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PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLIES PROFESSIONALS AND

TECHNICIANS BOARD

SYLLABUS FOR THE PROFESSIONAL STAGES IN


PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLIES MANAGEMENT

Prepared and issued by:


Executive Director,
PSPTB,
P.O. Box 5993,
DAR ES SALAAM
31st December, 2014

Tel.: +255-22-2865860
Fax: +255-22-2862138
Email: info@psptb.go.tz
Website: http://www.psptb.go.tz

PROFESSIONAL SYLLABUS
Table of Contents

Introduction........1
Object of the Syllabus....2
Programme content........................................................................3
Programme examination structure.4
Examinations timing and assessment.5
Research paper...5
Recommended books.6
Teaching methodology/approaches........6
Duration for coverage of Syllabus..6
Subject codes.....6
Eligibility for candidates registration....7
Candidacy duration........7
Examination applications...7
Payment of fees..8
Examination results and certification.....8
PSPTB awards...9
Minimum Entry Qualifications..9
Exemption criteria10
Credit transfer arrangement..12
The Syllabus for Professional stage examination12
PROFESSIONAL STAGE ONE..13
Procurement Management P1..13

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Managerial Economics P2....18
Management Principles and Practice P3..23
Legal Aspects of Procurement P4....27
PROFESSIONAL STAGE TWO.....32
Warehouse Management P5.........32
Quantitative Methods P6..36
Freight Forwarding Management P7....44
Business Ethis and Corporate Governance P8.51
PROFESSIONAL STAGE THREE.....51
Marketing Management P9..55
Financial Management P10..60
Production and Operations Management P11..65
Inventory Management P12.69
PROFESSIONAL STAGE FOUR...73
Public Procurement Management P13.....73
Procurement Contracts Management P14....80
International Logistics and Transport P1584
Interpreneurship P16....88
PROFESSIONAL STAGE FIVE.....91
Procurement and Supply Audit P17..91
Strategic Procurement and Supply Chain Management P1896
Research Methodology and Consultancy P19........102
Procurement and Supply Chain Risks Management P20...107

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: General Outline..3

Table 2: The criteria for minimum entry qualifications.....10

Table 3: The criteria for Exemption....11

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INTRODUCTION

ABOUT THE BOARD

The Procurement and Supplies Professionals and Technicians


Board was established by an Act of Parliament No. 23 of 2007 as
a Government Institution under the Ministry of Finance.

VISION

To become a centre of excellence in Procurement and Supplies


Management.

MISSION

To promote and develop the profession by imparting the members


with knowledge and skills necessary for effective and ethical
management of procurement and supplies functions through
training, research and professional services.

CORE VALUES

(a) Integrity
The Board will act in honest, ethical, and professional manner in
all endeavours, and fully disclose all pertinent information, uphold
the laws and their regulations demonstrate accountability, treat
everyone with fairness and respect.

(b) Professionalism
The Board will strive to act in all dealings in a professional,
proactive manner embodying ethical, consistent, frank and fair
decision making, based on the facts. It will provide services
through a highly skilled and competent workforce.

(c) Impartiality
The Board will treat people equally.
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(d) Accountability
The Board will be responsible, ethical, and diligent in decision
making, transactions, dealings and performance of Strategic Plan.

(e) Efficiency
Aim to optimize efficiency in the delivery of services by
implementing value for money practices.

(f) Customer focus


Customer-driven in all endeavours of the Board, sensitive and
responsive to customer needs, and high commitment to customer
care and satisfaction.

(g) Excellence
The Board is committed to excellence and the pursuit of
continuous improvement in its services and operations.

(h) Transparency.
The Board will actively promote the sharing of ideas and
information throughout the organization and be receptive to new
ideas including communicating openly to all its members, public
and other interested stakeholders.

OBJECTIVES OF THE SYLLABUS

This syllabus has been developed with the following objectives:-


(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in Procurement
and Supplies Management both as a discipline of specialized
knowledge and profession.
(b) To produce world class recognized professionals competent
in procurement and supplies field with due regard to
Tanzanian environment.
(c) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in procurement
and supply chain to work at middle and higher level
management positions.

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(d) To impart learners with knowledge, skills and attitudes on
the public procurement and other best practices in the World.

PROGRAMME CONTENT

In order to achieve these objectives, the programme has been


divided into five professional stages, each stage comprising four
subjects. The whole programme consists of fifteen (15) core and
five (5) supporting subjects carefully integrated to equip learners
with the desired knowledge and competences. In addition, a
candidate will be required to write a Research paper as a partial
fulfillment of the award. The Professional level is geared towards
producing graduates who are able to operate at both middle level
and senior managerial positions.

