 3
Solution: Now,   A2 = A.A

1 -1 1 -1 1-2 -1-3 -1 -4
= c mc m=e o=c m
2 3 2 3 2+6 -2+9 8 7
-1 -4 1 -1 1 0
A2 – 4A + 5I2 = c m –4 c m + 5c m
8 7 2 3 0 1
-1 -4 -4 4 5 0
= c m+e o+c m
8 7 - 8 - 12 0 5
-1 - 4 + 5 -4+4+0 0 0
= e o=c m=O
8-8+0 7 - 12 + 5 0 0

3 2 3 0
7. If A = c m and B = c m then find AB and BA. Are they equal?
4 0 3 2
Solution: A and B are square matrices of same order 2 × 2.
Hence, the products AB and BA are defined.
3 2 3 0 9+6 0+4 15 4
Now, AB = c mc m=e o=c m g (1)
4 0 3 2 12 + 0 0+0 12 0
3 0 3 2 9+0 6+0 9 6
BA = c mc m=e o=c m g (2)
3 2 4 0 9+8 6+0 17 6
rom (1) and (2), we have AB ! BA.
F
0
-1 2 1
8. If A = c m, B = f p and C = ^2 1h , then verify (AB) C = A (BC) .
1
1 2 3
2
Solution: A is of order 2 × 3 , B is of order 3 × 1 and C is of order 1 × 2.
Hence, AB is of order 2 × 1 and BC is of order 3 × 2.

126 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


0
-1 2 1 0+2+2 4
Now, AB = c m f1 p = e o=c m
1 2 3 0+2+6 8
2
4 8 4
Thus, (AB)C = c m (2 1) = c m g (1)
8 16 8
0 0 0
Now, BC = f1 p (2 1) = f2 1 p
2 4 2
0 0
-1 2 1 0+4+4 0+2+2
Thus, A(BC) = c m f2 1 p = e o
1 2 3 0 + 4 + 12 0+2+6
4 2
8 4
= c m g (2)
16 8
From (1) and (2), we have (AB) C = A (BC) .
Hence, matrix multiplication is associative.

5 2 2 -1 T T T
9. If A = c m and B = e o verify that (AB) = B A .
7 3 -1 1
5 2 2 -1
Solution: A = c m, B = e o
7 3 -1 1
A and B are square matrices of same order 2 × 2.
Hence, the product AB is defined.
5 2 2 -1 10 - 2 -5+2 8 -3
Now, AB = c me o=e o=e o
7 3 -1 1 14 - 3 -7+3 11 - 4
8 11
Thus, (AB)T = e o g (1)
-3 -4
2 -1 5 7
Now, BT = e o   ;  AT = c m
-1 1 2 3
2 -1 5 7 10 - 2 14 - 3
Thus, BT AT = e oc m=e o
- 1 1 2 3 -5 + 2 -7+3
8 11
= e o g (2)
-3 -4

From (1) and (2), we have (AB) T = BT AT .


5 2 3 -2
10. Prove that A = c m and B = e o are inverses to each other under
7 3 -7 5
matrix multiplication.
5 2 3 -2
Solution:    Given A = c m and B = e o
7 3 -7 5

Solution - Matrices 127


A and B are square matrices of same order 2 × 2.
Hence, the products AB and BA are defined.
5 2 3 -2 15 - 14 - 10 + 10 1 0
AB = c me o=e o=c m=I ...(1)
7 3 -7 5 21 - 21 - 14 + 15 0 1

BA = c 3 - 2 mc5 2 m = c 15 - 14 6-6
m=c
1 0
m = I ...(2)
-7 5 7 3 - 35 + 35 - 14 + 15 0 1
From (1) and (2), we have AB = BA = I .
Thus, the given matrices are inverses to each other under matrix multiplication.
1 0 x
11. Solve: ^ x 1h e o c m = ^ 0h .
-2 -3 5
1 0 x x+0
Solution: ^ x 1h e o c m = (0) & (x 1) e o = (0)
-2 -3 5 - 2x - 15
x
& (x 1) e o = (0) & ((x)(x) + (1) (–2x–15)) = (0)
- 2x - 15
& (x2 – 2x – 15) = ( 0 )
Thus, x2 - 2x - 15 = 0 & (x + 3) (x - 5) = 0 & x =- 3, 5 .
1 -4 -1 6 2 2 2
12. If A = e o and B = e o , then prove that (A + B) ! A + 2AB + B .
- 2 3 3 - 2
1 -4 -1 6
Solution:  Now, A + B = e o+e o
-2 3 3 -2

1-1 -4+6 0 2
= e o=c m
-2 + 3 3-2 1 1

Thus, (A + B)2 = (A+B) (A+B)


0 2 0 2 0+2 0+2 2 2
= c mc m=e o=c m g (1)
1 1 1 1 0+1 2+1 1 3
1 -4 1 -4
Now, A2 = AA = e oe o
-2 3 -2 3
1+8 - 4 - 12 9 - 16
= e o=e o
-2 - 6 8+9 - 8 17
1 -4 -1 6
Now, AB = e oe o
-2 3 3 -2
- 1 - 12 6+8 - 13 14
= e o=e o
2+ 9 - 12 - 6 11 - 18
- 13 14 - 26 28
2AB = 2 e o=e o
11 - 18 22 - 36
-1 6 -1 6
Now, B2 = BB = e oe o
3 -2 3 -2

128 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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1 + 18 - 6 - 12 19 - 18
= e o=e o
-3 - 6 18 + 4 - 9 22
9 - 16 - 26 28 19 - 18
Now, A2 + 2AB + B2 = e o+e o+e o
- 8 17 22 - 36 - 9 22
9 - 26 + 19 - 16 + 28 - 18 2 -6
= e o= c m ... (2)
- 8 + 22 - 9 17 - 36 + 22 5 3
From (1) and (2) , we get (A + B) 2 ] A2 + 2AB + B2

3 3 8 7 2 -3
13. If A = c m, B = c m and C = c m , find (A + B) C and AC + BC .
7 6 0 9 4 6
Is (A + B) C = AC + BC ?
3+8 3+7 11 10
Solution: A+B = e o=c m
7+0 6+9 7 15
11 10 2 - 3 22 + 40 - 33 + 60
(A + B) C = c mc m=e o
7 15 4 6 14 + 60 - 21 + 90
62 27
= c m g (1)
74 69
3 3 2 -3 6 + 12 - 9 + 18 18 9
AC = c mc m=e o=c m
7 6 4 6 14 + 24 - 21 + 36 38 15
8 7 2 -3 16 + 28 - 24 + 42 44 18
BC = c mc m=e o=c m
0 9 4 6 0 + 36 0 + 54 36 54
18 9 44 18 62 27
AC + BC = c m+c m=c m g (2)
38 15 36 54 74 69

From (1) and (2) , we have (A + B) C = AC + BC .

Exercise 4.4
Choose the correct answer.
1. Which one of the following statements is not true?
(A) A scalar matrix is a square matrix (B) A diagonal matrix is a square matrix
(C) A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix (D) A diagonal matrix is a scalar matrix.
Solution: A scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix.
But a diagonal matrix need not be a scalar matrix. ( Ans. (D) )
2. Matrix A = 6 aij @ is a square matrix if
m#n
(A) m 1 n (B) m 2 n (C) m = 1 (D) m = n
Solution: In a square matrix, number of rows and number of columns are equal.
Thus, A = 6 aij @ is a square matrix if m = n. ( Ans. (D) )
m#n

Solution - Matrices 129


3x + 7 5 1 y-2
3. If e o=e o then the values of x and y are respectively
y+1 2 - 3x 8 8
(A) –2 , 7 (B) - 1 , 7 (C) - 1 , - 2 (D) 2 , –7
3 3 3
Solution: Since the matrices are equal, the corresponding elements are equal.
Thus,3x + 7 = 1 & x =- 2 ; y + 1 = 8 & y = 7 ( Ans. (A) )
- 1
4. If A = ^ 1 - 2 3 h and B = f 2 p then A + B
-3
0
(A) ^0 0 0h (B) f 0 p (C) ^ - 14 h (D) not defined
0
Solution: Addition is not defined for matrices of different orders.
Since A is of order 1 × 3 and B is of order 3 × 1, A + B is not defined. ( Ans. (D) )
5. If a matrix is of order 2 # 3, then the number of elements in the matrix is
(A) 5 (B) 6 (C) 2 (D) 3
Solution: A matrix of order m×n has mn elements. ( Ans. (B) )
8 4 2 1
6. If c m = 4c m then the value of x is
x 8 1 2
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 4
4
8 4 8 4
Solution: c m =c m.
x 8 4 2
Equating the corresponding elements, we get x = 4 ( Ans. (D) )
7. If A is of order 3 # 4 and B is of order 4 # 3 , then the order of BA is
(A) 3 # 3 (B) 4 # 4 (C) 4 # 3 (D) not defined
Solution:
Order of B is 4 # 3 . Order of A is 3 # 4 . Thus, the order of BA is 4 # 4 . ( Ans. (B) )
1 1
8. If A # c m = ^ 1 2 h , then the order of A is
0 2
(A) 2 # 1 (B) 2 # 2 (C) 1 # 2 (D) 3 # 2
1 1
Solution: Am # n c m = (1 2) 1 # 2
0 2 2#2
& n = 2 and m = 1. Thus, A is of order 1 # 2 . ( Ans. (C) )
9. If A and B are square matrices such that AB = I and BA = I , then B is
(A) Unit matrix (B) Null matrix
(C) Multiplicative inverse matrix of A (D) - A
Solution: By definition, if AB = BA = I, then B is the multiplicative inverse of A.
( Ans. (C) )

130 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


1 2 x 2
10. If c m c m = c m , then the values of x and y respectively, are
2 1 y 4
(A) 2 , 0 (B) 0 , 2 (C) 0 , - 2 (D) 1 , 1
1 2 x 2 x + 2y 2
Solution: c m c m = c m & e o=c m
2 1 y 4 2x + y 4
Thus, x + 2y = 2 g (1) ; 2x + y = 4 g (2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get x = 2 ; y = 0. ( Ans. (A) )
Note: By direct substitution, we see that x = 2 , y = 0 satisfy both the equations.
1 -2
11. If A = e o and A + B = O , then B is
-3 4
1 -2 -1 2 -1 -2 1 0
(A) e o (B) e o (C) e o (D) c m
-3 4 3 -4 -3 -4 0 1

1 -2 -1 2
Solution: B =- A =- e o=e o . ( Ans. (B) )
-3 4 3 -4

4 -2
12. If A = e o , then A2 is
6 -3

16 4 8 -4 -4 2 4 -2
(A) c m (B) e o (C) e o (D) e o
36 9 12 - 6 -6 3 6 -3

4 -2 4 -2 16 - 12 - 8 + 6 4 -2
Solution: A2 = AA = e
oe o=e o=e o
6 -3 6 -3 24 - 18 - 12 + 9 6 -3
( Ans. (D) )
13. A is of order m # n and B is of order p # q , addition of A and B is possible only if
(A) m = p (B) n = q (C) n = p (D) m = p, n = q

Solution: Addition is defined only for matrices of same order.


Thus, m = p and n = q. ( Ans. (D) )
a 3 2 5
14. If c m e o = c m, then the value of a is
1 2 -1 0
(A) 8 (B) 4 (C) 2 (D) 11
a 3 2 5 2a - 3 5
Solution: c me o=c m & c m=c m
1 2 -1 0 0 0
& 2a - 3 = 5 & a = 4 ( Ans. (B) )
a b
15. If A = e o is such that A2 = I , then
c -a
2 2
(A) 1 + a + bc = 0 (B) 1 - a + bc = 0
2 2
(C) 1 - a - bc = 0 (D) 1 + a - bc = 0
Solution - Matrices 131
a2 + bc 0 1 0
Solution: A2 = I & e 2 2 o = c m
0 bc + a 0 1
& a2 + bc2 = 1 & 1 - a2 - bc = 0 ( Ans. (C) )

16. If A = 6 aij @ and aij = i + j, then A =


2#2

1 2 2 3 2 3 4 5
(A) c m (B) c m (C) c m (D) c m
3 4 3 4 4 5 6 7
a11 a12 2 3
Solution: A = c m=c m ( Ans. (B) )
a21 a22 3 4

-1 0 a b 1 0
17. c mc m=e o , then the values of a, b, c and d respectively are
0 1 c d 0 -1
(A) - 1, 0, 0, - 1 (B) 1, 0, 0, 1 (C) - 1, 0, 1, 0 (D) 1, 0, 0, 0

-a - b 1 0
Solution: c m=e o . Equating the corresponding elements, we get
c d 0 -1
a =- 1, b = 0, c = 0 and d =- 1 . ( Ans. (A) )

7 2 -1 0
18. If A = c m and A + B = e o , then the matrix B =
1 3 2 -4

1 0 6 2 -8 - 2 8 2
(A) c m (B) e o (C) e o (D) e o
0 1 3 -1 1 -7 -1 7

-1 0 7 2 -8 - 2
Solution: B = e o-c m=e 1 o . ( Ans. (C) )
2 -4 1 3 -7

2
19. If ^ 5 x 1 h f - 1 p = ^ 20 h , then the value of x is
3
(A) 7 (B) - 7 (C) 1 (D) 0
7
2
Solution: ^ 5 x 1 h f - 1 p = ^ 20 h
3
(10 - x + 3) = (20) & 13 - x = 20 & x =- 7 ( Ans. (B) )
20. Which one of the following is true for any two square matrices A and B of same
order?
T T T T T T T
(A) (AB) = A B (B) (A B) = A B
T T T
(C) (AB) T = BA (D) (AB) = B A
T T T
Solution: By Reversal law for transpose of matrices, (AB) = B A . ( Ans. (D) )

132 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Co-ordinate Geometry 5
Exercise 5.1
1. Find the midpoint of the line segment joining the points
(i) ^1, - 1h and ^- 5, 3h (ii) ^0, 0h and ^0, 4h .
Solution: (i) Let (x1, y1) = (1, - 1), (x2, y2) = (- 5, 3) .
y + y2
Midpoint is ` x1 + x2 , 1 j = ` 1 - 5 , - 1 + 3 j = ` - 4 , 2 j = (- 2,1)
2 2 2 2 2 2
Thus, the midpoint of line segment joining the points is (- 2,1) .
(ii) Let (x1, y1) = (0, 0), (x2, y2) = (0, 4)

Midpoint is ` 0 + 0 , 0 + 4 j = (0, 2)
2 2
Thus the midpoint of line segment joining the points is (0, 2) .
2. Find the centroid of the triangle whose vertices are
(i) ^1, 3h,^2, 7h and ^12 , - 16h (ii) ^3, - 5h,^- 7, 4h and ^10, - 2h
Solution: (i) Let (x1, y1) = (1, 3), (x2, y2) = (2, 7) and (x3, y3) = (12, - 16)
y + y2 + y3
Centroid is ` x1 + x2 + x3 , 1 j = ` 1 + 2 + 12 , 3 + 7 - 16 j = (5, - 2) .
3 3 3 3
(ii) Let (x1, y1) = (3, - 5), (x2, y2) = (- 7, 4) and (x3, y3) = (10, - 2)

Centroid is ` 3 - 7 + 10 , - 5 + 4 - 2 j = 8 6 , - 3 B = (2, - 1) .
3 3 3 3
3. The centre of a circle is at (- 6, 4). If one end of a diameter of the circle is at the
origin, then find the other end.
Solution: Let (x, y) be the other end of the diameter.
Centre of the circle is the midpoint of the diameter.
0+y
Thus, c 0 + x , m = (- 6, 4) . Equating x and y co-ordinates, we get
2 2
0 + x =- 6 & x =- 12 and 0 + y = 4 & y = 8.
2 2
Thus, the other end of the diameter is (- 12, 8)

4. If the centroid of a triangle is at (1, 3) and two of its vertices are (- 7, 6) and (8, 5),
then find the third vertex of the triangle.
Solution: Let the third vertex be (x, y) .
Given that Centroid of the triangle is (1, 3)
6+5+y 11 + y
Thus, c - 7 + 8 + x , m = (1, 3) & c1 + x , m = (1, 3)
3 3 3 3
Equating x and y-coordinates, we get
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 133
www.tnschools.co.in

1 + x = 1 & x = 2 and 11 + y
= 3 & y =- 2.
3 3
Thus, the third vertex of the triangle is (2, - 2) .
5. Using the section formula, show that the points A(1,0), B(5,3), C(2,7) and
D(- 2, 4) are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order.
Solution: We know that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.

Now the midpoint of AC is ` 1 + 2 , 0 + 7 j = ` 3 , 7 j .


2 2 2 2
Also the midpoint of BD is ` 5 - 2 , 3 + 4 j = ` 3 , 7 j .
2 2 2 2
Thus the midpoints of AC and BD coincide.
Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
6. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining (3, 4) and
(–6, 2) in the ratio 3 : 2 externally.
Solution: Let A (3, 4) and B (- 6, 2) be the given points.
Let P (x, y) divide AB externally in the ratio 3 : 2.
3 (- 6) - 2 (3) 3 (2) - 2 (4)
Thus, P (x, y) = P c , m = P (- 24, - 2).
3-2 3-2
7. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the line segment joining (- 3, 5)
and (4, - 9) in the ratio 1 : 6 internally.
Solution: Let A (- 3, 5) and B (4, - 9) be the given points.
Let the point P(x, y) divide AB internally in the ratio 1 : 6.
ly my
Thus, the point P(x, y) = P c lx2 + mx1 , 2 + 1 m .
l+m l+m
1 (4) + 6 (- 3) 1 (- 9) + 6 (5)
Hence, P (x, y) = P c , m = P (- 2, 3) .
1+6 1+6
8. Let A (- 6,- 5) and B (- 6, 4) be two points such that a point P on the line AB
satisfies AP = 2 AB. Find the point P.
9
Solution: Let P(x, y) be the point on AB such that AP = 2 AB .
9
Now, AP = 2 AB & 9AP = 2AB = 2 (AP + PB)
9
& 7AP = 2PB . Thus, AP = 2 . ` AP : PB = 2 : 7.
PB 7
Hence, P divides AB internally in the ration 2 : 7.
By section formula, we have
2 (- 6) + 7 (- 6) 2 (4) + 7 (- 5)
P (x, y) = c , m = ` - 12 - 42 , 8 - 35 j = (- 6, - 3)
2+7 2+7 9 9
Thus, the point P(x, y) = P(–6, –3).

134 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


9. Find the points of trisection of the line segment joining the points A (2,- 2) and
B (- 7, 4) .
Solution: Let P and Q be the points of trisection of AB such that AP = PQ = QB
Then the point P divides AB internally in the ratio 1:2 and Q divides AB internally in
the ratio 2 : 1. Thus, by section formula, we have
1 ( 7) 2 (2) 1 (4) + 2 (- 2)
P = c - + , m = ` - 7 + 4 , 4 - 4 j = (- 1, 0).
1+2 1+2 3 3
Thus, the point P is (–1, 0).
Again by section formula,
2 (- 7) + 1 (2) 2 (4) + 1 (- 2)
Q=c , m = (- 4, 2) .
2+1 2+1
Thus, the point Q is (–4, 2).
Note: Clearly, the point Q is the midpoint of PB.
Hence, the point Q = ` - 1 - 7 , 0 + 4 j = (- 4, 2).
2 2
Similarly, we can find P, the midpoint of AQ.
10. Find the points which divide the line segment joining A(- 4 ,0) and B (0,6) into
four equal parts.
Solution: Let P, Q, R be the points which divide AB into four equal parts.
Now, the point Q is the midpoint of AB.

Thus, Q = ` - 4 + 0 , 0 + 6 j = (- 2, 3) .
2 2
Now, P is the midpoint of AQ.

Thus, P = ` - 4 - 2 , 0 + 3 j = ` - 6 , 3 j = `- 3, 3 j .
2 2 2 2 2
Since R is the midpoint of QB, R is ` - 2 + 0 , 3 + 6 j = `- 1, 9 j .
2 2 2
Hence, the required points are P(- 3, 3 ), Q (- 2, 3), R (- 1, 9 ) .
2 2
Note: The point P divides AB internally in the ratio 1:3 and the point R divides AB
internally in the ratio 3 : 1. Using section formula, one can find the points P and R.
11. Find the ratio in which the x-axis divides the line segment joining the points (6, 4) and
(1, - 7) .
Solution: Let A (6, 4) and B (1, - 7) be the given points.
Let P(x, 0) divide AB internally in the ratio l : m
l (1) + m (6) l (- 7) + m (4)
Using section formula, we have P (x, 0) = P c , m
l+m l+m
Equating the y-coordinates, we get - 7l + 4m = 0 & - 7l =- 4m & l = 4 .
l+m m 7
Thus, the x-axis divides the line segment in the ratio 4 : 7 internally.
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 135
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12. In what ratio is the line joining the points (- 5, 1) and (2 , 3) divided by the y-axis?
Also, find the point of intersection.
Solution: Let A (- 5, 1) and B (2, 3) be the given points.
Let P(0, y) divide AB internally in the ratio l : m.
l (2) + m (- 5) l (3) + m (1)
By section formula, we have P (0, y) = P c , m ... (1)
l+m l+m
Equating the x-coordinates, we get 2l - 5m = 0 & 2l - 5m = 0 & l = 5 .
l+m m 2
Thus, the required ratio is l : m = 5 : 2.
5 (3) + 2 (1)
Also from (1), we have P (0, y) = P c0, m = P (0, 17 ) .
5+2 7
Hence, the required point of intersection is `0, 17 j .
7
13. Find the length of the medians of the triangle whose vertices are (1, - 1) , (0, 4) and
(- 5, 3).
Solution: Let A (1, - 1) , B (0, 4) and C (- 5, 3) be the vertices of the triangle.
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, CA and AB respectively.

Then, the midpoint of BC is D` 0 - 5 , 4 + 3 j = D ( - 5 , 7 ) .


2 2 2 2
Also, the midpoint of AC is E` 1 - 5 , - 1 + 3 j = E (- 2,1) .
2 2
The midpoint of AB is F` 1 + 0 , - 1 + 4 j = F` 1 , 3 j .
2 2 2 2

The length of the median AD = 5 2 + -1 - 7 2


`1 + 2 j ` 2j
2
7 + -9 = 2 49 + 81 = 130 = 130 .
= `2 j ` 2j 4 4 4 2
The length of the median BE = ^- 2 - 0h2 + ^1 - 4h2 = 4 + 9 = 13 .
2 3 -3 2
The length of the median CF = ` 12 + 5j + ` 2 j
2
= ` 11 j + ` - 3 j2 = 121 + 9 = 130 .
2 2 4 4 2
Thus, the lengths of medians of the TABC are 130 , 13 , 130 .
2 2

Exercise 5.2

1. Find the area of the triangle formed by the points


(i) (0, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 2) (ii) (5, 2), (3, -5) and (-5, -1)
(iii) (-4, -5), (4, 5) and (-1, -6).
Solution: (i) Let the vertices be A(0, 0), B(3, 0) and C(0, 2).

136 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Using the formula, area = 1 6^ x1 y2 + x2 y3 + x3 y1h - (x2 y1 + x3 y2 + x1 y3) @ ,
2
Thus, the area of TABC = 1 [(0 + 6 + 0) - (0 + 0 + 0)] = 3 sq.units.
2
(ii) Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take them in order.
Let the vertices be A(-5, -1), B(3, -5) and C(5, 2).
-5 3 5 -5
The area of TABC = 1 ) 3
2 -1 -5 2 -1
    = 1 [(25 + 6 - 5) - (- 3 - 25 - 10)] = 1 (26 + 38) = 32 .
2 2
Thus, the area of the triangle is 32 sq.units.

(iii) Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take them in order.

Let the vertices be A(– 4, –5), B(–1, –6) and C(4, 5).
-4 -1 4 -4
The area of TABC = 1 ) 3
2 -5 -6 5 -5
= 1 [(24 - 5 - 20) - (5 - 24 - 20)] = 1 (38) = 19 .
2 2
Thus, the area of the triangle is 19 sq.units.
2. Vertices of the triangles taken in order and their areas are given below. In each
of the following find the value of a.
Vertices Area (in sq. units)
(i) (0 , 0) , (4, a), (6, 4) 17
(ii) (a, a), (4, 5), (6,–1) 9
(iii) (a, –3), (3, a), (–1,5) 12
Solution: (i) Let the given vertices be A(0 , 0) , B(4, a), C(6, 4).
Given that the area of TABC is 17 sq.units.
0 4 6 0
Thus, 1 ' 1 = 17
2 0 a 4 0
& 1 (16 - 6a) = 17 & 16 - 6a = 34 & a =- 3.
2
Thus, the value of a is –3.
(ii) Let the vertices be A(a, a), B(4, 5) and C(6,–1).
Given that the area of TABC is 9 sq.units.
a 4 6 a
Thus, 1 ) 3=9
2 a 5 -1 a
& 1 [(5a - 4 + 6a) - (4a + 30 - a)] = 9 & 8a - 34 = 18 & a = 13 .
2 2
Thus, the value of a is 13 .
2
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 137
(iii) Let the vertices be A (a, –3), B (3, a), C (–1 , 5).
Given that the area of TABC is 12 sq.units.
a 3 -1 a
Thus, 1 ) 3 = 12
2 -3 a 5 - 3
& 1 [(a2 + 15 + 3) - (- 9 - a + 5a)] = 12
2
& a2 - 4a + 3 = 0 & (a - 3)(a - 1) = 0 & a = 3 and a = 1
Hence,the values of a are 1, 3.
3. Determine if the following set of points are collinear or not.
(i) (4, 3), (1, 2) and (–2, 1) (ii) (–2, –2), (–6, –2) and (–2, 2)
(iii) `- 3 , 3j ,(6, –2) and (–3, 4)
2
Solution: (i) Let A(4, 3), B(1, 2) and C(–2, 1) be the given points
4 1 -2 4
The area of TABC = 1 ' 1
2 3 2 1 3
= 1 (8 + 1 - 6) - (3 - 4 + 4) = 0
2
Hence, the given three points A,B,C are collinear.
(ii) Let the given points be A(-2, -2), B(-6, -2) and C(-2, 2).
The area of TABC
-2 -6 -2 -2
= 1) 3 = 1 [(4 - 12 + 4) - (12 + 4 - 4)]
2 -2 -2 2 -2 2

1 [(8 - 12) - 12] =- 8 ! 0


=
2
Hence, the given three points are not collinear.
(iii) Let the given points be A`- 3 , 3j , B(6, -2) and C(-3, 4).
2
The area of TABC
-3 6 -3 - 23
   = 1) 2 3 = 1 [(3 + 24 - 9) - (18 + 6 - 6)] = 0.
2 3 -2 4 3 2
Hence, the given three points are collinear.
4. In each of the following, find the value of k for which the given points are collinear.
(i) (k, - 1) , (2, 1) and (4, 5) (ii) ^2, - 5h, ^3, - 4 h and ^9, kh
(iii) ^k, kh, ^2, 3h and ^4, - 1h
Solution: (i) Let the given points be A(k, -1), B(2, 1) and C(4, 5).
If the three points are collinear, then the area of TABC is zero.
k 2 4 k
Thus, 1 ) 3=0
2 -1 1 5 -1
& [(k + 6) - (2 + 5k)] = 0 & k = 1 .

138 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


(ii) Let the given points be A^2, - 5h, B^3, - 4 h and C^9, kh .
The given points are collinear.
Thus, area of TABC = 0
2 3 9 2
& 1 ) 3=0
2 -5 -4 k -5
& [(- 8 + 3k - 45) - (- 15 - 36 + 2k)] = 0 & k = 2.
Thus, the value of k is 2.
(iii) Let the given points be A^k, kh, B^2, 3h and C^4, - 1h .
Given that the three points are collinear.
Thus, area of TABC = 0
1) k 2 4 k
& 3=0
2 k 3 -1 k
& (3k - 2 + 4k) - (2k + 12 - k) = 0 & 6k - 14 = 0 & k= 7.
3
Thus the value of k is 7 .
3
5. Find the area of the quadrilateral whose vertices are
(i) ^6, 9h, ^7, 4h, ^4, 2h and ^3, 7h (ii) ^- 3, 4h, ^- 5, - 6h, ^4, - 1h and ^1, 2h
(iii) ^- 4, 5h, ^0, 7h, ^5, - 5h and ^- 4, - 2h
Solution: (i) Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take
the vertices in counter clockwise direction.
Let the given points be A^4, 2h, B^7, 4h, C^6, 9h and D^3, 7h .
Area of the quadrilateral ABCD
4 7 6 3 4
= 1 ' 1
2 2 4 9 7 2
= 1 [(16 + 63 + 42 + 6) - (14 + 24 + 27 + 28)] = 1 [(127 - 93) = 1 (34) = 17.
2 2 2
Thus, the area of the quadrilateral ABCD is 17 sq.units.
(ii) P
lot the given points in a rough diagram and take the vertices in counter clockwise
direction.
Let the given points be A^- 5, - 6h, B^4, - 1h, C^1, 2h and D^- 3, 4h .
Area of the quadrilateral ABCD
-5 4 1 -3 -5
= 1) 3
2 -6 -1 2 4 -6
= 1 [(5 + 8 + 4 + 18) - (- 24 - 1 - 6 - 20)]
2
= 1 [(35 + 51) = 1 (86) = 43.
2 2
Thus, the area of the quadrilateral ABCD is 43 sq.units.
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 139
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(iii) Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take the
vertices in counter clockwise direction. Let the given points
be A^- 4, - 2h, B^5, - 5h, C^0, 7h and D^- 4, 5h .
Area of the quadrilateral ABCD
-4 5 0 -4 -4
= 1) 3
2 -2 -5 7 5 -2
= 1 [(20 + 35 + 0 + 8) - (- 10 + 0 - 28 - 20)] = 1 [(63 + 58) = 1 (121) = 60.5
2 2 2
Thus, the area of the quadrilateral ABCD is 60.5 sq.units.
6. If the three points ^h, 0h, (a, b) and ^0, kh lie on a straight line, then using the area
of the triangle formula, show that a + b = 1, where h , k ! 0 .
h k
Solution: The three points ^h, 0h, (a, b) and ^0, kh lie on a straight line.

Thus, 1 'h a 0 h
1 = 0
2 0 b k 0
& (hb + ak + 0) - (0 + 0 + kh) = 0
& hb + ak = kh
Since h, k ! 0, divide both sides by hk. We get, a + b = 1 .
h k
7. Find the area of the triangle formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a
triangle whose vertices are ^0, - 1h, ^2, 1h and ^0, 3h . Find the ratio of this area to
the area of the given triangle.
Solution: Let the vertices of the triangle be A^0, - 1h, B^2, 1h and C^0, 3h .
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of the sides BC, CA and AB respectively.

The midpoint of BC is D` 2 + 0 , 1 + 3 j = D (1, 2) .


2 2
The midpoint of AC is E` 0 + 0 , 3 - 1 = E (0, 1) .
2 2 j
The midpoint of AB is F` 0 + 2 , - 1 + 1 j = F (1, 0) .
2 2
1 0 1 0
Thus, the area of T DEF = 1 ' 1
2 2 1 0 2

= 1 [(1 + 0 + 2) - (0 + 1 + 0)] =1 sq.unit.


2
Thus, the area of the T DEF is 1 sq.unit.
2 0 0 2
Now, the area of TABC = 1 ) 3
2 1 3 -1 1
= 1 [(6 + 0 + 0) - (0 + 0 - 2)] = 4 sq.units.
2
Thus, the area of the TABC is 4 sq.units.
Hence, the ratio of the area of TDEF to the area of TABC is 1 : 4.
140 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 5.3
1. Find the angle of inclination of the straight line whose slope is
(i) 1 (ii) 3 (iii) 0
Solution: (i) Given that the slope of the straight line, m = 1 & tan i = 1 & i = 45c
Thus, the angle of inclination of the straight line is 45c.
(ii) Given that the slope of the straight line, m = 3 & tan i = 3 & i = 60c
Thus, the angle of inclination of the straight line is 60c.
(iii) Given that the slope of the straight line, m = 0 & tan i = 0 & i = 0c
Thus, the angle of inclination of the straight line is 0c.
2. Find the slope of the straight line whose angle of inclination is
(i) 30c (ii) 60c (iii) 90c
Solution: (i) Given that i = 30c.
Thus, the slope of the straight line, m = tan i = tan 30c = 1 .
3
(ii) Given that i = 60c.
Thus, the slope of the straight line, m = tan i = tan 60c = 3 .
(iii) Given that i = 90c.
Thus, the slope of the straight line, m = tan i = tan 90c, which is not defined.
Hence, the slope is not defined for this straight line.
3. Find the slope of the straight line passing through the points
(i) (3 , - 2) and (7 , 2), (ii) (2 , - 4) and origin, (iii) ^1 + 3 , 2h and ^3 + 3 , 4h
y2 - y1
Solution: (i) The slope of the line joining the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is m = .
x2 - x1
Thus, the slope of the line joining (3, –2) and (7, 2) is m = 2 - (- 2) = 1.
7-3
y2 - y1
(ii) The slope of the line joining the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is m = .
x2 - x1
0 - (- 4)
Thus, the slope of the line joining (2, –4) and (0,0) is m= =- 2.
0 - (2)
y -y
(iii) The slope of the line joining the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is m = 2 1 .
x2 - x1
Thus, the slope m = 4-2 = 2 = 2 = 1.
3 + 3 - (1 + 3 ) 3+ 3 -1- 3 2
4. Find the angle of inclination of the line passing through the points
(i) ^1 , 2h and ^2 , 3h (ii) ^3 , 3 h and ^0 , 0h (iii) (a , b) and ( - a , - b)
Solution: (i) The slope of the line joining the points ^1 , 2h and ^2 , 3h is
m = 3 - 2 = 1 & tan i = 1 & i = 45c.
2-1
Thus, the angle of inclination is 45c.
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 141
(ii) The slope of the line joining the points ^3 , 3 h and ^0 , 0h is
m = 0- 3 = 3 = 1 & tan i = 1 . Thus, i = 30c.
0-3 3 3 3
Thus, the angle of inclination is 30c.
(iii) The slope of the line joining the points (a , b) and (- a , - b) is
m = - b - b = - 2b = b & tan i = b
-a - a - 2a a a
Thus, the angle of inclination is given by the relation tan i = b .
a
5. Find the slope of the line which passes through the origin and the midpoint of the
line segment joining the points ^0, - 4h and (8 , 0).

Solution: Midpoint of line joining ^0 , - 4h and (8 , 0) is ` 0 + 8 , - 4 + 0 j = (4, - 2)


2 2
The slope of the line passing through (4, –2) and (0, 0) is
m = 0 - (- 2) = - 1 .
0 - 4 2
6. The side AB of a square ABCD is parallel to x-axis . Find the (i) slope of AB
(ii) slope of BC (iii) slope of the diagonal AC.
Solution: (i) Since the side AB is parallel to x axis, the slope of AB, m = 0 .
(ii) Since BC = AB , the angle made by BC with the x-axis is i = 90c.
Thus, the slope m = tan 90c , which is not defined.
Hence, the slope of BC is not defined.
(iii) Now, the diagonal AC bisects the angle +DAB.
Thus, +BAC = 45c. i.e., i = 45c
Hence, the slope of diagonal AC is m = tan i = tan 45c = 1 .
7. The side BC of an equilateral T ABC is parallel to x-axis. Find the slope of AB
and the slope of BC.
Solution: Given that the side BC is parallel to x-axis and +ABC = 60c.
Thus, the angle of inclination of the line AB is 60c.
Hence, the slope of AB, m = tan 60c = 3 .
Now, BC is parallel to x-axis.
Thus, the slope of BC, m = tan 0c = 0 .
8. Using the concept of slope, show that each of the following set of points are collinear.
(i) (2 , 3), (3 , - 1) and (4 , - 5) (ii) (4 , 1), (- 2 , - 3) and (- 5 , - 5)
(iii) (4 , 4), (- 2 , 6) and (1 , 5)
Solution: (i) Let A(2 , 3), B(3 , - 1) and C(4 , - 5) be the given points.
142 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Slope of the line AB is m1 = - 1 - 3 =- 4
3-2
Slope of the line BC is m2 = - 5 + 1 =- 4
4-3
Thus, slope of AB = slope of BC. Note that B is the common point.
Hence, the points A, B and C are collinear.
(ii) Let A(4 , 1), B(- 2 , - 3) and C(- 5 , - 5) be the given points.
Slope of the line AB joining the points A(4 , 1), B(- 2 , - 3) is
m1 = - 3 - 1 = - 4 = 2 .
-2 - 4 -6 3
Slope of the line BC joining the points B(- 2 , - 3) and C(- 5 , - 5) is
m2 = - 5 + 3 = - 2 = 2 .
-5 + 2 -3 3
Thus, slope of AB = slope of BC.
Since B is the common point, the points A, B and C are collinear.
(iii) Let A (4 , 4), B (- 2 , 6) and C (1 , 5) be the given points.
Slope of the line AB joining the points A(4 , 4) and B(- 2 , 6) is
m1 = 6 - 4 = 2 =- 1 .
-2 - 4 -6 3
Slope of the line BC joining the points B(- 2 , 6) and C(1 , 5) is
m2 = 5 - 6 =- 1 .
1+2 3
Thus, slope of AB = slope of BC.
Since B is the common point, the points A, B and C are collinear.
9. If the points (a, 1), (1, 2) and (0, b + 1) are collinear, then show that 1 + 1 = 1.
a b
Solution: Let A (a, 1), B (1, 2) and C (0, b + 1) be the given points.

Now, the slope of AB is m1 = 2 - 1 = 1 .


1-a 1-a
Also, the slope of BC is m2 = b + 1 - 2 = b - 1
0-1 -1
Since three points are collinear, we have m1 = m2 .
& 1 = b - 1 & a + b = ab
1-a -1
Dividing by ab on both sides, we get 1 + 1 = 1 .
a b
10. The line joining the points A(- 2 , 3) and B(a , 5) is parallel to the line
joining the points C(0 , 5) and D(- 2 , 1). Find the value of a.
Solution: Since the lines AB and CD are parallel, their slopes are equal.
Thus, slope of AB = the slope of CD.

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 143


& 5-3 = 1-5 & a+2 = 1 & a =- 1
a+2 -2 - 0
Hence, the value of a is –1.
11. The line joining the points A(0, 5) and B(4, 2) is perpendicular to the line
joining the points C(- 1, - 2) and D(5, b). Find the value of b.
Solution: Slope of AB is m1 = 2 - 5 = - 3
4-0 4
Slope of CD is m2 = b + 2 = b + 2
5+1 6
Since the lines AB and CD are perpendicular, we have
m1 m2 = - 1
& ` - 3 j` b + 2 j =- 1 & b + 2 = 8 & b = 6.
4 6
Thus, the value of b is 6.
12. The vertices of T ABC are A(1, 8), B(- 2, 4), C(8, - 5). If M and N are the midpoints
of AB and AC respectively, find the slope of MN and hence verify that MN is
parallel to BC.

Solution: Midpoint M of AB is M` 1 - 2 , 8 + 4 j = M` - 1 , 6j
2 2 2
Midpoint N of AC is N` 8 + 1 , - 5 + 8 j = N` 9 , 3 j
2 2 2 2
3 3 - 12
-6
Now, the slope of the line MN is m1 = 2
9 = 2
10 =- 9 ... (1)
2 + 12 2
10

Also, the slope of BC is m2 = - 5 - 4 =- 9 ... (2)


8+2 10
From (1) and (2), we have m1 = m2 .
Hence, the straight lines BC and MN are parallel.

13. A triangle has vertices at (6 , 7), (2 , - 9) and (- 4 , 1). Find the slopes of its
medians.
Solution: Let the vertices be A(6 , 7), B(2 , - 9) and C(- 4 , 1).
Let D, E, F be the midpoints of BC, CA, AB respectively.
Then AD, BE and CF are the medians of the T ABC.

The midpoint of BC is D` 2 - 4 , - 9 + 1 j = D (- 1, - 4) .
2 2
The midpoint of CA is E` - 4 + 6 , 1 + 7 j = E (1, 4) .
2 2
The midpoint of AB is F` 6 + 2 , 7 - 9 j = F (4, - 1) .
2 2
144 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Slope of AD = - 4 - 7 = - 11 = 11 . Slope of BE = 4 + 9 = 13 =- 13 .
-1 - 6 -7 7 1 - 2 -1
Slope of CF = - 1 - 1 = - 2 = - 1 .
4+4 8 4
Hence, the slopes of the medians are 11 , - 13 and - 1 .
7 4
14. The vertices of a 3 ABC are A(- 5 , 7), B(- 4 , - 5) and C(4 , 5). Find the
slopes of the altitudes of the triangle.
Solution: Let AD, BE and CF be the altitudes of DABC

Slope of AB = - 5 - 7 =- 12
-4 + 5
Since the altitude CF is perpendicular to AB, the slope of CF = 1 .
12
Slope of BC = 5 + 5 = 10 = 5 .
4+4 8 4
Since the altitude AD is perpendicular to BC, the slope of AD =- 4 .
5
Slope of AC = 5 - 7 =- 2 .
4+5 9
Since the altitude BE is perpendicular to CA, the slope of BC = 9 .
2
Hence, the slopes of the altitudes are 1 , - 4 , 9 .
12 5 2
15. Using the concept of slope, show that the vertices (1 , 2), (- 2 , 2), (- 4 , - 3)
and (- 1, - 3) taken in order form a parallelogram.
Solution: Plot the given points in a rough diagram and take the vertices in order.
Let the vertices be A (- 4 , - 3), B (- 1, - 3), C (1 , 2) and D (- 2 , 2).