The following is the outline of the programme:-

Table 1: General Outline


Supporting
Stage Code Core Subjects Code
subjects
Professional P1 Procurement P2 Managerial
Stage I Management Economics
P4 Legal Aspects of P3 Management
Procurement Principles
and Practice
Professional P5 Warehouse P6 Quantitative
Stage II Management Methods
P7 Freight
Forwarding
Management
P8 Business Ethics
and Corporate
Governance
Professional P11 Production and P9 Marketing
Stage III Operations Management
Management
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Supporting
Stage Code Core Subjects Code
subjects
P12 Inventory P10 Financial
Management Management
Professional P13 Public
Stage IV Procurement
Management
P14 Procurement
Contracts
Management
P15 International
Logistics and
Transport
P16 Entrepreneurship
Professional P17 Procurement and
Stage V Supply Audit
P18 Strategic
Procurement and
Supply Chain
Management
P19 Research
Methodology
and Consultancy
P20 Procurement and
Supply Chain
Risks
Management
P21 Research Paper

PROGRAMME EXAMINATION STRUCTURE


The five stages of the examination structure have been carefully
designed so that they make an accumulation of professional
knowledge and competence. The subjects contained in each stage

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form a progression of knowledge and skills such that completion
of one stage helps in the next stage.

EXAMINATIONS TIMING AND ASSESSMENT


The Boards examinations are conducted twice annually i.e. in
May and November. Each examination paper is of 3 hours
duration. A student is deemed as having passed the examination if
he or she has passed all subjects examined there in. A candidate
shall be referred on the failed subject(s). A candidate who is
referred in some subjects at any stage or failed to pass examination
in any stage shall be allowed to re-sit for the examinations in that
stage not more than three consecutive sessions only from the date
of the first sitting; failure to which he/she shall be required to
attempt the whole examination stage.

A candidate is not allowed to attempt any subject of a given part


unless he/she has passed all subjects in the proceeding part or has
been exempted from that part. However, a candidate with
exemptions in subjects of different parts may be allowed to sit for
the subjects not exempted from different parts at the same sitting
provided he/she proves to have the ability to do so, but the final
award of certificate will be given to such a candidate upon passing
all subjects required in all stages of Professional levels.

RESEARCH PAPER

Candidates are required to submit a research paper within two


years after successful completion of written examinations in the
final stage. The paper should be on any topic on logistics,
transportation, procurement and supply chain management as may
be approved by the Board. Candidates are advised to seek guidance
from the Board prior to writing the research paper. Candidate must
ensure that they submit research paper within the prescribed period
of 24 months without fail.

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RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

The list of books given for each subject is at best only suggestive
and indeed they are not exhaustive. Lecturers may use any of the
listed books or any other appropriate books on the subjects. Study
materials can be obtained from other sources such as journals,
internets and current review magazines provided they strongly
focus on the subject being taught and provide a relevant knowledge
towards that subject.

TEACHING METHODOLOGY/APPROACHES
The methods to be used for teaching the candidates shall include
lectures, role plays, case studies, exercises, home work,
assignments, discussions and seminars. Since the Board does not
directly involve itself in teaching, accredited tuition providers and
training institutions must ensure quality assurance in teaching and
delivery as per Boards standards. Candidates are strongly advised
to register in accredited tuition providers and training institutions
for review programmes.

DURATION FOR COVERAGE OF SYLLABUS

The professional stage comprises of twenty written subjects and


one research paper. It is recommended that for each subject in the
written part a minimum of 180 teaching hours are needed before
one can attempt an examination. A total of 720 hours for each stage
of Professional Stages I to V are recommended, and 40 hours for
intensive research workshop. The whole programme of Certified
Procurement and Supplies Professional awards should be covered
in not less than 3,640 contact hours.

SUBJECT CODES

Each subject is given an identification code made up of a number


preceded by a letter. At this stage the identification letter code is P.

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ELIGIBILITY FOR CANDIDATES REGISTRATION

Registration for the Professional Stage is open to those who have


completed Foundation Stage or its equivalent. However,
exemptions may be granted on subject to subject basis to those with
other qualifications which the Board may judge to provide
sufficient knowledge and skills in line with the subject contents of
the Boards syllabus.

CANDIDACY DURATION

A candidate who is referred in some subjects at any stage or failed


to pass examination in any stage shall be allowed to re-sit for the
examinations in that stage not more than three consecutive sessions
only, before the registration status is withdrawn.

EXAMINATION APPLICATIONS

In order to sit for the Boards examinations candidates are required


to apply for:

(a) Candidacy Registration. This is when a candidate is applying


the first time. Such application will be made via formal
Application for Candidacy Registration Form obtainable
from the website or offices of the Board. The form must be
submitted together with three recently taken pass-port size
photographs and the appropriate application fee. A candidate
so registered will be issued with PSPTB identity card bearing
his/her photograph and a registration number.
(b) Examination Registration. This process is normally done
between December and February for the May examinations,
and between June and August for the November
examinations. The candidate must process and submit the
Examination Entry Registration Form affixed with stamp
size recently taken photograph together with the appropriate
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examination fee. On being so registered, the candidate will
be issued with Examination Admission Letter bearing
Examination Index Number, Centre of examination,
Timetable and Subjects to be attempted. This letter together
with PSPTB identity card are the only allowable and
authoritative documents giving entry to examination Hall.
No candidate will be allowed in the examination hall without
valid admission letter and PSPTB ID.

PAYMENT OF FEES

All payments to the Boards services shall be made through PSPTB


accounts shown on the application forms. Candidates shall enclose
the original pay-in slip of the bank together with the relevant
application form. When filling in the pay in slip, candidates shall
carefully indicate their names, registration number and purpose of
the fees.

EXAMINATION RESULTS AND CERTIFICATION

Results for the examinations shall be communicated to the


candidates in writing after they have been so approved by the
Board of Directors. Statements of Results bearing the grades
scored in each subject shall be sent directly to the candidate using
the address appearing on the examination registration form while
the general results will be displayed at PSPTB website and notice
board. Transcripts showing cumulative status of performance shall
be issued to the candidate upon request after payment of relevant
fee and submission of two passport size photographs.

The results will be classified as follows:-

A = 80 - 100% - Distinction
B = 60 - 79% - Credit
C = 40 - 59% - Pass
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F = 20 -39% - Fail
BF = 0 - 19 - Bad fail
X = Absent
E = Exempted
P/N Pass November
P/M Pass May

PSPTB AWARDS

Upon successful completion of professional stage I to V and the


research paper the candidate shall be awarded THE CERTIFIED
PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLIES PROFESSIONAL (CPSP).

MINIMUM ENTRY QUALIFICATIONS

The following are minimum entry qualifications for joining the


programmes.

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Table 2: The Criteria for minimum entry qualifications

MINIMUM ENTRY QUALIFICATIONS


Stage Qualifications
Professional (i) Foundation Certificate in Procurement
Stage I and Supply or equivalent.
(ii) Ordinary Diploma (NTA 6) in
Procurement and Supply Management
(iii) Any Diploma specialized in Procurement
and Supply Management

(iv) Any other recognized 1st Degree other


than Procurement and Supply
Management
(v) Any other qualification recognized by the
Board as per quidelines.
Professional Professional Stage I.
Stage II
Professional (i) Professional Stage II.
Stage III (ii) Higher Diploma (NTA 7) in Procurement
and Supply Management.
Professional (i) Professional Stage III
Stage IV (ii) Degree or Advanced Diploma (NTA 8)
in Procurement and Supply
Management or equivalent from
recognized Institutions.
Professional Professional Stage IV.
Stage V

EXEMPTION CRITERIA
Institutions offering procurement and supply management related
programmes will be granted exemptions so long as their curricula
are evaluated and approved by the Board.

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Graduates from institutions not falling on the above category will
be exempted on subject to subject basis for none-core subjects.
Under no circumstances the exemptions will be granted on
professional subjects to candidates whose qualifications are not
majoring in procurement and supplies management specialization.

The Board will accept and grant exemptions to holders of


qualifications from other disciplines so long as they are from
recognized institutions. In so doing the Board will evaluate
qualifications and rate them as equivalent to specific Boards level
programme depending on contact hours studied, length of the
programme, etc. The qualifications used for seeking exemptions
shall not be more than ten years old since acquisition.

Table 3: The Criteria for Exemption

Stage Qualification Subjects


Exempted
Professional Any Higher Diploma (NTA7) in Subject to
Stage I and III any discipline other than Subject
Procurement and Supply basis
Management
Any First Degree/Advanced Subject to
Diploma (NTA8) in any Subject
discipline other than basis
Procurement and Supply
Management
Any Post Graduate studies or Subject to
professional qualifications. Subject
basis
Professional Any quqlifications No
Stage IV/V exemption

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CREDIT TRANSFER ARRANGEMENT
Considering that the revised syllabus shall be tested for the first
time in November. 2016, credit transfers have been designed such
that all candidates who previously passed the Boards examinations
or those with a valid referral status in the syllabus being phased out
(January, 2010 November, 2014 syllabus) do not suffer or be
penalized because of coming into effect of this new syllabus
(January 2016 syllabus). The Board may limit the credit transfer to
two years following commencement of this syllabus so as to allow
those candidates with referred subjects to clear them whilst
enjoying credits already obtained earlier in their previous
examinations. In this credit transfer, candidates who had
previously passed one stage in the phased out syllabus will qualify
to continue to the next level in the new syllabus.

THE SYLLABUS FOR PROFESSIONAL STAGE


EXAMINATION

In this programme a total of 21 subjects from Professional stage


I to V (P1 to P21) are examined. Professional stage I comprises
of P1 to P4, Professional stage II comprises of P5 to P8,
Professional stage III comprises of P9 to P12, Professional stage
IV comprises of P13 to P16 and Professional stage V comprises
of P17 to P20 and P21 is the Research Paper. The details for the
subjects are as follows:-

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PROFESSIONAL STAGE ONE

1.0 SUBJECT: PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P1

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE I

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES:

(a) To equip learners with modern knowledge in


Procurement
(b) To enable learners to apply the acquired knowledge
and skills in problem solving and decision making
(c) To enable learners procure effectively with due regards
to ethical standards.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Procurement Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate procurement as a profit centre.
(b) Analyze procurement objectives.
(c) Demonstrate role of procurement in corporate
planning.