Slope of AB = - 3 + 3 = 0 ; Slope of CD = 2 - 2 = 0.
-1 + 4 -2 - 1
Since the slopes of AB and CD are equal, AB is parallel to CD. ... (1)

Slope of BC = 2 + 3 = 5 ; Slope of AD = 2 + 3 = 5 .
1+1 2 -2 + 4 2
Since the slopes of BC and AD are equal, BC is parallel to AD. ... (2)
From (1) and (2), we get the opposite sides of the quadrilateral ABCD are
parallel. Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.
16. Show that the opposite sides of a quadrilateral with vertices AA(- 2 ,- 4),
B(5 , - 1), C(6 , 4) and D(- 1, 1) taken in order are parallel.
Solution: Given the poinst are A(- 2 ,- 4), B(5 , - 1), C(6 , 4) and D(- 1, 1).
Slope of AB = - 1 + 4 = 3 ; Slope of CD = 1 - 4 = - 3 = 3 .
5+2 7 -1 - 6 -7 7
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 145
Thus, the slopes of AB and CD are equal. Hence, AB is parallel to CD   ...(1)

Now, slope of AD = 1 + 4 = 5; slope of BC = 4 + 1 = 5.


-1 + 2 6-5
Thus, the slopes of BC and AD are equal. Hence, BC is parallel to AD   ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we see that the opposite sides of the quadrilateral ABCD are
parallel. Hence, ABCD is a parallelogram.

Exercise 5.4
1. Write the equations of the straight lines parallel to x-axis which are at a distance
of 5 units from the x-axis.
Solution: Equation of a straight line parallel to x-axis is y = k .
Thus, the equations of the straight lines parallel to x-axis which are at a
distance of 5 units from the x-axis are given by y = 5, y =- 5.
2. Find the equations of the straight lines parallel to the coordinate axes and passing
through the point (-5,-2).
Solution: Equation of the straight line passing through (–5, –2) and parallel to
x-axis is y =- 2 .
Equation of the straight line passing through (–5, –2) and parallel to y-axis is
x =- 5 .
3. Find the equation of a straight line whose (i) slope is -3 and y-intercept is 4,
(ii) angle of inclination is 60c and y-intercept is 3.
Solution: (i) Given that slope m =- 3 and the y-intercept c = 4.
Equation of a straight line in the slope-intercept form is y = mx + c.
Thus, the required equation is y =- 3x + 4 or 3x + y - 4 = 0 .
(ii) Given that the angle of inclination is 60cand y-intercept is 3.
Thus, the slope m = tan 60c = 3 and the y-intercept c = 3.
Equation of the straight line in slope-intercept form is y = mx + c .
Thus, the required equation is y = 3 x + 3 or 3 x - y + 3 = 0.
4. Find the equation of the line intersecting the y- axis at a distance of 3 units above
the origin and tan i = 1 , where i is the angle of inclination.
2
Solution: Given that the slope, m = tan i = 1 ; y-intercept, c = 3 .
2
Equation of the straight line in slope-intercept form is y = mx + c.

Thus, the equation of the straight line is y = 1 x + 3 & x - 2y + 6 = 0 .


2

146 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


5. Find the slope and y-intercept of the line whose equation is (i) y = x + 1 ,
(ii) 5x = 3y (iii) 4x - 2y + 1 = 0 , (iv) 10x + 15y + 6 = 0 .
Solution: (i) Comparing y = x + 1 with y = mx + c , we get
slope m = 1 and y-intercept c = 1.
(ii) Given equation 5x = 3y is rewritten as y = 5 x .
3
5
Comparing the equation y = x with y = mx + c , we have
3
slope m = 5 and y-intercept c = 0.
3
(iii) 4x - 2y + 1 = 0 & 2y = 4x + 1 & y = 2x + 1 .
2
1
Comparing the equation y = 2x + with the equation y = mx + c , we get,
2
slope m = 2 and y-intercept c = 1 .
2
(iv) 10x + 15y + 6 = 0 & y = - 2 x- .2
3 5
Comparing the equation y = - 2 x - 2 with y = mx + c we get,
3 5
slope m = - 2 and y-intercept c = - 2 .
3 5
6. Find the equation of the straight line whose (i) slope is -4 and passing through
(1, 2) (ii) slope is 2 and passing through (5, -4).
3
Solution: (i) Given that slope m =- 4 and a point (x1, y1) = (1, 2) .
Equation of the straight line in slope-point form is y - y1 = m (x - x1)
& y - 2 =- 4 (x - 1) & 4x + y - 6 = 0.
(ii) Slope m = 2 and passing through the point (x1, y1) = (5, - 4) .
3
Equation of the straight line in slope-point form is y - y1 = m (x - x1) .
& y + 4 = 2 (x - 5) & 3 (y + 4) = 2 (x - 5) & 2x - 3y - 22 = 0 .
3
7. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the midpoint of the line
segment joining (4, 2) and (3, 1) whose angle of inclination is 30c.
Solution: Given that the angle of inclination i = 30c.
Thus, the slope m = tan 30c = 1 .
3
The midpoint of the straight line joining (4, 2) and (3, 1) is
(x1, y1) = ` 4 + 3 , 2 + 1 j = ` 7 , 3 j .
2 2 2 2
Now, the equation of the straight line in slope-point form is y - y1 = m (x - x1) .
& y - 3 = 1 (x - 7 ) & 3 ^2y - 3h = 2x - 7
2 3 2
& 2x - 2 3 y + (3 3 - 7) = 0.

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 147


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8. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the points
(i) (– 2, 5) and (3, 6) (ii) (0, – 6) and (– 8, 2).
y - y1
Solution: (i) Equation of the straight line in two-points form is = x - x1 .
y2 - y1 x - x1
2

Here, (x1, y1) = (- 2, 5), (x2, y2) = (3, 6) .


y 5
The required equation is - = x + 2
6-5 3+2
y-5 x + 2
& = & x - 5y + 27 = 0 .
1 5
y y
(ii) Equation of the straight line in two-points form is - 1 = x - x1 .
y2 - y1 x - x1 2

Here, (x1, y1) = (0, - 6), (x2, y2) = (- 8, 2) .


y 6
The required equation is + = x - 0 & x + y + 6 = 0.
2+6 -8 - 0
9. Find the equation of the median from the vertex R in a T PQR with vertices at
P(1, -3), Q(-2, 5) and R(-3, 4).

Solution :Let M be the midpoint of PQ.

Then M` 1 - 2 , - 3 + 5 j = M ( - 1 , 1) .
2 2 2
The median RM is the straight line joining the points R(-3, 4) and M` - 1 , 1j .
2
Thus, the equation of RM is
y-4 x - (- 3) y-4 2 (x + 3)
= -1 & = & 6x + 5y - 2 = 0.
1-4 2 - ^- 3h
- 3 5
10. By using the concept of the equation of the straight line, prove that the given three
points are collinear. (i) (4, 2), (7, 5) and (9, 7) (ii) (1, 4), (3, -2) and (-3, 16).

Solution: (i) Let us find the equation of the straight line joining the points (4, 2), (7, 5).
y-2
The equation is = x - 4 & x - y - 2 = 0. g (1)
5-2 7-4
Put x = 9, y = 7 in (1). We have, 9 - 7 - 2 = 0 .
Thus, the point (9, 7) lies on the line joining the points (4, 2) and (7, 5).
Hence, the three points (4, 2), (7, 5) and (9, 7) are collinear.
(ii) Let us find the equation of the straight line joining the points (1, 4), (3, -2).
The equation of the straight line joining the points (1, 4), (3, -2) is
y-4
= x - 1 & 6x + 2y - 14 = 0. & 3x + y - 7 = 0. g (1)
-2 - 4 3-1
Put x =- 3, y = 16 in (1). We get , 3 (- 3) + 16 - 7 = 0.
Thus, the point (-3, 16) lies on the line joining the points (1, 4), (3, –2).
Hence, the points (1, 4), (3, -2) and (-3, 16) are collinear.

148 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


11. Find the equation of the straight line whose x and y-intercepts on the axes are given by
(i) 2 and 3 (ii) - 1 and 3 (iii) 2 and - 3 .
3 2 5 4
Solution: (i) Given that x-intercept, a = 2 and y-intercept, b = 3 .
y
The equation of the straight line in intercepts form is x + = 1.
a b
y
Thus, the required equation is x + = 1 & 3x + 2y - 6 = 0.
2 3
(ii) Given that x-intercept, a =- 1 and y-intercept, b = 3 .
3 2
The equation of the straight line in intercepts form is

x + y = 1.
a b
& x + y = 1 & 9x - 2y + 3 = 0
- 13 3
2
(iii) Given that x-intercept, a = 2 and y-intercept, b =- 3 .
5 4
x y
The equation of the straight line in intercepts form is + = 1.
a b
x y
& 2 + 3 = 1 & 15x - 8y - 6 = 0.
5 -4
12. Find the x and y-intercepts of the straight line
(i) 5x + 3y - 15 = 0 (ii) 2x - y + 16 = 0 (iii) 3x + 10y + 4 = 0
Solution: (i) Given equation is 5x + 3y - 15 = 0 & 5x + 3y = 15.
y
Dividing both sides by 15, we get x + = 1 g (1)
3 5
y
Comparing (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 , we have
a b
x-intercept, a = 3 . y-intercept, b = 5 .
(ii) Given equation is 2x - y + 16 = 0 & 2x - y =- 16
Dividing both sides by –16, we get x + y = 1 g (1)
- 8 16
y
Comparing (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 ,we have
a b
x-intercept, a =- 8 . y-intercept, b = 16 .
(iii) Given equation is 3x + 10y + 4 = 0 & 3x + 10y =- 4
10y x + y = 1 g (1)
Dividing both sides by –4, we get 3x + =1 &
-4 -4 ^- 43 h ^- 25 h
y
Comapring (1) with intercepts form of the straight line x + = 1 , we have
a b
x-intercept, a =- 4 . y-intercept, b =- 2 .
3 5
Note: One can get x-intercept by substituting y = 0 and the y-intercept by substituting
x = 0 in the equation of the straight line.

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 149


13. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (3, 4) and has
intercepts which are in the ratio 3 : 2.
Solution: Let x and y-intercepts of the straight line be a and b respectively.
Then, a : b = 3 : 2. Let a = 3k and b = 2k, where k is a non-zero constant.
y
Thus, the equation of the straight line in intercepts form is x + = 1 g (1)
3k 2k
Since this line passes through (3, 4), we have 3 + 4 = 1 & 1 + 2 = 1 & k = 3.
3k 2k k k
y
Substituting k = 3 in (1), we get x + = 1 & 2x + 3y - 18 = 0.
9 6
14. Find the equation of the straight lines passing through the point (2, 2) and the sum
of the intercepts is 9.
Solution: Let x and y-intercepts of the straight line be a and b respectively.
Then, a+b = 9 or b = 9 - a.
y
Now, the equation of the straight line in intercepts form is x + = 1 g (1)
a 9-a
Since (1) passes through (2, 2), we have 2 + 2 = 1 & a2 - 9a + 18 = 0
a 9-a
& (a - 3) (a - 6) = 0. Thus, a = 3 (or) a = 6.
y
When a = 3 , from equation (1) we have x + = 1 & 2x + y - 6 = 0.
3 6
y
When a = 6 , from equation (1) we have x + = 1 & x + 2y - 6 = 0.
6 3
( Here, we have two straight lines satisfying the given conditions. )
15. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point (5, -3) and whose
intercepts on the axes are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
Solution: Let a be the x-intercept of the straight line.
Then, y-intercept is - a .
y
Now, the equation of the line in intercepts form is x + = 1 & x - y = a   g (1)
a -a
Since (1) passes through (5, –3), we get a = 5 + 3 = 8.
Substituting a = 8 in (1), the equation of the straight line is x - y - 8 = 0.
16. Find the equation of the line passing through the point (9, -1) and having its
x-intercept thrice as its y-intercept.
y
Solution: Equation of the straight line in intercepts form is x + = 1 .
a b
It is given that a = 3b .
y
The equation of the straight line is x + = 1 & x + 3y = 3b.      g (1)
3b b
Since (1) passes through (9, –1), we have 3b = 9 - 3 & b = 2.
Hence, the eqation of the required straight line is x + 3y - 6 = 0.
150 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
17. A straight line cuts the coordinate axes at A and B. If the midpoint of AB is (3, 2),
then find the equation of AB.
y
Solution: Equation of the straight line in intercepts form is x + = 1    g (1)
a b
Now, (1) cuts the x-axis at A. At A, we have y = 0. So, (1) & x = 1 & x = a.
a
Hence, A is A(a, 0). Also, (1) cuts the y-axis at B. At B, we have x = 0.
y
So, (1) & = 1 & y = b.
b
Thus, B is B (0, b).

Now, the midpoint of AB is ` a + 0 , 0 + b j = (3, 2).


2 2
Thus, a + 0 = 3, & a = 6 and 0 + b = 2 & b = 4.
2 2
y
Hence, the equation of the straight line is x + = 1
6 4
& 2x + 3y = 12 or 2x + 3y - 12 = 0 .
18. Find the equation of the line passing through (22, -6) and having intercept on
x-axis exceeds the intercept on y-axis by 5.
Solution: Let the y-intercept be a.
Then, x-intercept is a + 5 .
x + y =1
Thus, the equation of the straight line in intercepts form is    g (1)
a+5 a
Since the line passes through (22, –6), we have 22 - 6 = 1
a+5 a
22a - 6 (a + 5)
& = 1 & a2 - 11a + 30 = 0 & a = 5 or a = 6
a (a + 5)
Thus, we get two straight lines satisfying the given conditions.
y
When a = 5 , (1) & x + = 1 & x + 2y - 10 = 0 .
10 5
y
When a = 6 , (1) & x + = 1 & 6x + 11y - 66 = 0 .
11 6
Hence, the equations of lines are x + 2y - 10 = 0, 6x + 11y - 66 = 0.
19. If A(3, 6) and C(-1, 2) are two vertices of a rhombus ABCD, then find the equation
of straight line that lies along the diagonal BD.

Solution: The diagonals AC and BD of the rhombus ABCD bisect each other at right
angle. The slope of AC = 2 - 6 = 1 . Thus, the slope of BD =- 1 .
-1 - 3
Now, the midpoint of AC = ` 3 - 1 , 6 + 2 j = (1, 4) .
2 2
The equation of the line along BD and passing through (1, 4) with slope –1 is
y - 4 =- 1 (x - 1) & y - 4 =- x + 1 & x + y - 5 = 0 .
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 151
20. Find the equation of the line whose gradient is 3 and which passes through P,
2
where P divides the line segment joining A(-2, 6) and B (3, -4) in the ratio 2 : 3
internally.
Solution: The point P divides AB in the ratio 2:3 internally.

Thus, the point P is c 2 (3) + 3 (- 2) , 2 (- 4) + 3 (6) m = (0, 2) .


2+3 2+3
Hence, the equation of the straight line passing through (0, 2) with slope 3 is
2
   y - 2 = 3 (x - 0) & 2y - 4 = 3x & 3x - 2y + 4 = 0 .
2
Exercise 5.5
1. Find the slope of the straight line
(i) 3x + 4y - 6 = 0 , (ii) y = 7x + 6 , (iii) 4x = 5y + 3 .
Solution: (i) The slope of the straight line ax + by + c = 0 is - a .
b
Thus, the slope of the straight line 3x + 4y - 6 = 0 is - =- 3 . a
b 4
(ii) The slope of the straight line ax + by + c = 0 is - a .
b
Thus, the slope of the straight line 7x - y + 6 = 0 is - a = - 7 = 7 .
b -1
(iii) The slope of the straight line ax + by + c = 0 is - a .
b
Thus, the slope of the straight line 4x - 5y - 3 = 0 is - a = - 4 = 4 .
b -5 5
2. Show that the straight lines x + 2y + 1 = 0 and 3x + 6y + 2 = 0 are parallel.
1
Solution: Slope of x + 2y + 1 = 0 is m1 =- 2 .

Slope of 3x + 6y + 2 = 0 is m2 =- 1 .
2
Since m1 = m2 , the given two straight lines are parallel.

Aliter : a1 = 1 ; b = 2 = 1 & a1 = b . Thus, the two lines are parallel.


1 1

a2 3 b2 6 3 a2 b2
3. Show that the straight lines 3x - 5y + 7 = 0 and 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 are perpendicular.

Solution: Slope of 3x - 5y + 7 = 0 is m1 = - 3 = 3 .
-5 5
Slope of 15x + 9y + 4 = 0 is m2 = - 15 = - 5 .
9 3
Now, m1 # m2 = ` 3 j` - 5 j =- 1. Thus, the straight lines are perpendicular.
5 3
Note: a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 3 (15) + (- 5) (9) = 0 . Thus, the lines are perpendicular.
y
4. If the straight lines = x - p and ax + 5 = 3y are parallel, then find a .
2
y
Solution: Given straight lines are = x - p and ax + 5 = 3y
2

152 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


y
& x - - p = 0 and ax - 3y + 5 = 0.
2
a b 1 - 12
Since the given lines are parallel, we have 1
= & =
1
& a = 6.
a2 b2 a -3
5. Find the value of a if the straight lines 5x - 2y - 9 = 0 and ay + 2x - 11 = 0 are
perpendicular to each other.
Solution: Slope of 5x - 2y - 9 = 0 is m1 = - 25 = 2 5.
-
Slope of ay + 2x - 11 = 0 is m2 = -a2 .
Since the straight lines are perpendicular to each other, we have
m1 m2 =- 1 & ` 5 j` - 2 j =- 1 & a = 5.
2 a
Thus, the value of a is 5.
6. Find the values of p for which the straight lines 8px + ^2 - 3ph y + 1 = 0 and
px + 8y - 7 = 0 are perpendicular to each other.
- 8p
Solution: Slope of 8px + ^2 - 3ph y + 1 = 0 is m1 = 2 3p .
-
-p
Slope of px + 8y - 7 = 0 is m2 = 8 .
Since the straight lines are perpendicular to each other, we have
- 8p -p
m1 m2 =- 1 & c m` j =- 1
2 - 3p 8
& p2 - 3p + 2 = 0 & (p - 1) (p - 2) = 0 & p = 1, 2.
7. If the straight line passing through the points ^h, 3h and (4, 1) intersects the line
7x - 9y - 19 = 0 at right angle, then find the value of h .
Solution: Slope of straight line joining ^h, 3h and (4, 1) is

m1 = 1 - 3 = - 2 .
4-h 4-h
7
Slope of the straight line 7x - 9y - 19 = 0 is m2 = 9 .
Since the straight lines are perpendicular to each other, we have
m1 m2 =- 1 & ` - 2 j` 7 j =- 1 & - 14 =- 1 & h = 22 .
4-h 9 36 - 9h 9
8. Find the equation of the straight line parallel to the line 3x - y + 7 = 0 and passing
through the point (1, - 2).
Solution: Equation of the straight line parallel to 3x - y + 7 = 0 is 3x - y + k = 0.
Since it passes through (1, –2), we have
3 (1) - (- 2) + k = 0 & k =- 5.
Thus, the equation of the required straight line is 3x - y - 5 = 0

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 153


9. Find the equation of the straight line perpendicular to the straight line
x - 2y + 3 = 0 and passing through the point (1, - 2).
Solution: Equation of the line perpendicular to x - 2y + 3 = 0 is
of the form 2x + y + k = 0 .
Since it passes through (1, –2), we have
2 (1) - (2) + k = 0 & k = 0.
Thus, the equation of the required straight line is 2x + y = 0 .
10. Find the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the straight line segment joining
the points (3, 4) and (- 1, 2).
Solution: Midpoint of the straight line joining the points A(3, 4) and B(- 1, 2)
` 3 - 1 , 4 + 2 j = ^1, 3h .
2 2
Equation of the straight line joining (3, 4) and (–1, 2) is
y 4
- = x - 3 & - 4y + 16 =- 2x + 6 & x - 2y + 5 = 0.
2-4 -1 - 3
Thus, the equation of the line perpendicular to x - 2y + 5 = 0 is of the form
2x + y + k = 0 .
Since it passes through (1, 3), we have 2 (1) + 3 + k = 0 & k =- 5.
Thus, the equation of the required straight line is 2x + y - 5 = 0 .
Note: One can get the required equation using slope-point formula.
11. Find the equation of the straight line passing through the point of intersection of
the lines 2x + y - 3 = 0 and 5x + y - 6 = 0 and parallel to the line joining the
points (1, 2) and (2, 1).
Solution: Let the given points be A(1, 2) and B(2, 1).
The given equations are
2x + y = 3 g (1) ; 5x + y = 6 g (2) .
Subtracting (1) from (2), we have 3x = 3 & x = 1 and hence y = 1.
The point of intersection is (1, 1).
The slope of the line joining (1, 2) and (2, 1) is m = 2 - 1 =- 1.
1-2
Hence, the slope of the required line( parallel line) is –1
Now, the equation of the straight line passing through (1, 1) with slope –1 is
y - 1 =- 1 (x - 1) & x + y - 2 = 0 .
12. Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point of intersection
of the straight lines 5x - 6y = 1 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0 and is perpendicular to the
straight line 3x - 5y + 11 = 0 .
Solution:
The given equations are 5x - 6y = 1 g (1) ; 3x + 2y =- 5 g (2)
154 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Solving (1) and (2), we get the point of intersection as (–1, –1).
Slope of the line 3x - 5y + 11 = 0 is m = - 3 = 3 .
-5 5
Thus, the slope of the required line (perpendicular line) is - 5 .
3
Hence, the equation of the line passing through (–1, –1)
with slope - 5 is
3
y + 1 = - 5 (x + 1) & 5x + 3y + 8 = 0.
3
13. Find the equation of the straight line joining the point of intersection of the
lines 3x - y + 9 = 0 and x + 2y = 4 and the point of intersection of the lines
2x + y - 4 = 0 and x - 2y + 3 = 0 .
Solution: Given equations can be rewritten as
3x - y =- 9 g (1) ; x + 2y = 4 g (2) .
2x + y = 4 g (3) ; x - 2y =- 3 g (4) .
Solving (1) and (2), the point of intersection is (–2, 3).
Solving (3) and (4), the point of intersection is (1, 2).
The equation of the straight line joining the points (–2, 3) and (1, 2) is
y-3 y-3
= x+2 & = x+2
2-3 1+2 - 1 3
& x + 3y - 7 = 0
Thus, the required equation is x + 3y - 7 = 0 .
14. If the vertices of a 3 ABC are A(2, - 4), B(3, 3) and C(- 1, 5), then find the equation
of the straight line along the altitude from the vertex B.
Solution: Let BD be the altitude from the vertex B.

Now, the slope of AC is 5 + 4 = 9 =- 3.


-1 - 2 -3
Thus, the slope of the straight line along the altitude BD is 1 . ( AC = BD. )
3
1
Now, the required line is passing through (3, 3) with slope .
3
Hence, the required equation is
y - 3 = 1 (x - 3) & 3y - 9 = x - 3 & x - 3y + 6 = 0 .
3
15. If the vertices of a 3 ABC are A(- 4,4 ), B(8 ,4) and C(8,10), then find the equation
of the straight line along the median from the vertex A.
Solution: Let AD be the median through the vertex.

Midpoint D of BC is D` 8 + 8 , 4 + 10 j = D (8, 7) .
2 2

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 155


The equation of the median AD joining the points A(- 4,4 ), D(8, 7) is
y-4 x+4
= & 4y - 16 = x + 4 & x - 4y + 20 = 0.
7-4 8+4
16. Find the coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular from the origin on the straight
line 3x + 2y = 13 .
Solution: Let P be the foot of the perpendicular OP on the line 3x + 2y = 13 .
Thus, the equation of straight line OP is of the form 2x - 3y + k = 0 .
It passes through the origin O (0, 0). Thus, k = 0.
Hence, the equation of the straight line OP is 2x - 3y = 0 .
Now, P is the point of intersection of the straight lines
3x + 2y = 13 g (1) and 2x - 3y = 0 g (2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get x = 3 , y = 2.
Hence, the foot of the perpendicular is P (3, 2).
17. If x + 2y = 7 and 2x + y = 8 are the equations of the lines of two diameters of a
circle, find the radius of the circle if the point (0, - 2) lies on the circle.
Solution: The equations of the diameters are
x + 2y = 7 g (1) ; 2x + y = 8 g (2)
Their point of intersection is the centre of the circle.
Solving (1) and (2), we get the centre C(3, 2).
Let the given point on the circle be P(0, –2).
Thus, the radius r = CP = (3 - 0) 2 + (2 + 2) 2 = 25 = 5. units.
18. Find the equation of the straight line segment whose end points are the point
of intersection of the straight lines 2x - 3y + 4 = 0 , x - 2y + 3 = 0 and the
midpoint of the line joining the points (3, - 2) and (- 5, 8).
Solution: Let P be the point of intersection of the straight
lines
2x - 3y + 4 = 0 g (1) and
x - 2y + 3 = 0 g (2).
Thus, solving (1) and (2), we get
the point of intersection P(1, 2).
The midpoint M of the line joining (3, –2) and (–5, 8) is
M` 3 - 5 , - 2 + 8 j = M (- 1, 3) .
2 2
Thus, the equation of the required line MP is
y-2
= x - 1 & x - 1 =- 2y + 4 & x + 2y - 5 = 0.
3-2 -1 - 1
156 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
19. In an isosceles 3PQR, PQ = PR. The base QR lies on the x-axis, P lies on the y- axis
and 2x - 3y + 9 = 0 is the equation of PQ. Find the equation of the straight line along
PR.
Solution: Equation of PQ is 2x - 3y + 9 = 0 g (1)
At P, we have x = 0 Now, (1) & 2 (0) - 3y + 9 = 0 & y = 3.
Thus, the point P is P(0, 3).
At Q, we have y = 0 . Now, (1) & 2x - 0 + 9 = 0 & x =- 9 .
2
9
Thus, the point Q is `- , 0j.
2
Since PQ = PR and QR lie on the x-axis, the point is R` 9 , 0j .
2
Thus, the equation of the line along PR is
y 3
- = x9- 0 & 9y - 27 =- 6x & 2x + 3y - 9 = 0.
0-3 -2 -0

Exercise 5.6
Choose the correct answer.
1. The midpoint of the line joining ^a, - bh and ^3a, 5bh is
(A) ^- a, 2bh (B) ^2a, 4bh
(C) ^2a, 2bh (D) ^- a, - 3bh

Solution: Midpoint is ` a + 3a , - b + 5b j = (2a, 2b) . ( Ans. (C) )


2 2
2. The point P which divides the line segment joining the points A^1, - 3h and B^- 3, 9h
internally in the ratio 1:3 is

(A) ^2, 1h (B) ^0, 0h

(C) ` 5 , 2j (D) ^1, - 2h


3
1 (- 3) + 3 (1) 1 (9) + 3 (- 3)
Solution: Point P is c
, m = ` - 3 + 3 , 9 - 9 j = (0, 0) .
1+3 1+3 4 4
( Ans. (B) )

3. If the line segment joining the points A^3, 4h and B^14, - 3h meets the x-axis at P, then
the ratio in which P divides the segment AB is
(A) 4 : 3 (B) 3 : 4 (C) 2 : 3 (D) 4 : 1
Solution: If a line intersects x-axis, then y = 0 .
l (- 3) + m (4)
& = 0 & - 3l + 4m = 0 & 3l = 4m & l = 4 ( Ans. (A) )
l+m m 3

Solution - Coordinate Geometry 157


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4. The centroid of the triangle with vertices at ^- 2, - 5h , ^- 2, 12h and ^10, - 1h is


(A) ^6, 6h (B) ^4, 4h (C) ^3, 3h (D) ^2, 2h

Solution: Centroid is ` - 2 - 2 + 10 , - 5 + 12 - 1 j = (2, 2) ( Ans. (D) )


3 3
5. If ^1, 2h , ^4, 6h , ^ x, 6h and ^3, 2h are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order, then
the value of x is
(A) 6 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 3
Solution: In a parallelogram the diagonals bisect each other.
Midpoint of AC = Midpoint of BD is
1 x, 2 + 6 = 4 + 3, 6 + 2 & 1 + x = 4 + 3 & x = 6
` +
2 2 j ` 2 2 j 2 2
( Ans. (A) )

6. Area of the triangle formed by the points (0,0), ^2, 0h and ^0, 2h is
(A) 1 sq. units (B) 2 sq. units (C) 4 sq. units (D) 8 sq. units
0 2 0 0
Solution :Area is 1 ' 1 = 1 (4) = 2
2 0 0 2 0 2
(or) 1 ab = 1 (2) (2) = 2 units. ( Ans. (B) )
2 2
7. Area of the quadrilateral formed by the points ^1, 1h , ^0, 1h , ^0, 0h and ^1, 0h is
(A) 3 sq. units (B) 2 sq. units (C) 4 sq. units (D) 1 sq. units
1 0 0 1 1
Solution: Area is 1 ' 1 = 1 (2) = 1
2 1 1 0 0 1 2
(or) Area of the square a2 = (1) 2 = 1 unit. ( Ans. (D) )
8. The angle of inclination of a straight line parallel to x-axis is equal to
(A) 0c (B) 60c (C) 45c (D) 90c
Solution: The angle of inclination of line parallel to x-axis is 0c. ( Ans. (A) )
9. Slope of the line joining the points ^3, - 2h and ^- 1, ah is - 3 , then the value of a is
2
equal to
(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

Solution: Slope a + 2 = - 3 & 2a + 4 = 12 & a = 4. ( Ans. (D) )


-1 - 3 2
10. Slope of the straight line which is perpendicular to the straight line joining the points
^- 2, 6h and ^4, 8h is equal to

(A) 1 (B) 3 (C) - 3 (D) - 1


3 3
Solution: Slope of the straight line joining the points ^- 2, 6h and ^4, 8h is 8 - 6 = 1 .
4+2 3
Thus, the slope of the perpendicular line is –3. ( Ans. (C) )

158 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


11. The point of intersection of the straight lines 9x - y - 2 = 0 and 2x + y - 9 = 0 is
(A) ^- 1, 7h (B) ^7, 1h
(C) ^1, 7h (D) ^- 1, - 7h
Solution: 9x - y - 2 = 0 g (1) 2x + y - 9 = 0 g (2)
On solving the equations, the point is (1, 7). ( Ans. (C) )
12. The straight line 4x + 3y - 12 = 0 intersects the y- axis at
(A) ^3, 0h (B) ^0, 4h
(C) ^3, 4h (D) ^0, - 4h
Solution: On the y-axis, x = 0 . So, the point is (0, 4) ( Ans. (B) )

13. The slope of the straight line 7y - 2x = 11 is equal to

(A) - 7 (B) 7 (C) 2 (D) - 2


2 2 7 7
Solution: Slope m = - a =-` - 2 j = 2 . ( Ans. (C) )
b 7 7
14. The equation of a straight line passing through the point (2 , –7) and parallel to x-axis is
(A) x = 2 (B) x =- 7 (C) y =- 7 (D) y = 2
Solution: Equation of the line parallel to x-axis is y = k .
This line passes through the point (2, –7). Thus, the line is y =- 7 ( Ans. (C) )

15. The x and y-intercepts of the line 2x - 3y + 6 = 0 , respectively are


(A) 2, 3 (B) 3, 2 (C) - 3, 2 (D) 3, - 2
Solution: To find the x-intercept, put y = 0 in the equation. Thus, x =- 3.
To find the y-intercept, put x = 0 in the equation. Thus, y = 2. ( Ans. (C) )

16. The centre of a circle is (- 6, 4). If one end of the diameter of the circle is at (- 12, 8),
then the other end is at
(A) (- 18, 12) (B) (- 9, 6) (C) (- 3, 2) (D) (0, 0)
Solution: Midpoint of the line joining (- 12, 8) and (x, y) is
8+y
c - 12 + x , m = (- 6, 4) & x = 0, y = 0. ( Ans. (D) )
2 2
17. The equation of the straight line passing through the origin and perpendicular to the
straight line 2x + 3y - 7 = 0 is
(A) 2x + 3y = 0 (B) 3x - 2y = 0
(C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y - 5 = 0
Solution: The required line is 3x - 2y + k = 0. As it passes through the origin,
k = 0 ( Ans. (B) )
Solution - Coordinate Geometry 159
18. The equation of a straight line parallel to y-axis and passing through the point ^- 2, 5h is
(A) x - 2 = 0 (B) x + 2 = 0
(C) y + 5 = 0 (D) y - 5 = 0
Solution: Equation of the line parallel to y-axis is x = k
The line passes through (–2, 5). Thus, x =- 2 & x + 2 = 0. ( Ans. (B) )
19. If the points (2, 5), (4, 6) and ^a, ah are collinear, then the value of a is equal to
(A) - 8 (B) 4 (C) - 4 (D) 8

Solution: Using the concept of slope, 6 - 5 = a - 5 & a = 8. ( Ans. (D) )


4-2 a-2
20. If a straight line y = 2x + k passes through the point (1, 2), then the value of k is equal to
(A) 0 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) - 3
Solution: The line passes through the point (1, 2). So, 2 (1) + k = 2 & k = 0
( Ans. (A) )
21. The equation of a straight line having slope 3 and y-intercept - 4 is
(A) 3x - y - 4 = 0 (B) 3x + y - 4 = 0
(C) 3x - y + 4 = 0 (D) 3x + y + 4 = 0
Solution: m = 3, c =- 4. So, y = mx + c & y = 3x - 4 & 3x - y - 4 = 0.
( Ans. (A) )
22. The point of intersection of the straight lines y = 0 and x =- 4 is
(A) ^0, - 4h (B) ^- 4, 0h (C) ^0, 4h (D) ^4, 0h
Solution: The point intersection is ^- 4, 0h ( Ans. (B) )

23. The value of k if the straight lines 3x + 6y + 7 = 0 and 2x + ky = 5 are perpendicular is


(A) 1 (B) –1 (C) 2 (D) 1
2
Solution: m1 m2 =- 1 & ` - 3 - 2 =- 1 & k =- 1.
6 j` k j
or using a1 a2 + b1 b2 = 0 & 3^2h + 6k = 0 & k =- 1 ( Ans. (B) )

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Geometry 6
Exercise 6.1
1. In a TABC , D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that
DE < BC .
(i) If AD = 6 cm, DB = 9 cm and AE = 8 cm, then find AC.
(ii) If AD = 8 cm, AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm, then find CE.
(iii) If AD = 4x – 3, BD = 3x – 1 , AE = 8x – 7 and EC = 5x – 3, then find the value
of x.
Solution: (i) In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
AD = AE & EC = AE # DB & EC = 8 # 9 = 12cm.
DB EC AD 6
` AC = AE + EC = 8 + 12 = 20 cm
(ii) Given that AD = 8 cm, AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm
So, BD = AB - AD = 12 - 8 = 4cm
In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
AD = AE & EC = AE # DB & EC = 12 # 4 = 6 cm.
DB EC AD 8
` CE = 6cm
(iii) Given AD = 4x – 3, BD = 3x – 1 , AE = 8x – 7 and EC = 5x – 3.
In TABC, DE < BC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we get
AD = AE & 4x - 3 = 8x - 7
DB EC 3x - 1 5x - 3
& (4x - 3)(5x - 3) = (8x - 7) (3x - 1)
& 4x2 - 2x - 2 = 0
2
& 2x - x - 1 = 0
& (x - 1) (2x + 1) = 0
Thus, x =- 1 , x = 1 . Since x ! - 1 (distance), we have x = 1 .
2 2
2. In the figure, AP = 3 cm, AR = 4.5cm, AQ = 6cm, AB = 5 cm, and AC = 10 cm.
Find the length of AD.
Solution: From the given data, we have AB = 5 and AC = 10 = 5 .
AP 3 AQ 6 3
Now, in TABC, AB = AC
AP AQ
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, PQ || BC
Let RD = x. In 3 ABD, PR < BD . So, AB = AD & 5 = 4.5 + x
AP AR 3 4.5
& 13.5 + 3x = 22.5 or 3x = 9. & x = 3.
Thus, AD = AR + RD = 4.5 + 3 = 7.5cm .
Solution - Geometry 161
Aliter : We have PB = AB - AP = 5 - 3 = 2 cm, QC = AC - AQ = 10 - 6 = 4 cm.
AQ AQ
Now, AP = 3 and = 6 = 3 . So, in TABC, AP =
PB 2 QC 4 2 PB QC
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, PQ || BC

In TABD, AP = AR . & 3 = 4.5


PB RD 2 RD
` RD = 4.5 # 2 = 3
3
Hence, AD = AR + RD = 4.5 + 3 = 7.5 cm
3. E and F are points on the sides PQ and PR respectively, of a TPQR . For each of the
following cases, verify EF < QR .
(i)  PE = 3.9 cm, EQ = 3 cm, PF = 3.6 cm and FR = 2.4 cm.
(ii)  PE = 4 cm, QE = 4.5 cm, PF = 8 cm and RF = 9 cm.
Solution: (i) Given that PE = 3.9 cm, EQ = 3 cm, PF = 3.6 cm and FR = 2.4 cm.

In TPQR, PE = 3.9 = 1.3 and PF = 3.6 = 1.5


EQ 3 FR 2.4
` PE ! PF
EQ FR
Hence, EF is not parallel to QR.

(ii) Given that PE = 4 cm, QE = 4.5 cm, PF = 8 cm and RF = 9 cm.


So, PE = 4 = 8 and PF = 8
EQ 4.5 9 FR 9
` PE = PF
EQ FR
Hence, by the converse of BPT, EF < QR
4. In the figure, AC < BD and CE < DF . If OA =12cm,
AB = 9 cm, OC = 8 cm and EF = 4.5 cm , then find FO.
Solution: In TOBD, AC < BD .
By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
OA = OC & 12 = 8 & CD = 8 # 9 = 6cm.
AB CD 9 CD 12
In TODF, CE < DF . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
OC = OE & 8 = OE & OE = 8 # 4.5 = 6cm.
CD EF 6 4.5 6
Hence, OF = OE + EF = 6 + 4.5 = 10.5 cm.
5. ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB parallel to CD. A line drawn parallel to AB meets
BQ
AD at P and BC at Q. Prove that AP = .
PD QC
Solution: Construction: Join BD and let it meet PQ at E
162 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
In TDAB, PE < AB . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
AP = BE g (1)
PD ED
In TBCD, EQ < DC . By Thales theorem (BPT), we have
BE = BQ g (2)
ED QC
BQ
From (1) and (2), we get AP = .
PD QC
6. In the figure, PC < QK and BC < HK . If AQ = 6 cm, QH = 4 cm,
HP = 5cm, KC = 18cm, then find AK and PB.
Solution: In TAPC, PC < QK .
AQ
By Thales theorem, we have = AK .
QP KC
AQ
& AK = # KC    [a QP = QH + HP = 4 + 5 = 9 ]
QP
& AK = 6 # 18 = 12cm
9
Also, given that in TABC, BC < HK . By Thales theorem, we have

AH = AK & 10 = 12 [a AH = AQ + QH = 6+ 4 = 10]
HB KC HB 18
& HB = 10 # 18 = 15cm.
12
Hence, PB = HB - HP = 15 - 5 = 10cm

7. In the figure, DE < AQ and DF < AR . Prove that EF < QR .


Solution: In TPQA, DE < AQ . By Thales theorem, we have
PE = PD g (1)
EQ DA
lso, given that in TPAR, DF < AR . By Thales theorem, we have
A

PD = PF g (2)
DA FR
From (1) and (2), we get PE = PF
EQ FR
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, we have EF < QR .
8. In the figure, DE < AB and DF < AC . Prove that EF < BC .
Solution: In TABP, DE < AB . By Thales theorem, we have
PD = PE g (1)
DA EB
Also, given that in TCAP, DF < AC . By Thales theorem, we have
PD = PF g (2)
DA FC
rom (1) and (2), we get PE =
F PF
EB FC
Hence, by the converse of Thale’s theorem, we have EF < BC .
Solution - Geometry 163
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9. In a TABC , AD is the internal bisector of +A , meeting BC at D.


(i) If BD = 2 cm, AB = 5 cm, DC = 3 cm find AC.
(ii) If AB = 5.6 cm, AC = 6 cm and DC = 3 cm find BC.
(iii) If AB = x, AC = x – 2, BD = x + 2 and DC = x – 1 find the value of x.
Solution: (i) Given that AD is the internal bisector of +A .
In TABC , by Angle bisector theorem, we have
AB = BD
AC DC
& 5 = 2
AC 3
& AC = 5 # 3 = 7.5 cm
2
(ii) Given that AD is the internal bisector of +A . In TABC, by ABT, we have
AB = BD
AC DC
& 5.6 = BD & BD = 5.6 # 3 = 2.8 cm
6 3 6
Hence, BC = BD + DC = 2.8 + 3 = 5.8cm
(iii) Given that AD is the internal bisector of +A . In TABC, by ABT, we have
AB = BD
AC DC
& x = x+2
x-2 x-1
& x (x - 1) = (x + 2) (x - 2)
& x2 - x = x2 - 4 ` x =4
10. Check whether AD is the bisector of +A of TABC in each of the following.
(i) AB = 4 cm, AC = 6 cm, BD = 1.6 cm, and CD = 2.4 cm.
(ii) AB = 6 cm, AC = 8 cm, BD = 1.5 cm and CD = 3 cm.