5.2 Procurement organizations


Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply principles of organizing the procurement
functions.
(b) Examine procurement organization in terms of Dept.
PMU, Tender Boards and purchase committees.
(c) Analyze complex procurement project.

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5.3 Procurement contract and purchase orders
Learner being able to:-
(a) Examine Procurement procedures.
(b) Examine steps in procurement.
(c) Analyze stages involved in procurement management
cycle.
(d) Examine purchase requisition.

5.4 Specifications and Quality Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe types of specification and their use.
(b) Describe role of buyer/supplier in specification
development.
(c) Describe role of user in development specification,
quality descriptions and assurance.

5.5 Sourcing
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain sourcing process.
(b) Apply sourcing information in supplier section.
(c) Analyze market condition.
(d) Apply E-sourcing.
(e) Examine procurement of capital items, framework
contract and common use items.

5.6 Price and price analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate pricing agreement.
(b) Analyze price and cost.

5.7 Right quantity


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze Economic Order Quantity, EBQ, JIT, MRPI,
MRPII, ERP, DRP, VMI.

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5.8 Timing of Procurement
Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply time management.
(b) Apply scheduling delivery and work schedule
methods.

5.9 Negotiation
Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply price and cost in negotiations.
(b) Demonstrate preparations for negotiation.
(c) Apply negotiation strategy and tactics.

5.10 Delivery and order closing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate order follow up and receiving process.
(b) Prepare necessary documentation for inspection and
receiving.
(c) Prepare handover note for storage or transportation.

5.11 Certification and payments


Learners being able to:-
(a) Prepare and certify delivery and contract closure
documents.
(b) Certify payments documents and contract closure
documents.

5.12 Application of Information and Communication


Technology in procurement
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze benefits of ICT.
(b) Analyze best options.
(c) Analyze databases in procurement.
(d) Evaluate and apply ICT in procurement process.

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5.13 Procurement Ethics
Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe ethics, frauds and corruption.
(b) Examine brief environmental considerations.

5.14 Principles of public procurement


Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply principles of public procurement.
(b) Demonstrate the five pillars of procurement.

5.15 Public procurement methods


Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply methods of public procurement.
(b) Analyze conditions for use.

5.16 Public procurement planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate planning process.
(b) Evaluate importance of planning.
(c) Analyze types of procurement.
(d) Demonstrate administrative review system.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Arnold, Tony J.R, Chapman Stephen, N. and Clive, M.


Lloyd, (2008), Introduction to Materials Management,
6th Edition, Prentice Hall UK.

2. Chopra, S and Meindt P (2006), Supply chain


management and strategy, planning and operation, 3rd
Edition, Prentice Hall.

3. Dobbler Donald, W. and Burt David, N. (1997),


Purchasing and Supply Management text and cases,
6th Edition, Tata Mc Graw Hill India.

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4. Dobbler, D. and Lamar, Lee, (1996), Purchasing and
Materials Management, Tata Mc Graw Hill India.

5. Lyson, K. and Farringor B. (2006), Purchasing and


Supply Chain Management, UK.

6. M.A. Beg, Manoj Kumar Dash (2010) Managerial


Economics, Global professional publishing.

7. Morrison, Alex and David, Jossop, (2005), Storage and


Supply of Materials, 6th Edition Prentice Hall UK.

8. Quale, M.J. (2006) Purchasing and supply chain


management and strategy 2nd Edition, Financial
times/Prentice Hall.

Journals and publications

1. Procurement and Supply Journals.


2. Tanzania Procurement Journals.
3. International procurement and supply chain
management journals.

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1.0 SUBJECT: MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS

2.0 CODE: P2

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE I

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills required


for problem solving and decision making in
procurement and supply management.

(b) To enable learners apply concepts and theories of


managerial economics in procurement and supply
management.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Economics


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define Economics, Microeconomics and
Macroenomics.
(b) Distinguish between positive Economics and
normative Economics.
(c) Define Managerial Economics.
(d) Explain perspective of Managerial Economics.

5.2 The Basic Economic Problems


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain scarcity and choice of resources.
(b) Explain fundamental concepts of opportunity cost.
(c) Explain factors of production.
(d) Identify impact of economic problems on a society.

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5.3 Demand and supply
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the determinants of demand and supply.
(b) Identify and explain laws of demands and supply.
(c) Identify and explain consumers and consumer
behaviour.
(d) Identify demand side of market.
(e) Determine price equilibrium and actual price.
(f) Explain the effects of shifts in the supply curve.
(g) Calculate price elasticity of demand and elaciticity of
supply.
(h) Identify marginal utility and exchange minimizing
utility.

5.4 Market structures


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify conditions and limitations of perfect
competition.
(b) Explain the impact of price and output in short and
long runs.
(c) Distinguish between monopolistic competition and
oligopoly.
(d) Explain characteristics of monopolistic competition.
(e) Explain major behaviour of oligopoly and stability of
prices.
(f) Explain characteristics of collusion of cartels and
mergers.
(g) Explain characteristics of oligopoly, duopoly,
monopoly and monopsony.