Solution: (i) We have, BD = 1.6 = 2 g (1)


DC 2.4 3
AB = 4 = 2 g (2)
AC 6 3
From (1) and (2), we get BD = AB
DC AC
Hence, by the converse of ABT, AD is the bisector of +A .
(ii) We have, BD = 1.5 = 1 g (1)
DC 3 2
AB = 6 = 3 g (2)
AC 8 4
From (1) and (2) it follows BD ! AB
DC AC
Hence, AD is not the bisector of +A .

164 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


11. In a TMNO , MP is the external bisector of +M meeting NO produced at P. If
MN = 10cm , MO = 6 cm, NO = 12 cm, then find OP.
Solution: Given that MP is the external bisector of +M .
In TMNO, by ABT, we have

NP = MN
OP MO
& 12 + OP = MN [ a NP = NO + OP = 12 + OP ]
OP MO
& 12 + OP = 10
OP 6
& 72 + 6 # OP = 10 # OP & 4 # OP = 72   
Thus, OP = 18 cm
12. In a quadrilateral ABCD, the bisectors of +B and +D intersect on AC at E.
Prove that AB = AD .
BC DC
Solution: DE is the internal bisector of +D .
In TADC, by ABT, we have AE = AD g (1)
EC DC
BE is the internal bisector of +B .
In TABC, by ABT, we have AE = AB g (2)
EC BC
From (1) and (2), we get AB = AD .
BC DC
13. The internal bisector of +A of TABC meets BC at D and the external bisector
of +A meets BC produced at E. Prove that BD = CD .
BE CE
Solution: In TABC , AD is the internal bisector of +A .
In TABC, by ABT, we have
BD = AB g (1)
DC AC
In TABC, AE is the external bisector of +A .
By ABT, we have BE = AB g (2)
CE AC
From (1) and (2), we get

BD = BE & BD = DC (or) BD = CD
DC CE BE CE BE CE
14. ABCD is a quadrilateral with AB =AD. If AE and AF are internal bisectors of
+BAC and +DAC respectively, then prove that EF < BD .
Solution: In TABC, AE is the internal bisector of +BAC .
So, by ABT, we have
AB = BE g (1)
AC EC

Solution - Geometry 165


In TADC, AF is the internal bisector of +DAC . So, by ABT, we have

AD = DF or AB = DF g (2) [ AB = AD ]
AC FC AC FC

From (1) and (2), we get BE = DF


EC FC
Hence, in TCDB , using the converse of Thale’s Theorem, we have EF < BD .
Aliter : In TADC, AF is the internal bisector of +DAC .
By ABT, we have AC = CF g (1)
AD FD
In TABC, AE is the internal bisector of +BAC . By ABT, we have AC = CE .
AB EB
Since AB = AD, we get AC = CE g (2)
AD EB
From (1) and (2), we get CF = CE
FD EB
Hence, in TCDB , using the converse of BPT, we have EF || BD.

Exercise 6.2
1. Find the unknown values in each of the following figures. All lengths are given in
centimetres. (All measures are not in scale)
a
(i) (ii) (iii)

Solution: (i) In TABC and TADE, we have


+ABC = +ADE (corresponding angles)
and +A = +A (common angle)
So, by AA criterion, we have TABC + TADE . Hence, AC = BC .
AE DE
& x = 8 & x = 1 & x = 4cm .
x+8 24 x+8 3
Also, TEAG and TECF are similar.
Thus, EC = CF & AG = CF # EA [a EA = EC + CA = 8 + 4 = 12]
EA AG EC
& y = 6 # 12 = 9. Thus, y = 9cm .
8
(ii) In THBC , FG < BC.
` THFG + THBC & HF = FG & 4 = x & x = 4 # 9 = 3.6 cm
HB BC 10 9 10
Consider TFBD and TFHG. Here BD < GH
` +FBD = +FHG [Alternate angles]
+BFD = +HFG [Vertically opposite angles]
Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TFBD + TFHG
166 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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& FG = FH & x = 4 & 3.6 = 2


FD FB y+3 6 y+3 3
& 2y + 6 = 10.8 & y = 2.4cm .
Again, consider TAEG and TABC . Here EG || BC
Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TAEG + TABC . +A is common
& AE = EG +AEG = +ABC
AB BC
corresponding angles
z x+y z =6
& = &
z+5 9 z+5 9
& 3z = 2z + 10 & z = 10cm
(iii) EFCD is a parallelogram.
So, EF = DC = 7cm , DE = CF = 6cm . Consider TAEF and TABC .
From the figure, it is clear that TAEF + TABC +AEF = +ABC
AF = EF corresponding angles
AC BC +A is common
& x = 7 & 12x = 7x + 42
x+6 12 ` By AA criterion
& x = 8.4 cm TAEF + TABC
Consider TBDG and TBCF .
From the figure, it is clear that TBDG + TBCF
` BD = DG
BC CF
& DG = BD # CF & y = 5 # 6 = 2.5cm
BC 12
2. The image of a man of height 1.8 m, is of length 1.5 cm on the film of a camera. If
the film is 3 cm from the lens of the camera, how far is the man from the camera?
Solution: Let AB be the height of the man,
CD be the height of the image of the man of height 1.8m,
L be the position of the lens of the camera,
LM be the distance between man and lens,
LN be the distance between lens and film.
Then, AB || CD, AB = 1.8m, CD = 1.5cm, LN = 3cm,
Consider TLAB and TLCD , we have
+LAB = +LCD [Alternate angles]
+BLA = +DLC [Vertically opposite angles]
Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TLAB + TLCD
& AB = LM & 180 = LM
CD LN 1.5 3
& LM = AB # LN = 180 # 3 = 360cm = 3.6 m
CD 1.5
Hence, the distance between the man and camera is 3.6m.

Solution - Geometry 167


3. A girl of height 120 cm is walking away from the base of a lamp-post at a
speed of 0.6 m/sec. If the lamp is 3.6m above the ground level, then find the
length of her shadow after 4 seconds.
Solution: Let AB be the height of the Lamp post
CD be the height of the girl
CE be the length of the shadow of the girl
Then, AB = 3.6 m, CD = 120 cm = 1.2 m
Given that the walking speed of the girl is 0.6 m/sec.
The distance AC travelled by the girl in 4 seconds = 4 # 0.6 = 2.4m
Now, consider TECD and TEAB . Clearly, CD < AB .
+ECD = +EAB [corresponding angles]
+E = +E [common angle]
` By AA criterion of similarity, we have TECD + TEAB
Thus, EC = CD
EA AB
& EC = 1.2 = 1 & 3EC = 2.4 + EC
2.4 + EC 3.6 3
& EC = 1.2 m
Hence, the length of the shadow of the girl after 4 seconds is 1.2m.
4. A girl is in the beach with her father. She spots a swimmer drowning. She shouts
to her father who is 50 m due west of her. Her father is 10 m nearer to a boat
than the girl. If her father uses the boat to reach the swimmer, he has to travel
a distance 126 m from that boat. At the same time, the girl spots a man riding a
water craft who is 98 m away from the boat. The man on the water craft is due
east of the swimmer. How far must the man travel to rescue the swimmer?
( This problem is not for examination )
Solution: Let A be the position of the father
C be the position of the girl
B be the position of the boat
D be the position of the water craft and
E be the position of the swimmer.
Let BC = x m. Then, AB = (x - 10)m
Consider TABC and TDBE . We have,
+ABC = +DBE [vertically opposite angles]
+BAC = +BDE [alternate angles]
Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TABC + TDBE .
So, AB = BC = AC
DB BE DE
Now, AB = BC & x - 10 = x
DB BE 98 126

168 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


& x = 1260 = 45   ` BC = 45 m
28
BC = AC AC
Now, BE DE & DE = BC # BE
& DE = 50 # 126 = 140
45
So, DE = 140 m
Hence, the man on the water craft must travel 140 m distance to rescue the swimmer.
5. P and Q are points on sides AB and AC respectively, of TABC . If AP = 3 cm,
PB = 6 cm, AQ = 5 cm and QC = 10 cm, show that BC = 3 PQ.
AQ
Solution: Now, AP = 3 = 1 , = 5 =1
AB 9 3 AC 15 3
From TAPQ and TABC , we have
AP = AQ
AB AC
and +A = +A [common angle]
Thus, by SAS criterion of similarity, we have TAPQ + TABC
& AP = AQ = PQ
AB AC BC
Now, AP = PQ & PQ = 3 & BC = 3PQ
AB BC BC 9
6. In TABC , AB = AC and BC = 6 cm. D is a point on the side AC such that
AD = 5cm and CD = 4 cm. Show that TBCD + TACB and hence find BD.
Solution: Given that in TABC , AB = AC
Now, BC = 6 = 2 ; CD = 4 = 2
AC 9 3 CB 6 3
Thus, in TBCD and TACB , we have
BC = CD
AC CB
and +C = +C [common angle]
Thus, by SAS criterion of similarity, we have TBCD + TACB
& BD = BC & BD = 6 [a AB = AC]
AB AC AC 9
& BD = 6
9 9
Hence, BD = 6 cm.
7. The points D and E are on the sides AB and AC of DABC respectively, such that
DE || BC. If AB = 3 AD and the area of TABC is 72 cm2, then find the area of the
quadrilateral DBCE.
Solution: Given that, in figure, DE < BC and AB = 3AD
& AD = 1
AB 3
Consider TADE and TABC .
Solution - Geometry 169
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+ADE = +ABC [corresponding angles]


and +A = +A [common angle]

Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TADE + TABC

Now, Area of TADE = AD2 & area of TADE = 1


Area of TABC AB2 72 9
Thus, Area of TADE = 8cm 2

Area of the quadrilateral DBCE = Area of TABC - Area of TADE


= 72 - 8 = 64cm2
8. The lengths of three sides of a triangle ABC are 6cm, 4 cm and 9cm. TPQR + TABC.
One of the lengths of sides of TPQR is 35cm. What is the greatest perimeter
possible for TPQR ?
Solution: Given, TPQR + TABC
PQ QR Perimeter of TPQR
& = = PR = g (1)
AB BC AC Perimeter of TABC
Let QR = 35.
From (1), we see that the perimeter of TPQR is
the greatest only when the corresponding side to
QR must be BC.
Perimeter of TPQR QR
= = 35
Perimeter of TABC BC 4
Thus, the greatest perimeter of TPQR = 35 # 19 = 166.25 cm.
4
Aliter: Since TPQR + TABC ,
PQ
we have = 35 = PR (QR is the corresponding side to BC)
6 4 9
PQ
Consider = 35 & PQ = 35 # 6 = 105 = 52.5
6 4 4 2
Again consider PR = 35 & PR = 35 # 9 = 315 = 78.75
9 4 4 4
` The greatest possible perimeter of TPQR
= PQ + QR + PR = 52.5 + 35 + 78.75 = 166.25cm

9. In the figure, DE || BC and AD = 3 , calculate the value of


BD 5
area of trapezium BCED
(i) area of TADE , (ii) .
area of TABC area of TABC

Solution: (i) In ABC, DE || BC. ` TADE + TABC

Now, AD = 3 & AD = 3k, BD = 5k


BD 5
Area of TADE AD2 & (3k) 2
Also, = = 9
Area of TABC AB2 (8k) 2 64
170 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
(ii) Area of TADE = 9k and Area of TABC = 64k
Now, Area of trapezium BCED
= Area of TABC - Area of TADE
= 64k - 9k = 55k
Area of trapezium BCED Area of trapezium BCED
= 55k (OR) Area of TABC
Area of TABC 64k

= 55 . = Area of TABC - Area of TADE


64 Area of TABC
=1- Area of TADE = 1 - 9 = 55
Area of TABC 64 64
10. The government plans to develop a new industrial zone in an unused portion of
land in a city. The shaded portion of the map shown on the right, indicates the area
of the new industrial zone. Find the area of the new industrial zone.
Solution: Consider TEAB, TEDC . Clearly AB < CD
Further, +AEB = +DEC [Vertically opposite angles]
+EAB = +EDC [Alternate angles]
` By AA criterion of similarity, we have TEAB + TEDC
AB = EF
DC EG
& EF = AB # EG = 3 # (1.4) = 4.2km .
DC 1
The area of the new industrial zone
= Area of TEAB
= 1 # AB # EF = 1 # 3 # 4.2 = 6.3km2
2 2
11. A boy is designing a diamond shaped kite, as shown in the figure where
AE = 16cm, EC = 81cm. He wants to use a straight cross bar BD. How long
should it be?
Solution: We know that if a perpendicular is drawn from the
vertex of a right angled triangle to its hypotenuse. then the
triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar. So,
DEAD + DEDC . Thus, we have EA = ED
ED EC
2
& ED = EA # EC = 16 # 81

& ED = 16 # 81 = 4 # 9 = 36 .

Now, TABD is an isosceles triangel and AE = BD

So, BE = ED

Thus, BD = 2ED = 2 × 36 = 72 cm.

Solution - Geometry 171


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12. A student wants to determine the height of a flagpole. He placed a small mirror
on the ground so that he can see the reflection of the top of the flagpole. The
distance of the mirror from him is 0.5 m and the distance of the flagpole from the
mirror is 3 m. If his eyes are 1.5 m above the ground level, then find the height
of the flagpole.(The foot of student, mirror and the foot of flagpole lie along a
straight line).
Solution: Let AB and ED be the heights of the man and the
tower respectively.
Let C be the point of incidence of the flagpole in the mirror.
In TABC and TEDC, +ABC = +EDC = 90c , +BCA = +DCE

Thus, by AA criterion of similarity, we have TABC + TEDC .


AB = BC [Angular elevation is
So, & 1.5 = 0.5 same at the same instant.
ED DC ED 3
i.e. The angle of incidence
& 0.5 ED = 4.5 & ED = 9m . and the angle of reflection
are the same]
Thus, the height of the flagpole is 9m.

13. A roof has a cross section as shown in the diagram, (i) Identify the similar
triangles, (ii) Find the height h of the roof.
Solution: (i) We know that if a perpendicular is drawn from
the vertex of a right angled triangle to its hypotenuse, then the
triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the
whole triangle.
Thus from the given figure, we have the similar triangles
(i) TWZY + TYZX , (ii) TWYX + TYZX and (iii) TWZY + TWYX (or)
(i) DXWY + DYWZ , (ii) TYWZ + TXYZ and (iii) TXWY + TXYZ

(ii) In TXWY + TXYZ In DYWZ + DXYZ


WY = XY & h = 6 (or) YW = YZ & h = 8
YZ XZ 8 10 XY XZ 6 10
` h = 4.8m ` h = 4.8m
Exercise 6.3
1. In the figure TP is a tangent to a circle. A and B are two points on the circle. If
+BTP = 72c and + ATB = 43c find + ABT.
Solution: +BAT = +PTB = 72c [ Angles in alternate segment]
Now, in TABT , we have
+ATB + +BAT + +ABT = 180c
43c + 72c + +ABT = 180c
` +ABT = 65c
172 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2. AB and CD are two chords of a circle which intersect each other internally at P.
(i) If CP = 4 cm, AP = 8 cm, PB = 2 cm, then find PD. (ii) If AP = 12 cm,
AB = 15 cm, CP = PD, then find CD.
Solution: (i)
The chords AB and CD interset at a point P, inside the circle.
we have PA # PB = PC # PD
& PD = PA # PB = 8 # 2 = 4cm .
PC 4

(ii) Given that CP = PD, AP = 12cm. AB = 15 cm.


Now, AP + PB = 15 & PB = 15 - 12 = 3cm.
Now, PA # PB = PC # PD
& PD2 = PA # PB 6a PC = PD @
& PD2 = 36 & PD = 6cm .
Hence, CD = 2PD = 12cm .
3. AB and CD are two chords of a circle which intersect each other externally at P
(i) If AB = 4 cm BP = 5 cm and PD = 3 cm, then find CD.
(ii) If BP = 3 cm, CP = 6 cm and CD = 2 cm, then find AB.
Solution: (i) Since the chords AB and CD meet externally at P, we have
PA # PB = PC # PD
& 9 # 5 = [3 + CD] (3)
& 3 + CD = 9 # 5 = 15cm
3
Thus, CD = 12 cm
(ii) Given that CP = 6 cm
& CD + PD = 6 ` PD = 4cm .
We have PA # PB = PC # PD
i.e., (AB + PB) # PB = PC # PD
& (3 + AB) # 3 = 6 # 4
& 3 + AB = 6 # 4 = 8
3
Thus, AB = 5 cm.
4. A circle touches the side BC of T ABC at P, AB and AC produced at Q and R
respectively, prove that AQ = AR = 1 ( perimeter of T ABC)
2
Solution: We know that the lengths of two tangents drawn to a circle from an external
point are equal. Thus, we have
BQ = BP g (1) [tangents from the point B]
CP = CR g (2) [tangents from the point C]
AQ = AR g (3) [tangents from the point A]
Solution - Geometry 173
Perimeter of TABC = AB + BC + CA
= AB + BP + PC + CA
= (AB + BP) + (PC + CA)
= (AB + BQ) + (CR + CA) Using (1) and (2)
= AQ + AR = AR + AR = 2AR , Using (3)
& AR = 1 (Perimeter of TABC)
2
Thus, from (3) we have AR = AQ= 1 (Perimeter of TABC)
2
5. If all sides of a parallelogram touch a circle, show that the parallelogram is a
rhombus.
Solution: Let ABCD be a parallelogram. The sides AB, BC, CD and DA touch the
circle at the points P,Q,R, and S respectively.
We know that the lengths of two tangents drawn to a circle from an external point are
equal. Thus, AP = AS g (1) ; BP = BQ g (2)
CR = CQ g (3) ; DR = DS g (4)
Adding (1), (2), (3) and (4), we get
AP + BP + CR + DR = AS + BQ + CQ + DS
& (AP + BP) + (CR + DR) = (AS + DS) + (BQ + CQ)
[ ABCD is a parallelogram
& AB + CD = AD + BC
AB = CD & BC = AD ]
&    2AB = 2AD or AB = AD
Thus, we have AB = BC = CD = AD ` ABCD is a rhombus.
6. A lotus is 20 cm above the water surface in a pond and its stem is partly below the
water surface. As the wind blew, the stem is pushed aside so that the lotus touched
the water 40 cm away from the original position of the stem. How
much of the stem was below the water surface originally?
Solution: Let O be the bottom of the stem immersed in water. Let
B be the lotus. Then AB be the length of the stem above the water
surface and OA be the length of the stem below the water surface.
Let OA = x cm
Let C be the point where the lotus touches the water surface when the wind blow.
Now, OC = OA + AB = x + 20cm
By Pythagoras theorem, we have OC2 = OA2 + AC2
(x + 20) 2 = x2 + 402
x2 + 40x + 400 = x2 + 1600 & 40x = 1 200 & x = 30 cm
Thus, the stem is 30 cm below the water surface.
174 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
7. A point O in the interior of a rectangle ABCD is joined to each of the vertices A,
B, C and D. Prove that OA 2 + OC 2 = OB 2 + OD 2 .
Solution: Through O, draw EOF < AB .
Now, ABFE and EFCD are rectangles
In right TOEA , by Pythagoras Theorem OA2 = OE2 + EA2 g (1)
In right TOFC , by Pythagoras Theorem OC2 = OF2 + FC2 g (2)
In right TOFB , by Pythagoras Theorem OB2 = OF2 + FB2 g (3)
In right TOED , by Pythagoras Theorem OD2 = OE2 + ED2 g (4)
Adding (3) and (4),
OB2 + OD2 = OF2 + FB2 + OE2 + ED2
= (OE2 + FB2) + (OF2 + ED2)
= (OE2 + EA2) + (OF2 + FC2)
[ a ABCD and EFCD are rectangles, FB = EA and ED = FC
= OA + OC2 .     2
using (1) and (2)

Exercise 6.4
1. If a straight line intersects the sides AB and AC of a TABC at D and E respectively and
is parallel to BC, then AE =
AC
(A) AD (B) AD (C) DE (D) AD
DB AB BC EC
Solution: By Thales theorem, AE = AD ( Ans. (B) )
AC AB
2. In TABC , DE is < to BC, meeting AB and AC at D and E. If AD = 3 cm, DB = 2 cm and
AE = 2.7 cm , then AC is equal to
(A) 6.5 cm (B) 4.5 cm (C) 3.5 cm (D) 5.5 cm
Solution: By Thales Theorem
AD = AE & EC = AE # BD = 2.7 # 2 = 1.8cm
BD EC AD 3
Thus, AC = AE + EC = 2.7 + 1.8 = 4.5cm ( Ans. (B) )

3. In TPQR , RS is the bisector of +R . If PQ = 6 cm, QR = 8 cm, RP = 4 cm then PS is


equal to
(A) 2 cm (B) 4 cm (C) 3 cm (D) 6 cm
Solution: Let PS = x cm . SQ = 6 - x cm
RS is the bisector of +PRQ , we have
PR = PS & 4 = x & 2x = 6 - x & x = 2 ( Ans. (A) )
QR SQ 8 6-x

Solution - Geometry 175


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4. In figure, if AB = BD , +B = 40c, and +C = 60c, then +BAD =


AC DC
(A) 30c (B) 50c
(C) 80c (D) 40c
Solution: AB = BD & AD is the angle bisector of +BAC
AC DC
But +ABC + +BCA + +CAB = 180c
40 + 60 + 2+BAD = 180c & +BAD = 40c ( Ans. (D) )
5. In the figure, the value x is equal to
(A) 4 $ 2 (B) 3 $ 2
(C) 0 $ 8 (D) 0 $ 4
Solution: By Thales theorem, AD = AE & x = 4 & x = 3.2 ( Ans. (B) )
BD EC 8 10
6. In triangles ABC and DEF, +B = +E, +C = +F , then
(A) AB = CA (B) BC = AB (C) AB = BC (D) CA = AB
DE EF EF FD DE EF FD EF
Solution: By AA - Criterion TABC~TDEF . Thus AB = BC ( Ans. (C) )
DE EF
7. From the given figure, identify the wrong statement.
(A) TADB + TABC (B) TABD + TABC
(C) TBDC + TABC (D) TADB + TBDC
Solution: TABD ~ TABC is wrong statement ( Ans. (B) )
8. If a vertical stick 12 m long casts a shadow 8 m long on the ground and at the same time
a tower casts a shadow 40 m long on the ground, then the height of the tower is
(A) 40 m (B) 50 m (C) 75 m (D) 60 m
Height of tower Height of stick
Solution: =
Shadow of tower Shadow of stick
& Height of tower = 12 # 40 = 60m. ( Ans. (D) )
8
9. The sides of two similar triangles are in the ratio 2:3, then their areas are in the ratio
(A) 9:4 (B) 4:9 (C) 2:3 (D) 3:2
Solution: 22 : 32 = 4 : 9 . ( Ans. (B) )
10. Triangles ABC and DEF are similar. If their areas are 100 cm2 and 49 cm2 respectively
and BC is 8.2 cm then EF =
(A) 5.47 cm (B) 5.74 cm (C) 6.47 cm (D) 6.74 cm
Area ^TABC h 2 2
Solution: = BC2 & 100 = BC2
Area ^TDEF h EF 49 EF
Thus, BC = 10 & EF = 7 # 8.2 = 5.74 cm ( Ans. (B) )
EF 7 10
176 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
11. The perimeters of two similar triangles are 24 cm and 18 cm respectively. If one side of
the first triangle is 8 cm, then the corresponding side of the other triangle is
(A) 4 cm (B) 3 cm (C) 9 cm (D) 6 cm
Solution:
Perimeter of the first triangle a side of the first triangle
=
Perimeter of the second triangle corresponding side of the second triangle

Corresponding side of the second triangle = 8 # 18 = 6 cm ( Ans. (D) )


24
12. AB and CD are two chords of a circle which when produced to meet at a point
P such that AB = 5 cm, AP = 8 cm, and CD = 2 cm then PD =
(A) 12 cm (B) 5 cm (C) 6 cm (D) 4 cm
Solution: Let PD = x cm & PA × PB = PC × PD
8 × 3 = ( x + 2) x & x2 + 2x - 24 = 0 & x = 4 ( Ans. (D) )
13. In the adjoining figure, chords AB and CD intersect at P.
If AB = 16 cm, PD = 8 cm, PC = 6 and AP > PB, then AP =
(A) 8 cm (B) 4 cm
(C) 12 cm (D) 6 cm
Solution: Let PA = x cm & PA × PB = PC × PD
& x (16 – x) = 6 × 8 & x2 - 16x + 48 = 0 & (x – 4) (x – 12) = 0
& x = 4 or x = 12. But AP > PB ` AP = 12 cm ( Ans. (C) )
14. A point P is 26 cm away from the centre O of a circle and PT is the tangent
drawn from P to the circle is 10 cm, then OT is equal to
(A) 36 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 18 cm (D) 24 cm
Solution: OP 2 = OT 2 + TP 2 & OT 2 = 26 2 - 10 2 = 24 ( Ans. (D) )
15. In the figure, if +PAB = 120c then +BPT =
(A) 120o (B) 30o

(C) 40o (D) 60o

Solution: +BCP + 120c = 180° (a ABCP is a cyclic quadrilateral)


` +BCP = 60c
But +BPT = +BCP = 60c ( Ans. (D) )
16. If the tangents PA and PB from an external point P to circle with centre O are
inclined to each other at an angle of 40o, then +POA =
(A) 70o (B) 80o (C) 50o (D) 60o
Solution: Since TOAP , TOBP, +APO = 20c
In TOAP, +POA + 90c + 20c = 180c ` +POA = 70c ( Ans. (A) )
Solution - Geometry 177
17. In the figure, PA and PB are tangents to the circle drawn from an
external point P. Also CD is a tangent to the circle at Q. If PA = 8
cm and CQ = 3 cm, then PC is equal to
(A) 11 cm (B) 5 cm
(C) 24 cm (D) 38 cm
Solution: PB = PA & PC + BC = 8 & PC + PQ = 8
& PC = 5 cm ( Ans. (B) )

18. TABC is a right angled triangle where +B = 90c and BD = AC . If BD = 8 cm,


AD = 4cm , then CD is
(A) 24 cm (B) 16 cm (C) 32 cm (D) 8 cm

Solution: DC = DB & TDCB + TDBA & DC = DB


DB DA DB DA
& DC # DA = DB2
& 4DC = 82 & DC = 16 cm ( Ans. (B) )

19. The areas of two similar triangles are 16 cm2 and 36 cm2 respectively. If the
altitude of the first triangle is 3 cm, then the corresponding altitude of the other
triangle is
(A) 6.5 cm (B) 6 cm (C) 4 cm (D) 4.5 cm

Solution:
Area of the first triangle ^ Altitude of the first triangleh2
=
Area of the second triangle ^Corresponding altitude of the second triangleh2

& Altitude of second triangle = 36 # 9 = 4.5 cm ( Ans. (D) )


16

20. The perimeter of two similar triangles TABC and TDEF are 36 cm and 24 cm
respectively. If DE = 10 cm, then AB is
(A) 12 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 15 cm (D) 18 cm

Solution: Perimeter of TABC = AB


Perimeter of TDEF DC

& AB = 36 # 10 = 15 cm ( Ans. (C) )


24

178 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Trigonometry 7
Exercise 7.1
1. Determine whether each of the following is an identity or not.
2 2 2 2
(i) cos i + sec i = 2 + sin i , (ii) cot i + cos i = sin i .
2
Solution: (i) When i = 45 o , cos2 i + sec2 i = c 1 m + ^ 2 h = 1 + 2 = 2.5
2
2 2
and 2+ sin i =2 + 1
2
2 2
Thus, if i = 45 o , cos i + sec i ! 2 + sin i
2 2
Hence, cos i + sec i = 2 + sin i is not an identity.
2
(ii) When i = 30 o , cot i + cos i = ^ 3 h +
2 3 = 3 + 3 and sin2 i = ` 1 j = 1
2

2
2 2 2 4
Thus, if i = 30 o , cot i + cos i ! sin i .
2
Note: One can use
2
Hence, cot i + cos i = sin i is not an identity.
2
i = 90c also.
2 2 2 2
2. Prove the following identities (i) sec i + cosec i = sec i cosec i
2 2
Solution: We consider sec i + cosec i
2 2
= 1 + 1 = sin i + cos i = 1
cos2 i sin2 i cos2 i sin2 i cos2 i sin2 i
2 2
= sec i. cosec i
Note: In this problem, sum and product of two terms are equal.
(ii) sin i = cosec i + cot i .
1 - cos i
Solution: We consider sin i
1 - cos i

= sin i # 1 + cos i = sin i # (1 + cos i)


c m
1 - cos i 1 + cos i 1 - cos2 i
Aliter:
= sin2i (1 + cos i) = 1 + cos i
sin i sin i (1 - cos i) (cosec i + cot i)
2
= 1 + cos i = cosec i + cot i = cosec i + cot i - cot i - cos i
sin i sin i sin i
= sin i
(iii) 1 - sin i = sec i - tan i .
1 + sin i
Solution: We consider 1 - sin i = 1 - sin i # 1 - sin i
1 + sin i 1 + sin i 1 - sin i
^1 - sin i h2
= 2
1 - sin i
^1 - sin i h2
= = 1 - sin i
2
cos i cos i
= sec i - tan i
Solution - Trigonometry 179
(iv) cos i = 1 + sin i .
sec i - tan i
Solution: We consider cos i
sec i - tan i
cos i^sec i + tan i h
=
^sec i - tan i h^sec i + tan i h
= cos i c 1 + sin i m ^a sec2 i - tan2 i = 1h
cos i cos i
= 1 + sin i .
2
Note: (sec i - tan i) (1 + sin i) = sec i + tan i - tan i - sin i
2 cos i
= 1 - sin i = cos i
cos i
2 2
(v) sec i + cosec i = tan i + cot i .
2 2
Solution: We consider
sec i + cosec i
= ^1 + tan i h + ^1 + cot i h
2 2

=
2 2
tan i + cot i + 2
=
2 2
tan i + cot i + 2 tan i cot i ^a tan i cot i = 1h
= ^tan i + cot i h2 = tan i + cot i
2
(vi) 1 + cos i - sin i = cot i .
sin i ^1 + cos ih
2
Solution: We consider 1 + cos i - sin i Aliter:
sin i^1 + cos i h (cot i) {sin i (1 + cos i)}
2 2
= 1 - sin i + cos i = cos i + cos i = (cos i) (1 + cos i)
sin i^1 + cos i h sin i^1 + cos i h
= cos i + cos2 i
cos i (cos i + 1)
= = cos i = cot i = cos i + 1 - sin2 i
sin i^1 + cos i h sin i
(vii) sec i ^1 - sin ih^sec i + tan ih = 1 .
Solution: We consider sec i ^1 - sin i h^sec i + tan i h
1 ^1 - sin i h^sec i + tan i h Aliter:
=
cos i [sec i (1 - sin i)] (sec i + tan i)
= c 1 - sin i m^sec i + tan i h = (sec i - tan i) (sec i + tan i)
cos i cos i = sec2 i - tan2 i = 1
= ^sec i - tan i h ^sec i + tan i h

= ^sec i - tan i h = 1
2 2

(viii) sin i = 1 - cos i .


cosec i + cot i
sin i
Solution: We consider cosec i cot i
+
= sin i # c cosec i - cot i m
cosec i + cot i cosec i - cot i

180 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


sin i c 1 - cosi m
sin i sin i
= = sin i # 1 - sin i c cos i m
2 2
cosec i - cot i sin i sin i
^a cosec2 i - cot2 i = 1h
= 1 - cos i
Aliter-I Aliter-II
2
sin i = sin i (1 - cos i) (cosec i + cot i)
1 + cos i 1 + cos i
sin i sin i
2 2
= 1 - cos i = cosec i + cot i - cot i - cos i
1 + cos i sin i
^1 - cos i h^1 + cos i h 2
= = 1 - cos i = sin i
1 + cos i sin i sin i
= 1 - cos i
3. Prove the following identities.
sin ^90c - ih cos i
(i) + = 2 sec i .
1 + sin i 1 - cos ^90c - ih
sin ^90c - i h cos i
Solution: We consider +
1 + sin i 1 - cos ^90c - i h

= cos i + cos i
1 + sin i 1 - sin i
cos i^1 - sin i h + cos i^1 + sin i h
=
^1 + sin i h ^1 - sin i h

= cos i - cos i sin i + cos 2


i + cos i sin i
1 - sin i
= 2 cos2 i = 2 = 2 sec i ^a 1 - sin2 i = cos2 i h
cos i cos i
(ii) tan i + cot i = 1 + sec i cosec i .
1 - cot i 1 - tan i
Solution: We consider tan i + cot i
1 - cot i 1 - tan i
2 Aliter: We consider
= tan i - cot i
sin i cos i
tan i - 1 tan i - 1
cos i + sin i
= 1
` tan i - 1 j
2 1 - cos i 1 - sin i
^tan i - 1h tan i sin i 2 cos i 2
= sin i + cos i
3 cos i (sin i - cos i) sin i (cos i - sin i)
= tan i - 1 3 3
(tan i - 1) tan i = sin i - cos i
sin i cos i (sin i - cos i)
^tan i - 1h ^tan2 i + tan i + 1h 2 2
= =
(sin i - cos i) (sin i + cos + sin i cos i)
^tan i - 1h tan i sin i cos i (sin i - cos i)
2
= 1 + tan i + tan i = 1 + sin i cos i = cosec i sec i + 1
tan i sin i cos i

Solution - Trigonometry 181


2
= sec i + tan i = 1 2 # cos i + 1
tan i tan i cos i sin i

= 1 # 1 + 1 = sec i cosec i + 1
cos i sin i
0 0
sin ^90 - ih cos ^90 - ih
(iii) + = cos i + sin i .
1 - tan i 1 - cot i
0 0
sin ^90 - i h cos ^90 - i h
Solution: We consider +
1 - tan i 1 - cot i

= cos i + sin i Aliter:


1 - sin i 1 - cos i
cos i sin i = cos i + sin i tan i
1 - tan i tan i - 1
= cos2 i sin2 i
+
cos i - sin i sin i - cos i cos i - sin i c sin i m
cos i
=
1 1 - tan i
= ^cos 2 i - sin2 i h
cos i - sin i 2 2
= cos i - sin i = cos i + sin i
^cos i + sin i h^cos i - sin i h cos i - sin i
=
cos i - sin i

= cos i + sin i
0
tan ^90 - ih cosec i + 1
(iv) + = 2 sec i.
cosec i + 1 cot i
0
tan ^90 - i h cosec i + 1
Solution: We consider +
cosec i + 1 cot i
cot i Aliter:
= + cosec i + 1
cosec i + 1 cot i cot2 i + (1 + cosec i) 2
=
cos i + 1 + sin i cot i (1 + cosec i)
=
1 + sin i cos i (cosec2 i - 1) + (1 + 2 cosec i + cosec2 i)
=
cos 2 i + ^1 + sin i h2 cot i (1 + cosec i)
=
cos i^1 + sin i h 2 cosec i (1 + cosec i)
= = 2 sec i
2 2 cot i (1 + cosec i)
= cos i + 1 + sin i + 2 sin i
cos i ^1 + sin i h
2 ^1 + sin i h
= = 2 sec i
cos i ^1 + sin i h

(v) cot i + cosec i - 1 = cosec i + cot i.


cot i - cosec i + 1

Solution: We consider cot i + cosec i - 1


cot i - cosec i + 1
cot i + cosec i - (cosec2 i - cot2 i)
=     (a cosec2 i - cot2 i = 1)
cot i - cosec i + 1

182 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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cot i + cosec i - (cosec i + cot i) (cosec i - cot i)


=
cot i - cosec i + 1
Aliter:
(cot i + cosec i) (1 - (cosec i - cot i))
= (cosec i + cot i) (cot i - cosec i + 1)
cot i - cosec i + 1
2 2
= cosec i cot i - cosec i + cosec i + cot i
(cot i + cosec i) (1 - cosec i + cot i)
= - cot i cosec i + cot i
(cot i - cosec i + 1)
2 2
= cot i + cosec i - cosec i + cosec i - 1
= cot i + cosec i
= cot i + cosec i - 1

(vi) ^1 + cot i - cosec ih^1 + tan i + sec ih = 2 .

Solution: We consider ^1 + cot i - cosec i h^1 + tan i + sec i h

= c1 + cos i - 1 mc1 + sin i + 1 m


sin i sin i cos i cos i
((sin i + cos i) - 1) ((cos i + sin i) + 1)
=
sin i cos i
(sin i + cos i) 2 - 1
=
sin i cos i

= sin2 i + cos2 i + 2 sin i cos i - 1


sin i cos i

= 1 + 2 sin i cos i - 1 (a sin2 i + cos2 i = 1)


sin i cos i

= 2 sin i cos i = 2
sin i cos i
(vii) sin i - cos i + 1 = 1 .
sin i + cos i - 1 sec i - tan i
Solution: We consider sin i - cos i + 1
sin i + cos i - 1
sin i - cos i + 1 Aliter:
= cos i cos i cos i
sin i + cos i - 1 Now (sec i - tan i) (sin i - cos i + 1)
cos i cos i cos i 2
= tan i - 1 + sec i - sin i + sin i - tan i
(Divide each term of both cos i
numerator and denominator by cos i ) 2
= sin i - 1 + c 1 - sin i m
cos i
= tan i - 1 + sec i
tan i + 1 - sec i = sin i - 1 + cos i
Thus sin i - cos i + 1 = 1
= tan i + sec i - 1 sin i - 1 + cos i sec i - tan i
tan i + 1 - sec i
tan i + sec i - (sec2 i - tan2 i)
= ( sec2 i - tan2 i = 1 )
tan i + 1 - sec i
tan i + sec i - (sec i + tan i) (sec i - tan i)
=
tan i + 1 - sec i
Solution - Trigonometry 183
(tan i + sec i) (1 - (sec i - tan i))
=
tan i + 1 - sec i
(tan i + sec i) (1 - sec i + tan i)
=
tan i + 1 - sec i

= tan i + sec i

= (sec i + tan i) # c sec i - tan i m


sec i - tan i
2 2
= c sec i - tan i m
sec i - tan i

= 1 (a sec2 i - tan2 i = 1)
sec i - tan i
0

(viii) tan i = sin i sin ^90 - ih .


2 2 0
1 - tan i 2 sin ^90 - ih - 1
sin i sin i
Solution: We consider tan i cos i cos i
2 = sin 2
i
=
cos 2
i sin2 i
1 - tan i 1 - -
cos i
2
cos i
2

2
= sin i # cos i
cos i cos2 i - sin2 i

= sin i cos i
2 2
cos i - sin i
sin i sin (90c - i)
= (a sin2 i = 1 - cos2 i)
cos2 i - ^1 - cos2 i h
sin i sin (90c - i)
=
2 cos2 i - 1
sin i sin (90c - i)
=
2 sin2 (90c - i) - 1
(ix) 1 - 1 = 1 - 1 .
cosec i - cot i sin i sin i cosec i + cot i
Solution: Now cosec2 i - cot2 i = 1 & (cosec i - cot i) (cosec i + cot i) = 1 ... (1)

We consider 1 - 1
cosec i - cot i sin i
(cosec i - cot i) (cosec i + cot i)
= - 1 by (1)
cosec i - cot i sin i
= (cosec i + cot i) - cosec i
^cosec i - cot i h
= cosec i -
1
= 1 - 1 by (1)
sin i cosec i + cot i
184 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Aliter-I Aliter-II
1 + 1 1 - 1
cosec i - cot i cosec i + cot i cosec i - cot i sin i

= cosec i + cot 2i + cosec2 i - cot i = cosec i + cot i - 1


cosec i - cot i (cosec i - cot i) (cosec i + cot i) sin i

= 2 cosec i = 2 = 1 + 1 = cosec2 i + cot 2i - cosec i


sin i sin i sin i cosec i - cot i
Thus 1 - 1 =cosec i + cot i - cosec i =cot i ...(1)
cosec i - cot i sin i
= 1 - 1 Now, 1 - 1
sin i cosec i + cot i sin i cosec i + cot i
^cosec i - cot i h
= cosec i -
cosec2 i - cot2 i

= cosec i - cosec i + cot i = cot i ...(2)


From (1) and (2), the result follows.
2 2
(x) cot2 i + sec i2 = (sin i cos i)^tan i + cot ih .
tan i + cosec i 2 2
Solution: We consider cot2 i + sec i2
tan i + cosec i Aliter:
2 2
cot i + (1 + tan i)
= 2 2 = 1 ... (1) [(sin i cos i) (tan i + cot i)] (tan2 i + cosec2 i)
tan i + (1 + cot i)
2 2 2 2
( sec i = 1 + tan i, cosec i = 1 + cot i ) = (sin2 i + cos2 i) (tan2 i + cosec2 i)

Now, sin i cos i (tan i + cot i) = (1) (sec2 i - 1 + 1 + cot2 i)

= sin i cos i c sin i + cos i m = sec2 i + cot2 i


cos i sin i
= sin2 i + cos2 i = 1 ... (2)
Now (1) and (2) complete the proof.
2 2 2 2
4. If x = a sec i + b tan i and y = a tan i + b sec i , then prove that x - y = a - b .
2 2
Solution: We consider, x - y
= (a sec i + b tan i) 2 - (a tan i + b sec i) 2
= a2 sec2 i + b2 tan2 i + 2ab sec i tan i - (a2 tan2 i + b2 sec2 i + 2ab tan i sec i)
= a2 sec2 i - a2 tan2 i + b2 tan2 i - b2 sec2 i
= a2 (sec2 i - tan2 i) + b2 (tan2 i - sec2 i)    
= a2 - b2 ( a sec2 i - tan2 i = 1)
2
5. If tan i = n tan a and sin i = m sin a , then prove that cos i = m2 - 1 , n ! ! 1 .
2

n -1
Solution: Let us eliminate a from the given relations.
Given that tan i = n tan a and sin i = m sin a .
Solution - Trigonometry 185
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& cot a = n and cosec a = m


tan i sin i
We know that
cosec2 a - cot2 a = 1 & m2 - n2 = 1
m2 - n2 cos2 i sin2 i tan2 i
& = 1
sin2 i
& m - n2 cos2 i
2
= sin2 i
& m2 - n2 cos2 i = 1 - cos2 i
& m2 - 1 = cos2 i (n2 - 1)
Thus, m2 - 1 = cos2 i .
n2 - 1
6 2
6. If sin i, cos i and tan i are in G.P., then prove that cot i - cot i = 1.
Solution: Given that sin i, cos i and tan i are in G.P.
Thus, cos i = tan i
sin i cos i
& cos3 i = sin2 i g (1)
6 2
(cos3 i) 2 cos2 i
We consider cot i - cot i = cos6 i - cos2 i =
6 2
-
sin i sin i sin6 i sin2 i
(sin2 i) 2 cos2 i
= - using (1)
sin6 i sin2 i
4 2 2
= sin 6 i - cos2 i = 12 - cos2 i
sin i sin i sin i sin i
2
= 1 - cos i
sin2 i
2
= sin2 i = 1.
sin i

Exercise 7.2

1. A ramp for unloading a moving truck, has an angle of elevation of 30°. If the top
of the ramp is 0.9 m above the ground level, then find the length of the ramp.
Solution: Let C be the top of the ramp and AC be the length of the ramp.
Given that +CAB = 30c and BC = 0.9 m.