5.5 Production and costs


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain production function.
(b) Identify types of inputs of production and costs.
(c) Explain effect of cost on output under short and long
run.
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(d) Describe law of diminishing return and learning curve
in optimal input decision.
(e) Describe the cost function, fixed cost, variable cost,
total cost, average cost and marginal cost and their
effect in long and short run.

5.6 Profit and profitability analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain role of economic profit.
(b) Compare and contrast theories of profit such as profit
due to monopoly, profit due to technological
development and innovation, accounting and
economic profit.
(c) Describe and apply break even analysis.

5.7 Market for labour


Learners being able to:-
(a) Evaluate economic analysis, labour market and labour
force.
(b) Describe unemployment, pay differentials, theories of
bargaining and the price of labour.
(c) Enterpret demand and supply curves for labour.

5.8 Investments
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define the role of investments.
(b) Identify and explain determinants of investments.
(c) Describe uncertainty and cycles.
(d) Describe marginal efficiency of investments, interest
rate, capitalization of assets and rate of return on
investment.
(e) Identify and assess stock market, vertical integration
and diversification.

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5.9 Money and Banking
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain nature and functions of money.
(b) Explain money as commodity, measuring of money
and exchange rate.
(c) Describe demand and supply of money.
(d) Explain functions of Central Bank and Commercial
Banks.
(e) Describe Bank deposits and money creation, Banks
charges and interests.

5.10 Inflation
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define and explain inflation and causes of inflation.
(b) Describe types and effects of inflation.
(c) Decribe role of government and financial institutions
in arresting inflation.
(d) Distinguish between inflationary and deflationary
gaps.

5.11 Economic role of Government


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe the process of formulating Fiscal policies.
(b) Describe Government budgeting process.
(c) Describe Government role in provision of public good,
redistribution of income, stabilization of economy and
improving standard of living.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Bradley, R. Schiller ,(2005), Essentials of Economics,


5th Edition Mc Graw Hill Irwin USA

2. Browning, E., (2001), Microeconomic Theory and


Application, Mark & Zupan, USA

21
3. Dwivedi DN, (2004), Managerial Economics, 6th
Edition VIKAS

4. James Brickley, Jerold Zimmerman, Jr. Clifford W.


Smith (2008) Managerial Economics and
Organization structure. McGraw Hill/Irwin

5. Luke M. Froeb, Brian T, McCann, Michael R. Ward,


Mike Shor (2013) Managerial Economics (upper level
economics titles) Cengage Learning.

6. Pancer, David Nellis Joseph, (2006), Principles of


Business Economics, 2nd Edition Financial
Times/Prentice Hall.

7. Paul Keat, Phili K. Young, Steve Erfle, (2013)


Managerial Economics 7th Edition. Pearson.

8. Saleemi N.A, (2005), Simplified Economics, Saleemi


Publications.

9. Thomas J. Webster, (2003), Managerial economics,


theory and practice academic press, Elsevier
USA.

10. William F. Samuelson, Stephen G. Mc (2011)


Managerial Economics. 7th Edition Willy.

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1.0 SUBJECT: MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND
PRACTICE

2.0 CODE: P3

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE I

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with modern management principles


and practice.

(b) To enable learners apply knowledge and skills of


management principles in effective performance of
procurement and supply functions.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the nature and scope of management.
(b) Explain the evolution of management theories and
approaches.
(c) Identify and explain the influence of the internal and
external environment.

5.2 Organizational theory


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain organizational theories e.g.
classical and modern.
(b) Distinguuish and explain the structures and principles
of organization.
(c) Explain departmentation, centralization, decentralition
processes.
(d) Explain delegation and staff line relationship.

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(e) Explain power, authority and responsibility in
management.

5.3 Management functions


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain functions of management.
(b) Apply functions of management in procurement and
supply.

5.4 Motivation theories and techniques


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define motivation.
(b) Identify key theories of motivation.
(c) Explain the importance of motivation theories.
(d) Apply motivation theories in procurement and supply
functions.
(e) Identify and explain the limitations of motivation
theories.

5.5 Development of Human Resources


Learners being able to:-
(a) Determine staffing needs.
(b) Describe job analysis, skills and attributes.
(c) Explain staff selection and performance evaluation.
(d) Explain training and development.
(e) Explain staff promotion, discipline and job
satisfaction.

5.6 Organizational behaviour


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define organizational behaviour.
(b) Explain role of individuals and groups in organization.
(c) Explain importance of organization culture.
(d) Explain working environment and team building.

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5.7 Modern management techniques
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify modern management techniques.
(b) Describe strategic management and strategy
formulation and implementation.
(c) Describe total quality management technique.
(d) Explain roles of quality systems and improvement
cycles.

5.8 Contemporary issues in management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify emerging issues in management.
(b) Describe change management.
(c) Describe risk management.
(d) Describe management techniques such as MBO,
MBWA, Management by crisis, Management by
exception.
(e) Explain managing cultural issues.

5.9 Industrial relations


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define labour relations.
(b) Explain staff regulations, legal and regulatory
influence.
(c) Explain role of trade unions and industrial costs.
(d) Explain conflicts and its management in organizations.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Blunt, P. and Oladeji E. Popoola, (1992), Managing


Organizations in Africa,Walter De-Gruyter & Co.-
Berlin.

2. Chandan J.S. (2004) Management Theory and Practice,


Vikas Publishing.

25
3. Gole, G.A, (2004), Management Theory and Practice,
DP Publications Ltd.

4. Gupta C.B. (2001) Management Theory and Practice,


Sultan Chand and Sons, New Delhi.

5. Gupta C.B., (1997), Management Theory and Practice,


Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi.

6. Jones, Gareth, (2006), Organization theory, Design


and change, 5th Edn. Prentice Hall.

7. Koontz, Harold WEihrich, Heinz, (2005), Essentials of


Management, 6th Edn. Tata Mc Graw Hill India.

8. Lawton, A. and A.G. Rose, (1991), Organization and


Management in the Public sector, Pitman Publishing
C., London.

9. Tony Niderb, (2004), Principles of Management, 2nd


Edn. Ashgate.

10. Wheeten, Tom Hunger David, 2005, Strategic


Management and Business Policy, 10th Edn. Prentice
Hall.

26
1.0 SUBJECT: LEGAL ASPECTS OF
PROCUREMENT

2.0 CODE P4

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE I

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To expose learners to the legal concepts in business


transactions.
(b) To provide learners with requisite knowledge and
skills of understanding procurement and supply
legal framework.
(c) To enable learners address legal challenges facing the
procurement and supply function.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 Overview of business laws affecting procurement


and supply management

Learner being able to:-


(a) Identify and describe laws affecting procurement and
supplies.
(b) Describe contract formation, essential elements of a
valid contracts, void, voidable and illegal contracts,
privity to contracts, contract in restraint of trade,
discharge, breach and frustration of contract.
(c) Describe nature ad definition of contract of sale of
goods, transfer of title and risks.
(d) Explain conditions and warranties, performance of the
contract, acceptance and rejection of goods, partial
deliveries remedies for breach of a contract, rights of
unpaid seller.

27
(e) Distinguish between sale of goods, contracts and other
types of supply contracts for works and materials.
(f) Identify and describe nature of agency, its appointment
formation and types.
(g) Describe rights and duties of principle and agent
reliability for an authorized acts, principle agent
relationship, agent relation to third parties and
termination of agency.
(h) Describe the law of insurance its general principles,
types of insurance, breach of insurance contracts,
assignment and transferability of policies.
(i) Describe negotiable instruments, their functions,
parties to it, endorsement and presentation and notice
of dishonor.
(j) Describe laws governing transferability of negotiable
instruments. Rights and liabilities to the parties of a
letter of credit.
(k) Describe law of guarantee its formation, contract of
indemnity and contracts of
(l) Describe law of higher purchase, condition and
warranties, and chattel mortgage.
(m) Describe relationship between partners formation
liabilities and dissolution.
(n) Describe law of torts, negligence, conspiracy, deceit
and the vicarious liabilities.
(o) Describe law of bankruptcy proceedings official
receiver and trustee, bankrupt offences, deeds of
arraignment, properties of bankrupt and its
distribution.

5.2 Procurement officer and applicable laws


Learner being able to:-
(a) Analyze legal responsibility of procurement officer in
public and private sector.
(b) Explain personal liability and authority of supplier
representatives.
28
5.3 Procurement contract
Learner being able to:-
(a) Identify the nature and significance of procurement
contracts.
(b) Apply procurement contracts in business.

5.4 Right of inspection


Learner being able to:-
Analyze Commercial law, company law and related laws

5.5 Patents and product liability


Learner being able to:-
Analyze patents and product liability

5.6 Commercial arbitration and settlements of disputes


Learner being able to:-
Describe disputes process, conciliation, litigation in court
and arbitration process.

5.7 Company Law


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe types of companies, their formation and
promotion.
(b) Differentiate registration process, memorandum and
articles of association.
(c) Describe types of share, rights of shareholders,
accounts and auditors, directors and minority
protection.
(d) Describe regulatory framework, meetings, statutory
returns, winding up.

5.8 Procurement laws in Tanzania.


Learner being able to:-
Describe PPA, 2011 in procurement transactions.

29
5.9 Roles of commercial regulatory institutions in
Tanzania
Learner being able to:-
Describe the roles of commercial regulatory institutions in
Tanzania.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCE

1. Arora, A., (1983), Practical Business Law, Macdonald


& Evans Ltd, London.

2. Atiyah P.S. - Sale of Goods

3. Borrie, G.J. (1996), Commercial Law, 6th Ed.;


Buttersworths, London, UK.

4. Chance, E.W.,(1980), Principles of Mercantile Law,


2nd Edition, Cassell Ltd. London.