In the right 3 CAB, sin 30° = BC


AC
& AC = BC
sin 30c
= 0.9 # 2 = 1.8 m.
Thus, the length of the ramp is 1.8m.
2. A girl of height 150cm stands in front of a lamp-post and casts a shadow of length
150 3 cm on the ground. Find the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp-post.
Solution: Let BC be the height of the girl and let AB be the length of her shadow on
the ground. Let i be the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp-post.
186 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Given that AB = 150 3 cm, BC = 150 cm

In the right 3 CAB, tan i = BC = 150 = 1 = tan 30 o


AB 150 3 3
& i = 30°
Thus, the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp-post is 30 o .
3. Suppose two insects A and B can hear each other up to a range of 2. The insect A
is on the ground 1 m away from a wall and sees her friend B on the wall, about to
be eaten by a spider. If A sounds a warning to B and if the angle of elevation of B
from A is 30c, will the spider have a meal or not ?
(Assume that B escapes if she hears A calling)
Solution: Let A be the position of the insect A on the ground and B be the position of
another insect B on the wall OB.
Given that OA = 1m and +BAO = 30 o

In the right T BAO, cos 30° = AO


AB
& AB = AO
cos 30c
& AB = 2
3
= 2 # 3 =2 3
3 3 3
= 2 # 1.732 = 2 # 0.577 = 1.154m
3
That is, the distance between the insects is 1.154m which is less than 2m.
Thus, B can hear A’s warning and hence B escapes. So, the spider will not have a meal.
4. To find the cloud ceiling, one night an observer directed a spotlight vertically at
the clouds. Using a theodolite placed 100 m from the spotlight and 1.5 m above
the ground, he found the angle of elevation to be 60°. How high was the cloud
ceiling? (Not for Examination)
Solution: Let B be the positon of the spotlight, AC be the height
of the cloud ceiling and E be the position of the theodolite. Then
BE = 100m, BC = 1.5m and +AEB = 60 o .
In the right TABE , tan 60 o = AB & AB = tan 60c # BE
BE
& A
B = 3 # 100 = 1.732 # 100
& AB = 173.2m
Now, AC = AB + BC = 173.2m + 1.5m = 174.7m
Thus, the cloud ceiling was 174.7m high.

Solution - Trigonometry 187


Aliter: Height h of the cloud ceiling is given by h = x + y tan i where x is the distance
from the observing point to the ground and y is the distance from the observing point
to the theodolite and i is the angle of elevation.
h = 1.5 + 100 # tan 60c
= 1.5 + 100 # 3 = 1.5 + 100 # 1.732
= 1.5 + 173.2 = 174.7m
Thus, the cloud ceiling was at 174.7m high.
5. A simple pendulum of length 40 cm subtends 60° at the vertex in one full oscillation.
What will be the shortest distance between the initial position and the final position
of the bob?
Solution: Let O be the point about which the pendulum oscillates. Let A and B be the
extrem ends of the oscillation where the angle of oscillation
is 60°.
iven that OA = OB = 40cm and +AOB = 60c. Draw OC
G
perpendicular to AB. Since OA = OB, OC is the perpendicular
bisector of AB and angle bisector of +AOB ` +AOC = 30 o .
In the right T COA, sin 30° = AC
OA
AC = OA sin 30c = 40 # 1 = 20 cm
2
Since C is the mid-point of AB,
AB = 2AC = 2 # 20 = 40 cm
Thus, the shortest distance between the initial and the final position of the bob at that
oscillation is 40cm.
6. Two crows A and B are sitting at a height of 15 m and 10 m in two different trees
vertically opposite to each other . They view a vadai (an eatable) on the ground
at an angle of depression 45° and 60° respectively. They start at the same time
and fly at the same speed along the shortest path to pick
up the vadai. Which bird will succeed in it?
Solution: L
et A be the position of the crow A and B be the
position of crow B. Let C and E be the foot of the trees. Let
D be the position of the vadai.
Given that AC = 15m, BE = 10m, +ADC = 45 o and
+BDE = 60 o .
In the right T ADC, sin 45° = AC & 1 = 15
AD 2 AD
AD = 15 2 = 15 # 1.414 = 21.21 m

188 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Thus, distance travelled by crow A to reach vadai is 21.21 m.
In the right T BDE, sin 60° = BE
BD
& BD = BE ( BD = 20
sin 60c 3
= 20 # 3 = 20 # 3
3 3 3
= 20 # 1 .732 = 20 # 0.574
3
Thus, BD = 11.48m
hus, distance travelled by crow B to reach the vadai is 11.48m. Since crow B travels
T
shortest distance to reach the vadai, Crow B will succeed in picking up the vadai.
7. A lamp-post stands at the centre of a circular park. Let P and Q be two points
on the boundary such that PQ subtends an angle 90c at the foot of the lamp-post
and the angle of elevation of the top of the lamp post from P is 30c. If PQ = 30 m,
then find the height of the lamp post.
Solution: Let O be the centre of the park and OR be the lamp post. P and Q are two
points on the boundary of the circular park. Given that PQ = 30m, +POQ = 90 o .
In the right T OPQ, +POQ = 90 o , OP = OQ = radius. So +OPQ = +OQP = 45c
OP = PQ # cos 45 o
& OP = 30 = 30 2 = 15 2
2 2
In the right T RPO, tan 30° = OR
OP
OR = OP # tan 30 o
& OR = 15 2 # 1 = 15 2 # 3
3 3 3
= 15 6 =5 6m
3
Thus, the height of the lamp post is 5 6 m .
Aliter: Let O be the centre of the park and OR be the lamp post. P and Q are two
points on the boundary of the circular park.
Given that PQ = 30m, +POQ = 90 o , OP = OQ ( radius )
In the right T OPQ, OP + OQ = PQ
2 2 2

& 2OP2 = 302 & OP2 = 30 # 30


2
& OP = 30
2
In the right T RPO, tan 30 =
o OR & OR = 1
OP OP 3
& OR = OP = 30 (a OP = 30 )
3 2# 3 2
= 30 # 6 = 30 6 = 5 6 m
6 6 6
Solution - Trigonometry 189
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8. A person in an helicopter flying at a height of 700 m, observes two objects lying
opposite to each other on either bank of a river. The angles of depression of the
objects are 30c and 45c. Find the width of the river. ( 3 = 1.732 )
Solution: Let C be the point of observation. Let A and B be two objects lying opposite
to each other on either bank of a river. Draw CD = AB . CD is the distance between
the observer and the river.Given that CD = 700m, +CAD = 30 o, +CBD = 45 o .
In the right TCDB, tan 45c = CD & DB = CD = 700 m
DB
In the right T CAD, tan 30° = CD & AD = CD o
AD tan 30
& AD = 700 3 m
Now, the width of the river, AB = AD + DB
= 700 3 + 700 = 700 ( 3 + 1) = 700 (1.732 + 1)
= 700 (2.732) = 1912.400 = 1912.4m
Thus, the width of the river 1912.4m.
9. A person X standing on a horizontal plane, observes a bird flying at a distance
of 100 m from him at an angle of elevation of 30c. Another person Y standing on
the roof of a 20 m high building, observes the bird at the same time at an angle
of elevation of 45c. If X and Y are on the opposite sides of the bird, then find the
distance of the bird from Y.
Solution: Let B be the position of the bird. Draw BD = XA and CY = BD .
Then, CD = 20m.
Given that BX = 100m, +BXD = 30 o, +BYC = 45 o .
Let the distance of the bird from the person Y is BY.
In the right T BXD, sin 30° = BD
BX
& BD = BX # sin 30 o & 100 = 50m
2
Now, BC = BD - CD = 50m - 20m = 30m
In the right T YBC, sin 45c = BC & 1 = 30
BY 2 BY
& BY = 30 2 m
Thus, the distance of the bird from the person Y is 30 2 m .
10. A student sitting in a classroom sees a picture on the black board at a height
of 1.5 m from the horizontal level of sight. The angle of elevation of the picture is
30c. As the picture is not clear to him, he moves straight towards the black board
and sees the picture at an angle of elevation of 45c. Find the distance moved by
the student.
Solution: Let A and B be the position of the student when the angle of elevation of the
picture to him is 30° and 45° respectively. AB is the distance moved by the student.
190 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Given that +DAC = 30 o, +DBC = 45 o and CD = 1.5m.
In the right T DBC, tan 45° = CD = 1.5 & BC = 1.5m
BC BC
In the right T DAC, tan 30° = CD
AC
& 1 = 1.5 & AC = 1.5 3 m
3 AC
So, AB = AC - BC = 1.5 3 - 1.5 = 1.5 ( 3 - 1)
= 1.5 (1.732 - 1) = 1.5 (0.732) = 1.098 m
Thus, the distance moved by the student is 1.098m.
11. A boy is standing at some distance from a 30 m tall building and his eye level
from the ground is 1.5 m. The angle of elevation from his eyes to the top of the
building increases from 30c to 60cas he walks towards the building. Find the
distance he walked towards the building.
Solution: Suppose the boy initially stands at Al and
moves to the position Bl towards the building C l D.
In the figure, ABC is a horizontal at the level of the
boy.
Given that AAl = BBl = CC l = 1.5m, C l D = 30m,
+DAC = 30 o and +DBC = 60 o
Then, CD = C l D - CC l = 30 - 1.5 = 28.5m .
The distance walked by the boy is AB.

In the right T DBC, tan 60° = CD & BC = CD o


BC tan 60
(28.5) 3 ^ h
& BC = 28.5 = 28.5 # 3 = = 9.5 3
3 3 3 3
In the right T DAC, tan 30° = CD & AC = CD
AC tan 30c
& AC = 28.5 3
& AB + BC = 28.5 3
& AB = ^28.5h 3 - ^9.5h 3 = 19 3 m
Thus, the distance walked by the boy is 19 3 m .
12. From the top of a lighthouse of height 200 feet, the lighthouse keeper observes a
Yacht and a Barge along the same line of sight . The angles of depression for the
Yacht and the Barge are 45c and 30c respectively. For safety purposes the two sea
vessels should be atleast 300 feet apart. If they are less than 300 feet , the keeper
has to sound the alarm. Does the keeper have to sound the alarm?
Solution: Let A and B be the positions of Yatch and Barge respectively. Let D be the
point of observation. Let CD be the light house.
Solution - Trigonometry 191
iven that CD = 200feet, +DAC = 30 o and +DBC = 45 o .
G
AB is the distance between the Yatch and Barge.
In the right T DBC, +DBC = +CDB = 45c. So BC = CD = 200 feet
In the right T DAC, tan 30° = CD
AC
& AC = 200
tan 30c
& AC = 200 3
Now, AB = AC – BC = 200 3 - 200
= 200 ( 3 - 1) = 200 (1.732 - 1)
= 200 (0.732) = 146.4 feet
The distance between the sea vessels is 146.4 feet which is less than 300 feet.
So, the keeper has to sound the alarm.
13. A boy standing on the ground, spots a balloon moving with the wind in a horizontal
line at a constant height . The angle of elevation of the balloon from the boy at
an instant is 60c. After 2 minutes, from the same point of observation,the angle
of elevation reduces to 30c. If the speed of wind is 29 3 m/min. then, find the
height of the balloon from the ground level.
Solution: Let A be the point of observation.
Let E and D be the positions of the balloon when its angles
of elevation are 60o and 30o respectively.
Let B and C be the points on the ground such that
BC = ED and BE = CD.
Given that +EAB = 60 o and +DAC = 30 o .
Speed of the wind = 29 3 m/ minute.
Distance covered by the balloon in 2 minutes,
BC = ED = 29 3 # 2 = 58 3 m (Distance = Speed # Time)

In the right T EAB, tan 60° = BE


AB
& BE = AB tan 60 o = AB 3 ...(1)

In the right TDAC, tan 30c = CD = BE ^a CD = BEh


AC AC
& BE = AC tan 30c = CA = AB + BC = AB + BC
3 3 3 3
& BE = AB 3 + 58 = BE + 58 ( From (1) and BC = 58 3 )
3 3
& BE`1 - 1 j = 58 & BE = 58 # 3 = 87m.
3 2
Thus, the distance of the ballon from the ground level is 87m.
192 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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14. A straight highway leads to the foot of a tower . A man standing on the top of
the tower spots a van at an angle of depression of 30c. The van is approaching
the tower with a uniform speed. After 6 minutes, the angle of depression of the van
is found to be 60c. How many more minutes will it take for the van to reach the
tower?
Solution: Let A be the point of observation. Let B and C be the
positions of the van when the angle of depression from A are
30o and 60o respectively. Then +ABD = 30 o and +ACD = 60 o .

In the right T ABD, tan 30 o = AD


BD
& BD = AD & BD = AD 3 ... (1)
tan 30c
In the right T ACD, tan 60 o = AD & AD = tan 60 o CD = 3 CD ... (2)
CD
Now, BC = BD – CD = AD 3 - CD
= ^CD 3 h^ 3 h - CD = 3CD - CD = 2CD ( Using (2) )
Now, the time taken to cover the distance BC is 6 minutes.
Thus, the time required to cover the distance CD = 6 = 3 minutes.
2
Hence, the van will take 3 more minutes to reach the tower.
15. The angles of elevation of an artificial earth satellite is measured from two earth
stations, situated on the same side of the satellite, are found to be 30cand 60c. The two
earth stations and the satellite are in the same vertical plane. If the distance between
the earth stations is 4000 km, find the distance between the satellite and earth.
( 3 = 1.732)
Solution: Let A and B be the positions of the two earth stations.
Let D be the position of the artificial earth satellite.
Let CD be the distance between the satellite and the earth.
Given that AB = 4000 km, +DAC = 30 o and +DBC = 60 o .
In the right T DBC, tan 60° = DC
BC
& DC = BC tan 60 o
& DC = 3 BC g (1)
In the right T DAC, tan 30° = DC
AC
& DC = AC tan 30 o
& DC = 4000 + BC g (2)
3
Now, (1) and (2) implies 3 BC = 4000 + BC
3
Solution - Trigonometry 193
& 3BC = 4000 + BC & 2BC = 4000
& BC = 2000 km
Using BC = 2000 in (1), we get
DC = 3 # 2000
= 1.732 # 2000 = 3464 km
Thus, the distance between the satellite and the earth is 3464 km.

16. From the top of a tower of height 60 m, the angles of depression of the top and the
bottom of a building are observed to be 30c and 60crespectively. Find the height
of the building.
Solution: Let AE be the building and BD be the tower.
Draw EC || AB such that AE = BC. Let AE = h metres.
Then, BC = h metres.
G iven that BD = 60m, +DEC = 30 o and +DAB = 60 o .
Now, CD = BD - BC = 60 - h

In the right T DAB, tan 60° = BD


AB
& AB = BD = 60 ...(1)
tan 60 o 3
In the right T DEC, tan 30c = CD & EC = CD
EC tan 30c
& AB = (60 - h) 3 ( EC = AB ) ...(2)

(1) and (2) & (60 - h) 3 = 60


3
& 60 - h = 60
3
& 60 - h = 20 & h = 40 m
Thus, the height of the building is 40m.
17. From the top and foot of a 40 m high tower, the angles of elevation of the top
of a lighthouse are found to be 30cand 60c respectively. Find the height of the
lighthouse. Also find the distance of the top of the lighthouse from the foot of the
tower.
Solution: Let AE be the tower and BD be the light house.
Draw EC || AB such that AE = BC. Then, AB = EC.
G iven that AE = 40m, +DAB = 60 o and +DEC = 30 o .

194 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Let CD = x metre. Then, BD = BC + CD = 40 + x.
In the right T DAB, tan 60° = BD
AB
& AB = 40 + x & AB = 40 + x g (1)
tan 60c 3
In the right T DEC, tan 30° = CD = CD         ^ AB = EC h
EC AB
& AB = x & AB = 3 x g (2)
tan 30c
(1) and (2) & 3 x = 40 + x & 3x = 40 + x
3
& 2x = 40
Thus, the height of the light house, BD = 40 + x = 40 + 20 = 60 m.
In the right T DAB, sin 60° = BD
AD
& AD = BD & AD = 120 = 40 3
sin 60c 3
Thus, the distance of the top of the light house from the foot of the tower is 40 3 m.
18. The angle of elevation of a hovering helicopter as seen from a point 45 m above
a lake is 30c and the angle of depression of its reflection in the lake, as seen from
the same point and at the same time, is 60c. Find the distance of the helicopter
from the surface of the lake.
Solution: Let A be the point of observation which
is 45m above the lake. Let BD be the surface of
lake. Then AB = 45m. Let F be the position of
the helicopter and C be its reflection in the lake.
Let FD = h metre. DC = h metre. Draw AE || BD.
Then ED = 45m, +FAE = 30 o and +CAE = 60 o .
In the right T FAE, tan 30° = FE
AE
&     1 h
= - 45
3 AE
( FE = FD – ED )
& AE = ^h - 45h 3 g (1)
In the right T ACE, tan 60° = EC = ED + DC
AE AE
& AE 3 = 45 + h
& h = AE 3 - 45 = ^h - 45h^3 h - 45 ( From (1) )
& = 3h –180
& 2h = 180 & h = 90
Thus, the distance of the helicopter from the surface of the lake is 90 m.
Solution - Trigonometry 195
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Exercise 7.3
Choose the correct answer.
2 2
1. ^1 - sin i h sec i =
2 2
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) tan i (D) cos i
2 2
Solution: ^1 - sin i h sec i = cos i sec i = 1 ( Ans (B) )
2 2

2 2
2. ^1 + tan i h sin i =
2 2 2 2
(A) sin i (B) cos i (C) tan i (D) cot i
2
Solution: ^1 + tan i h sin i = sec i sin i = sin 2i = tan i
2 2
( Ans (C) )
2 2 2

cos i
2 2
3. ^1 - cos i h^1 + cot i h =
2 2
(A) sin i (B) 0 (C) 1 (D) tan i
2 2 2 2
Solution: ^1 - cos i h^1 + cot i h = sin i cosec i = 1 ( Ans (C) )
4. sin ^90c - i h cos i + cos ^90c - i h sin i =
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 2 (D) –1
Solution: sin ^90c - i h cos i + cos ^90c - i h sin i = cos i cos i + sin i sin i = 1
( Ans (A) )
2
5. 1 - sin i =
1 + cos i
(A) cos i (B) tan i (C) cot i (D) cosec i
2
Solution: 1 - sin i = 1 - ^1 + cos i) (1 - cos i h = 1 - (1 - cos i) = cos i
1 + cos i 1 + cos i
( Ans (A) )
4 4
6. cos x - sin x =
2 2 2 2
(A) 2 sin x - 1 (B) 2 cos x - 1 (C) 1 + 2 sin x (D) 1 - 2 cos x.
4 4
Solution: cos x - sin x = (cos x + sin x)(cos x - sin x)
2 2 2 2

= cos2 x - sin2 x = cos2 x - (1 - cos2 x) = 2 cos2 x - 1 ( Ans (B) )


a
7. If tan i = , then the value of x =
x a2 + x2
(A) cos i (B) sin i (C) cosec i (D) sec i

Solution: x = 1 = 1 = 1 = cos i ( Ans (A) )


a + x2
2 a2 tan2 i + 1 sec i
+1
x2
2 y2
8. If x = a sec i , y = b tan i , then the value of x2 - 2 =
a b
(A) 1 (B) –1 (C) tan2 i (D) cosec2 i
2 y2 2 2
i - b2 tan2 i = sec2 i - tan2 i = 1 .
Solution: x2 - 2 = a sec ( Ans (A) )
a b a2 b2

196 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


9. sec i =
cot i + tan i
(A) cot i (B) tan i (C) sin i (D) – cot i
1
Solution: sec i = cos i = sin i ( Ans (C) )
cot i + tan i cos2 i + sin2 i
sin i cos i
sin ^90c - i h sin i cos ^90c - i h cos i
10. + =
tan i cot i
(A) tan i (B) 1 (C) –1 (D) sin i
sin ^90c - i h sin i cos ^90c - i h cos i
Solution: + = cos i sin i + sin i cos i
tan i cot i sin i cos i
cos i sin i
   = cos2 i + sin2 i = 1 ( Ans (B) )
11. In the adjoining figure, AC =

(A) 25 m (B) 25 3 m

(C) 25 m (D) 25 2 m
3
Solution: tan 60 o = AC & AC = 25 tan 60 o = 25 3 m ( Ans (B) )
25
12. In the adjoining figure +ABC =
(A) 45c (B) 30c
(C) 60c (D) 50c

Solution: tan +ABC = 100 3 & tan +ABC = 3 & +ABC = 60 o ( Ans (C) )
100
13. A man is 28.5 m away from a tower. His eye level above the ground is 1.5 m. The
angle of elevation of the tower from his eyes is 45c. Then the height of the tower is
(A) 30 m (B) 27.5 m (C) 28.5 m (D) 27 m
Solution: Height of the tower = x + y tan i
= 1.5 + 28.5 # tan 45 o = 1.5 + 28.5 = 30m ( Ans (A) )
14. In the adjoining figure, sin i = 15 . Then BC =
17
(A) 85 m (B) 65 m
(C) 95 m (D) 75 m

Solution: sin i = 15 . From figure sin i = BC


17 AC
` BC = 15 & BC = 15 # 85 = 75 m ( Ans (D) )
AC 17 17
Solution - Trigonometry 197
15. ^1 + tan2 i h^1 - sin i h^1 + sin i h =
(A) cos2 i - sin2 i (B) sin2 i - cos2 i
(C) sin2 i + cos2 i (D) 0
Solution: ^1 + tan2 i h^1 - sin i h^1 + sin i h = sec2 i cos2 i = 1 = sin2 i + cos2 i
( Ans (C) )
16. ^1 + cot i h^1 - cos i h^1 + cos i h =
2

(A) tan2 i - sec2 i (B) sin2 i - cos2 i


(C) sec2 i - tan2 i (D) cos2 i - sin2 i
Solution: ^1 + cot2 i h^1 - cos i h^1 + cos i h = cosec2 i sin2 i = 1 = sec2 i - tan2 i
( Ans (C) )
17. ^cos2 i - 1h^cot2 i + 1h + 1 =
(A) 1 (B) –1
(C) 2 (D) 0
Solution: ^cos i - 1h^cot i + 1h + 1 =- sin2 i # cosec2 i + 1 =- 1 + 1 = 0
2 2

( Ans (D) )
2
18. 1 + tan2 i =
1 + cot i
(A) cos2 i (B) tan2 i
(C) sin2 i (D) cot2 i
2 2
Solution: 1 + tan2 i = sec i = sin2 i = tan2 i ( Ans (B) )
1 + cot i cosec2 i cos2 i

19. sin2 i + 1 =
1 + tan2 i
(A) cosec2 i + cot2 i (B) cosec2 i - cot2 i
(C) cot2 i - cosec2 i (D) sin2 i - cos2 i
Solution:
sin2 i + 1 = sin2 i + 12 = sin2 i + cos2 i = 1 = cosec2 i - cot2 i
2
1 + tan i sec i
( Ans (B) )
20. 9 tan i - 9 sec i =
2 2

(A) 1 (B) 0
(C) 9 (D) –9
Solution: 9 tan2 i - 9 sec2 i =- 9 (sec2 i - tan2 i) =- 9 ( Ans (D) )

198 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Mensuration 8
Exercise 8.1
1. A solid right circular cylinder has radius 14 cm and height 8 cm. Find its curved
surface area and total surface area.
Solution: Given that radius r = 14 cm and height h = 8 cm
Curved Surface Area, CSA = 2rrh
= 2 × 22 ×14×8= 704 sq.cm
7
Total Surface Area, TSA = 2rr (h + r)
= 2 × 22 ×14(8+14)
7
Thus, the Total Surface Area = 88 × 22 = 1936 cm2.
2. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 660 sq.cm. If its diameter
of the base is 14 cm, find the height and curved surface area of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that TSA = 660 cm2, 2r = 14 or r = 7
Total Surface Area, 2r r(h + r) = 660
& 2× 22 ×7×(h + 7) = 660
7
& h = 660 – 7 = 8 cm
2×22
Thus, the Curved Surface Area 2rrh = 2× 22 ×7×8 = 352 cm2.
7
3. Curved surface area and circumference at the base of a solid right circular cylinder
are 4400 sq.cm and 110 cm respectively. Find its height and diameter.
Solution: Given that Curved SurfaceArea, CSA = 4400 cm2
Circumference of the base of the cylinder, 2rr = 110 cm
& 2× 22 ×r = 110
7
& diameter, 2r = 110×7 = 35 cm
22
Now, Curved Surface Area, 2rrh = 110×h = 4400
Thus, the height of the cylinder h = 4400 = 40 cm.
110
4. A mansion has 12 right cylindrical pillars each having radius 50 cm and height
3.5 m. Find the cost to paint the lateral surface of the pillars at ` 20 per sq.m.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a right circular pillar respectively.
Given that r = 50 cm = 0.5 m and h = 3.5 m
Curved surface area of the pillar = 2rrh = 2× 22 ×0.5×3.5 = 11 m2
7
Cost of painting per sq.m = ` 20
Hence, the cost of painting for 12 pillars = 12×20×11 = ` 2640.

Solution - Mensuration 199


5. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 231cm 2 . Its curved
surface area is two thirds of the total surface area. Find the radius and height of
the cylinder.
Solution: Given that Total Surface Area of a right circular cylinder = 231 cm2

Curved Surface Area = 2 × Total surface area


3
& 2rrh = 2 ×231 = 154 cm2
3
Now, Total Surface Area 2rr (h + r) = 231
& 2rrh +2rr2 = 231
& 2rr2 = 231–154 = 77

& r2 = 77 = 77×7 = 7×7


2r 2×22 2× 2
Thus, the radius of the cylinder r = 7 cm
2
Now, 2rrh = 154 & 2× 22 × 7 ×h = 154
7 2
& h = 154 × 7 × 2 =7
2×22×7
Thus, the height of the cylinder h = 7 cm.
6. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder is 1540 cm2. If the height is
four times the radius of the base, then find the height of the cylinder.
Solution: Given that Total Surface Area, TSA = 1540 cm2 , height h = 4r or r = h
4
Total Surface Area, 2rr (h + r) = 1540

& 2× 22 × h `h + h j = 1540
7 4 4
& 5h2 = 1540 # 7 # 4 & h2 =140×7× 4 = 28×7×4
4 2 # 22 5
Hence, the height of the cylinder, h = 28×7×4 = 28 cm.

7. The radii of two right circular cylinders are in the ratio of 3 : 2 and their heights
are in the ratio 5 : 3. Find the ratio of their curved surface areas.
Solution: Let r1 , r2 be the radii of the cylinders and let h1 , h2 be their heights.
Given that r1 : r2 = 3 : 2 and h1 : h2 = 5 : 3.
he ratio of the curved surface areas = 2rr1 h1 : 2rr2 h2
T
= 3 × 5 : 2 × 3 = 5 : 2.
8. The outer curved surface area of a hollow cylinder is 540r sq.cm. Its internal
diameter is 16 cm and height is 15 cm. Find the total surface area.
Solution: Let R and r be the outer and inner radii and h be the height of the hollow
cylinder respectively.
Given that height h = 15cm, internal diameter 2r = 16 cm i.e., r = 8cm
200 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Outer curved surface area = 540r cm2 & 2rRh = 540r
Outer radius R = 540r = 18cm
2 # 15 # r
Thus, Total surface area = 2r (R + r) (R - r + h)
= 2r (18 + 8)^18 - 8 + 15h
= 2 # r # 26 # 25 =1300r
Hence, the total surface area = 1300r cm2.
9. The external diameter of a cylindrical shaped iron pipe is 25 cm and its length is
20 cm. If the thickness of the pipe is 1cm, find the total surface area of the pipe.
Solution: Let R, r and h be the external, internal radii and length
of the pipe respectively. Given that 2R = 25cm & R = 12.5cm
and thickness w = 1 cm.
Internal radius, r = R – w = 12.5 – 1 = 11.5cm
Total surface area = 2r (R + r) (R - r + h)
= 2 # 22 # (12.5 + 11.5) (20 + 12.5 - 11.5)
7
Hence, the total surface area = 3168cm2.
10. The radius and height of a right circular solid cone are 7 cm and 24 cm respectively.
Find its curved surface area and total surface area.
Solution: Given that, radius r = 7 cm and height h = 24 cm.
Slant height, l = h2 + r2 = 72 + 242 = 25cm
Curved surface area = rrl
= 22 # 7 # 25 = 550 cm2
7
Total surface area = rr (l + r)
= 22 # 7 # (25 + 7) = 704 cm2.
7
11. If the vertical angle and the radius of a right circular cone are 60c and 15 cm
respectively, then find its height and slant height.
Solution: In the figure, OAB is the cone.
Draw OC = CB . Given that the vertical angle +AOB = 60c and AC = 15 cm. So
+AOC = +AOB = 60c = 30c
2 2
Consider the right angled DOAC . We have
tan 30° = AC & 1 = 15
OC 3 OC
& OC = 15 3
Hence, the height of the cone is 15 3 cm.
Solution - Mensuration 201
Also, sin 30° = AC & 1 = 15
AO 2 AO
& AO = 30
Hence, the slant height of the cone is 30 cm.
Aliter: TOAB is an equilateral triangle.
Since AB = 2AC = 30 cm, we have the slant height AO = 30 cm.
Height of the cone = 30 # 3 = 15 3 cm.
2 3 a)
( If a is a side of an equilateral triangle, then its height is
2
12. If the circumference of the base of a solid right circular cone is 236 cm and its slant
height is 12 cm , find its curved surface area.
Solution: Given that slant height, l = 12 cm and
Circumference = 236 cm
2rr = 236 & rr = 118 cm
Curved surface area, rrl = 118 # 12 = 1416 cm2.

13. A heap of paddy is in the form of a cone whose diameter is 4.2 m and height is
2.8 m. If the heap is to be covered exactly by a canvas to protect it from rain, then
find the area of the canvas needed.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a heap of paddy.
Given that height h = 2.8m and diameter 2r = 4.2 m or r = 2.1m
Slant height l = h2 + r2 = 2.82 + 2.12 = 3.5 m
Area of the canvas, rrl = 22 # 2.1 # 3.5 = 23.1 sq.m.
7
ence, the area of the canvas needed to protect the heap of paddy from rain is 23.1m2
H
14. The central angle and radius of a sector of a circular disc are 180c and 21 cm
respectively. If the edges of the sector are joined together to make a hollow cone,
then find the radius of the cone.
Solution: Given that the central angle of the sector i = 180c and the radius of the
sector r = 21 cm. By joining the edges of the sector, a hollow cone is formed.
Let R be the radius of the cone.
Circumference of the base of the cone =
Arc length of the sector

& 2rR = i # 2rr


360
Thus, radius of the cone R = 180 # 21 = 10.5 cm.
360
15. Radius and slant height of a solid right circular cone are in the ratio 3 : 5. If the
curved surface area is 60r sq.cm, then find its total surface area.
Solution: Let r and l be the radius and slant height of a right circular cone respectively.
202 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Ratio of radius to slant height = 3 : 5
& r : l = 3 : 5 & r = 3 & r = 3 l
l 5 5
Curved surface area, rrl = 60r
& r # 3 l # l = 60r & l2 = 60r # 5 = 100
5 3#r
3
Thus, the slant height of the cone, l = 10cm. So r = l = 6 cm
5
Hence, Total surface area rr (l + r) = 22 # 6 # (6 + 10) = 2112 = 301 5 cm2.
7 7 7
16. If the curved surface area of solid a sphere is 98.56 cm 2 , then find the radius of the
sphere.
Solution: Given that curved surface area of a solid sphere = 98.56cm2
Thus, 4rr2 = 98.56

& 4 # 22 # r2 = 98.56
7
98.56 # 7
& r ­= 4 # 22 = 7.84 = 2.8
Hence, Radius r = 2.8cm.
17. If the curved surface area of a solid hemisphere is 2772 sq.cm, then find its total
surface area.
Solution: Let r be the radius of the solid hemisphere.
Given that curved surface area of the solid hemisphere 2rr2 = 2772cm2
& rr2 = 2772 = 1386
2
2
Total surface area 3rr = 3 × 1386 = 4158 cm2.

18. Radii of two solid hemispheres are in the ratio 3 : 5. Find the ratio of their curved
surface areas and the ratio of their total surface areas.
Solution: Let r1 and r2 be the radii. Given that r1 : r2 = 3:5
Ratio of the curved surface area = 2rr12 : 2rr22 = 32 : 52 = 9 : 25

Ratio of the total surface area = 3rr12 : 3rr22 = 32 : 52 = 9 : 25

19. Find the curved surface area and total surface area of a hollow hemisphere whose
outer and inner radii are 4.2 cm and 2.1 cm respectively.
Solution: Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow hemisphere
iven that R = 4.2cm and r = 2.1cm
respectively. G
Curved surface area, 2r (R2 + r2) = 2 r (4.22 + 2.12)
= 2 r (17.64 + 4.41)
Hence, the curved surface area = 44.1r cm2.

Solution - Mensuration 203



Total surface area 2r (R2 + r2) + r (R2 - r2) = 44.1r + r (4.22 - 2.12)
= 44.1r + r (17.64 - 4.41)
Thus, the total surface area = 44.1r + 13.23r = 57.33r cm2.
20. The inner curved surface area of a hemispherical dome of a building needs to be
painted. If the circumference of the base is 17.6 m, find the cost of painting it at the
rate of `5 per sq. m.
Solution: Let r be the radius of the hemispherical dome.
Given that base circumference of the dome 2rr = 17.6m
& r = 17.6 # 7 = 2.8
2 # 22
Now, curved surface area, 2rr = 2 # 22 # 2.8 # 2.8 = 49.28 m2
2
7
Cost of painting for 1m = ` 5
2

Hence, the total cost of painting for the dome = 49.28 × 5 = ` 246.40.
Exercise 8.2
1. Find the volume of a solid cylinder whose radius is 14 cm and height 30 cm.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the solid cylinder respectively.
Given that radius r = 14cm and height h = 30cm.
Volume of the cylinder = rr2 h
= 22 # 14 # 14 # 30 = 18480 cm3.
7
2. A patient in a hospital is given soup daily in a cylindrical bowl of diameter 7 cm.
If the bowl is filled with soup to a height of 4 cm, then find the quantity of soup to
be prepared daily in the hospital to serve 250 patients?
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of a cylinderical bowl respectively.
Given that diameter 2r = 7cm, Radius r = 7 cm and Height h = 4cm.
2
The quantity of the soup = rr2 h
= 22 # 7 # 7 # 4 = 154 cm3
7 2 2
3 = 154 × 250 = 38500 cm3

Quantity of the soup needed to
serve 250 patients daily
Thus, the quantity of the soup needed = 38500 = 38.5 litres.
1000
3. The sum of the base radius and the height of a solid right circular solid cylinder is
37 cm.If the total surface area of the cylinder is 1628 sq.cm, then find the volume
of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that the sum of the radius and height (r + h) = 37 cm.
The total surface area of the cylinder = 1628 sq.cm.
204 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Total surface area of the cylinder 2rr^h + r h = 1628cm2


& 2rr = 1628
37
& r = 1628 # 1 # 7
37 2 22
Thus, the radius of the cylinder r = 7cm
Now, sum of the radius and height, r + h = 37 & h = 30 cm
Hence, the volume of the cylinder, rr2 h = 22 # 72 # 30 = 4620cm3 .
7
4. Volume of a solid cylinder is 62.37 cu.cm. Find the radius if its height is 4.5 cm.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that h = 4.5 cm.
Volume of the solid cylinder, rr2 h = 62.37 cm3
& r2 = 62.37
rh
= 62.37 # 7 # 1 = 4.41
22 4.5
& r = 4.41 = 2.1
Thus, the radius of the cylinder is 2.1cm.
5. The radii of two right circular cylinders are in the ratio 2 : 3. Find the ratio of their
volumes if their heights are in the ratio 5 : 3.

Solution: Let r1 , r2 be the radii and h1 , h2 be the heights of the two right circular
cylinders respectively. Given that r1 : r2 = 2 : 3 and h1 : h2 = 5 : 3.
r1 h1
& = 2 & r1 = 2 r2 and = 5 & h1 = 5 h2
r2 3 3 h2 3 3
Now, the ratio of the volumes of the cylinders = 2rr1 h1 : 2rr22 h2
2

2
= 2 r ` 2 j r22 # 5 h2 : 2 rr22 h2
3 3
Thus, the ratio of the volumes of the cylinders is 20 : 1 = 20 : 27
27
6. The radius and height of a cylinder are in the ratio 5 : 7. If its volume is
4400 cu.cm, find the radius of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that r:h=5:7 & h= 7r
5
Volume of the cylinder, rr h = 4400
2

& 22 # r2 # 7 r = 4400
7 5
& r3 = 4400 # 7 # 5 = 1000
22 # 7
Thus, the radius of the cylinder, r = 10 cm.
Solution - Mensuration 205
7. A rectangular sheet of metal foil with dimension 66 cm # 12 cm is rolled to form a
cylinder of height 12 cm. Find the volume of the cylinder.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the right circular cylinder respectively.
Given that the dimension of the sheet is 66cm # 12cm . So, l = 66cm, b = 12cm
( After the rectangular sheet rolled into a hollow
cylinder , the length of the rectangular sheet is equal
to the base circumference of the hollow cylinder.)
Thus, base circumference, 2rr = l
& 2 # 22 # r = 66
7
& r = 66 # 7 = 21
2 # 22 2
Height of the cylinder = length of the rectangular sheet & h = b = 12 cm.
2
Thus ,the volume of the cylinder = rr2 h = 22 # ` 21 j # 12 = 4158 cm3
7 2
8. A lead pencil is in the shape of right circular cylinder. The pencil is 28 cm long and
its radius is 3 mm. If the lead is of radius 1 mm, then find the volume
of the wood used in the pencil.
Solution: Let R and h be the radius and height of the pencil which is in
the form of a right circular cylinder.
Let r be the radius of the lead.
Given that R = 3 mm , h = 28 cm = 280 mm and r = 1 mm.
Now, the volume of wood = rh^ R2 - r2h = 22 # 280 # ^32 - 12h
7
= 22 # 40 # 8 = 7040
Thus, the volume of the wood = 7040 mm3 = 7.04 cm3.
9. Radius and slant height of a right circular cone are 20 cm and 29
cm respectively. Find its volume.
olution: Let r, h and l be the radius, height and slant height of the
S
right circular cone respectively.
Given that r = 20 cm and l = 29 cm.
Now, h= l2 - r2 = 292 - 202 = 21 cm

Thus, the volume of the cone = 1 rr2 h = 1 # 22 # 202 # 21 = 8800 cm3


3 3 7
10. The circumference of the base of a 12 cm high wooden solid cone is 44 cm. Find
the volume of the wooden solid.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the wodden solid cone respectively.
Given that h = 12 cm.
Base circumference of the wodden solid, 2rr = 44
& r = 44 = 44 # 7 = 7 cm
2r 2 # 22
206 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Volume of the wooden solid = 1 rr2 h
3
= 1 # 22 # 72 # 12 cm3.
3 7
Thus, the volume of the wooden solid = 616 cm3.

11. A vessel is in the form of a frustum of a cone. Its radius at one end and the height
are 8 cm and 14 cm respectively. If its volume is 5676 cm3, then find the radius at
3
the other end.
Solution: Let R, r be the radii and h be the height of the vessel which is in the form of
a frustum. Given that R = 8 cm, h = 14cm and volume = 5676 cm3
3
Now, 1
Volume = rh (R + r + Rr) =
2 2 5676
3 3
& 1 # 22 # 14 # (8 + r + 8 # r) =
2 2 5676
3 7 3
& 64 + r2 + 8r = 5676 # 3 # 7 = 129
3 # 22 # 14
& r2 + 8r + 64 = 129 & r2 + 8r - 65 = 0

& (r + 13)(r - 5) = 0 & r = –13 or r = 5


Since r cannot be negative, the radius at other end r = 5 cm.
12. The perimeter of the ends of a frustum of a cone are 44 cm and 8.4 r cm. If the
depth is 14 cm, then find its volume.
Solution: Let R, r be the radii and h be the height of the frustum respectively.
Given that 2rR = 44cm , 2rr = 8.4r cm and h = 14 cm. So,
R = 44 # 7 = 7 and r = 8.4r = 4.2 cm
2 # 22 2r
Now, Volume of the frustum = 1 rh (R2 + r2 + Rr)
3
= 1 # 22 # 14 (72 + 4.22 + 7 # 4.2)
3 7
= 44 (49 + 29.4 + 17.64)
3
Thus, the volume of the frustum = 1408.57cm3.
13. A right angled TABC with sides 5 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm. is revolved about the
fixed side of 12 cm. Find the volume of the solid generated.
Solution: The sides of a right angled TABC are 4cm, 12cm and 13cm.
If the triangle is revolved about the side , then the volume generated
is a cone.
The radius and height of the cone are respectively 5cm and 12 cm.

Volume of the cone = 1 rr2 h = 1 # 22 # 5 # 5 # 12 = 2200 = 314 2 cm3.


3 3 7 7 7
Solution - Mensuration 207
14. The radius and height of a right circular cone are in the ratio 2 : 3. Find the slant
height if its volume is 100.48 cu.cm. ( Take r = 3.14)
Solution: Let r, h and l be the radius, height and slant height of the right circular cone
respectively. Given that r : h = 2:3 or r = 2 & r = 2h
h 3 3
Volume of the cone, 1 rr h = 100.48
2
3
& 1 # 3.14 # 2h 2 # h = 100.48
3 `3 j

& h3 = 100.48 # 3 # 9 = 8 # 27
3.14 # 4
& h = 3
8 # 27 = 2 × 3 = 6cm

Now, r = 2h & r = 2 # 6 = 4 cm.


3 3
Hence, slant height l = r2 + h2 = 62 + 42 = 2 32 + 22 = 2 13 cm .

15. The volume of a cone with circular base is 216 r cu.cm. If the base radius is 9 cm,
then find the height of the cone.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the cone respectively.
Given that r = 9 cm
Now, Volume of the cone, 1 rr2 h = 216r
3
& 1 # r # 92 # h = 216r
3
Thus, the height of the cone, h = 216r # 3 = 8 cm
r#9#9
16. Find the mass of 200 steel spherical ball bearings, each of which has radius 0.7 cm,
given that the density of steel is 7.95 g/cm . (Mass = Volume × Density)
3

Solution: Let r be the radius of a spherical ball bearing. Given that r = 0.7cm
Volume of a ball bearing = 4 rr3
3
= 4 # 22 # 0.7 # 0.7 # 0.7
3 7
Thus, the volume of 200 ball bearings = 88 # .049 # 200 = 287.46 cm3
0
3
Density of 1cm3 = 7.95 g
Thus, Mass of 200 ball bearings = 287.46 × 7.95 = 2285.316 g
= 2285.316 = 2.29 kg.
1000
17. The outer and the inner radii of a hollow sphere are 12 cm and 10 cm. Find its
volume.
Solution:
Let R and r be the outer and inner radii of the hollow sphere.
Given that R = 12 cm and r = 10 cm

208 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Now, the volume of the hollow sphere = 4 r (R3 - r3)


3
= 4 # 22 (123 - 103) = 88 (1728 - 1000)
3 7 21
= 88 # 728 = 3050 2 cm3.
21 3
18. The volume of a solid hemisphere is 1152 r cu.cm. Find its curved surface area.
Solution: Let r be the radius of the hemisphere.
Given that volume of the hemisphere = 1152r cm3
& 2 rr3 = 1152r
3
& r3 = 1152 # 3 = 1728
2
& r = 3
1728 cm = 12 cm

Hence, the curved surface area = 2rr2 & 2 # r # r2 = 288r cm2.

19. Find the volume of the largest right circular cone that can be cut out of a cube
whose edge is 14 cm.
Solution: Given that edge (side) of the cube = 14 cm.

If the largest circular cone is cut out from the cube,


side of the cube
then the radius of the cone =
2
& Radius r = 14 = 7 cm.
2
Now, Height of the cone h = 14cm
Hence, the volume of the cone = 1 rr2 h = 1 # 22 # 7 # 7 # 14
3 3 7
= 2156 = 718.67 cm3.
3
20. The radius of a spherical balloon increases from 7 cm to 14 cm as air is being
pumped into it. Find the ratio of volumes of the balloon in the two cases.
Solution: Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the spherical balloon before and after air is being
pumped into it.
Given that r1 = 7 cm and r2 =14 cm.
So, r1 : r2 = 7 : 14 .
Thus, the ratio of the volumes of the balloon in the two cases
= 4rr13 : 4rr23
= 73 :143
= 7 # 7 # 7 :14 # 14 # 14
= 1:8
Solution - Mensuration 209
Exercise 8.3
1. A play-top is in the form of a hemisphere surmounted on a cone. The diameter
of the hemisphere is 3.6 cm. The total height of the play-top is 4.2 cm. Find its
total surface area.
Solution: Hemispherical portion: Diameter 2r = 3.6 cm & r = 1.8 cm
Conical portion : Radius r = 1.8cm, Height h = 4.2–1.8 = 2.4 cm

Slant height l = h2 + r2 = 2.42 + 1.82


= 0.6 42 + 32 = (0.6) (5) = 3 cm.
Total surface area of the top = CSA of the hemispherical portion+ CSA of the conical
portion
= 2rr + rrl = rr (2r + l) 2

= r # 1.8 (2 # 1.8 + 3)
= r # 1.8 # 6.6 = 11.88 r cm2.
2. A solid is in the shape of a cylinder surmounted on a hemisphere. If the diameter
and the total height of the solid are 21 cm, 25.5 cm respectively, then find its
volume.
Solution: Hemispherical portion: Diameter 2r = 21cm & r = 21 cm
2
Conical portion: Radius r = 21 cm, height h = 15cm
2
The volume of the solid = e Volume of the o + e Volume of the o
hemisphere cylinder
= 2 rr3 + rr2 h = rr2 ( 2 r + h)
3 3
= 22 # 21 # 21 ` 2 # 21 + 15j
7 2 2 3 2
= 33 # 21 # 22 = 7623 cm3.
2
3. A capsule is in the shape of a cylinder with two hemispheres stuck to each of its
ends. If the length of the entire capsule is 14 mm and the diameter of the capsule
is 5 mm, find its surface area.

Solution: Hemispherical portion: Radius r = 5 mm.


2
5
Cylindrical portion: Radius, r = mm
2
Height, h = Total height – 2(Radius) = 14 – 5 = 9 mm

Curved surface area of the capsule = eCSA of the o + 2 # eCSA of the o


cylinder hemisphere
= 2rrh + 4rr2 = 2rr (h + 2r)
= 2 # 22 # 5 `9 + 2 # 5 j = 220
7 2 2
Hence, the curved surface area of the capsule = 220 mm2.
210 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
4. A tent is in the shape of a right circular cylinder surmounted by a cone. The total
height and the diameter of the base are 13.5 m and 28 m. If the height of the
cylindrical portion is 3 m, find the total surface area of the tent.
Solution: Cylindrical portion: Height, h = 3 m, diameter 2r = 28m & r = 14m
Conical portion: Height, h = Total height – Height of the cylinder
1
h1 = 13.5 – 3=10.5m
Radius, r = 14m
Slant height, l = h12 + r2 = 10.52 + 142
= 0.7 152 + 202 = (0.7) (25)
= 17.5 m

Total surface area of the tent = eCSA of the o + cCSA of the m


cylinder cone
= 2rrh + rrl = rr (2h + l) = 22 # 14 (2 # 3 + 17.5)
7
= 44 # (6 + 17.5) = 44 # 23.5 = 1034
Hence, the total surface area of the tent = 1034 sq.m.
5. Using clay, a student made a right circular cone of height 48 cm and base radius
12 cm. Another student reshapes it in the form of a sphere. Find the radius of the
sphere.
Solution: Let r1 and h be the radius and height of a right circular cone.
Let r2 be the radius of the spherical shaped clay.
Given that r1 = 12cm, h = 48cm.
After the conical clay reshaped in to a spherical shaped clay,
Volume of the sphere = Volume of the cone
4 rr23 = 1 rr 2 h
3 3 1
2
r23 = 1 # r # 12 # 48 # 3 = 123
3 r 4
Hence, the radius of the spherical clay = 12cm.
6. The radius of a solid sphere is 24 cm. It is melted and drawn into a long wire of
uniform cross section. Find the length of the wire if its radius is
1.2 mm.

Solution: Let r1 and r2 be the radii of the solid sphere and wire
respectively. Let h be length (height) of the wire.

Given that r1 = 24cm = 240 mm, r2 = 1.2mm = 12 mm


10
The solid sphere is melted and recast into a long wire (cylindericalshape)
Volume of the wire (cylinderical shape) = Volume of the solid sphere
Solution - Mensuration 211
& rr22 h = 4 rr13
3
& r # 12 # 12 # h = 4 # r # 240 # 240 # 240
10 10 3
& h = # r # 240 # 240 # 240 # 10 # 10
4
3 r 12 12
= 12800000 mm
Thus, the length of the wire = 12800000 = 12.8 km.
1000000
7. A right circular conical vessel whose internal radius 5 cm and height 24 cm is full of
water. The water is emptied into an empty cylindrical vessel with internal radius
10 cm. Find the height of the water level in the cylindrical vessel.
Solution: Conical vessel : Radius r1 = 5 cm, height h1 = 24 cm
Cylindrical vessel : Radius r2 = 10 cm.
Volume of water in the cylinder = Volume of the conical vessel.
rr22 h2 = 1 rr12 h1
3
& r # 10 # h2 =
2 1 # r # 52 # 24
3
& h2 = 1 # r # 5 # 5 # 24
3 r # 10 # 10
Hence, the height of water level in the cylinder = 2 cm.
8. A solid sphere of diameter 6 cm is dropped into a right circular cylindrical vessel
with diameter 12 cm, which is partly filled with water. If the sphere is completely
submerged in water, how much does the water level in the cylindrical vessel
increase?
Solution: Let h be the height of water raised in the cylinder.
Given that diameter of the solid sphere 2r2 = 6 cm and
Diameter of the cylinder 2r1 = 12 cm.
The solid sphere is immersed into the cylinderical vessel. Then
Volume of water raised = Volume of the solid sphere
& rr12 h = 4 rr23
3
& r # 6 # 6 # h = 4 # r # 3 # 3 # 3
3
& h = 4 # r#3#3#3 = 1
3 r#6#6
Thus, the water level in the cylindrical vessel is raised to 1 cm.
9. Through a cylindrical pipe of internal radius 7 cm, water flows out at the rate of
5 cm/sec. Calculate the volume of water (in litres) discharged through the pipe
in half an hour.
Solution: Given that radius of cylindrical pipe, r = 7cm
Speed of water = 5 cm/sec.
Time = 30 minutes = 30 × 60 = 1800 seconds.
212 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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Volume of water discharged in one second = rr2 h


= 22 # 7 # 7 # 5
7
= 770 cu. cm
Volume of water discharged in half an hour = 770 × 1800
= 1386000 cu.cm

Hence, the volume of water discharged in half an hour = 1386000


1000
= 1386 litres.
Aliter:
Volume of water discharged in half an hour = Area of the cross section × (time × speed)
= ( rr2 ) × 5 × 1800 = ` 22 # 7 # 7j × 5 × 1800
7
= 1386000 cu.cm
Hence, the volume of water discharged in half an hour = 1386000
1000
= 1386 litres.
10. Water in a cylindrical tank of diameter 4 m and height 10 m is released through
a cylindrical pipe of diameter 10 cm at the rate of 2.5 Km/hr. How much time
will it take to empty the half of the tank? Assume that the tank is full of water to
begin with.
Solution : Let r1 and h1 be the radius and height of a cylinderical water tank.
Let r2 and h2 be the radius and the height of the pipe.
Let T be the time taken to empty half of the cylinderical tank.
Cylindrical tank : Diameter 2r1 = 4m & r1 = 2m and height h1 = 10m
Cylindrical pipe : Diameter 2r2 = 10 cm & r2 = 5 m
100
Speed = 2.5 km/hr = 2500 m/hr.

Thus, h2 =Time × Speed = T × 2500.


The volume of water discharged
3
through the cylindrical pipe = 1 Volume of water tank
2
& rr2 h2 = 1 `rr12 h1j
2
2
& r # 5 # 5 # T # 2500 = 1 # r # 2 # 2 # 10
100 100 2
& T = r # 2 # 2 # 10 # 100 # 100 # 1
2 r # 5 # 5 2500
= 80 = 3.2 hours
25
Thus, the time taken to empty half of the tank = 3 hr 12 min.
Solution - Mensuration 213
11. A spherical solid material of radius 18 cm is melted and recast into three small
solid spherical spheres of different sizes. If the radii of two spheres are 2cm and
12 cm, find the radius of the third sphere.
Solution: Let R be the radius of the spherical solid material.
Let r1, r2 and r3 be the radii of the three solid spheres.
Given that, R = 18 cm. Let, r1 = 2 cm, r2 = 12cm.
Volume of the three spheres = Volume of the solid sphere
& 4 rr 3 + 4 rr 3 + 4 rr 3 = 4 rR3
3 1 3 2 3 3 3
& 4 r (r 3 + r 3 + r 3) = 4 # r # R3
3 1 2 3 3
& 2 + 12 + r33
3 3
= 183

& r33 = 5832 - 1736 = 4096


= 163 & r3 = 16
Thus, the radius of the third sphere = 16 cm.
12. A hollow cylindrical pipe is of length 40 cm. Its internal and external radii are
4 cm and 12 cm respectively. It is melted and cast into a solid cylinder of length
20 cm. Find the radius of the new solid.
Solution : Let R, r and h be the external, internal
radii and height of the hollow cylinderical pipe
respectively.
Let r1 and h1 be the radius and height of the
solid cylinder respectively.
Hollow Cylinder: R = 12cm, r = 4cm, h = 40 cm.
Solid Cylinder: h1 = 20 cm
Volume of the solid cylinder = volume of the hollow cylinder
& rr12 h1 = rh (R2 - r2)
& r # r12 # 20 = r # 40 (122 - 42)
r 40 (144 - 16)
& r12 = # = 256 & r1 = 16.
r # 20
Hence, the radius of the solid cylinder is 16 cm.
13. An iron right circular cone of diameter 8 cm and height 12 cm is melted and
recast into spherical lead shots each of radius 4 mm. How many lead shots can
be made?
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the iron
right circular cone respectively.
Let r1 be the radius of the spherical lead shot.
Now, r = 4m = 40mm, h = 12 cm = 120mm, r1 = 4mm

214 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Let n be the number of lead shots.
Thus, n × (volume of the spherical shot) = Volume of the right circular cone
& n # 4 # rr13 = 1 # r # r2 # h
3 3
& n # 4 # r # 43 = 1 # r # 402 # 120
3 3

& n = 1 # r # 40 # 40 # 120 # 3 = 750


3 r#4#4#4 4
Hence, the number of spherical lead shots = 750.
14. A right circular cylinder having diameter 12 cm and height 15 cm is full of ice
cream. The ice cream is to be filled in cones of height 12 cm and diameter 6 cm,
having a hemispherical shape on top. Find the number of such cones which can
be filled with the ice cream available.
Solution : Let r1 and h1 be the radius and height of a
right circular cylinder respectively.
Let r2 be the radius of the cone and hemispherical top
and h2 be the height of the cone.
Right circular cylinder:
Diameter 2r1 = 12cm & r1 = 6cm and h1 =15cm
Cone: Diameter, 2r2 = 6cm & r2 = 3cm, h2 = 12cm
No. of cones needed to fill with the ice cream
Volume of the cylinder
=
Volume of the conical part + Volume of the hemispherical part
rr12 h1 r # 6 # 6 # 15
= =
1 rr 2 h + 2 rr 3 1 # r # r 2 (h + 2r )
3 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 2

= 6 # 6 # 15 = 6 # 6 # 15 = 10
1 # 3 # 3 (12 + 2 # 3) 3 # 18
3
Thus, the number of the cones needed is 10.
15. A container with a rectangular base of length 4.4 m and breadth 2 m is used to
collect rain water. The height of the water level in the container is 4 cm and the
water is transferred into a cylindrical vessel with radius 40 cm. What will be the
height of the water level in the cylinder?
Solution:
Cylindrical vessel: Let radius, r = 40 cm,
and height of the water level, h = 4cm
Rectangular Let length, l = 4.4 m = 440 cm,
breadth, b = 2 m = 200 cm and height h1= 4cm.
After the rain water transferred into the cylindrical vessel,

Solution - Mensuration 215


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Volume of water in the cylinder = Volume of water in the rectangular container
& 2
rr h = lbh1
& 22 # 40 # 40 # h = 440 # 200 # 4
7
& h = 440 # 200 # 4 # 7 = 70
40 # 40 # 22
Hence, the height of water level in the cylinder is 70 cm.
16. A cylindrical bucket of height 32 cm and radius 18 cm is filled with sand. The
bucket is emptied on the ground and a conical heap of sand is formed. If the
height of the conical heap is 24 cm, find the radius and slant height of the heap.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the cylinderical
bucket respectively.
Let r1, h1 and l1 be the radius, height and slant height of a conical
heap respectively
Cylinderical bucket: Radius r = 18cm, Height h = 32cm
Conical heap: Height h1 = 24cm
Volume of the conical heap = Volume of the sand in the cylindrical bucket
& 1 rr 2 h = r r 2 h
3 1 1
& 1 # r # r12 # 24 = r # 18 # 18 # 32
3
& r1 = 18 # 18 # 4 = 18×2 = 36
Radius, r1 = 36cm
Slant height, l1 = r12 + h12 = 362 + 242
= 12 32 + 22 = 12 13 cm.

17. A cylindrical shaped well of depth 20 m and diameter 14 m is dug. The dug out
soil is evenly spread to form a cuboid-platform with base dimension 20m # 14m.
Find the height of the platform.
Solution: Let r and h be the radius and height of the well.
Let l1, b and h1 be the length, breadth and height of the platform
respectively.
Cylinderical well : 2r = 14m & r = 7m, h = 20m
Platform: Length, l = 20 m, breadth, b = 14m
Volume of the cuboid platform = Volume of the cylindrical well
& lbh1 = rr2 h

& 20 × 14 × h1 = 22 # 7 # 7 # 20
7
& h1 = 22 # 7 # 7 # 20 = 11
7 20 # 14
Thus, the height of the platform is 11 m.
216 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 8.4
Choose the correct answer.
1. The curved surface area of a right circular cylinder of radius 1 cm and height 1 cm is
equal to
(A) r cm2 (B) 2r cm2 (C) 3r cm3 (D) 2 cm2
Solution: CSA = 2rrh = 2 # r # 1 # 1 = 2r cm2 ( Ans. (B) )
2. The total surface area of a solid right circular cylinder whose radius is half of its
height h is equal to
(A) 3 rh sq. units (B) 2 rh2 sq. units
2 3
(C) 3 rh sq.units (D) 2 rh sq.units
2

2 3
Solution: radius r = h
2
TSA = 2rr (h + r) = 2r h `h + h j = rh` 3h j = 3 rh2 sq.units. ( Ans. (C) )
2 2 2 2
3. Base area of a right circular cylinder is 80 cm2 . If its height is 5 cm, then the volume
is equal to
(A) 400 cm3 (B) 16 cm3 (C) 200 cm3 (D) 400 cm3
3
Solution: Base area = rr = 80 cm , Volume v = rr h = 80 # 5 = 400 cm3. ( Ans. (A) )
2 2 2

4. If the total surface area a solid right circular cylinder is 200 r cm and its radius is 5 cm,
2

then the sum of its height and radius is


(A) 20 cm (B) 25 cm (C) 30 cm (D) 15 cm
Solution: TSA = 200 r cm and radius = 5cm
2

2rr (h + r) = 200r cm & 2r # 5 (h + r) = 200r & (h + r) = 20cm ( Ans. (A) )


5. The curved surface area of a right circular cylinder whose radius is a units and height
is b units, is equal to
(A) ra2 b sq.cm. (B) 2r ab sq.cm (C) 2r sq.cm (D) 2 sq.cm
Solution: Right circular cylinder: Radius, r = a, height, h = b,
CSA = 2rrh = 2rab sq.cm ( Ans. (B) )
6. Radius and height of a right circular cone and that of a right circular cylinder are
respectively, equal. If the volume of the cylinder is 120 cm3, then the volume of the
cone is equal to
(A) 1200 cm3 (B) 360 cm3 (C) 40 cm3 (D) 90 cm3
Solution: Volume of the cone = 1 Volume of the cylinder = 1 (120) = 40 cm3
3 3
( Ans. (C) )

Solution - Mensuration 217


7. If the diameter and height of a right circular cone are 12 cm and 8 cm respectively, then
the slant height is
(A) 10 cm (B) 20 cm (C) 30 cm (D) 96 cm
Solution: Slant height, l = r2 + h2 = 62 + 82 = 100 = 10 cm ( Ans. (A) )
8. If the circumference at the base of a right circular cone and the slant height are
120r cm and 10 cm respectively, then the curved surface area of the cone is equal to
(A) 1200r cm2 (B) 600r cm2 (C) 300r cm2 (D) 600 cm2
Solution: Circumference at the base 2rr = 120r & r = 60
CSA = rrl = r # 60 # 10 = 600r cm2 ( Ans. (B) )
9. If the volume and the base area of a right circular cone are 48r cm and 12r cm2
3

respectively, then the height of the cone is equal to


(A) 6 cm (B) 8 cm (C) 10 cm (D) 12 cm
Solution: Volume = 1 rr2 h = 48r m3
3
Base area = rr2 = 12r cm2.
1 rr2 h = 48r & 1 # 12r # h = 48r & h = 48r # 3 = 12 cm ( Ans. (D) )
3 3 12r
10. If the height and the base area of a right circular cone are 5 cm and 48 sq. cm respectively,
then the volume of the cone is equal to
(A) 240 cm3 (B) 120 cm3 (C) 80 cm3 (D) 480 cm3
Solution: Height h = 5cm, Base area = rr2 = 48 cm2
Volume = 1 rr2 h = 1 # 48 # 5 = 80 cm3 ( Ans. (C) )
3 3
11. The ratios of the respective heights and the respective radii of two cylinders are 1:2
and 2:1 respectively. Then their respective volumes are in the ratio
(A) 4 : 1 (B) 1 : 4 (C) 2 : 1 (D) 1 : 2
Solution: h1 : h2 = 1 : 2,  r1 : r2 = 2 : 1

Volumes V1: V2 = 1 rr12 h1 : 1 rr22 h2 & 22 # 1 :12 # 2 = 4 : 2 = 2 :1 ( Ans. (C) )


3 3
12. If the radius of a sphere is 2 cm , then the curved surface area of the sphere is equal to
(A) 8r cm2 (B) 16 cm2 (C) 12r cm2 (D) 16r cm2
Solution: CSA = 4rr2 = 4r # 22 = 16r cm2 ( Ans. (D) )
13. The total surface area of a solid hemisphere of diameter 2 cm is equal to
(A) 12 cm2 (B) 12r cm2 (C) 4r cm2 (D) 3r cm2
Solution: TSA = 3rr2 = 3r # 12 = 3r cm2 ( Ans. (D) )

218 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


14. If the volume of a sphere is 9 r cu.cm , then its radius is
16
(A) 4 cm (B) 3 cm
3 4
(C) 3 cm (D) 2 cm
2 3
Solution: Volume, V = 9 r cu.cm
16
& 4 rr3 = 9 r & r3 = 9 r # 3 r = 27 & r = 3 ( Ans. (B) )
3 16 10 4 64 4
15. The surface areas of two spheres are in the ratio of 9 : 25. Then their volumes are in
the ratio
(A) 81 : 625 (B) 729 : 15625
(C) 27 : 75 (D) 27 : 125
Solution: S1 : S2 = 9 : 25
& r12: r22 = 9 : 25
& r1 : r2 = 3 : 5
Now, r13: r23 = 33: 53 = 27 :125
Thus, V1 : V2 = 27 : 125 .
( Ans. (D) )
16. The total surface area of a solid hemisphere whose radius is a units, is equal to
(A) 2r a2 sq.units (B) 3r a2 sq.units
(C) 3r a sq.units (D) 3a2 sq.units
Solution: TSA = 3rr2 = 3ra2 sq.units ( Ans. (B) )
17. If the surface area of a sphere is 100r cm , then its radius is equal to
2

(A) 25 cm (B) 100 cm


(C) 5 cm (D) 10 cm
Solution: Surface area = 100r
& 4rr2 = 100r & r2 = 100r = 25 & r = 5
4r

( Ans. (C) )
18. If the surface area of a sphere is 36r cm2, then the volume of the sphere is equal to
(A) 12r cm3 (B) 36r cm3
(C) 72r cm3 (D) 108r cm3.
Solution: Surface area = 4rr2 = 36rcm2 & r2 = 9 & r = 3

Volume = 4 rr3 = 4 r # 33 = 36r cm3 ( Ans. (B) )


3 3
Solution - Mensuration 219
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19. If the total surface area of a solid hemisphere is 12r cm2 then its curved surface area
is equal to
(A) 6r cm2 (B) 24r cm2
(C) 36r cm2 (D) 8r cm2
Solution: TSA, 3rr2 = 12r cm2 .

CSA, 2 rr 212r # 2rr2 = 8r cm2


= ( Ans. (D) )
3rr2
20. If the radius of a sphere is half of the radius of another sphere, then their respective
volumes are in the ratio
(A) 1 : 8 (B) 2: 1 (C) 1 : 2 (D) 8 : 1
3 3
r r
Solution: r1 = r2 .So, V1 : V2 =4rr13 : 4rr23 = c 2 m : r23 = 2 : r23 = 1 : 8 . ( Ans. (A) )
2 2 8
21. Curved surface area of solid sphere is 24 cm2. If the sphere is divided into two
hemispheres, then the total surface area of one of the hemispheres is
(A) 12 cm2 (B) 8 cm2
(C) 16 cm2 (D) 18 cm2
Solution: 4rr2 = 24 cm2
2
TSA of the hemisphere, 3rr2 = 24 # 3rr2 = 18cm2 ( Ans. (D) )
4rr
22. Two right circular cones have equal radii. If their slant heights are in the ratio
4 : 3, then their respective curved surface areas are in the ratio
(A) 16 : 9 (B) 8 : 6 (C) 4 : 3 (D) 3 : 4
Solution: r1 = r2 and l1 : l2 = 4 : 3.

rr1 l1 : rr2 l2 = l1 : l2 = 4 : 3 ( Ans. (C) )

Do you know?
Pythagorean triplets
We know that ( a, b, c ) is a Pythagorean triplet if a2 + b2 = c2

Thus, ( AB, BC , AC ) is a Pythagorean triplet if AB2 + BC2 = AC2


Some Pythagorean triplets are:
^3, 4, 5h . Thus, ^3n, 4n, 5n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
^5, 12, 13h . Thus, ^5n, 12n, 13n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
^7, 24, 25h . Thus, ^7n, 24n, 25n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
^8, 15, 17h . Thus, ^8n, 15n, 17n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
^12, 35, 37h . Thus, ^12n, 35n, 37n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
^20 21, 29h . Thus, ^20n, 21n, 29n h , where n = 1, 2, 3, g
In the same way, one can generate Pythagorean triplets.

220 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Practical Geometry 9
Exercise 9.1

1. Draw a circle of radius 4.2 cm, and take any point on the circle. Draw the tangent
at that point using the centre.
Solution: Radius = 4.2 cm

Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 4.2 cm.
(ii) Take a point P on the circle and join OP.
(iii) Draw an arc of a circle with centre at P cutting OP at L.
!!
(iv) Mark M and N on the arc such that LM = MN = PL
(v) Draw the bisector PT of the angle +MPN .
(vi) Produce TP to T l to get the required tangent T l PT .
Solution - Practical Geometry 221
2. Draw a circle of radius 4.8 cm. Take a point on the circle. Draw the tangent at that
point using the tangent-chord theorem.
Solution: The radius of the circle = 4.8 cm.

Construction:
(i) With O as the centre, draw a circle of radius 4.8 cm.
(ii) Take a point P on the circle.
(iii) Through P, draw any chord PQ.
(iv) Mark a point R distinct from P and Q on the circle so that P, Q and R are in
counter clockwise direction.
(v) Join PR and QR.
!
(vi) At R, draw an arc AB which intersects RQ and RP at A and B respectively.
(vii) With P as centre and RA (= RB) as radius draw an arc which intersect PQ at
C.
(viii) With C as centre and AB as radius draw an arc which intersects the previous
arc at D.
(ix) Produce PD to T l and T to get the required tangent line T l PT.

222 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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3. Draw a circle of diameter 10 cm. From a point P, 13 cm away from its centre, draw
the two tangents PA and PB to the circle, and measure their lengths.
Given: The radius of the circle = 5 cm, OP = 13 cm.

Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 5 cm.
(ii) Mark a point P at a distance of 13 cm from O and join OP.
Solution - Practical Geometry 223
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP. Let it meet OP at M.
(iv) With M as centre and MO as radius, draw another circle.
(v) Let the two circles intersect at A and B.
(vi) Join PA and PB . They are the required tangents.
Length of the tangent, PA = 12 cm.
Verification: In the right angled TOPA ,
2 2
PA = OP - OA = 132 - 52 = 169 - 25 = 144 ` PA = 12 cm .
4. Draw the two tangents from a point which is 10 cm away from the centre of a circle
of radius 6 cm. Also, measure the lengths of the tangents.

224 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 6 cm.
(ii) Mark a point P at a distance of 10 cm from O and join OP.
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP. Let it meet OP at M.
(iv) With M as centre and MO as radius, draw another circle.
(v) Let the two circles intersect at A and B.
(vi) Join PA and PB . They are the required tangents.
Length of the tangent, PA = 8cm.
Verification: In the right angled TOPA ,
2 2
PA = OP - OA = 102 - 62
= 100 - 36 = 64 ` PA = 8 cm.
5. Take a point which is 9 cm away from the centre of a circle of radius 3 cm, and
draw the two tangents to the circle from that point.

Solution - Practical Geometry 225


Construction:
(i) With O as the centre draw a circle of radius 3 cm.
(ii) Mark a point P at a distance of 9 cm from O and join OP.
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisector of OP. Let it meet OP at M.
(iv) With M as centre and MO as radius, draw another circle.
(v) Let the two circles intersect at A and B.
(vi) Join PA and PB . They are the required tangents.
Length of the tangent, PA = 8.5 cm
Verification: In the right angled TOPA ,
2 2
PA = OP - OA = 92 - 32
= 81 - 9 = = 72 = 36 # 2 = 6 # 1.414 = 8.484 cm
` Length of the tangents PA = PB = 8.5 cm.

Exercise 9.2

1. Construct a segment of a circle on a given line segment AB = 5.2 cm containing


an angle 48c.
Given: AB = 5.2 cm angle of a sector = 48°.

226 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment AB = 5.2 cm.
(ii) At A, make +BAX = 48c.
(iii) Draw AY = AX .
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of AB which meets AY at O.
(v) With O as centre and OA as radius draw a circle.
(vi) Take any point C on the circle. By the tangent chord theorem, the major arc
ACB is the required segment of the circle containing the angle 48°.
(vii) The major arcs AC1 B, AC2 B, AC3 B are also having the same angle 48°.

2. Construct a DPQR such that PQ = 6 cm, +R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is
4 cm .
Given: PQ = 6 cm, R = 60c and the altitude from R to PQ is 4 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment PQ = 6 cm.
(ii) Draw PX such that +QPX = 60°.
(iii) Draw PY = PX .
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of PQ intersecting PY at O and PQ at M.

Solution - Practical Geometry 227


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(v) With O as centre and OP as radius, draw the circle .
(vi) The major arc PKQ contains the vertical angle 60°.
(vii) On the perpendicular bisector MO, mark a point H such that MH = 4 cm.
(viii) Draw RHRl parallel to PQ meeting the circle at Rand at Rl .
(ix) Complete the TPQR , which is one of the required triangles.
3. Construct a DPQR such that PQ = 4 cm, +R = 25c and the altitude from R to PQ is
4.5cm .
Given: PQ = 4 cm, R = 25c and the altitude from R to PQ is 4.5 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment PQ = 4 cm.
(ii) Draw PX such that +QPX = 25c.
(iii) Draw PY = PX .
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of PQ intersecting PY at O and PQ at M.
(v) With O as centre and OP as radius, draw the circle .
(vi) The major arc PKQ contains the vertical angle 25c.
(vii) On the perpendicular bisector MO, mark a point H such that MH = 4.5 cm.
(viii) Draw RHRl parallel to PQ meeting the circle at Rand at Rl .
(ix) Complete the TPQR , which is one of the required triangles.
228 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
4. Construct a DABC such that BC = 5 cm. +A = 45c and the median from A to BC
is 4cm .
Given: BC = 5 cm, +A = 45c, The median from A to BC = 4 cm.

Construction:

(i) Draw a line segment BC = 5 cm.


(ii) Through B draw BX such that +CBX = 45c.
(iii) Draw BY= BX.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC intersecting BY at O and BC at M.
(v) With O as centre and OB as radius, draw the circle.
(vi) The major arc BKC of the circle, contains the vertical angle 45c.
(vii) With M as centre, draw an arc of radius 4 cm meeting the circle at A and Al .
(viii) Join AB  and AC.
Now, 3 ABC or TAl BC is the required triangle.

Solution - Practical Geometry 229


5. Construct a DABC in which the base BC = 5 cm, +BAC = 40c and the median
from A to BC is 6 cm. Also, measure the length of the altitude from A.
Given: BC = 5 cm, +BAC = 40c, median from A to B = 6 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a line segment BC = 5 cm.
(ii) Through B draw BX such that +CBX = 40c.
(iii) Draw BY= BX.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisector of BC intersecting BY at O and BC at M.
(v) With O as centre and OB as radius, draw the circle.
(vi) The major arc BKC of the circle, contains the vertical angle 40c.
(vii) With M as centre, draw an arc of radius 6 cm meeting the circle at A and Al .
(viii) 3 ABC or TAl BC is the required triangle.
(ix) Produce CB to CZ.
(x) Draw AE = CZ .
(xi) Length of the altitude AE is 3.8 cm.
230 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 9.3

1. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS, with PQ = 6.5cm, QR = 5.5 cm,


PR = 7 cm and PS = 4.5 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS,
PQ = 6.5 cm
QR = 5.5 cm
PR = 7 cm
PS = 4.5 cm

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 6.5 cm.
(ii) With P and Q as centres, draw arcs with radii 7 cm and 5.5 cm respectively,
to intersect at R. Join PR and QR.
(iii) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR to intersect at O.
(iv) With O as the centre and OP (= OQ = OR) as radius draw the circumcircle of
DPQR .
(v) With P as the centre and radius 4.5 cm. draw an arc intersecting the circumcircle
at S.
(vi) Join PS and RS.
Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
Solution - Practical Geometry 231
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2. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD where AB = 6cm, AD = 4.8cm, BD = 8cm


and CD = 5.5 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 6 cm, AD= 4.8 cm, BD = 8 cm and
CD = 5.5 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm
(ii) With A as centre and radius 4.8 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 8 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at D.
(iv) Join AD and BD.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and AD intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OA(=OB=OC) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DABD .
(vii) With D as centre and 5.5 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at C.
(viii) Join CD and BC.
(ix) Now,ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

232 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


3. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS such that PQ = 5.5 cm, QR = 4.5 cm,
+QPR = 45c and PS = 3 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS, PQ = 5.5 cm, QR = 4.5 cm, +QPR = 45c
and PS = 3 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 5.5 cm.
(ii) Through P draw PX such that +QPX = 45c.
(iii) With Q as centre and radius 4.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting PX at R and join
QR.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre and OP (= OQ= OR) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DPQR .
(vi) With P as centre and radius 3 cm, draw an arc intersecting the circle at S.
(vii) Join PS and RS.
(viii) Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

Solution - Practical Geometry 233


4. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD with AB = 7 cm, +A = 80c, AD = 4.5 cm
and BC = 5 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 7 cm, AD = 4.5 cm, +A = 80c and
BC = 5 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 7 cm.
(ii) Through A draw AX such that +A = 80c.
(iii) With A as centre and radius 4.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting AX at D and join
AD.
(iv) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AD and BD intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre and OA (= OB = OD) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DABD .
(vi) With B as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc intersecting the circle at C.
(vii) Join CD and BC.
(viii) Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

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5. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral KLMN such that KL = 5.5 cm, KM = 5 cm,
LM = 4.2 cm and LN = 5.3 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral KLMN, KL = 5.5 cm, KM = 5 cm, LM = 4.2 cm and
LN = 5.3 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment KL = 5.5 cm
(ii) With K as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With L as centre and radius 4.2 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at M.
(iv) Join KM and LM.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of KM and LM intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OK(=OL=OM) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DKLM .
(vii) With L as centre and 5.3 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at N.
(viii) Join KN and MN.
(ix) Now, KLMN is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

Solution - Practical Geometry 235


6. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral EFGH where EF = 7 cm, EH = 4.8 cm,
FH = 6.5 cm and EG = 6.6 cm.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral EFGH, EF = 7 cm, EH = 4.8 cm, FH = 6.5 cm and
EG = 6.6 cm.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment EF = 7 cm.
(ii) With E as centre and radius 4.8 cm, draw an arc.
(iii) With F as centre and radius 6.5 cm, draw another arc meeting the previous
arc as in the figure at H.
(iv) Join EH and FH.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of EF and EH intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as the centre OE(=OF=OH) as radius, draw the circumcircle of
DEFH .
(vii) With E as centre and 6.6 cm radius , draw an arc intersecting the circle at G.
(viii) Join HG and FG.
(ix) Now, EFGH is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
236 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
7. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, given AB = 6 cm, +ABC = 70c,
BC = 5 cm and +ACD = 30c
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 6 cm, BC = 5 cm, +ABC = 70c and
+ACD = 30c.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6 cm.
(ii) From B, draw BX such that +ABX = 70c.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 5 cm, draw an arc intersecting BX at C.
(iv) Join AC.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as centre and OA (= OB = OC) as radius, draw a circumcircle.
(vii) From C, draw CY such that +ACD = 30c which intersects the circle at D.
(viii) Join AD.
Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

Solution - Practical Geometry 237


8. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral PQRS given PQ = 5 cm, QR = 4 cm, +QPR = 35c
and +PRS = 70c.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral PQRS, PQ = 5 cm, QR = 4 cm, +QPR = 35c and
+PRS = 70c.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment PQ = 5 cm.
(ii) From P, draw PX such that +QPX = 35c
(iii) With Q as centre and radius 4 cm, draw an arc intersecting PX at R.
(iv) Join QR.
(v) Draw the perpendicular bisectors of PQ and QR intersecting each other at O.
(vi) With O as centre and OP (= OQ = OR) as radius, draw a circumcircle.
(vii) From R, draw RY such that +PRY = 70cwhich intersects the circle at S.
(viii) Join PS.
Now, PQRS is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

238 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


9. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD such that AB = 5.5 cm +ABC = 50c,
+BAC = 60c and +ACD = 30c.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 5.5 cm, +ABC = 50c, +BAC = 60c
and +ACD = 30c.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.

Draw a line segment AB = 5.5 cm.

(ii) From B draw BX such that +ABX = 50c.

(iii) From A draw AY such that +BAY = 60c. Let AY meet BX at C.

(iv) Draw perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O.

(v) With O as centre and OA( = OB = OC ) as radius, draw a cicumcircle of


3 ABC .

(vi) From C, draw CZ such that +ACZ = 30c which intersects the circle at D.

(vii) Join AD.

Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.

Solution - Practical Geometry 239


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10. Construct a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, where AB = 6.5 cm, +ABC = 110c,
BC = 5.5 cm and AB || CD.
Given: In the cyclic quadrilateral ABCD, AB = 6.5 cm, BC = 5.5 cm and +ABC = 110c.
and AB || CD.