5. Cheshire, G.C. & Fifoot, H.C.S. (1996), The law of


contract, 12th Edition Buttersworths; London, UK.

6. Kapoor, N.D. (1980), Elements of Mercantile Law,


Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi, India.

7. Kapoor, N.D. (1992), Commercial Law, Sultan Chand


& Sons, New Delhi, India.

8. Keenan, D. & Riches, S. (1990), Business Law, 2nd


Edition, Pitman, London.

9. Smitthoff, C.M. (1977), Charlesworths mercantile


law, 13th Edition Stevens; London, UK.

10. Tom Cannon, (1994), Corporate Responsibility;


Pitman Pub.; London, UK.
30
Statute
1. United Republic of Tanzania, The Procurement and
Supplies Professionals and Technicians Act No. 23
(2007) Government Printers, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania.

2. United Republic of Tanzania Act supplement No.7


(2011) The Public Procurement Act No. 23 (20011)
and its Regulation 2013, Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

3. United Republic of Tanzania Act Supplement (2001)


The Public Finance Act No. 6(2001) and its Regulation
2004, Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

4. Public Corporations Act

5. Sale of Goods Ordinance Cap 214

6. Banking and Financial Institutions Act, 1991

7. Bills of Exchange Ordinance

8. Capital Markets and Securities Act

9. Cheques Act, 1969

10. Companies Act

11. Hire Purchase Act, 1965

12. Law of Contract Ordinance Cap 334

31
PROFESSIONAL STAGE TWO

1.0 SUBJECT: WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P5

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE II

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To acquaint learners with knowledge on cost and


service characteristics involved in warehousing
decisions procedures.
(b) To examine in depth principles, techniques and
methods involved in efficient warehouse operations.
(c) To enable learners apply appropriate principles and
techniques in warehouse management.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 The basic philosophy of warehouse management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze role and responsibilities of warehouse
manager.
(b) Explain the role of warehouse functions in an
organization.
(c) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of
Centralization and decentralization of warehouse
functions.
(d) Examine the performance evaluation of warehouse and
its contribution.

5.2 Warehouses and Stock yards


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze location of warehouse and stockyards
prerequisite for design futures contraction of
32
warehouse and stockyards, cost consideration and
hiring of storage accommodation, classification of
storage premises.

(b) Examine public and private safety features, security


features and fire precaution

5.3 Warehouse administration


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze internal layout of the warehouse and buildings
in relation to other physical facilities.
(b) Describe stock location system and organization.
(c) Analyze aspect of safety and security and fire
precaution.
(d) Demonstrate organizing and training manpower.

5.4 Nature of materials and their storage


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe classification of materials and their storage
requirements.
(b) Analyze physical and materials characteristics.
(c) Analyze specialized storage systems.
(d) Describe specialize storage systems and types of
hazards.

5.5 Storage equipment and methods


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe storage equipments and their cost.
(b) Describe and evaluate storage methods and systems of
storage.

5.6 Packaging, Packing and Preservation


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze packing and packaging materials.
(b) Explain preservation and packaging process.

33
(c) Describe container and scraps and utilization and
disposal.

5.7 Materials handling


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain materials handling functions, nature and
scope.
(b) Describe principles of handling economics of handling
and handling methods.
(c) Differentiate materials handling equipment, safety,
precautions and legal requirements.

5.8 Legislation relating to warehouse and stockyard


Learners being able to:-
Apply legislation relating to warehouse and stock yards.

5.9 Warehouse Identification and ICT Systems


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze the application of computers in storage
system and handling system.
(b) Apply modern warehouse tools for safety security and
fire precaution (Surveillance Cameras, CCTV, Fire
sensors, EPOS, Alfa and numerical identification, bar
codes control devices)

5.10 Disposal of Stocks


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe disposal of assets. reasons for disposal.
(b) Apply methods of disposal.

5.11 Outsource warehousing services


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe outsourcing stock management process,
vendor manage inventory, stockless inventory system,
just in time stocks management.

34
(b) Describe environmental issues related to outsource
warehouse services.
(c) Describe security and safety aspects.
(d) Describe obsolete redundant and scrap management.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Ammer D.S. (1987), Materials Management 3rd


Edition; Irwin; Illinois, USA;
2. Burton, J.A., (1980), Effective Warehousing,
McDonalds and Evans, London.
3. Carter, R.J. (1985), Stores Management and Related
Operations, 2nd Edition; McDonald and Evans,
London.
4. Compton, H.K., (1979), Stores and Stockyard
Management, 2nd Edition; Uk.

5. Compton, H.K., (1985), Supplies and Materials


Management 3rd Edition Macdonald and Evans,
London.
6. Jenkins, C.H. (1990), Modern Warehouse
Management; The chartered Institute of Purchasing
and Supply, UK;
7. Jessop, D. and Morrison, A. (2005), Storage and
Supply of Materials; 6th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall
- UK
8. Michal, lin Hompel and Thornskin, Schmidt (2005)
Warehouse Management Automation of Warehouse
and Order packing.
9. Morris, W.T.1(986), Analysis for Materials handling
Management.
10. Tayler, and Corenthal (1988), Materials Handling,
Traffic and Transportation; UK.
11. Warman, J. (1980), Warehouse Management,
Heinemann, London.