Construction:
(i) Draw a rough diagram and mark the measurements.
Draw a line segment AB = 6.5 cm.
(ii) From B, draw BX such that +ABX = 110c.
(iii) With B as centre and radius 5.5 cm, draw an arc intersecting BX at C.
(iv) Draw perpendicular bisectors of AB and BC intersecting each other at O.
(v) With O as centre, and OA (= OB = OC) as radius, draw a circumcircle of
DABC .
(vi) Draw CY such that CY < AB intersecting the circle at D.
Join AD.
(vii) Now, ABCD is the required cyclic quadrilateral.
240 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Graphs 10
Exercise 10.1

1. Draw the graph of the following functions.


2
(i) y = 3x .
Solution:
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
y = 3x2 27 12 3 0 3 12 27

Points: (- 3, 27), (- 2, 12), (- 1, 3), (0, 0), (1, 3), (2, 12), (3, 27)

Solution - Graph 241


2
(ii) y =- 4x
Solution:
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
y =- 4x2 – 36 – 16 –4 0 –4 – 16 – 36

Points: (- 3, - 36), (- 2, - 16), (- 1, - 4), (0, 0), (1, - 4), (2, - 16), (3, - 36)

(iii) y = ^ x + 2h^ x + 4h = x 2 + 6x + 8
Let y = x2 + 6x + 8
Solution:
x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2
x2 25 16 9 4 1 0 1 4
6x – 30 – 24 – 18 – 12 –6 0 6 12
8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
y 3 0 –1 0 3 8 15 24
Points: (- 5, 3), (- 4, 0), (- 3, - 1), (- 2, 0), (- 1, 3), (0, 8), (1, 15), (2, 24)
242 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2
(iv) y = 2x - x + 3 .
Solution:
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
2x2 18 8 2 0 2 8 18
-x 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
y 24 13 6 3 4 9 18
Points: (- 3, 24), (- 2, 13), (- 1, 6), (0, 3), (1, 4), (2, 9), (3, 18)

Solution - Graph 243


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2. Solve the following equations graphically
2
(i) x - 4 = 0 .
Solution: Let y = x2 - 4
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
–4 –4 –4 –4 –4 –4 –4 –4
y 5 0 –3 –4 –3 0 5
Points: (- 3, 5), (- 2, 0), (- 1, - 3), (0, - 4), (1, - 3), (2, 0), (3, 5)
Solve: y = x2 - 4
0 = x2 - 4
y = 0

The curve intersects the x-axis at (- 2, 0) and (2, 0).


Thus, the x-coordinates of the points are – 2 and 2. Hence, the Solution set is {– 2, 2}.
2
(ii) x - 3x - 10 = 0 .
Solution: Let y = x2 - 3x - 10
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25 36
- 3x 9 6 3 0 –3 –6 –9 – 12 – 15 – 18
– 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10 – 10
y 8 0 –6 – 10 – 12 – 12 – 10 –6 0 8

244 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Points: (- 3, 8), (- 2, 0), (- 1, - 6), (0, - 10), (1, - 12)
(2, - 12), (3, - 10), (4, - 6), (5, 0), (6, 8)
Solve: y = x2 - 3x - 10
0 = x2 - 3x - 10
y = 0

The curve intersects the x-axis at (- 2, 0) and (5, 0).


` The x-coordinates of the points are – 2 and 5. Thus, Solution set is {– 2, 5}.
(iii) ^ x - 5h^ x - 1h = 0 .
Solution: (x - 5) (x - 1) = 0 & x2 - 6x + 5 = 0 . Let y = x2 - 6x + 5
x –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x2 1 0 1 4 9 16 25 36
- 6x 6 0 –6 – 12 – 18 – 24 – 30 – 36
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
y 12 5 0 –3 –4 –3 0 5
Points: (- 1, 12), (0, 5), (1, 0), (2, - 3), (3, - 4), (4, - 3), (5, 0), (6, 5)
Solve: y = x2 - 6x + 5
0 = x2 - 6x + 5
y = 0

Solution - Graph 245


The curve intersects the x-axis at (1, 0)
and (5, 0).
Thus, the x-coordinates of the points are
1 and 5. Hence, Solution set is {1, 5}.
(iv) ^2x + 1h^ x - 3h = 0 .
Solution: (2x + 1) (x - 3) = 0 & 2x2 - 5x - 3 = 0 . Let y = 2x2 - 5x - 3
x –1 0 1 2 3 4
2x2 2 0 2 8 18 32
- 5x 5 0 –5 – 10 – 15 – 20
–3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3
y 4 –3 –6 –5 0 9
Points: (- 1, 4), (0, - 3), (1, - 6), (2, - 5), (3, 0), (4, 9)
Solve: y = 2x2 - 5x - 3
0 = 2x2 - 5x - 3
y = 0
The curve intersects the
x- axis at (– 0.5, 0) and (3, 0).
So, the x-coordinates of the
points are 1 and 5.
Thus,
Solution set is {–0.5, 3}.

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2 2
3. Draw the graph of y = x and hence solve x - 4x - 5 = 0 .
Solution: y = x2
x –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
y = x2 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25 36
Points: (- 2, 4), (- 1, 1), (0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9), (4, 16), (5, 25), (6, 36)
Solve: y = x2 + 0x + 0
0 = x2 - 4x - 5
y = 4x + 5
Let us draw the graph of the straight line y = 4x + 5 .
Now, form the table for the line y = 4x + 5 .
x –2 –1 0 1 2
y = 4x + 5 –3 1 5 9 13
Points: (- 2, - 3), (- 1, 1), (0, 5), (1, 9), (2, 13)

.
The points of intersection of the line and the parabola are (- 1, 1) and (5, 25) .
The x-coordinates of the points are – 1 and 5. Thus,Solution set is {– 1, 5}
2 2
4. Draw the graph of y = x + 2x - 3 and hence find the roots of x - x - 6 = 0 .
Solution: y = x2 + 2x - 3
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
x2 9 4 1 0 1 4 9
2x –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6
–3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3
y 0 –3 –4 –3 0 5 12
Solution - Graph 247
Points: (- 3, 0), (- 2, - 3), (- 1, - 4), (0, - 3), (1, 0), (2, 5), (3, 12)
Solve: y = x2 + 2x - 3
0 = x2 - x - 6
y = 3x + 3
Let us draw the graph of the straight line y = 3x + 3 .
Now, form the table for the line y = 3x + 3 .
x –2 –1 0 1 2
y = 3x + 3 –3 0 3 6 9
Points: (- 2, - 3), (- 1, 0), (0, 3), (1, 6), (2, 9)

The points of intersection of the line and the parabola are (- 2, - 3) and (3, 12) .
The x-coordinates of the points are – 2 and 3. Thus, Solution set is {– 2, 3}.
2 2
5. Draw the graph of y = 2x + x - 6 and hence solve 2x + x - 10 = 0 .
Solution: y = 2x2 + x - 6
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
2x2 18 8 2 0 2 8 18
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
–6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6 –6
y 9 0 –5 –6 –3 4 15
248 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Points: (- 3, 9), (- 2, 0), (- 1, - 5), (0, - 6), (1, - 3), (2, 4), (3, 15)
Solve: y = 2x2 + x - 6
0 = 2x2 + x - 10
y =      4
y = 4 is a straight line parallel to x-axis.

The straight line and parabola intersect at points (–2.5, 4) and (2, 4).
So, the x-coordinates of the points are – 2.5 and 2. Thus, Solution set is {– 2.5, 2}.
2 2
6. Draw the graph of y = x - x - 8 and hence find the roots of x - 2x - 15 = 0 .
Solution:
x –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x2 16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16 25
-x 4 3 2 1 0 –1 –2 –3 –4 –5
–8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8 –8
y 12 4 –2 –6 –8 –8 –6 –2 4 12
Points: (- 4, 12), (- 3, 4), (- 2, - 2), (- 1, - 6), (0, - 8)
(1, - 8), (2, - 6), (3, - 2), (4, 4), (5, 12)

Solution - Graph 249


Solve: y = x2 - x - 8
0 = x2 - 2x - 15
y = x + 7
Let us draw the graph of the straight line y = x + 7 .
Now, form the table for the line y = x + 7 .
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4 5
y = x+7 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Points: (- 3, 4), (- 2, 5), (- 1, 6), (0, 7), (1, 8), (2, 9), (3, 10), (4, 11), (5, 12)

The straight line and parabola intersects at points (– 3, 4) and (5, 12).
The x-coordinates of the points are – 3 and 5.
Thus, Solution set is {– 3, 5}.

250 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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2 2
7. Draw the graph of y = x + x - 12 and hence solve x + 2x + 2 = 0 .
Solution:
x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
x2 25 16 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 16
x –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3 4
– 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12 – 12
y 8 0 –6 – 10 – 12 – 12 – 10 –6 0 8
Points: (- 5, 8), (- 4, 0), (- 3, - 6), (- 2, - 10), (- 1, - 12)
(0, - 12), (1, - 10), (2, - 6), (3, 0), (4, 8)
Solve: y = x2 + x - 12
0 = x2 + 2x + 2
y = - x - 14
Let us draw the graph of the straight line y =- x - 14 .

Solution - Graph 251


Now, form the table for the line y =- x - 14 .
x –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 3
y =- x - 14 – 11 – 12 – 13 – 14 – 15 – 16 – 17
Points (- 3, - 11), (- 2, - 12), (- 1, - 13), (0, - 14), (1, - 15), (2, - 16), (3, - 17)
The straight line y =- x - 14 does not intersect the curve y = x2 + x - 12 .
Thus, x2 + 2x + 2 = 0 has no real roots.

Exercise 10.2

1. A bus travels at a speed of 40 km / hr. Write the distance-time formula and draw
the graph of it. Hence, find the distance travelled in 3 hours.
Solution:
x 1 2 3 4
y 40 80 120 160
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.

Note:
In this problem, the graph is a
straight line passing through the origin.
y
Thus, y \ x & y = kx & = k .
x

Thus, the variation is a direct variation.


y
y \ x & y = kx & =k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality. From the given values, we have
k = 40 = 80 = 120 = 160 = 40
1 2 3 4
252 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
y
` k = 40; = 40, y = 40x
x
The relation y = 40x forms a straight line graph.
From the graph, distance travelled in 3 hours = 120 km.
2. The following table gives the cost and number of notebooks bought.

No. of note books (x) 2 4 6 8 10 12

Cost ` y 30 60 90 120 150 180

Draw the graph and hence (i) Find the cost of seven note books. (ii) How many
note books can be bought for ` 165.
Solution:
x 2 4 6 8 10 12
y 30 60 90 120 150 180
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.

Thus, the variation is a direct variation.


y
y \ x Let y = kx & =k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality. From the given values, we have

Solution - Graph 253


k = 30 = 60 = 90 = 120 = 150 = 180 = 15
2 4 6 8 10 12
& y = 15x .

From the graph,


(i) cost of seven note books = ` 105. (ii) Note books bought for ` 165 = 11.
3.
x 1 3 5 7 8
y 2 6 10 14 16

Draw the graph for the above table and hence find
(i) the value of y if x = 4 , (ii) the value of x if y = 12.
Solution:
x 1 3 5 7 8
y 2 6 10 14 16
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.

Thus, the variation is a direct variation.


y
y \ x & y = kx &
=k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality. From the given values, we have

254 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


k = 2 = 6 = 10 = 14 = 16 = 2
1 3 5 7 8
& y = 2x .
From the graph, (i) when x = 4, y = 8 , (ii) when y = 12, x = 6 .
4. The cost of the milk per litre is ` 15. Draw the graph for the relation between the
quantity and cost . Hence find (i) the proportionality constant, (ii) the cost of 3
litres of milk.
Solution:
No. of litres ( x) 1 2 3 4 5
Cost in ` 15 30 45 60 75
From the table, we found that as x increases, y also increases.

Thus, the variation is a direct variation.


y
y \ x Let y = kx & = k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality.
k = 15 = 10 = 45 = 60 = 75 = 15
1 2 3 4 5
` k = 15
& y = 15x
It forms a straight line graph. From the graph,
(i) The proportionality constant = 15, (ii) cost of 3 litres of milk = ` 45.
Solution - Graph 255
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5. Draw the Graph of xy = 20 , x, y > 0. Use the graph to find y when x = 5 , and to
find x when y = 10 .
Solution: xy = 20, x, y > 0

y = 20
x
x 1 2 4 5 10 20
y 20 10 5 4 2 1
From the table, we observe that as x increases, y decreases.
This type of variation is called indirect variation.
From the graph, when x = 5, y = 4 , when y = 10, x = 2 .

6.

No. of workers (x) 3 4 6 8 9 16


No of days (y) 96 72 48 36 32 18
Draw graph for the data given in the table. Hence find the number of days taken
by 12 workers to complete the work.
Solution:
No. of workers ( x) 3 4 6 8 9 16
No. of days (y) 96 72 48 36 32 18

From the table, we observe that as x increases y decreases.

256 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Thus, the variation is a indirect variation.
y \ 1 & xy = k
x
where k is the constant of proportionality.
k = 3 # 96 = 4 # 72
= 6 # 48 = 8 # 36
= 9 # 32 = 16 # 18 = 288
xy = 288
y = 288
x
From the graph, number of days taken by 12 workers to complete the work is 24 days.

Solution - Graph 257


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11 Statistics
Exercise 11.1
1. Find the range and coefficient of range of the following data.
(i) 59, 46, 30, 23, 27, 40, 52,35, 29
Solution: (i) The largest value L = 59. The smallest value S = 23
Thus, Range = L - S = 59 - 23 = 36
Coefficient of range = L - S = 59 - 23 = 36 = 18
L+S 59 + 23 82 41
= 0.4390 = 0.44
(ii) 41.2, 33.7, 29.1, 34.5, 25.7, 24.8, 56.5, 12.5
Solution: From the given data
The largest value L = 56.5
The smallest value S = 12.5
Now, Range = L - S = 56.5 - 12.5 = 44
Coefficient of range = L - S = 56.5 - 12.5 = 44
L+S 56.5 + 12.5 69
= 0.6376 = 0.64
2. The smallest value of a collection of data is 12 and the range is 59. Find the
largest value of the collection of data.
Solution: The smallest value, S = 12, Range, R = 59.
We have R = L- S
` L = S + R = 12 + 59 = 71
Thus, the largest value, L = 71
3. The largest of 50 measurements is 3.84 k
g. If the range is 0.46 kg, find the smallest
measurement.
Solution: The Largest value, L = 3.84 kg, Range R= 0.46 kg.
So, Smallest value, S = L - R = 3.84 – 0.46 = 3.38
Thus, the smallest value, S = 3.38 kg.
4. The standard deviation of 20 observations is 5 . If each observation is multiplied
by 2, find the standard deviation and variance of the resulting observations.
Solution: Given that SD of 20 observations is 5 .
If each observation is multiplied by 2, then SD of new data is 2 5 .
Variance = (SD)2 = (2 5 )2
= 4 # 5 = 20 .
258 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
5. Calculate the standard deviation of the first 13 natural numbers.
Solution:
2
The SD of the first n natural numbers v = n -1
12
2 2
Thus, SD of the first 13 natural numbers v = n -1 = 13 - 1
12 12

= 168 = 14 = 3.74
12
6. Calculate the standard deviation of the following data.
(i) 10, 20, 15, 8, 3, 4 (ii) 38, 40, 34 ,31, 28, 26, 34.
Solution: (i) First we arrange the given data in ascending order 3,4,8,10,15,20
Arithmetic mean, xr = Rx = 3 + 4 + 8 + 10 + 15 + 20 = 60 = 10
n 6 6
d = x - xr = x - 10

x d = x - 10 d2
3 49 v = Rd2
-7 n
4 -6 36
8 4 = 214
-2 6
10 0 0
15 25 b 5.97
5
20 10 100
2
Rd = 214

(ii) 38, 40, 34 ,31, 28, 26, 34.


First we arrange the given data in ascending order 26, 28, 31, 34, 34, 38, 40
Arithmetic mean, xr = Rx
n
= 26 + 28 + 31 + 34 + 34 + 38 + 40 = 231 = 33
7 7

x d = x - xr = x - 33 d2
26 -7 49
v = Rd2
28 -5 25 n
31 -2 4
= 154
34 1 1 7
34 1 1
= 22
38 5 25
40 7 49 b 4.69
2
Rd = 154

Solution - Statistics 259


7. Calculate the standard deviation of the following data.

x 3 8 13 18 23
f 7 10 15 10 8
Solution: Let us find the Standard Deviation by using assumed mean method
Let us take A = 13 as the assumed mean d = x - A = x - 13
x f d = x – 13 d2 fd fd
2

3 7 - 10 100 - 70 700
8 10 -5 25 - 50 250
13 15 0 0 0 0
18 10 5 25 50 250
23 8 10 100 80 800
Rf =50 Rfd =10 2
Rfd =2000

Standard deviation, v =
/ fd2 - e / fd o2
/f /f
= 2000 - 10 2
50 ` 50 j

= 1
40 - 25 = 999 = 31.61
25 5
Thus, v - 6.321
8. The number of books bought at a book fair by 200 students from a school are
given in the following table.
No. of books 0 1 2 3 4
No. of students 35 64 68 18 15
Calculate the standard deviation.
Solution: Let us calculate the Standard Deviation by using assumed mean method.
Let us take A = 2 as the assumed mean d = x - A = x - 2
x f d=x–2 d2 fd fd
2

0 35 -2 4 - 70 140
1 64 -1 1 - 64 64
2 68 0 0 0 0
3 18 1 1 18 18
4 15 2 4 30 60
Rf =200 Rfd = – 86 2
Rfd = 282
2
Rfd Rfd 2
Standard deviation v = -c m
Rf Rf
260 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
= 282 - - 86 2 = 282 - 7396
200 ` 200 j 200 (200) 2

= 282 # 200 - 7396 = 49004 = 221.4


2 ^200h2 200
(200)
Thus, v - 1.107
9. Calculate the variance of the following data
x 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
f 4 4 5 15 8 5 4 5
Solution: Let us find the variance by using assumed mean method. Let A = 10
x f d = x – 10 d2 fd fd
2

2 4 -8 64 – 32 256
4 4 -6 36 – 24 144
6 5 -4 16 – 20 80
8 15 -2 4 – 30 60
10 8 0 0 0 0
12 5 2 4 10 20
14 4 4 16 16 64
16 5 6 36 30 180
Rf =50 Rfd =- 50 2
Rfd = 804
2
2 Rfd Rfd 2
v = -c m
Rf Rf

= 804 - - 50 2
50 ` 50 j
= 804 - 1 = 754 = 15.08
50 50
Thus, Variance = 15.08

10. The time (in seconds) taken by a group of people to walk across a pedestrian
crossing is given in the table below.
Time (in sec.) 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 25-30
No. of people 4 8 15 12 11
Calculate the variance and standard deviation of the data.
Solution: Let A = 17.5 , the mid-value of the interval 15 - 20
Here, c = 5
Now, d = x - A = x - 17.5
c 5

Solution - Statistics 261


Mid d=
Class
value x - 17.5
interval f x–A d2 fd fd
2
x 5
5-10 7.5 4 –10 -2 4 -8 16
10-15 12.5 8 –5 -1 1 -8 8
15-20 17.5 15 0 0 0 0 0
20-25 22.5 12 5 1 1 12 12
25-30 27.5 11 10 2 4 22 44
2
Rf = 50 Rfd = 18 Rfd = 80

Variance, v = =
Rfd 2 G
2
2 Rfd
-c m # c2
Rf Rf

= ; 80 - ` 18 j E # 5 = c 80 - 3242 m # 25
2 2
50 50 50 50
= 4000 -2 324 # 25 = 4000 - 324 # 25 = 3676
50 50 # 50 100
2
v = 36.76
Thus, Standard Deviation, v = 36.76 - 6.063
11. A group of 45 house owners contributed money towards green environment of
their street. The amount of money collected is shown in the table below.
Amount
0-20 20-40 40-60 60-80 80-100
(`)
No. of house
2 7 12 19 5
owners
Calculate the variance and standard deviation.
Solution: Let us take the assumed mean A = 50 and c = 20.
d = x - A = x - 50
c 20
Class mid d=
interval value f x–A x - 50 d2 fd fd
2

x 20
0-20 10 2 – 40 -2 4 -4 8
20-40 30 7 – 20 -1 1 -7 7
40-60 50 12 0 0 0 0 0
60-80 70 19 20 1 1 19 19
80-100 90 5 40 2 4 10 20
Rf = 45 Rfd = 18 2
Rfd = 54

Variance, v = =
Rfd 2 G 2
2
2 Rfd
-c m #c
Rf Rf

262 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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= ; 54 - ` 18 j E # 400 = ^1.2 - (0.4) h # 400


2 2
45 45
= ^1.2 - 0.16h # 400 = 1.04 # 400 = 416
Thus, Standard Deviation, v = 416 - 20.396
12. Find the variance of the following distribution
Class interval 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49
Frequency 15 25 28 12 12 8
Solution: Let A = 32, the mid value of the interval 30-34 and c = 5.
d = x - A = x - 32
c 5
Class mid d=
interval value (f) x–A x - 32 d2 fd fd
2

x 5
20-24 22 15 – 10 -2 4 - 30 60
25-29 27 25 –5 -1 1 - 25 25
30-34 32 28 0 0 0 0 0
35-39 37 12 5 1 1 12 12
40-44 42 12 10 2 4 24 48
45-49 47 8 15 3 9 24 72
Rf = 100 /fd =5 2
Rfd = 217

= =
Rfd 2 G 2
2
m # c = ; 217 - ` 5 j E # 5
2 Rfd 2 2
Variance, v -c
Rf Rf 100 100
2
= ^2.17 - (0.05 h # 25 = ^2.17 - (0.0025h # 25
= 2.1675 # 25
2
Thus, v = 54.1875 - 54.19
13. Mean of 100 items is 48 and their standard deviation is 10. Find the sum of all the
items and the sum of the squares of all the items.
Solution: The Mean of 100 items, x = 48
;a xr = E
The sum of 100 items / x = 48 × 100 = 4800 . Rx
n
Given that Standard Deviation, v = 10
22
Now, Variance, v = Rx - c Rx m = 100
2

n n
2 2
& Rx - 4800 2 = 100 ( Rx - 2304 = 100
100 ` 100 j 100
2
& Rx = 100 + 2304 = 2404
100
2
Thus, Rx = 2404 × 100 = 2,40,400
Solution - Statistics 263
14. The mean and standard deviation of 20 items are found to be 10 and 2 respectively.
At the time of checking it was found that an item 12 was wrongly entered as 8.
Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation.
Solution: Let us find the correct mean.
/x
Mean of 20 items, xr = = 10
n
/x
& = 10
20
& / x = 10 × 20 = 200
Now, corrected Rx = 200 + 4 = 204

Thus, the corrected Mean = 204 = 10.2


20
6a v = 2 @
2 2
Variance,  v = Rx - c Rx m = 4
2

n n
2
& Rx - 102 = 4
20 2
& Rx = 4 + 100 = 104
20
2
Thus, Rx = 104 × 20 = 2080
2
So, corrected Rx = 2080 + 122 – 82
= 2080 + 144 – 64 = 2160
2
the corrected v = Corrected Rx - ^Corrected meanh2
2
Now,
n
= 2160 - (10.2)
2
20
= 108 – 104.04 = 3.96

Corrected v = 3.96 - 1.99


Hence, the corrected Mean = 10.2 and the corrected S.D. - 1.99
2
15. If n = 10, x = 12 and Rx = 1530, then calculate the coefficient of variation.
/x 2
Solution: Given that n = 10, x = = 12 and Rx = 1530
n
2
Now, Standard Deviation v = Rx - Rx 2
c m
n n

= 1530 - 122 = 153 - 144 = 3


10
Coefficient of variation = v # 100
xr
& C.V = 3 # 100
12
= 1 # 100 = 25.
4

264 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


16. Calculate the coefficient of variation of the following data: 20, 18, 32, 24, 26.
Solution:

x d = x - 24 d
2

20 -4 16
18 -6 36
32 8 64
24 0 0
26 2 4
Rx = 120 2
Rd = 120
Arithmetic mean, x = Rx = 120 = 24
n 5
2
Standard deviation, v = Rd C.V. = v # 100
n x
v = 120 = 4.9 # 100 = 490
5 24 24
v = 24 = 4.9 = 20.416 b 20.42

17. If the coefficient of variation of a collection of data is 57 and its S.D is 6.84, then
find the mean.
Solution: G
iven that the coefficient of variation = 57, v = 6.84
v # 100 = 57 & 6.84 # 100 = 57
x x
x = 684 = 12
57
18. A group of 100 candidates have their average height 163.8 cm with coefficient of
variation 3.2. What is the standard deviation of their heights?
Solution: T
he average height of 100 candidates = 163.8, i.e. x = 163.8
Coefficient of variation = 3.2
& v # 100 = 3.2
xr
& v # 100 = 3.2
163.8
= 3.2 # 163.8 = 5.2416 b 5.24
v
100
19. Given Rx = 99 , n = 9 and R (x - 10) 2 = 79. Find Rx 2 and R (x - x ) 2 .
Solution: Given that Rx = 99 and n = 9.
Thus, x = Rx = 99 = 11 .
n 9
2
Let us find Rx .
2
Now, R (x - 10) = 79
R (x2 - 20x + 100) = 79

Solution - Statistics 265


2
Rx - 20Rx + 100R1 = 79 ^ /1 = 9 h
2
Rx - 20 # 99 + 100 # 9 = 79
2
` Rx = 1159
2
Now, R (x - x ) 2 = R (x - 11)
2
= R^ x - 22x + 121h
= 1159 - 22 # 99 + 121 R1
= 1159 - 2178 + 121 # 9
= 1159 - 2178 + 1089 = 70
2
Thus, Rx = 1159 and R^ x - x h2 = 70.

20. The marks scored by two students A, B in a class are given below.
A 58 51 60 65 66
B 56 87 88 46 43
Who is more consistent?
Solution:

Student - A Student - B
/x /x
x = = 300 = 60 x = = 320 = 64
n 5 n 5

x d = x - 60 d
2
x d = x - 64 d
2

51 -9 81 43 - 21 441
58 -2 4 46 - 18 324
60 0 0 56 -8 64
65 5 25 87 23 529
66 6 36 88 24 576
Rx = 300 2
Rd = 146 Rx = 320 2
Rd = 1934

/d2 146 = /d2 1934 = 386.8 = 19.67


v= = 29.2 = 5.4 v= =
n 5 n 5

C.V = v # 100 = 5.4 # 100 = 9 g (1) C.V = v # 100 = 19.67 # 100 = 30.73 g (2)
x 60 x 64

From (1) and (2), we see that the coefficient of variation for A is less than the
coefficient of variation for B.
Thus, Student A is more consistant.

266 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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Exercise 11.2
Choose the correct answer.
1. The range of the first 10 prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23 , 29 is
(A) 28 (B) 26 (C) 29 (D) 27
Solution: R = L - S = 29 - 2 = 27 ( Ans. (D) )
2. The least value in a collection of data is 14.1. If the range of the collection is 28.4,
then the greatest value of the collection is
(A) 42.5 (B) 43.5 (C) 42.4 (D) 42.1
Solution: S = 14.1, R = 28.4, R = L – S & L = R + S
&L = 28.4 + 14.1 = 42.5 ( Ans. (A) )
3. The greatest value of a collection of data is 72 and the least value is 28. Then the
coefficient of range is
(A) 44 (B) 0.72 (C) 0.44 (D) 0.28
Solution: L = 72, S = 28
Co-efficient range = L - S = 72 - 28 = 44 = 0.44 ( Ans. (C) )
L + S 72 + 28 100
4. For a collection of 11 items, Rx = 132 , then the arithmetic mean is
(A) 11 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 13
Solution: n = 11 Rx = 132

xr = Rx = 132 = 12 ( Ans. (B) )


n 11
5. For any collection of n items, R (x - x ) =
(A) Rx (B) x (C) nx (D) 0
Solution: For a collection of n items, we always have R (x - x ) = 0 . ( Ans. (D) )
6. For any collection of n items, (Rx) - x =
(A) nx (B) (n - 2) x (C) (n - 1) x (D) 0
Solution: Rx - x = nxr - xr = (n - 1) xr ( Ans. (C) )
7. If t is the standard deviation of x, y. z, then the standard deviation of x + 5, y + 5, z + 5 is
(A) t (B) t + 5 (C) t (D) x y z
3
Solution: The SD of a distribution remains unchanged when each value is added (or)
subtracted by the same quantity. ` v = t . ( Ans. (C) )
8. If the standard deviation of a set of data is 1.6, then the variance is
(A) 0.4 (B) 2.56 (C) 1.96 (D) 0.04
Solution: Variance, v2 = 1.62 = 2.56 ( Ans. (B) )

Solution - Statistics 267


9. If the variance of a data is 12.25, then the S.D is
(A) 3.5 (B) 3 (C) 2.5 (D) 3.25
Solution: SD = Variance = 12.25 = 3.5 ( Ans. (A) )
10. Variance of the first 11 natural numbers is
(A) 5 (B) 10 (C) 5 2 (D) 10
Solution: Variance of first 11 natural numbers.
2 2
v2 = n - 1 = 11 - 1 = 120 = 10 ( Ans. (D) )
12 12 12
11. The variance of 10, 10, 10, 10, 10 is
(A) 10 (B) 10 (C) 5 (D) 0
2
Solution: 2 Rd
x = 10, d = x - xr = 0 . Thus, Variance v = n = 0 ( Ans. (D) )
( Note that the variance of a constant sequence is always zero.)
12. If the variance of 14, 18, 22, 26, 30 is 32, then the variance of 28, 36,44,52,60 is
(A) 64 (B) 128 (C) 32 2 (D) 32
Solution: Variance of 14, 18, 22, 26, 30 is 32 . Thus, S.D. = 32 . Note that
28, 36, 44, 52, 60 are obtained by multiplying each data of 14, 18, 22, 26, 30 by 2.
Thus, S.D. of 28, 36, 44, 52, 60 is 2 32
2
Hence, variance of 28, 36, 44, 52, 60 is v2 = ^2 32 h =128. ( Ans. (B) )
13. Standard deviation of a collection of data is 2 2 . If each value is multiplied by 3, then
the standard deviation of the new data is
(A) 12 (B) 4 2 (C) 6 2 (D) 9 2
Solution: S.D. = 2 2 . If each data is multiplied by 3, then
new S.D. = 3 # 2 2 = 6 2 ( Ans. (C) )
14. Given / (x - x ) 2 = 48, x = 20 and n = 12. The coefficient of variation is
(A) 25 (B) 20 (C) 30 (D) 10
2
Solution: v = Rd = 48 = 4 = 2
n 12
Coefficient of variation, C.V = v # 100 = 2 # 100 = 10 . ( Ans. (D) )
xr 20
15. Mean and standard deviation of a data are 48 and 12 respectively. The coefficient of
variation is
(A) 42 (B) 25 (C) 28 (D) 48
Solution: Given that v = 12, x = 48
Coefficient of variation, C.V = v # 100 = 12 # 100 = 25 . ( Ans. (B) )
xr 48

268 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Probability 12
Exercise 12.1
1. A ticket is drawn from a bag containing 100 tickets. The tickets are numbered
from one to hundred. What is the probability of getting a ticket with a number
divisible by 10?
Solution: 100 tickets are numbered from 1 to 100.
Sample space, S = {1, 2, 3, g, 100} ; n (S) = 100.
Let A be the event of getting a ticket with a number divisible by 10.
So, A = {10, 20, g, 100} ; n (A) = 10.
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 10 = 1 .
n (S) 100 10
2. A die is thrown twice. Find the probability of getting a total of 9.
Solution: When a die is thrown twice, the sample space is
S = "^1, 1h,^1, 2h, g,^1, 6h,^2, 1h,^2, 2h, g,^2, 6h, g,^6, 1h,^6, 2h, g,^6, 6h,
Thus, n^ S h = 36 .
Let A be the event of getting a total of 9.
Then A = { (3,6), (4,5), (5,4), (6,3) } ; n(A)= 4.
n (A)
Thus, P(A) = = 4 =1.
n (S) 36 9
3. Two dice are thrown together. Find the probability that the two digit number
formed with the two numbers turning up is divisible by 3.
Solution: When a die is thrown twice, the sample space is
S = "^1, 1h,^1, 2h, g,^1, 6h,^2, 1h,^2, 2h, g,^2, 6h, g,^6, 1h,^6, 2h, g,^6, 6h, ; n^ S h = 36
Let A be the event of the two digit number formed with the two numbers turning up
is divisible by 3.
Thus, A = { 12, 15, 21, 24, 33, 36, 42, 45, 51, 54, 63, 66}. So, n (A) = 12.
n (A)
Hence, P (A) = = 12 = 1 .
n (S) 36 3
4. Three rotten eggs are mixed with 12 good ones. One egg is chosen at random.
What is the probability of choosing a rotten egg?
Solution: Number of good eggs = 12; Number of rotten eggs = 3
So, total numbers of eggs = 15 .
Let A be the event of choosing a rotten egg.
n (A)
Thus, n(A) = 3 and P (A) = = 3 =1.
n (S) 15 5
Solution - Probability 269
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5. Two coins are tossed together. What is the probability of getting at most one
head.
Solution: The sample space, S = { HH, HT, TH, TT } ; n (S) = 4.
Let A be the event of getting atmost one head.
Thus, A = " HT, TH, TT , and n^ Ah = 3 .
n^ Ah
Hence, P (A) = = 3.
n^ S h 4
6. One card is drawn randomly from a well shuffled deck of 52 playing cards. Find
the probability that the drawn card is (i) a Diamond, (ii) not a Diamond, (iii) not
an Ace.
Solution: Here, n (S) = 52
(i) Let A be the event of drawing a diamond card.
n (A)
Thus, n (A) = 13 ; P (A) = = 13 = 1 .
n (S) 52 4
(ii) Let B be the event of drawing a card which is not a diamond. Then B = Al
Thus, P (B) = 1 - P (A) = 1 - 1 = 3 .
4 4
(iii) Let C be the event of drawing an Ace card.
n (C)
Thus, n (C) = 4 ; P (C) = = 4 = 1 .
n (S) 52 13
Hence, P (C l ) = 1 - 1 = 12 .
13 13
7. Three coins are tossed simultaneously. Find the probability of getting (i) atleast
one head, (ii) exactly two tails, (iii) atleast two heads.
Solution: The sample space,
S = { HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT } ; n (S) = 8.
(i) Let A be the event of getting atleast one head.
A = { HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH } ; n (A) = 7 and so, P (A) = 7 .
8
(ii) Let B be the event of getting exactly two tails.
n (B)
Thus, B = { HTT, THT, TTH } ; n (B) = 3 and so, P (B) = = 3.
n (S) 8
(iii) Let C be the event of getting atleast two heads. Thus,
n (C)
C = { HHH, HHT, HTH, THH } ; n (C) = 4 and so, P (C) = =4 =1.
n (S) 8 2
8. A bag contains 6 white balls numbered from 1 to 6 and 4 red balls numbered
from 7 to 10. A ball is drawn at random. Find the probability of getting (i) an
even-numbered ball, (ii) a white ball.
Solution: The sample space, S = { W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, W6, R7, R8, R9, R10 } ; n (S) = 10
(i) Let A be the event of getting an even-numbered ball.
Then, A = {W2, W4, W6, R8, R10 } ; n (A) = 5 .
270 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 5 =1.
n (S) 10 2
(ii) Let B be the event of getting a white ball
B = { W1, W2, W3, W4, W5, W6 } , n (B) = 6 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 6 = 3.
n (S) 10 5
9. A number is selected at random from the integers 1 to 100. Find the probability
that it is (i) a perfect square, (ii) not a perfect cube.
Solution: Given that n (S) = 100 .
(i) Let A be the event of getting a perfect square.
So, A = { 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100 } ; n (A) = 10 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 10 = 1 .
n (S) 100 10
(ii) Let B be the event of getting a perfect cube
So, B = { 1, 8, 27, 64 } ; n (B) = 4 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 4 = 1 .
n (S) 100 25
Hence, the probability that the selected number is not a cube is
P (Bl ) = 1 - P (B) = 1 - 1 = 24 .
25 25
10. For a sightseeing trip, a tourist selects a country randomly from Argentina,
Bangladesh, China, Angola, Russia and Algeria. What is the probability that the
name of the selected country will begin with A ?
Solution: S = {Argentina, Bangladesh, China, Angola, Russia, Algeria}, n (S) = 6 .
Let A be the event of selecting a country whose name begins with the letter A.
So, A = {Argentina, Angola, Algeria} ; n (A) = 3 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = =3 =1.
n (S) 6 2
11. A box contains 4 Green, 5 Blue and 3 Red balls. A ball is drawn at random. Find
the probability that the selected ball is (i) Red in colour (ii) not Green in colour.
Solution: Total number of balls, n (S) = 4 + 5 + 3 = 12
Let A be the event of drawing a Red coloured ball. Then, n (A) = 3 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 3 =1
n (S) 12 4
Let B be the event of drawing a Green Coloured ball. Then, n (B) = 4 .
n (B)
P (B) = = 4 =1.
n (S) 12 3
Hence, P (B ) = 1 - P (B) = 1 - 1 = 2 .
3 3

Solution - Probability 271


12. 20 cards are numbered from 1 to 20. One card is drawn at random. What is the
probability that the number on the card is
(i) a multiple of 4, (ii) not a multiple of 6.
Solution: Given that n (S) = 20 .
(i) Let A be the event of drawing a card such that a number on it, is a multiple of 4.
n (A)
Thus, A = {4, 8,12,16, 20} ; n (A) = 5. So, P (A) = = 5 =1.
n (S) 20 4
(ii) Let B be the event of drawing a card such that the number on the card is a multiple of 6.
n (B)
Thus, B = {6, 12, 18}; n (B) = 3. So, P (B) = = 3 .
n (S) 20
Hence, P (B ) = 1 - P (B) = 1 - 3 = 17 .
20 20
13. A two digit number is formed with the digits 3, 5 and 7. Find the probability that
the number so formed is greater than 57 (repetition of digits is not allowed).
Solution: The sample space, S = { 35, 37, 53, 57, 73, 75 } ; n (S) = 6.
Let A be the event of getting the number greater than 57.
n (A)
Then, A = { 73, 75} ; n (A) = 2 . Thus, P (A) = =2 =1.
n (5) 6 3
14. Three dice are thrown simultaneously. Find the probability of getting the same
number on all the three dice.
Solution: The sample space S is the collection of all possible outcomes.
` n (S) = 63 = 216 .
Let A be the event of getting the same number on all the three dice .
Then, A = { (1, 1, 1), (2, 2, 2), (3, 3, 3), (4, 4, 4), (5, 5, 5), (6, 6, 6)} ; n (A) = 6.
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 6 = 1 .
n (S) 216 36
15. Two dice are rolled and the product of the outcomes (numbers) are found. What
is the probability that the product so found is a prime number?
Solution: When a die is thrown twice, the sample space,
S = "^1, 1h,^1, 2h, g,^1, 6h,^2, 1h,^2, 2h, g,^2, 6h, g,^6, 1h,^6, 2h, g,^6, 6h, ; n^ S h = 36
Let A be the event of getting the product so found is a prime number.
Thus, A = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 3), (3, 1), (1, 5), (5, 1)} ; n (A) = 6 .
n (A)
Hence, P (A) = = 6 =1.
n (S) 36 6
16. A jar contains 54 marbles each of which is in one of the colours blue, green and
white. The probability of drawing a blue marble is 1 and the probability of
3
drawing a green marble is 4 . How many white marbles does the jar contain?
9
272 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Solution: Here, n (S) = 54 . Now, P (B) = 1 .
3
n (W)
Also, P (G) = 4 . Now, P (W) = .
9 54
n (W)
We know that P (B) + P (G) + P (W) = 1 & = 1 - ` 1 + 4 j.
54 3 9
n (W)
& = 1 - 7 & n (W) = 2 # 54 & n (W) = 12.
54 9 9
Thus, the jar contains 12 white marbles.
17. A bag contains of 100 shirts of which 88 are good, 8 have minor defects and 4
have major defects. A trader A will accept only the shirt which are good, but the
trader B will not accept the shirts which have major defects. One shirt is drawn
at random. What is the probability that it is acceptable by (i) A (ii) B ?
Solution: Given that n (S) = 100 .
Let G be the event of selecting a good shirt. Thus, n (G) = 88 .
Let M be the event of not selecting a major defective shirt. Thus, n (M) = 88 + 8 = 96.
n (G)
(i) Probability that the selected shirt is accepted by A is = 88 = 22 .
n (S) 100 25
n (M)
(ii) Probability that the selected shirt is accepted by B is = 96 = 24 .
n (S) 100 25
18. A bag contains 12 balls out of which x balls are white. (i) If one ball is drawn at
random, what is the probability that it will be a white ball. (ii) If 6 more white balls
are put in the bag and if the probability of drawing a white ball will be twice that of
in (i), then find x.
Solution: Let S1 and S2 be the sample spaces before and after adding the white balls.
Let W1 and W2 be the events of selecting white balls before and after adding 6 white
balls.
Now n (S1) = 12, n (S2) = 12 + 6 = 18 .
Let n (W1) = x. Then, n (W2) = x + 6.
Thus, P (W1) = x and P (W2) = x + 6 .
12 18
Given that P (W2) = 2P (W1) & x+6 = 2 x & x + 6 = x & x = 3.
18 12 3
Hence, P (W1) = 3 = 1 and x = 3.
12 4
19. Piggy bank contains 100 fifty-paise coins, 50 one-rupee coins, 20 two-rupees coins
and 10 five-rupees coins. One coin is drawn at random. Find the probability that
the drawn coin (i) will be a fifty-paise coin (ii) will not be a five-rupees coin.
Solution: Let S be the sample space consisting of all coins.
Thus, n (S) = 100 + 50 + 20 + 10 = 180.
Solution - Probability 273
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Let F1, O, T and F2 be the events of selecting a fifty paise, one-rupee, two-rupees and
five-rupees coins respectively.
Thus, n (F1) = 100 ; n (O) = 50; n (T) = 20; n (F2) = 10 .
(i) Probability that the drawn coin is a fifty-paise coin,
n (F1)
P (F1) = = 100 = 5 .
n (S) 180 9
(ii) The probability that the drawn coin is a five-rupees coin,
n (F2)
P (F2) = = 10 = 1 .
n (S) 180 18
Probability that the drawn coin is not a five-rupees coin,
P (F 2) = 1 - P (F2) = 1 - 1 = 17 .
18 18
Exercise 12.2
(The problems in this exercise can also be solved directly using the definition of
classical probability and without using the addition theorem.)

1. If A and B are mutually exclusive events such that P (A) = 3 and P (B) = 1 , then
5 5
find P (A , B) .
Solution: If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then P (A + B) = 0
Now, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) = 3 + 1 - 0 = 4 .
5 5 5
2. If A and B are two events such that P (A) = , P (B) = and P (A , B) = 1 , then
1 2
4 5 2
find P (A + B) .
Solution: We know that P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) .
Thus, P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A , B)
= 1 +2-1 = 3 .
4 5 2 20
3. If P (A) = 1 , P (B) = 7 , P (A , B) = 1, then find (i) P (A + B) (ii) P (Al , Bl ) .
2 10
Solution: (i) P (A + B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A , B)

= 1 + 7 - 1 = 5 + 7 - 10 = 2 = 1 .
2 10 10 10 5
(ii) P (Al , Bl ) = P (A + B)l ( (A + B)l = Al , Bl )
= 1 - P (A + B) ( P (Al ) = 1 - P (A) )
= 1- 1 = 4.
5 5
4. If a die is rolled twice, find the probability of getting an even number in the first
time or a total of 8.
Solution: Let S be the sample space consisting of all possible outcomes.
S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), . . , (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), . ., (2, 6), (6, 1), (6, 2), . . , (6, 6)} ; n (S) = 36

274 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Let A be the event of getting an even number in the first time.
A = { (2, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6),
(4, 1), (4, 2), (4, 3), (4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6),
(6, 1), (6, 2), (6, 3), (6, 4), (6, 5), (6, 6) } . So, n (A) = 18.
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 18 = 1 .
n (S) 36 2
Let B be the event of getting a total 8.
B = { (2, 6), (3, 5), (4, 4), (5, 3), (6, 2) } . So, n (B) = 5.
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 5 .
n (S) 36
Also, A + B = { (2, 6), (4, 4), (6, 2) } and P (A + B) = 3
36
Hence, the required probability,
P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) = 18 + 5 - 3 = 20 = 5 .
36 36 36 36 9
5. One number is chosen randomly from the integers 1 to 50. Find the probability
that it is divisible by 4 or 6.
Solution: Sample space, S = { 1, 2, 3, g, 50 } . So, n (S) = 50 .
Let A be the event of getting a number divisible by 4.
So, A = {4, 8, 12, g, 48} ; n (A) = 12 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 12 .
n (S) 50
Let B be the event of getting a number divisible by 6.
Then, B = { 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48} ; n (B) = 8 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 8 .
n (S) 50
Also, A + B = {12, 24, 36, 48} . Then, n (A + B) = 4 .
n (A + B)
Thus, P (A + B) = = 4 .
n (S) 50
Required probability, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B)
= 12 + 8 - 4 = 8 .
50 50 50 25
6. A bag contains 50 bolts and 150 nuts. Half of the bolts and half of the nuts are
rusted. If an item is chosen at random, find the probability that it is rusted or
that it is a bolt.
Solution: Total number of items, n (S) = 200 . Number of bolts = 50 .
Number of nuts = 150 . Number of rusted bolts = 25 . Number of rusted nuts = 75 .
Let A be the event of getting rusted item.

Solution - Probability 275


Then, n (A) = 75 + 25 = 100 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 100 .
n (S) 200
Let B be the event of getting a bolt. So, n (B) = 50 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 50 .
n (S) 200
The number of bolts which are also rusted is, n (A + B) = 25 .
n (A + B)
Thus, P (A + B) = = 25 .
n (S) 200
Hence, the required probability, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B)

= 100 + 50 - 25 = 5 .
200 200 200 8
7. Two dice are rolled simultaneously. Find the probability that the sum of the
numbers on the faces is neither divisible by 3 nor by 4.
Solution: Sample space, S = {(1, 1), (1, 2), g, (1, 6), (2, 1), (2, 2), g, (6, 6)}; n (S) = 36.
Let A be the event that the sum is divisible by 3.
Let B be the event that the sum is divisible by 4.
A = {(1, 2), (2, 1), (1, 5), (5, 1), (2, 4), (4, 2), (3, 3), (3, 6), (6, 3), (4, 5), (5, 4), (6, 6)}
B = {(1, 3), (3, 1), (2, 2), (2, 6), (6, 2), (3, 5), (5, 3), (4, 4), (6, 6)} .
Thus, n (A) = 12 ; n (B) = 9 ; A + B = (6, 6) ; n^ A + Bh = 1 .

Now, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) = 12 + 9 - 1 = 20 .


36 36 36 36
Hence, P (A' + B') = P (A , B) ' = 1 - P (A , B) = 1 - 20 = 16 = 4 .
36 36 9
8. A basket contains 20 apples and 10 oranges out of which 5 apples and 3 oranges
are rotten. If a person takes out one fruit at random, find the probability that the
fruit is either an apple or a good fruit.

Solution: Total number of fruits in the basket, n (S) = 30 .

Total number of rotten fruits = 8 ; Total number of good fruits = 22 .

Let A be the event of getting an apple . So, n^ Ah = 20


n^ Ah
Thus, P^ Ah = = 20 .
n^ S h 30
Let B be the event of getting a good fruit. So, n (B) = 22 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 22 .
n (S) 30
Number of good apples is, n (A + B) = 15 .
n (A + B)
Thus, P (A + B) = = 15 .
n (S) 30
276 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Required probability, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B)

= 20 + 22 - 15 = 9 .
30 30 30 10
9. In a class, 40% of the students participated in Mathematics-quiz, 30% in Science-
quiz and 10% in both the quiz programmes. If a student is selected at random
from the class, find the probability that the student participated in Mathematics
or Science or both quiz programmes.
Solution: Let S be the sample space.
Let M and S1 be the events that the selected student participated in mathematics and
science quiz programmes respectively.
Given that n (S) = 100 , n (S1) = 30 , n^ M h = 40 and n (M + S1) = 10
Thus, P (M) = 40 ; P (S1) = 30 and P (M + S1) = 10 .
100 100 100
Now, the required probability, P (M , S1) = P (M) + P (S1) - P (M + S1)

= 40 + 30 - 10 = 60 = 3 .
100 100 100 100 5
10. A card is drawn at random from a well-shuffled deck of 52 cards. Find the
probability that it will be a spade or a king.
Solution: Given that n (S) = 52 .
Let A be the event of getting a spade. So, n (A) = 13 .
n (A)
Thus, P (A) = = 13
n (S) 52
Let B be the event of getting a king. So, n (B) = 4 .
n (B)
Thus, P (B) = = 4
n (S) 52
n (A + B)
Number of spade king, n (A + B) = 1. So, P (A + B) = = 1
n (S) 52
Required probability, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B)
= 13 + 4 - 1 = 4 .
52 52 52 13
11. A box contains 10 white, 6 red and 10 black balls. A ball is drawn at random.
Find the probability that the ball drawn is white or red.
Solution: Let S be the sample space,
Let W, R and B denote that the drawn ball is white, red and black respectively.
Given that n (S) = 26 ; n (W) = 10 ; n (R) = 6 ; n (B) = 10 .
n (W)
Thus, P (W) = = 10
n (S) 26
n (R)
P (R) = = 6
n (S) 26

Solution - Probability 277


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n (B)
P (B) = = 10 .
n (S) 26
Here, W + R is an impossible event. Thus, P (W + R) = 0 .

Required probability, P (W , R) = P (W) + P (R)

= 10 + 6 = 8 .
26 26 13
12. A two digit number is formed with the digits 2, 5, 9 (repetition is allowed). Find
the probability that the number is divisible by 2 or 5.
Solution: Let S be the sample space.
Let A and B be the events that the number is divisible by 2 and by 5 respectively.

Given that S = {22, 25, 29, 55, 52, 59, 99, 92, 95} ; n (S) = 9

A = {22, 52, 92} and n (A) = 3 . P (A) = 3 .


Thus,
9
B = {25, 55, 95} and n (B) = 3 . Thus, P (B) = 3 .
9
A + B = Q and n (A + B) = 0 . Thus, P (A + B) = 0.

Hence, P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B)

= 3 + 3 -0 = 2.
9 9 3

13. Each individual letter of the word “ACCOMMODATION” is written in


a piece of paper, and all 13 pieces of papers are placed in a jar. If one piece
of paper is selected at random from the jar, find the probability that
(i) the letter ‘A’ or ‘O’ is selected. (ii) the letter ‘M’ or ‘C’ is selected.
Solution: Let S be the sample space.

Thus, S contains all 13 pieces of papers. So, n (S) = 13 .

(i) Let H be the event of getting letter A . So, n (H) = 2


n (H)
Thus, P (H) = = 2 .
n (S) 13
Let B be the event of getting letter O. So, n (B) = 3 .
n (B)
Hence, P (B) = = 3 .
n (S) 13
Required probability, P (H , B) = P (H) + P (B) ( a H+B = Q )

= 2 + 3 = 5
13 13 13

278 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


   (ii) Let C be the event of getting a letter M. So, n (C) = 2 .
n (C)
Hence, P (C) = = 2 .
n (S) 13
Let D be the event of getting letter C. So, n (D) = 2 .
n (D)
Hence, P (D) = = 2 .
n (S) 13
Required probability, P (C , D) = P (C) + P (D) (a C+D = z )

= 2 + 2 = 4 .
13 13 13
14. The probability that a new car will get an award for its design is 0.25, the
probability that it will get an award for efficient use of fuel is 0.35 and the
probability that it will get both the awards is 0.15. Find the probability that (i) it
will get atleast one of the two awards, (ii) it will get only one of the awards.
Solution: Let A be the event of getting award for design.
Let B be the event of getting award for efficient use of fuel.
Given P (A) = 0.25 , P (B) = 0.35 and P (A + B) = 0.15
(i) Probability of getting atleast one award,
P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) = 0.25 + 0.35 - 0.15 = 0.45
(ii) Probability of getting only one of the awards,
P (A + B ) + P (A + B) = [P (A) - P (A + B)] + [P (B) - P (A + B)]
= (0.25 - 0.15) + (0.35 - 0.15) = 0.10 + 0.20 = 0.3

15. The probability that A, B and C can solve a problem are 4 , 2 and 3 respectively.
5 3 7
The probability of the problem being solved by A and B is 8 , B and C is 2 ,
15 7
A and C is 12 . The probability of the problem being solved by all the three is
35
8 . Find the probability that the problem can be solved by atleast one of them.
35
Solution: Gi ven, P (A) = 4 , P (B) = 2 , P (C) = 3 , P (A + B) = 8 ,
5 3 7 15
P (B + C) = 2 , P (A + C) = 12 and P (A + B + C) = 8 .
7 35 35
Now, P (A , B , C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) - P (A + B)

- P (B + C) - P (A + C) + P (A + B + C).
101
= 4 + 2 + 3 - 8 - 2 - 12 + 8 = 105 .
5 3 7 15 7 35 35

Solution - Probability 279


Exercise 12.3
Choose the correct answer
1. If z is an impossible event, then P^zh =
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) 1
4 2
Solution: Probability of an impossible event is 0. ( Ans. (C) )
2. If S is the sample space of a random experiment, then P(S) =
(A) 0 (B) 1 (C) 1 (D) 1 ( Ans. (D) )
8 2
Solution: Every event is a subset of S. So, event S occurs always. Hence, P(S) = 1.
3. If p is the probability of an event A, then p satisfies
(A) 0 1 p 1 1 (B) 0 # p # 1 (C) 0 # p 1 1 (D) 0 1 p # 1
( Ans. (B) )
4. Let A and B be any two events and S be the corresponding sample space. Then
P (A + B) =
(A) P (B) - P (A + B) (B) P (A + B) - P (B)
(C) P (S) (D) P6^ A , Bhl@ ( Ans. (A) )
5. The probability that a student will score centum in mathematics is 4 . The probability
5
that he will not score centum is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4


5 5 5 5
Solution: P (A ) = 1 - P (A) = 1 - 4 = 1 ( Ans. (A) )
5 5
6. If A and B are two events such that P (A) = 0.25, P (B) = 0.05 and P (A + B) = 0.14
then P (A , B) =
(A) 0.61 (B) 0.16 (C) 0.14 (D) 0.6 ( Ans. (B) )
Solution: P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) - P (A + B) = 0.25 + 0.05 - 0.14 = 0.16
7. There are 6 defective items in a sample of 20 items. One item is drawn at random. The
probability that it is a non-defective item is
(A) 7 (B) 0 (C) 3 (D) 2
10 10 3
Solution: Number of non-defective items = 20 - 6 = 14 .
Probability of non-defective items= 14 = 7 . ( Ans. (A) )
20 10
8. If A and B are mutually exclusive events and S is the sample space such that
P (A) = 1 P (B) and S = A , B , then P (A) =
3
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 3
4 2 4 8
Solution: P (A , B) = P (A) + P (B) (A , B are mutually exclusive events )
P (S) = P (A) + 3P (A) & 4 P (A) = 1. Thus, P (A) = 1 . ( Ans. (A) )
4
280 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
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9. The probabilities of three mutually exclusive events A, B and C are given by
1 , 1 , and 5 . Then P^ A , B , C h is
3 4 12
(A) 19 (B) 11
12 12
(C) 7 (D) 1
12

Solution: P (A , B , C) = P (A) + P (B) + P (C) = 1 + 1 + 5 = 1 . ( Ans. (D) )


3 4 12
10. If P (A) = 0.25, P (B) = 0.50, P (A + B) = 0.14, then P (neither A nor B) =
(A) 0.39 (B) 0.25 (C) 0.11 (D) 0.24
Solution: Now, P (A , B) = 0.25 + 0.50 - 0.14 = 0.61
Thus, P (A + B ) = 1 - P (A , B) = 1 - 0.61 = 0.39 . ( Ans. (A) )
11. A bag contains 5 black balls, 4 white balls and 3 red balls. If a ball is selected at
random, the probability that it is not red is

(A) 5 (B) 4
12 12
(C) 3 (D) 3
12 4
Solution: P (R ) = 1 - P (R) = 1 - 3 = 3 . ( Ans. (D) )
12 4
12. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. The probability of getting a doublet is
(A) 1 (B) 1
36 3
(C) 1 (D) 2
6 3
Solution: n (S) = 36 . Let A be the event of getting a double. n (A) = 6
A = {(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 5), (6, 6)} ; n (A) = 6. P (A) = 6 = 1 . ( Ans. (C) )
36 6
13. A fair die is thrown once. The probability of getting a prime or composite number is
(A) 1 (B) 0
(C) 5 (D) 1
6 6
Solution: S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. Since 1 is neither a prime nor a composite number,
required probability = 5 . ( Ans. (C) )
6
14. Probability of getting 3 heads or 3 tails in tossing a coin 3 times is
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 3 (D) 1
8 4 8 2
Solution: S = {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, HTT, THT, TTH, TTT}; n (S) = 8.

Required probability P{HHH, TTT} = 2 = 1 ( Ans. (B) )


8 4
Solution - Probability 281
15. A card is drawn from a pack of 52 cards at random. The probability of getting neither
an ace nor a king card is

(A) 2 (B) 11 (C) 4 (D) 8


13 13 13 13
Solution: n(Ace) = 4; n(King) = 4; n (non-ace and non-king cards) = 52 – 8 = 44

P (neither an ace nor a king) = 44 = 11 ( Ans. (B) )


52 13

16. The probability that a leap year will have 53 Fridays or 53 Saturdays is

(A) 2 (B) 1 (C) 4 (D) 3


7 7 7 7
Solution: Leap year contains 52 weeks and 2 more days.
Let S = { (Sun,Mon), (Mon, Tues), (Tues, Wed), (Wed, Thu), (Thu, Fri), (Fri, Sat), (Sat, Sun)}
n(S) = 7. Required probability = 2 + 2 - 1 = 3 . ( Ans. (D) )
7 7 7 7

17. The probability that a non-leap year will have 53 Sundays and 53 Mondays is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 0


7 7 7
Solution: Non-leap year contains 52 weeks and 1 more day. Thus, the event of 53
sundays and 53 mondays is impossible. So, the required probability = 0. ( Ans. (D) )

18. The probability of selecting a queen of hearts when a card is drawn from a pack of 52
playing cards is

(A) 1 (B) 16 (C) 1 (D) 1 ( Ans. (A) )


52 52 13 26
Solution: 1 Queen of hearts in 52 cards. Thus, n(A) = 1, n(S) = 52, P(A) = 1
52
19. Probability of sure event is
(A) 1 (B) 0 (C) 100 (D) 0.1
Solution: Probability of sure event is 1. ( Ans. (A) )
20. The outcome of a random experiment results in either success or failure. If the
probability of success is twice the probability of failure, then the probability of success is

(A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 0


3 3
Solution: Let p be the probability of success and q be the probability of failure.
Now, p + q = 1 and p = 2q & p = 2 . ( Ans. (B) )
3

282 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Classification of Questions
1. SETS AND FUNCTIONS
Two Mark Questions
Example 1.1 For the given sets A = {- 10, 0, 1, 9, 2, 4, 5} and
B = {- 1, - 2, 5, 6, 2, 3, 4} verify that (i) set union is commutative.
(ii) set intersettction is commutative. (each subdivision carries two mark)
Example 1.2 Given, A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6} and C = {5, 6, 7, 8} , show that
(i) A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C.
Example 1.3 Let A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, c, e} and C = {a, e} .
(i) Show that A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C.

Exercise 1.1
1. If A 1 B, then show that A , B = B (use Venn diagram).

2. If A 1 B, then find A + B and A \ B (use Venn diagram).

3. Let P = {a, b, c}, Q = {g, h, x, y} and R = {a, e, f, s} . Find (iii) R \ ^ P + Qh .

4. If A = {4, 6, 7, 8, 9}, B = {2, 4, 6} and C = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} , then find


(each subdivision carries two mark)

(i) A , ^ B + C h (ii) A + ^ B , C h (iii) A \ ^C \ Bh

5. Given A = {a, x, y, r, s}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, - 10} , verify the commutative property of


set union.

6. Verify the commutative property of set intersection for

A = {l, m, n, o, 2, 3, 4, 7} and B = {2, 5, 3, - 2, m, n, o, p} .

Exercise 1.2
1. Represent the following using Venn diagrams (each subdivision carries two mark)
(i) U = {5, 6, 7, 8, ......13}, A = {5, 8, 10, 11}, and B = {5, 6, 7, 9, 10}
(ii) U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}, M = {b, d, f, g}, and N = {a, b, d, e, g}
3. Draw Venn diagram of three sets A, B and C illustrating the following:
(each subdivisions carries two mark)
(i) A + B + C (ii) A and B are disjoint but both are subsets of C
(iii) A + ^ B \ C h (iv) ^ B , C h \ A (v) A , ^ B + C h
(vi) C + ^ B \ Ah (vii) C + ^ B , Ah

Classification of Questions - Sets and Functions 283


www.tnschools.co.in

5. Let U = {4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28} , A = {8, 16, 24}

and B = {4, 16, 20, 28} . Find ^ A , Bh ' and ^ A + Bhl . (each subdivision carries two mark)

exercise 1.3

1. If A and B are two sets and U is the universal set such that n^U h = 700 ,
n^ Ah = 200, n^ Bh = 300 and n^ A + Bh = 100, find n^ Al + Blh .

2. Given n^ Ah = 285, n^ Bh = 195, n^U h = 500, n^ A , Bh = 410, find n^ Al , Blh .

3. For any three sets A, B and C if n^ Ah = 17 , n^ Bh = 17, n^C h = 17, n^ A + Bh = 7

n (B + C) = 6 , n^ A + C h = 5 and n^ A + B + C h = 2 , find n^ A , B , C h .

example 1.14 Let A = {1, 2, 3, 4} and B = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 , 11, 12} .

Let R = {(1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 10), (4, 9)} 3 A # B be a relation. Show that R
is a function and find its domain, co-domain and the range of R .

example 1.16 (each subdivision carries two mark)

Let X = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }. Examine whether each of the relations given below


is a function from X to X or not. Explain.

(i) f = { (2, 3), (1, 4), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 4) }

(ii) g = { (3, 1), (4, 2), (2, 1) }

(iii) h = { (2, 1), (3, 4), (1, 4), (4, 3) }

example 1.17 (each subdivision carries two mark)

Which of the following relations are functions from A = { 1, 4, 9, 16 } to


B = { –1, 2, –3, –4, 5, 6 }? In case of a function, write down its range.

(i) f1 = { (1, –1), (4, 2), (9, –3), (16, –4) }

(ii) f2 = { (1, –4), (1, –1), (9, –3), (16, 2) }

(iii) f3 = { (4, 2), (1, 2), (9, 2), (16, 2) }

(iv) f4 = { (1, 2), (4, 5), (9, –4), (16, 5) }

example 1.18: Let x = ' x if x $ 0 , where x d R. Does the relation


- x if x 1 0
{ ( x, y) | y = | x |, x ! R } define a function? Find its range.

284 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Example 1.19 (each subdivision carries two mark)
Use the vertical line test to determine which of the following graphs
represent a function.

2
Example 1.21 Let A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, B = N and f : A " B be defined by f (x) = x .
Find the range of f . Identify the type of function.

Exercise 1.4
1. State whether each of the following arrow diagrams define a function or not. Justify
your answer. (each subdivision carries two marks)

2. For the given function F = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }, write the domain and
range.
3. Let A = { 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 }; B = { 0, 1, 2, 3, 5 } and fi : A " B , i = 1,2,3.
State the type of function for the following (give reason):
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) f1 = { (10, 1), (11, 2), (12, 3), (13, 5), (14, 3) }
(ii) f2 = { (10, 1), (11, 1), (12, 1), (13, 1), (14, 1) }
(iii) f3 = { (10, 0), (11, 1), (12, 2), (13, 3), (14, 5) }
Classification of Questions - Sets and Functions 285
4. If X = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, Y = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } determine which of the following relations
from X to Y are functions? Give reason for your answer. If it is a function, state its
type. (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) R1 = { ^ x, yh | y = x + 2 , x ! X , y ! Y }
(ii) R2 = { (1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 3), (5, 5) }
(iii) R3 = { (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5), (3, 7), (5, 7) }
(iv) R4 = { (1, 3), (2, 5), (4, 7), (5, 9), (3, 1) }
5. If R = {(a, - 2), (- 5, b), (8, c), (d, - 1)} represents the identity function, find the
values of a, b, c and d .
6. A = { –2, –1, 1, 2 } and f = $` x, 1 j : x ! A . . Write down the range of f . Is f a
x
function from A to A ?
8. Write the pre-images of 2 and 3 in the function
f = { (12, 2), (13, 3), (15, 3), (14, 2), (17, 17) }.
9. The following table represents a function from A = { 5, 6, 8, 10 } to
B = { 19, 15, 9, 11 } where f^ xh = 2x - 1 . Find the values of a and b .
x 5 6 8 10
f(x) a 11 b 19
11. State whether the following graphs represent a function. Give reason for your answer.
(each subdivision carries two marks)

12. Represent the function f = { (–1, 2), (– 3, 1), (–5, 6), (– 4, 3) } as (i) a table, (ii) an
arrow diagram.

286 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


15. A function f : 6- 3, 7h " R is defined as follows (each subdivision carries two marks)
4x 2 - 1 ; - 3 # x 1 2
f^ xh = *3x - 2 ; 2 # x # 4.
2x - 3 ; 41x17
Find (i) f^5h + f^6h , (ii) f^1 h - f^- 3h , (iii) f^- 2h - f^4h .
16. A function f : 6- 7, 6h " R is defined as follows (each subdivision carries two marks)
x 2 + 2x + 1 ; - 7 # x 1 - 5
f (x) = * x + 5 ; -5 # x # 2
x - 1; 2 1 x16 .
Find (i) 2 f (- 4) + 3 f (2) , (ii) f (- 7) - f (- 3) .

Five Mark Questions


Example 1.2 Given, A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, B = {3, 4, 5, 6} and C = {5, 6, 7, 8} , show that
(ii) Verify A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C. using Venn diagram.
Example 1.3 Let A = {a, b, c, d}, B = {a, c, e} and C = {a, e} .
(ii) Verify A + ^ B + C h = ^ A + Bh + C. using Venn diagram.
Example 1.4 Given A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {a, e, i, o, u} and C = {c, d, e, u} . Show that
(i) A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C . (ii) Verify A\ ^ B \ C h ! ^ A \ Bh \C using Venn
diagram. (each subdivision carries five marks)
Example 1.5 Let A = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}, B = {1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and C = {2, 4, 6, 7} . Show that
(each subdivision carries five marks) (i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h .
(ii) Verify A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h using Venn diagram.
Example 1.6 For A = {x ; - 3 # x 1 4, x ! R}, B = {x ; x 1 5, x ! N} and
C = {- 5, - 3, - 1, 0, 1, 3} , Show that A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h .

Exercise 1.1
7. For A = {x ; x is a prime factor of 42} , B = {x ; 5 1 x # 12, x ! N} and
C = {1, 4, 5, 6} , verify A , ^ B , C h = ^ A , Bh , C .
8. Given P = {a, b, c, d, e}, Q = {a, e, i, o, u} and R = {a, c, e, g} . Verify the associative
property of set intersection.
9. For A = {5,10,15, 20}; B = {6,10,12, 18, 24} and C = {7,10,12,14, 21, 28}, verify
whether A \ ^ B \ C h = ^ A \ Bh \ C . Justify your answer.
10. Let A = {- 5, - 3, - 2, - 1}, B = {- 2, - 1, 0}, and C = {- 6, - 4, - 2} . Find
A \ ^ B \ C h and (A \ B) \ C . What can we conclude about set difference operation?
11. For A = {- 3, - 1, 0, 4, 6, 8, 10}, B = {- 1, - 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} and C = {- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7},
show that (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h (ii) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h

Classification of Questions - Sets and Functions 287


www.tnschools.co.in
(iii) Verify A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h using Venn diagram
(iv) Verify A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h using Venn diagram.
example 1.7 Use Venn diagrams to verify ^ A + Bhl = Al , Bl .
example 1.8 Use Venn diagrams to verify De Morgan’s law for set difference
A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h .
example 1.9 Let U = {- 2, - 1, 0,1, 2, 3, g,10}, A = {- 2, 2, 3, 4, 5} and
B = {1, 3, 5, 8, 9} . Verify De Morgan’s laws of complementation.
(each law carries five marks)
example 1.10 Let A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, x, y, z} , B = {1, 2, c, d, e} and
C = {d, e, f, g, 2, y} . Verify A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h .
exercise 1.2
4. Use Venn diagram to verify ^ A + Bh , ^ A \ Bh = A .
6. Given that U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h} , A = {a, b, f, g}, and B = {a, b, c}, verify
De Morgan’s laws of complementation. (each law carries five marks)
7. Verify De Morgan’s laws for set difference using the sets given below: (each law carries
five marks) A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9,11,13,15}, B = {1, 2, 5, 7} and C = {3, 9, 10, 12,13} .
8. Let A = {10,15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50} , B = {1, 5,10,15, 20, 30}
and C = {7, 8,15, 20, 35, 45, 48} . Verify A \ ^ B + C h = ^ A \ Bh , ^ A \ C h .
9. Using Venn diagram, verify whether the following are true: (each subdivision carries
five marks) (i) A , ^ B + C h = ^ A , Bh + ^ A , C h (ii) A + ^ B , C h = ^ A + Bh , ^ A + C h
(iii) ^ A , Bhl = Al + Bl (iv) A \ ^ B , C h = ^ A \ Bh + ^ A \ C h .
example 1.11 In a group of students, 65 play foot ball, 45 play hockey, 42 play cricket, 20
play foot ball and hockey, 25 play foot ball and cricket, 15 play hockey and
cricket and 8 play all the three games. Find the number of students in the
group. (Assume that each student in the group plays atleast one game.)
example 1.12 In a survey of university students, 64 had taken mathematics course, 94 had
taken computer science course, 58 had taken physics course, 28 had taken
mathematics and physics, 26 had taken mathematics and computer science,
22 had taken computer science and physics course, and 14 had taken all the
three courses. Find the number of students who were surveyed. Find how
many had taken one course only.
example 1.13 A radio station surveyed 190 students to determine the types of music they
liked. The survey revealed that 114 liked rock music, 50 liked folk music,
and 41 liked classical music, 14 liked rock music and folk music, 15 liked
rock music and classical music, 11 liked classical music and folk music. 5
liked all the three types of music.
Find (i) how many did not like any of the 3 types?
(ii) how many liked any two types only?
(iii) how many liked folk music but not rock music?
288 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
Exercise 1.3
4. Verify (each subdivision carries five marks)
n^ A , B , C h = n^ Ah + n^ Bh + n^C h - n^ A + Bh - n^ B + C h - n^ A + C h + n^ A + B + C h
for the sets given below:
(i) A = {4, 5, 6}, B = {5, 6, 7, 8} and C = {6, 7, 8, 9}
(ii) A = {a, b, c, d, e}, B = {x, y, z} and C = {a, e, x}
5. In a college, 60 students enrolled in chemistry, 40 in physics, 30 in biology, 15 in
chemistry and physics, 10 in physics and biology, 5 in biology and chemistry. No one
enrolled in all the three. Find how many are enrolled in at least one of the subjects.
6. In a town 85% of the people speak Tamil, 40% speak English and 20% speak Hindi.
Also, 32% speak English and Tamil, 13% speak Tamil and Hindi and 10% speak
English and Hindi, find the percentage of people who can speak all the three languages.
7. An advertising agency finds that, of its 170 clients, 115 use Television, 110 use Radio
and 130 use Magazines. Also, 85 use Television and Magazines, 75 use Television
and Radio, 95 use Radio and Magazines, 70 use all the three. Draw Venn diagram to
represent these data. Find
(i) how many use only Radio? (ii) how many use only Television?
(iii) how many use Television and magazine but not radio?
8. In a school of 4000 students, 2000 know French, 3000 know Tamil and 500 know
Hindi, 1500 know French and Tamil, 300 know French and Hindi, 200 know Tamil
and Hindi and 50 know all the three languages.
(i) How many do not know any of the three languages?
(ii) How many know at least one language?
(iii) How many know only two languages?
9. In a village of 120 families, 93 families use firewood for cooking, 63 families use
kerosene, 45 families use cooking gas, 45 families use firewood and kerosene, 24
families use kerosene and cooking gas, 27 families use cooking gas and firewood Find
how many use firewood, kerosene and cooking gas.

Example 1.20 Let A = { 0, 1, 2, 3 } and B = { 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 } be two sets. Let f : A " B be


a function given by f (x) = 2x + 1 . Represent this function as (i) a set of
ordered pairs (ii) a table (iii) an arrow diagram and (iv) a graph.

Example 1.22 A function f : [1, 6) $ R is defined as follows


1+x, 1#x12
f^ xh = *2x - 1 , 2 # x 1 4   (Here, [1 , 6) = { x eR : 1# x 1 6} )
2
3x - 10 , 4#x16

Find the value of (i) f (5) , (ii) f^3 h , (iii) f^1 h , (iv) f^2h - f^4h ,

(v) 2 f^5h - 3 f^1 h

Classification of Questions - Sets and Functions 289


Exercise 1.4
7. Let f = { (2, 7), (3, 4), (7, 9), (–1, 6), (0, 2), (5, 3) } be a function from
A = { –1, 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 } to B = { 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 }. Is this (i) an one-one function
(ii) an onto function (iii) both one-one and onto function?
10. Let A = { 5, 6, 7, 8 }; B = { –11, 4, 7, –10,–7, –9,–13 } and
f = {( x, y) : y = 3 - 2x , x ! A , y ! B }
(i) Write down the elements of f . (ii) What is the co-domain?
(iii) What is the range? (iv) Identify the type of function.
13. Let A = { 6, 9, 15, 18, 21 }; B = { 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 } and f : A " B be defined by
f^ xh = x - 3 . Represent f by (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs
3
(iii) a table (iv) a graph .
14. Let A = {4, 6, 8, 10 } and B = { 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 }. If f : A " B is defined by f^ xh = 1 x + 1
2
then represent f by (i) an arrow diagram (ii) a set of ordered pairs and (iii) a table.
15. A function f : 6- 3, 7h " R is defined as follows
4x 2 - 1 ; - 3 # x 1 2
f^ xh = *3x - 2 ;
f (3) + f (- 1)
2 # x # 4 . Find (iv) .
2f (6) - f (1)
2x - 3 ; 41x17
16. A function f : 6- 7, 6h " R is defined as follows
x 2 + 2x + 1 ; - 7 # x 1 - 5
f (x) = * x + 5 ; -5 # x # 2
x - 1; 2 1 x16 .

4 f (- 3) + 2 f (4)
Find (iii) .
f (- 6) - 3 f (1)
Proof by picture
n # (n + 1)
Let us illustrate the result : 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = with the following diagram
2

Hence, 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 9 = 9 # 10
2
290 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
www.tnschools.co.in

2. SEQUENCES AND SERIES


Two Mark Questions

Example 2.1 Write the first three terms in a sequence whose th


term is given by
n^n + 1h^2n + 1h
cn = , 6 n ! N.
6
Example 2.2 (each subdivision carries two marks) Write the first five terms of each of
the following sequences.
a
(i) a1 =- 1, an = n - 1 , n 2 1 and 6 n ! N
n+2
(ii) F1 = F2 = 1 and Fn = Fn - 1 + Fn - 2, n = 3, 4, g.

Exercise 2.1
1. Write the first three terms of the following sequences whose nth terms are given by
(each subdivision carries two marks)
n^ n - 2h n+2 ^- 1hn n^n + 2h
(i) an = (ii) cn = ^- 1hn 3 (iii) zn =
3 4
2. Find the indicated terms in each of the sequences whose nth terms are given by
(each subdivision carries two marks)
an = n + 2 ; a7 , a9
n+3
(i) (ii) an = ^- 1hn 2 ^n + 1h ; a5 , a8
2n + 3
n 2
(iii) an = 2n - 3n + 1; a5 , a7. (iv) an = (- 1) (1 - n + n ); a5 , a8
2

3. Find the 18th and 25th terms of the sequence defined by


n (n + 3), if n ! N and n is even
an = * 22n , if n ! N and n is odd.
n +1
4. Find the 13th and 16th terms of the sequence defined by

bn = )
2
n, if n ! N and n is even
n (n + 2), if n ! N and n is odd.
5. Find the first five terms of the sequence given by
a1 = 2, a2 = 3 + a1 and an = 2an - 1 + 5 for n 2 2 .
6. Find the first six terms of the sequence given by
a1 = a2 = a3 = 1 and an = an - 1 + an - 2 for n 2 3 .
Example 2.3 Which of the following sequences are in an A.P.? (each subdivision carries
two marks) (i) 2 , 4 , 6 , g . (ii) 3m - 1, 3m - 3, 3m - 5, g .
3 5 7
Example 2.4 Find the first term and common difference of the A.P. (each subdivision
carries two marks) (i) 5, 2, - 1, - 4, g . (ii) 1 , 5 , 7 , 3 , g, 17
2 6 6 2 6

Classification of Questions - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 291


Example 2.5 Find the smallest positive integer n such that tn of the arithmetic sequence
20,19 1 ,18 1 , g is negative.?
4 2
Example 2.6 In a flower garden, there are 23 rose plants in the first row, 21 in the second
row, 19 in the third row and so on. There are 5 rose plants in the last row.
How many rows are there in the flower garden?
Example 2.7 If a person joins his work in 2010 with an annual salary of `30,000 and
receives an annual increment of `600 every year, in which year, will his annual
salary be `39,000?
Example 2.8 Three numbers are in the ratio 2 : 5 : 7. If the first number, the resulting
number on the substraction of 7 from the second number and the third
number form an arithmetic sequence, then find the numbers.

Exercise 2.2
1. The first term of an A.P. is 6 and the common difference is 5. Find the A.P. and its
general term.
2. Find the common difference and 15th term of the A.P. 125, 120, 115, 110, g .
3. Which term of the arithmetic sequence 24, 23 1 , 22 1 , 21 3 , g . is 3?
4 2 4
4. Find the 12th term of the A.P. 2 , 3 2 , 5 2 , g .
5. Find the 17th term of the A.P. 4, 9, 14, g .
6. How many terms are there in the following Arithmetic Progressions? (each subdivision
carries two marks) (i) - 1, - 5 , - 2 , g, 10 . (ii) 7, 13, 19, g , 205.
6 3 3
10. How many two digit numbers are divisible by 13?
12. A man has saved `640 during the first month, `720 in the second month and `800 in
the third month. If he continues his savings in this sequence, what will be his savings
in the 25th month?
16. A person has deposited `25,000 in an investment which yields 14% simple interest
annually. Do these amounts (principal + interest) form an A.P.? If so, determine the
amount of investment after 20 years.
2 2
17. If a, b, c are in A.P. then prove that (a - c) = 4 (b - ac) .
18. If a, b, c are in A.P. then prove that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.
bc ca ab
Example 2.9 Which of the following sequences are geometric sequences?
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(a) (i) 5, 10, 15, 20, g . (ii) 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, g .
(b) (i) 5, 10, 15, 20, g . (iii) 7, 21 , 3 7 , 3 21 , g .
(c) (ii) 0.15, 0.015, 0.0015, g . (iii) 7, 21 , 3 7 , 3 21 , g .

292 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Example 2.10 Find the common ratio and the general term of the following geometric
sequences. (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 2 , 6 , 18 , g .   (ii) 0.02, 0.006, 0.0018, g .
5 25 125
Exercise 2.3
2. Find the 10th term and common ratio of the geometric sequence 1 , - 1 , 1, - 2, g .
4 2
3. If the 4th and 7th terms of a G.P. are 54 and 1458 respectively, find the G.P.
4. In a geometric sequence, the first term is 1 and the sixth term is 1 , find the G.P.
3 729
5. Which term of the geometric sequence, (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 5, 2, 4 , 8 , g , is 128 ? (ii) 1, 2, 4, 8, g , is 1024 ?
5 25 15625
7. The fifth term of a G.P. is 1875. If the first term is 3, find the common ratio.
12. If `1000 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the rate of 5% compounded
annually, find the maturity amount at the end of 12 years .
13. A company purchases an office copier machine for `50,000. It is estimated that the
copier depreciates in its value at a rate of 45% per year. What will be the value of the
copier after 15 years?
Example 2.16 Find the sum of the arithmetic series 5 + 11 + 17 + g + 95 .

Exercise 2.4
1. Find the sum of the first (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 75 positive integers (ii) 125 natural numbers.
2. Find the sum of the first 30 terms of an A.P. whose nth term is 3 + 2n .
3. Find the sum of each arithmetic series (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 38 + 35 + 32 + g + 2 . (ii) 6 + 5 1 + 4 1 + g 25 terms.
4 2
4. Find the Sn for the following arithmetic series described.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) a = 5, n = 30, l = 121 (ii) a = 50, n = 25, d =- 4
7. In the arithmetic sequence 60, 56, 52, 48,g , starting from the first term, how many
terms are needed so that their sum is 368?
13. A construction company will be penalised each day for delay in construction of
a bridge. The penalty will be `4000 for the first day and will increase by `1000 for
each following day. Based on its budget, the company can afford to pay a maximum
of `1,65,000 towards penalty. Find the maximum number of days by which the
completion of work can be delayed.
14. A sum of `1000 is deposited every year at 8% simple interest. Calculate the interest
at the end of each year. Do these interest amounts form an A.P.? If so, find the total
interest at the end of 30 years.
Classification of Questions - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 293
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2
15. The sum of first n terms of a certain series is given as 3n - 2n. Show that the series
is an arithmetic series.
16. If a clock strikes once at 1 o’clock, twice at 2 o’clock and so on, how many times will
it strike in a day?
Example 2.22 Find the sum of the first 25 terms of the geometric series
16 - 48 + 144 - 432 + g .
Example 2.23 Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below:
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) a = 2, t6 = 486, n = 6 (ii) a = 2400, r = – 3, n = 5
Example 2.28 An organisation plans to plant saplings in 25 streets in a town in such a
way that one sapling for the first street, two for the second, four for the
third, eight for the fourth street and so on. How many saplings are needed
to complete the work?
Exercise 2.5
1. Find the sum of the first 20 terms of the geometric series 5 + 5 + 5 + g .
2 6 18
2. Find the sum of the first 27 terms of the geometric series 1 + 1 + 1 + g .
9 27 81
3. Find Sn for each of the geometric series described below. (each subdivision carries two
marks) (i) a = 3, t8 = 384, n = 8 . (ii) a = 5, r = 3 , n = 12 .
5. How many consecutive terms starting from the first term of the series
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 3 + 9 + 27 + g would sum to 1092 ? (ii) 2 + 6 + 18 + g would sum to 728 ?
6. The second term of a geometric series is 3 and the common ratio is 4 . Find the sum
5
of first 23 consecutive terms in the given geometric series.

Example 2.29 Find the sum of the following series (each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 26 + 27 + 28 + g + 60 (iii) 31 + 33 + g + 53.
2 2 2 2
Example 2.30 Find the sum of the following series (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 25
3 3 3 3
Example 2.31 Find the sum of the series. (i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 20
3 3 3 3
Example 2.33 (ii) If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n = 36100, then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + n.
Exercise 2.6
1. Find the sum of the following series. (each question carries two marks)
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + 45 (iii) 2 + 4 + 6 + g + 100 (iv) 7 + 14 +21 g + 490
2. Find the value of k if (each question carries two marks)
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 6084 , (ii) 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 2025
3 3 3 3
3. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p = 171 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + p .

294 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Five Mark Questions

Exercise 2.2
7. If 9th term of an A.P. is zero, prove that its 29th term is double (twice) the 19th term.
8. The 10th and 18th terms of an A.P. are 41 and 73 respectively. Find the 27th term.
9. Find n so that the nth terms of the following two A.P.’s are the same.
1, 7, 13, 19,g and 100, 95, 90, g .
11. A TV manufacturer has produced 1000 TVs in the seventh year and 1450 TVs in the
tenth year. Assuming that the production increases uniformly by a fixed number every
year, find the number of TVs produced in the first year and in the 15th year.
13. The sum of three consecutive terms in an A.P. is 6 and their product is –120. Find the
three numbers.
14. Find the three consecutive terms in an A. P. whose sum is 18 and the sum of their
squares is 140.
15. If m times the mth term of an A.P. is equal to n times its nth term, then show that the
(m + n) th term of the A.P. is zero.
2 2 2
19. If a , b , c are in A.P. then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are also in A.P.
b+c c+a a+b
20. If a = b = c , x ! 0, y ! 0, z ! 0 and b = ac , then show that 1 , 1 , 1 are in A.P.
x y z 2
x y z
Example 2.11 The 4th term of a geometric sequence is 2 and the seventh term is 16 . Find
3 81
the geometric sequence.
Example 2.12 The number of bacteria in a certain culture doubles every hour. If there
were 30 bacteria present in the culture initially, how many bacteria will be
present at the end of 14th hour?
Example 2.13 An amount `500 is deposited in a bank which pays annual interest at the
rate of 10% compounded annually. What will be the value of this deposit at
the end of 10th year?
Example 2.14 The sum of first three terms of a geometric sequence is 13 and their product
12
is - 1. Find the common ratio and the terms.
Example 2.15 If a, b, c, d are in geometric sequence, then prove that
^b - ch2 + ^c - ah2 + ^d - bh2 = ^a - d h2

Exercise 2.3
6. If the geometric sequences 162, 54, 18,g . and 2 , 2 , 2 , g have their nth term
81 27 9
equal, find the value of n.
8. The sum of three terms of a geometric sequence is 39 and their product is 1. Find the
10
common ratio and the terms.

Classification of Questions - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 295


9. If the product of three consecutive terms in G.P. is 216 and sum of their products in
pairs is 156, find them.
10. Find the first three consecutive terms in G.P. whose sum is 7 and the sum of their
reciprocals is 7
4
11. The sum of the first three terms of a G.P. is 13 and sum of their squares is 91. Determine
the G.P.
14. If a, b, c, d are in a geometric sequence, then show that
^a - b + ch^b + c + d h = ab + bc + cd.
15. If a, b, c, d are in a G.P., then prove that a + b, b + c, c + d, are also in G.P.

Example 2.17 Find the sum of the first 2n terms of the following series.
2 2 2 2
1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + ... .
Example 2.18 In an arithmetic series, the sum of first 14 terms is - 203 and the sum of the
next 11 terms is –572. Find the arithmetic series.
Example 2.19 How many terms of the arithmetic series 24 + 21 + 18 + 15 + g , be taken
continuously so that their sum is – 351.
Example 2.20 Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 8.
Example 2.21 The measures of the interior angles taken in order of a polygon form an
arithmetic sequence. The least measurement in the sequence is 85c. The
greatest measurement is 215c. Find the number of sides in the given polygon.

Exercise 2.4
2 2 2 2
5. Find the sum of the first 40 terms of the series 1 - 2 + 3 - 4 + g .
6. In an arithmetic series, the sum of first 11 terms is 44 and that of the next 11 terms is
55. Find the arithmetic series.
8. Find the sum of all 3 digit natural numbers, which are divisible by 9.
9. Find the sum of first 20 terms of the arithmetic series in which 3rd term is 7 and 7th term
is 2 more than three times its 3rd term.
10. Find the sum of all natural numbers between 300 and 500 which are divisible by 11.
11. Solve: 1 + 6 + 11 + 16 + g + x = 148 .
12. Find the sum of all numbers between 100 and 200 which are not divisible by 5.
17. Show that the sum of an arithmetic series whose first term is a , second term b and the
^a + ch^b + c - 2ah
last term is c is equal to .
2^ b - ah

296 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


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18. If there are ^2n + 1h terms in an arithmetic series, then prove that the ratio of the sum
of odd terms to the sum of even terms is ^n + 1h : n .
2 2
19. The ratio of the sums of first m and first n terms of an arithmetic series is m : n
show that the ratio of the mth and nth terms is ^2m - 1h : ^2n - 1h
20. A gardener plans to construct a trapezoidal shaped structure in his garden. The longer
side of trapezoid needs to start with a row of 97 bricks. Each row must be decreased
by 2 bricks on each end and the construction should stop at 25th row. How many
bricks does he need to buy?

Example 2.24 In the geometric series 2 + 4 + 8 + g , starting from the first term how
many consecutive terms are needed to yield the sum 1022?
Example 2.25 The first term of a geometric series is 375 and the fourth term is 192. Find
the common ratio and the sum of the first 14 terms.
Example 2.26 A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio.
The sum of the first two terms is 8 and the sum of the last two terms is 72.
Find the series.
Example 2.27 Find the sum to n terms of the series 6 + 66 + 666 +g

Exercise 2.5
4. Find the sum of the following finite series (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 1 + 0.1 + 0.01 + 0.001 + g + ^0.1h9 (ii) 1 + 11 + 111 + g to 20 terms.
7. A geometric series consists of four terms and has a positive common ratio. The sum
of the first two terms is 9 and sum of the last two terms is 36. Find the series.
8. Find the sum of first n terms of the series (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 7 + 77 + 777 + g . (ii) 0.4 + 0.94 + 0.994 + g .
9. Suppose that five people are ill during the first week of an epidemic and each sick
person spreads the contagious disease to four other people by the end of the second
week and so on. By the end of 15th week, how many people will be affected by the
epidemic?
10. A gardener wanted to reward a boy for his good deeds by giving some mangoes. He
gave the boy two choices. He could either have 1000 mangoes at once or he could
get 1 mango on the first day, 2 on the second day, 4 on the third day, 8 mangoes on
the fourth day and so on for ten days. Which option should the boy choose to get the
maximum number of mangoes?
11. A geometric series consists of even number of terms. The sum of all terms is 3 times
the sum of odd terms. Find the common ratio.
12. If S1, S2 and S3 are the sum of first n, 2n and 3n terms of a geometric series respectively,
then prove that S1 ^ S3 - S2h = ^ S2 - S1h2 .

Classification of Questions - Sequences and Series of Real Numbers 297


Example 2.30 Find the sum of the following series (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2 2
(ii) 12 + 13 + 14 + g + 35
2 2 2 2
(iii) 1 + 3 + 5 + g + 51 .
3 3 3 3
Example 2.31 Find the sum of the series. (ii) 11 + 12 + 13 + g + 28
3 3 3 3
Example 2.32 Find the value of k, if 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 4356
Example 2.34 Find the total area of 14 squares whose sides are 11 cm, 12 cm, g , 24 cm,
respectively.

Exercise 2.6
1. Find the sum of the following series. (each question carries five marks)
2 2 2 2
(ii) 16 + 17 + 18 + g + 25
2 2 2 2
(v) 5 + 7 + 9 + g + 39
3 3 3
(vi) 16 + 17 + g + 35
3 3 3 3
4. If 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k = 8281 , then find 1 + 2 + 3 + g + k .
5. Find the total area of 12 squares whose sides are 12cm, 13cm, g, 23cm. respectively.
6. Find the total volume of 15 cubes whose edges are 16 cm, 17 cm, 18 cm, g , 30 cm
respectively.

International Mathematical Olympaid (IMO) is the World Championship


Mathematics Competition for high school students.
The first IMO was held in Romania in 1959. It has since been held annually.
About 100 countries send teams of upto 6 students. Contestants have to solve
6 problems on branches of mathematics not conventionally covered at school.
The participants are ranked based on their individual scores.
Mathematical Olympiad activity in our country is being undertaken by
the National Board for Higher Mathematics (NBHM). Its main purpose is to
support mathematical talent among high school students in the country.
NBHM trains the Indian team for participation in the IMO every year. All
High School students upto class XII are eligible to appear for Olympiad.
For information and resources visit the website:
http:\\www.imo-official.org

298 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


3. ALGEBRA
Two Mark Questions
Example 3.1 Solve 3x - 5y = –16 , 2x + 5y = 31
Example 3.2 The cost of 11 pencils and 3 erasers is ` 50 and the cost of 8 pencils and 3
erasers is ` 38. Find the cost of each pencil and each eraser.
Example 3.3 Solve by elimination method 3x + 4y = –25, 2x - 3y = 6.

Exercise 3.1
Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method.

(each subdivision carries two marks)

1. x + 2y = 7 , x - 2y = 1 2. 3x + y = 8 , 5x + y = 10
y
3. x + = 4 , x + 2y = 5 4. 11x - 7y = xy , 9x - 4y = 6xy
2 3

Example 3.6 Solve 2x + 7y – 5= 0; –3x + 8y = –11


Example 3.7 Using cross multiplication method, solve 3x + 5y = 25; 7x + 6y = 30.

Exercise 3.2
1. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
(i) 3x + 4y = 24 , 20x - 11y = 47 (ii) 0.5x + 0.8y = 0.44 , 0.8x + 0.6y = 0.5
5y y
(iii) 3x - =- 2, x + = 13
2 3 3 2 6
2
Example 3.11 Find the zeros of the quadratic polynomial x + 9x + 20 , and verify the basic
relationships between the zeros and the coefficients.
Example 3.12 Find a quadratic polynomial if the sum and product of zeros of it are –4 and
3 respectively.
Example 3.13 Find a quadratic polynomial with zeros at x = 1 and x =- 1 .
4

Exercise 3.3
1. Find the zeros of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the basic relationships
between the zeros and the coefficients. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2 2
(i) x - 2x - 8 (ii) 4x - 4x + 1 (iii) 6x - 3 - 7x (iv) 4x + 8x
2 2 2 2
(v) x - 15 (vi) 3x - 5x + 2 (vii) 2x - 2 2 x + 1 (viii) x + 2x - 143

Classification of Questions - Algebra 299


www.tnschools.co.in
2. Find a quadratic polynomial each with the given numbers as the sum and product of its
zeros respectively. (each subdivision carries two marks)

(i) 3, 1 (ii) 2, 4 (iii) 0, 4 (iv) 2, 1


5
(v) 1 , 1 (vi) 1 , - 4 (vii) 1 , - 1 (viii) 3,2
3 2 3 3
3 2
Example 3.14 Find the quotient and remainder when x + x - 7x - 3 is divided by x - 3 .

Exercise 3.4
1. Find the quotient and remainder using synthetic division.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
3 2 3 2
(i) ( x + x - 3x + 5 ) ' ( x - 1 ), (ii) (3x - 2x + 7x - 5 ) ' ( x + 3 )
3 2 3 2
(iii) (3x + 4x - 10x + 6 ) ' ( 3x - 2 ), (iv) (3x - 4x - 5 ) ' ( 3x + 1 )
4 2 4 3 2
(v) (8x - 2x + 6x - 5 ) ' ( 4x + 1 ), (vi) (2x - 7x - 13x + 63x - 48 ) ' ( 2x - 1 )
Example 3.16 (each subdivision carries two marks)
3 2
(i) Prove that x - 1 is a factor of x - 6x + 11x - 6 .
3 2
(ii) Prove that x + 1 is a factor of x + 6x + 11x + 6 .
4 3 5 2 7 2
Example 3.19 Find the GCD of the following : (ii) 15x y z , 12x y z

Exercise 3.6
2. Find the GCD of the following (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 4 3
(i) c - d , c ^c - d h (ii) x - 27a x , ^ x - 3ah2
2 2 2 3 2
(iii) m - 3m - 18 , m + 5m + 6 (iv) x + 14x + 33 , x + 10x - 11x
2 2 2 2 2 2
(v) x + 3xy + 2y , x + 5xy + 6y (vi) 2x - x - 1 , 4x + 8x + 3

(x) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4


Example 3.22 Find the LCM of the following. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 3 3 2 2 3
(ii) 35a c b , 42a cb , 30ac b
(iii) ^a - 1h5 ^a + 3h2 , ^a - 2h2 ^a - 1h3 ^a + 3h4

Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following. (each subdivision carries two marks)
4 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 2 2 2
4. 66a b c , 44a b c , 24a b c 6. x y + xy , x + xy
2
7. 3^a - 1h , 2^a - 1h2 , ^a - 1h 9. ^ x + 4h2 ^ x - 3h3 , ^ x - 1h^ x + 4h^ x - 3h2

300 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Exercise 3.8
1. Find the LCM of each pair of the following polynomials.
2 2
(i) x - 5x + 6 , x + 4x - 12 whose GCD is x - 2 .

2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD and
one polynomial p^ xh respectively. (each subdivision carries two marks)

(i) ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h2 , ^ x + 1h^ x + 2h , ^ x + 1h2 ^ x + 2h .


(ii) ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h3 , ^4x + 5h^3x - 7h2 , ^4x + 5h3 ^3x - 7h2 .

Example 3.25 Simplify the rational expressions into lowest forms.


( each subdivision carries two marks )
2
3 2 2
^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h
(i) 5x + 20 , (ii) x 3- 5x 4 , (iii) 6x2 - 5x + 1 , (iv)
7x + 28 3x + 2x 9x + 12x - 5
2
^ x - 1h^ x - 2x - 3h

Exercise 3.9
Simplify the following into their lowest forms. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 3
(i) 6x2 + 9x (ii) x +1
4
(iii) 2x - 1
3x - 12x x -1 x +x+1
3 4 2
(iv) x 2- 27 (v) x 2+ x + 1 (Hint: x + x + 1 = ^ x + 1h - x )
4 2 2 2 2

x -9 x +x+1
3 2 4
(vi) 4 x +2 8 (vii) 2x2 + x - 3 (viii) 2 2x - 162
x + 4x + 16 2x + 5x + 3 ^ x + 9h^2x - 6h
2 2
^ x - 3h^ x - 5x + 4h ^ x - 8h^ x + 5x - 50h 2
4x + 9x + 5
(ix) 2
(x) 2
(xi) 2
^ x - 4h^ x - 2x - 3h ^ x + 10h^ x - 13x + 40h 8x + 6x - 5
2
^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 9x + 14h
(xii) 2
^ x - 7h^ x - 3x + 2h
3 3 2 2
Example 3.26 Multiply (ii) a +b by a - b
2
a + 2ab + b
2 a-b
Example 3.27 Divide (each subdivision carries two marks)

3 2
x +x+1
(i) 4x2 - 4 by x - 1 (ii) x - 1 by
x -1 x+1 x+3 3x + 9

Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2 2 2
(i) x - 2x # 3x + 6 , (ii) x 2- 81 # x2 + 6x + 8 , (iii) x 2- 3x - 10 # x -3 2x + 4
x+2 x-2 x -4 x - 5x - 36 x - x - 20 x +8

Classification of Questions - Algebra 301


2. Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.

(each subdivision carries two marks)


2 2
x ' x , (ii) x - 36 ' x + 6
(i)
x + 1 x2 - 1 x - 49 x + 7
2

Example 3.28 Simplify (each subdivision carries two marks)

(i) x + 2 + x - 1 (ii) x + 1 2 + 1
x+3 x-2 ^ x - 1h x+1
3 3 2
Example 3.29 What rational expression should be added to x2 - 1 to get 2x -2
x +3 ?
x +2 x +2
Exercise 3.11
1. Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.
(each subdivision carries two marks)
3
(i) x + 8 (ii) 2 x + 2 + 2 x-3
x -2 2 2 - x 2 x + 3x + 2 x - 2x - 3
(iii) x - 2
x - 6 + x + 2x - 24 (iv)
2 2
x-2 + 2 x+3
x -9 x - x - 12 x - 7x + 10 x - 2x - 15
2 2
(v) 2x2 - 5x + 3 - 2x2 - 7x - 4
x - 3x + 2 2x - 3x - 2
3 3 2
2. Which rational expression should be added to x2 - 1 to get 3x +2 2x + 4 ?
x +2 x +2
3 2
3. Which rational expression should be subtracted from 4x - 7x + 5 to get
2
2x - 1
2x - 5x + 1 ?
2
Example 3.31 Find the square root of (iii) (2x + 3y) - 24xy
Find the square root of (ii) x + 16 - 2
6
Example 3.32
x
Exercise 3.12
1. Find the square root of the following (each subdivision carries two marks)
(iii) ^ x + 11h2 - 44x (iv) ^ x - yh2 + 4xy
8 6 4 8 64^a + bh4 ^ x - yh8 ^b - ch6
(v) 121x y ' 81x y (vi)
25^ x + yh4 ^a - bh6 ^b + ch10

2. Find the square root of the following: (each subdivisions carries two marks)
2 2 2 2
(i) 16x - 24x + 9 (iii) 4x + 9y + 25z - 12xy + 30yz - 20zx

(iv) x + 14 + 2
4

302 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


www.tnschools.co.in
2
Example 3.36 Solve 6x - 5x - 25 = 0.

Exercise 3.14
Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.

(each subdivision carries two marks)


2 2
(i) ^2x + 3h2 - 81 = 0, (ii) 3x - 5x - 12 = 0, (iii) 5 x + 2x - 3 5 = 0,

(v) 3x - 8 = 2, (vi) x + 1 = 26 , (viii) a b x - ^a + b h x + 1 = 0,


2 2 2 2 2
x x 5
(ix) 2^ x + 1h2 - 5^ x + 1h = 12, (x) 3^ x - 4h2 - 5^ x - 4h = 12.

Exercise 3.15
2. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.
(each subdivision carries two marks)

(i) x - 7x + 12 = 0, (ii) 15x - 11x + 2 = 0, (iii) x + 1 = 2 1 ,


2 2
x 2
2 2 2
(iv) 3a x - abx - 2b = 0

Example 3.42 The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 5 1 . Find the number.
5
Example 3.45 Determine the nature of roots of the following quadratic equations
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2
(i) x - 11x - 10 = 0 , (ii) 4x - 28x + 49 = 0 , (iii) 2x2 + 5x + 5 = 0
Exercise 3.17
1. Determine the nature of the roots of the equation. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2
(i) x - 8x + 12 = 0 , (ii), 2x - 3x + 4 = 0 , (iii) 9x + 12x + 4 = 0 ,

(iv) 3x - 2 6 x + 2 = 0 , (v) 3 x - 2 x + 1 = 0 , (vi) ^ x - 2ah^ x - 2bh = 4ab


2 2
5 3
2. Find the values of k for which the roots are real and equal in each of the following
equations. (each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2
(i) 2x - 10x + k = 0 , (ii) 12x + 4kx + 3 = 0 .
2 2 2
3. Show that the roots of the equation x + 2^a + bh x + 2^a + b h = 0 are unreal.
2 2 2
4. Show that the roots of the equation 3p x - 2pqx + q = 0 are not real.

If one of the roots of the equation 3x - 10x + k = 0 is 1 , then find the


2
Example 3.48
3
other root and also the value of k.
2
Example 3.49 If the sum and product of the roots of the quadratic equation ax - 5x + c = 0
are both equal to 10, then find the values of a and c.

Classification of Questions - Algebra 303


2
Example 3.50 If a and b are the roots of the equation 2x - 3x - 1 = 0 , find the values of
2 2
a b a b o
(ii) + , (iii) a - b if a > b , (iv) e + ,
b a b a

(v) ca + 1 m` 1 + b j (each subdivision carries two marks )


b a
Example 3.51 Form the quadratic equation whose roots are 7 + 3 and 7 - 3 .

Exercise 3.18
1. Find the sum and the product of the roots of the following equations.
2 2
(i) x - 6x + 5 = 0 , (ii) kx + rx + pk = 0 ,
2 2
(iii) 3x - 5x = 0 , (iv) 8x - 25 = 0 . (each subdivision carries two marks)
2. Form a quadratic equation whose roots are

(i) 3 , 4 (ii) 3 + 7 , 3 - 7 (iii) 4+ 7,4- 7


2 2
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2
3. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 5x + 2 = 0 , then find the values of
2 2
b b
(i) a + (ii) a - b (iii) a +
b a b a
(each subdivision carries two marks)
2 2 2
4. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 6x + 4 = 0, find the value of a + b .

Five Mark Questions

Example 3.4 Using elimination method, solve 101x + 99y = 499, 99x + 101y = 501.
Example 3.5 Solve 3^2x + yh = 7xy ; 3^ x + 3yh = 11xy using elimination method .

Exercise 3.1
Solve each of the following system of equations by elimination method.
(each question carries Five marks)

5. 3 + 5 = 20 , 2 + 5 = 15 , x ! 0, y ! 0
x y xy x y xy
6. 8x - 3y = 5xy , 6x - 5y =- 2xy
7. 13x + 11y = 70 , 11x + 13y = 74
8. 65x - 33y = 97 , 33x - 65y = 1

9. 15 + 2 = 17 , 1 + 1 = 36 , x ! 0, y ! 0
x y x y 5
10. 2 + 2 = 1 , 3 + 2 = 0, x ! 0, y ! 0
x 3y 6 x y

304 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Example 3.8 In a two digit number, the digit in the unit place is twice of the digit in the
tenth place. If the digits are reversed, the new number is 27 more than the
given number. Find the number.

Example 3.9 A fraction is such that if the numerator is multiplied by 3 and the denominator
is reduced by 3, we get 18 , but if the numerator is increased by 8 and the
11
denominator is doubled, we get 2 . Find the fraction.
5
Example 3.10 Eight men and twelve boys can finish a piece of work in 10 days while six
men and eight boys can finish the same work in 14 days. Find the number of
days taken by one man alone to complete the work and also one boy alone to
complete the work.
Exercise 3.2
1. Solve the following systems of equations using cross multiplication method.
(iv) 5 - 4 =- 2, 2 + 3 = 13
x y x y
2. Formulate the following problems as a pair of equations, and hence find their
solutions: (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) One number is greater than thrice the other number by 2. If 4 times the smaller
number exceeds the greater by 5, find the numbers.
(ii) The ratio of income of two persons is 9 : 7 and the ratio of their expenditure is 4 : 3. If
each of them manages to save ` 2000 per month, find their monthly income.
(iii) A two digit number is seven times the sum of its digits. The number formed by
reversing the digits is 18 less than the given number. Find the given number.
(iv) Three chairs and two tables cost ` 700 and five chairs and three tables cost ` 1100.
What is the total cost of 2 chairs and 3 tables?
(v) In a rectangle, if the length is increased and the breadth is reduced each by 2 cm
2
then the area is reduced by 28 cm . If the length is reduced by 1 cm and the breadth
2
increased by 2 cm , then the area increases by 33 cm . Find the area of the rectangle.
(vi) A train travelled a certain distance at a uniform speed. If the train had been
6 km/hr faster, it would have taken 4 hours less than the scheduled time. If the train
were slower by 6 km/hr, then it would have taken 6 hours more than the scheduled
time. Find the distance covered by the train.
4 3 2
Example 3.15 If the quotient on dividing 2x + x - 14x - 19x + 6 by 2x + 1 is
3 2
x + ax - bx - 6 . Find the values of a and b, also the remainder.

Exercise 3.4
4 3 2 3 2
2. If the quotient on dividing x + 10x + 35x + 50x + 29 by x + 4 is x - ax + bx + 6 ,
then find a, b and also the remainder.
4 2 3 2
3. If the quotient on dividing, 8x - 2x + 6x - 7 by 2x + 1 is 4x + px - qx + 3 ,
then find p , q and also the remainder.
Classification of Questions - Algebra 305
www.tnschools.co.in
3 2
Example 3.17 Factorize 2x - 3x - 3x + 2 into linear factors.
Example 3.18 Factorize x3 - 3x2 - 10x + 24

Exercise 3.5
1. Factorize each of the following polynomials. (each subdivision carries five marks)
3 2
(i) x - 2x - 5x + 6 (ii) 4x3 - 7x + 3
3 2 3 2
(iii) x - 23x + 142x - 120 (iv) 4x - 5x + 7x - 6
3 3 2
(v) x - 7x + 6 (vi) x + 13x + 32x + 20
3 2 3
(vii) 2x - 9x + 7x + 6 (viii) x - 5x + 4
3 2
(ix) x - 10x - x + 10 (x) 2x3 + 11x2 - 7x - 6
3 2 3 2
(xi) x + x + x - 14 (xii) x - 5x - 2x + 24

2 2 2
Examples 3.19 Find the GCD of (iii) 6^2x - 3x - 2h , 8^4x + 4x + 1h , 12^2x + 7x + 3h
4 3 3 2
Example 3.20 Find the GCD of the polynomials x + 3x - x - 3 and x + x - 5x + 3 .
Example 3.21 Find the GCD of the following polynomials
4 3 2 4 3 2
3x + 6x - 12x - 24x and 4x + 14x + 8x - 8x .

Exercise 3.6
2. Find the GCD of the following (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2
(vii) x - x - 2 , x + x - 6 , 3x - 13x + 14
3 2 4
(viii) x - x + x - 1 , x - 1
4 3 2 6 5 4
(ix) 24^6x - x - 2x h , 20^2x + 3x + x h
3. Find the GCD of the following pairs of polynomials using division algorithm.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
3 2 2
(i) x - 9x + 23x - 15 , 4x - 16x + 12
3 2 2
(ii) 3x + 18x + 33x + 18 , 3x + 13x + 10
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 2x + 2x + 2 , 6x + 12x + 6x + 12
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) x - 3x + 4x - 12 , x + x + 4x + 4x
3 3 3 3 4 2 2 4
Example 3.22 Find the LCM of the following. (iv) x + y , x - y , x + x y + y

Exercise 3.7
Find the LCM of the following. (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2 2 3 3
8. 2x - 18y , 5x y + 15xy , x + 27y
2 2 2 2 4 3
10. 10^9x + 6xy + y h , 12^3x - 5xy - 2y h , 14^6x + 2x h .

306 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


4 3 2 4 3 2
Example 3.23 The GCD of x + 3x + 5x + 26x + 56 and x + 2x - 4x - x + 28 is
2
x + 5x + 7 . Find their LCM.
6
Example 3.24 The GCD and LCM of two polynomials are x + 1 and x - 1 respectively. If
3
one of the polynomials is x + 1 , find the other.

Exercise 3.8
1. Find the LCM of each pair of the following polynomials. (each subdivision carries five marks)
4 3 2 4 2 2
(ii) x + 3x + 6x + 5x + 3 , x + 2x + x + 2 whose GCD is x + x + 1 .
3 2 3 2
(iii) 2x + 15x + 2x - 35 , x + 8x + 4x - 21 whose GCD is x + 7 .
3 2 4 3 2
(iv) 2x - 3x - 9x + 5 , 2x - x - 10x - 11x + 8 whose GCD is 2x - 1 .
2. Find the other polynomial q^ xh of each of the following, given that LCM and GCD and
one polynomial p^ xh respectively. (each subdivision carries five marks)
(iii) ^ x4 - y4h^ x4 + x2 y2 + y4h , x2 - y2 , x4 - y4 .
3 2 3 2
(iv) ^ x - 4xh^5x + 1h , ^5x + xh , ^5x - 9x - 2xh .
2 3 2
(v) ^ x - 1h^ x - 2h^ x - 3x + 3h , ^ x - 1h , ^ x - 4x + 6x - 3h .
2
(vi) 2^ x + 1h^ x - 4h , ^ x + 1h , ^ x + 1h^ x - 2h .
3 2
Example 3.26 (iii) Multiply x - 8 by x + 6x + 8
2 2
x -4 x + 2x + 4
2 2
Example 3.27 (iii) Divide x - 1 by x - 4x - 5
2 2
x - 25 x + 4x - 5

Exercise 3.10
1. Multiply the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries five marks)

(iv) x2 - 16 # x2 - 4 # x2 - 4x + 16
x - 3x + 2 x3 + 64
2
x 2 - 2x - 8
2 2
(v) 3x + 2x - 1 # 2x - 3x - 2
2 2
x -x-2 3x + 5x - 2

4
(vi) 2x - 1 # x - 8x # x + 3
2 2 2
x + 2x + 4 2x + 5x - 3 x - 2x
2. Divide the following and write your answer in lowest terms.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2 2
(iii) x - 4x - 5 ' x - 3x - 10 (iv) x 2+ 11x + 28 ' x2 + 7x + 12
2 2
x - 25 x + 7x + 10 x - 4x - 77 x - 2x - 15

Classification of Questions - Algebra 307


2 2 2 2
(v) 2x + 13x + 15 ' 2x - x - 6 (vi) 3x - x - 4 ' 4x - 4
2 2 2 2
x + 3x - 10 x - 4x + 4 9x - 16 3x - 2x - 1

2 2
(vii) 2x2 + 5x - 3 ' 2x2 + x - 1
2x + 9x + 9 2x + x - 3
2 2
Example 3.28 Simplify (iii) x -2
x - 6 + x + 2x - 24
2
x -9 x - x - 12

Example 3.30 Simplify c 2x - 1 - x + 1 m + x + 2 as a quotient of two polynomials in the


x-1 2x + 1 x+1
simplest form.

Exercise 3.11
1. Simplify the following as a quotient of two polynomials in the simplest form.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2
(vi) x - 4 - x - 11x + 30
2 2
x + 6x + 8 x - x - 20

(vii) = 2x + 5 + x2 + 1 G - ` 3x - 2 j
2

x+1 x -1 x-1

(viii) 1 + 2 1 - 2 2 .
x2 + 3x + 2 x + 5x + 6 x + 4x + 3

4. If P = x , Q = y , then find 1 - 2Q .
x+y x+y P - Q P2 - Q2
2 2 2
Example 3.32 Find the square root of (iii) ^6x - x - 2h^3x - 5x + 2h^2x - x - 1h

Exercise 3.12
2. Find the square root of the following: (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2 2
(ii) ^ x - 25h^ x + 8x + 15h^ x - 2x - 15h
2 2 2
(v) ^6x + 5x - 6h^6x - x - 2h^4x + 8x + 3h
2 2 2
(vi) ^2x - 5x + 2h^3x - 5x - 2h^6x - x - 1h
4 3 2
Example 3.33 Find the square root of x - 10x + 37x - 60x + 36 .
4 3 2
Example 3.34 Find the square root of x - 6x + 19x - 30x + 25
2 3 4
Example 3.35 If m - nx + 28x + 12x + 9x is a perfect square,
then find the values of m and n.

308 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


Exercise 3.13
1. Find the square root of the following polynomials by division method.

(each subdivision carries five marks)


4 3 2 4 3 2
(i) x - 4x + 10x - 12x + 9 (ii) 4x + 8x + 8x + 4x + 1
4 3 2 2 3 4
(iii) 9x - 6x + 7x - 2x + 1 (iv) 4 + 25x - 12x - 24x + 16x
2. Find the values of a and b if the following polynomials are perfect squares.
(each subdivision carries five marks)
4 3 2 4 3 2
(i) 4x - 12x + 37x + ax + b (ii) x - 4x + 10x - ax + b
4 3 2 4 3 2
(iii) ax + bx + 109x - 60x + 36 (iv) ax - bx + 40x + 24x + 36

Example 3.37 Solve 6 - 2 1 + 21 =0


7x - 21 x - 6x + 9 x -9

Example 3.38 Solve 24 - 10x = 3 - 4x , 3 - 4x > 0

Exercise 3.14
Solve the following quadratic equations by factorization method.
(each subdivision carries fivc marks)

(iv)
2
3^ x - 6h = x^ x + 7h - 3 x + x + 1 = 34
(vii)
x+1 x 15
2
Example 3.39 Solve the quadratic equation 5x - 6x - 2 = 0 by completing the square.
2 2 2
Example 3.40 Solve the equation a x - 3abx + 2b = 0 by completing the square

Example 3.41 Solve the equation 1 + 2 = 4 , where x + 1 ! 0 , x + 2 ! 0


x+1 x+2 x+4
and x + 4 ! 0 using quadratic formula.

Exercise 3.15
1 Solve the following quadratic equations by completing the square .
(each subdivision carries fivc marks)
2 2
(i) x + 6x - 7 = 0 (ii) x + 3x + 1 = 0
2 2 2 2
(iii) 2x + 5x - 3 = 0 (iv) 4x + 4bx - ^a - b h = 0

(vi) 5x + 7 = 3x + 2
2
(v) x - ^ 3 + 1h x + 3 = 0
x-1

Classification of Questions - Algebra 309


2. Solve the following quadratic equations using quadratic formula.

(each subdivision carries fivc marks)


2 2 2 2 2
(v) a^ x + 1h = x^ a + 1h (vi) 36x - 12ax + ^a - b h = 0

(vii) x - 1 + x - 3 = 10 (viii) a x + ^a - b h x - b = 0
2 2 2 2 2
x+1 x-4 3
Example 3.43 The base of a triangle is 4cm longer than its altitude. If the area of the triangle is
48 sq. cm, then find its base and altitude.
Example 3.44 A car left 30 minutes later than the scheduled time. In order to reach its
destination 150km away in time, it has to increase its speed by 25km/hr from
its usual speed. Find its usual speed.

Exercise 3.16

1. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 65 . Find the number.


8
2. The difference of the squares of two positive numbers is 45. The square of the smaller
number is four times the larger number. Find the numbers.
3. A farmer wishes to start a 100 sq.m rectangular vegetable garden. Since he has only
30 m barbed wire, he fences the sides of the rectangular garden letting his house
compound wall act as the fourth side fence. Find the dimension of the garden.
4. A rectangular field is 20 m long and 14 m wide. There is a path of equal width all
around it having an area of 111 sq. metres. Find the width of the path on the outside.
5. A train covers a distance of 90 km at a uniform speed. Had the speed been 15 km/hr
more, it would have taken 30 minutes less for the journey. Find the original speed of
the train.
6. The speed of a boat in still water is 15 km/hr. It goes 30 km upstream and return
downstream to the original point in 4 hrs 30 minutes. Find the speed of the stream.
7. One year ago, a man was 8 times as old as his son. Now his age is equal to the square
of his son’s age. Find their present ages.
2
8. A chess board contains 64 equal squares and the area of each square is 6.25 cm .
A border around the board is 2 cm wide. Find the length of the side of the chess board.
9. A takes 6 days less than the time taken by B to finish a piece of work. If both A and B
together can finish it in 4 days, find the time that B would take to finish this work by
himself.
10. Two trains leave a railway station at the same time. The first train travels due west and
the second train due north. The first train travels 5 km/hr faster than the second train.
If after two hours, they are 50 km apart, find the average speed of each train.
Example 3.46 Prove that the roots of the equation
2
^a - b + ch x + 2^a - bh x + ^a - b - ch = 0 are rational numbers for all
real numbers a and b and for all rational c.
310 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book
2
Example 3.47 Find the values of k so that the equation x - 2x^1 + 3kh + 7^3 + 2kh = 0
has real and equal roots.
Exercise 3.17
2. Find the values of k for which the roots are real and equal in each of the following
equations. (each subdivision carries five marks)
2 2
(iii) x + 2k^ x - 2h + 5 = 0 (iv) ^k + 1h x - 2^k - 1h x + 1 = 0
5. If the roots of the equation ^a2 + b2h x2 - 2^ac + bd h x + c2 + d2 = 0 ,
where a, b, c and c are non zero , then prove that a = c .
b d
6. Show that the roots of the equation
^ x - ah^ x - bh + ^ x - bh^ x - ch + ^ x - ch^ x - ah = 0 are always real and they
cannot be equal unless a = b = c .
2 2 2 2
7. If the equation ^1 + m h x + 2mcx + c - a = 0 has equal roots, then prove that
2 2 2
c = a ^1 + m h .
2
Example 3.50 If a and b are the roots of the equation 2x - 3x - 1 = 0 , find the values of
(all the three subdivisions carry five marks)
3 3
b
(vii) a +
2 2 4 4
(i) a + b (vi) a + b
b a
2
Example 3.52 If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 4x + 1 = 0, form a quadratic
2 2
b
equation whose roots are a and .
b a

Exercise 3.18
2 2 2
5. If a , b are the roots of 2x - 3x - 5 = 0, form a equation whose roots are a and b .
2
6. If a , b are the roots of x - 3x + 2 = 0, form a quadratic equation whose roots are - a
and - b .
2
7. If a and b are the roots of x - 3x - 1 = 0, then form a quadratic equation whose roots
are 12 and 12 .
a b 2
8. If a and b are the roots of the equation 3x - 6x + 1 = 0, form an equation whose
roots are (each subdivision carries five marks)
(i) 1 , 1
2 2
(ii) a b, b a (iii) 2a + b, 2b + a
a b
9. Find a quadratic equation whose roots are the reciprocal of the roots of the equation
2
4x - 3x - 1 = 0.
2
10. If one root of the equation 3x + kx - 81 = 0 is the square of the other, find k.
2
11. If one root of the equation 2x - ax + 64 = 0 is twice the other, then find the value of a
2
12. If a and b are the roots of 5x - px + 1 = 0 and a - b = 1, then find p.

Classification of Questions - Algebra 311


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4. MATRICES
Two Mark Questions
Example 4.1 The table shows a five-day forecast
indicating high (H) and low (L)
temperatures in Fahrenheit. Organise
the temperatures in a matrix where
the first and second rows represent
the High and Low temperatures
respectively and identify which day will be the warmest?
Example 4.2 The amount of fat, carbohydrate and protein in grams present in each food
item respectively are as follows:

Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4


Fat 5 0 1 10
Carbohydrate 0 15 6 9
Protein 7 1 2 8
Use the information to write 3 # 4 and 4 # 3 matrices.
J1 4 8 N
K O
6 2 5O
Example 4.3 Let A = 6 aij @ = K
K . Find
3 7 0O
K O
L9 - 2 - 1 P
(i) the order of the matrix (ii) the elements a13 and a42 (iii) the position of the element 2.

Example 4.4 Construct a 2 # 3 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by aij = 2i - 3j

8 5 2 T T T
Example 4.5 If A = e o , then find A and (A )
1 -3 4

Exercise 4.1
1. The rates for the entrance tickets at a water theme park are listed below:
Week Days Week End
rates(`) rates(`)
Adult 400 500
Children 200 250
Senior Citizen 300 400
Write down the matrices for the rates of entrance tickets for adults, children and senior
citizens. Also find the dimensions of the matrices.

312 10th Std. Mathematics - SCORE book


2. There are 6 Higher Secondary Schools, 8 High Schools and 13 Primary Schools in a
town. Represent these data in the form of 3 # 1 and 1 # 3 matrices.
4. A matrix has 8 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?
5. A matrix consists of 30 elements. What are the possible orders it can have?.
6. Construct a 2 # 2 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by
(each subdivision carries two marks)
i-j
(i) aij = ij (ii) aij = 2i - j (iii) aij =
i+j
7. Construct a 3 # 2 matrix A = 6 aij @ whose elements are given by
(each subdivisiion carries two marks)
2
(i - 2j) 2i - 3j
(i) aij = i (ii) aij = (iii) aij =
j 2 2
1 -1 3 2
8. If A = f 5 - 4 7 4 p, (i) find the order of the matrix (ii) write down the
6 0 9 8
elements a24 and a32 (iii) in which row and column does the element 7 occur?
( combination of any two carries two marks [ex. (i, ii), (ii, iii), (i, iii)] )

2 3
9. If A = f 4 1 p, then find the transpose of A.
5 0
1 2 3
T T
10. If A = f 2 4 - 5 p, then verify that (A ) = A .
3 -5 6
x 5 4 3 5 z
Example 4.6 Find the values of x, y and z if c m=c m
5 9 1 5 y 1
y 6 - 2x
Example 4.7 Solve : c m = e o
3x 31 + 4y

5 6 -2 3 3 -1 4 7
Example 4.10 If A = c m and B = c m , then find A + B.
1 0 4 2 2 8 2 3

Example 4.11 Matrix A shows the weight of four boys and four girls in kg at the beginning
of a diet programme to lose weight. Matrix B shows the corresponding
weights after the diet programme.
35 40 28 45 Boys 32 35 27 41 Boys
A=c m , B=c m
42 38 41 30 Girls 40 30 34 27 Girls
Find the weight loss of the Boys and Girls.

Classification of Questions - Matrices 313


Exercise 4.2
1. Find the values of x, y and z from the matrix equation
5x + 2 y-4 12 -8
e o=c m
0 4z + 6 0 2
2x + y 5
2. Solve for x and y if e o=c m
x - 3y 13
2 3 1 5
3. If A = e o-e o , then find the additive inverse of A.
-9 5 7 -1
3 2 8 -1
4. Let A = c m and B = c m . Find the matrix C if C = 2A + B .