35
1.0 SUBJECT: QUANTITATIVE METHODS

2.0 CODE: P6

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE II

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To provide learners with analytical skills for decision


making.
(b) To enable learners to apply quantitative tools for
problem solving.
(c) To enable learners to apply statistical methods and
technique to manage inventory.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. Statistical analysis

5.1.1. Probability theory


Learner being able to:-
(a) Define probability.
(b) Explain types of probability.
(c) Explain basic rules of probability.
(d) Explain Bayes theorem
(e) Calculate conditional probabilities.
(f) Develop probability distribution using simple
experiments such as probability distribution of
number of heads in 3 tosses of a fair coin.
(g) Calculate expected value of probability
distribution.
(h) Calculate variance of probability distribution.
(i) Explain requirements of Binomial probability
distribution.

36
(j) Calculate mean and variance of Binomial
probability distribution.
(k) Explain requirements of poisson probability
distribution.
(l) Calculate mean and variance of poisson
probability distribution.
(m) Explain characteristics of normal probability
distribution.
(n) Calculate normal probability distribution.

5.1.2. Decision theory


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain four anatomy of decision making
process (decision environment, objective of
decision making, alternative and possible states
of nature, the pay off table).
(b) Explain decision models (Competitive and
probability decision moldes).
(c) Apply competitive decision models (Maximax,
maximin, minimax, minimax regret) to reach
decision.
(d) Apply expected values (expected monetary
value, expected loss) to reach a decision.
(e) Compute expected value under perfect
information.
(f) Calculate value of perfect information.
(g) Apply decision tree to determine the best
decision alternative among the given
alternatives.

5.1.3. Estimation
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define statistics and Parameters.
(b) Define Estimator.
(c) Provide characteristics of a good estimator.
(d) Define point estimate and interval estimate.
37
(e) Construct confidence interval for the mean and
for the difference between two means.
(f) Construct confidence interval for population
proportion.
(g) Construct confidence interval for population
variance.
(h) Calculate sample size required for the estimation
of population mean, population proportion and
population total.

5.1.4. Hypothesis testing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define hypothesis.
(b) Define type 1 error and type II error.
(c) Explain one tailed test and two tailed test.
(d) Provide hypothesis testing procedures.
(e) Apply hypothesis testing procedure to test mean,
proportion and difference between two means
both for large samples and small samples.
(f) Define chi-square test.
(g) Apply chi-square test to test for independency
between two variables.

5.1.5. Regression and correlation analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain purpose of regression analysis
(b) Define independent and dependent variables.
(c) Use scatter diagram to explain types of
relationship that exist between two variables.
(d) Obtain regression equation of dependent variable
an independent variable.
(e) Use regression equation to estimate value
dependent variable from the value of the
independent variable.
(f) Explain purpose of correlation analysis.
(g) Calculate coefficient of correlation.
38
(h) Calculate rank correlation coefficient.

5.1.6. Time series Analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define time series.
(b) Explain components of time series (trend,
seasonal, cyclical, and irregular).
(c) Explain additive model and multiplicative
model.
(d) Explain methods of extracting trend
components.
(e) Calculate trend values using moving is average
method.
(f) Calculate trend values using least square method.
(g) Explain methods of extracting seasonal
components assuming additive model.
(h) Explain methods of extractive seasonal
components assuming multiplicative model.
(i) Calculate seasonal components
(j) Deseasonalize time series data.

5.2. Operations Research

5.2.1. Linear programming


Learners being able to:-
(a) Formulate liner programming model.
(b) Apply graphical method to solve linear
programming problem.
(c) Explain special cases that may be uncounted
when using graphical method (infeasibility,
unboundedness alternate optimal solutions).
(d) Define simplex method.
(e) Explain requirements of simplex method.
(f) Solve linear programming using simplex
method.

39
(g) Describe special cases which may be
encountered when using simplex method
(infeasibility, unboundedness, alternate optimal
solution and legendary cases).
(h) Define dual.
(i) Explain how to change primal formulation to
dual formulation.
(j) Solve the dual formulation of linear
programming problem.
(k) Explain how to extract solution of primal from
the final simplex table of the dual and vice versa.

5.2.2. Transportation and assignment


Learners are being able to:-
(a) Explain objective of transportation algorithm.
(b) Describe requirements of a transportation
problem.
(c) Explain initial solution of transportation problem
using North West Corner Method (NWCM),
Minimum Cost Method (MCM), Vogels
Approximation Method (VAM).
(d) Explain how to handle degeneracy cases
occuring in Minimum Cost Method (MCM),
North West Corner method (MWCM) and in
Vogels Approximation Method (VAM).
(e) Explain how to handle unacceptable routes.
(f) Apply stepping stone method and the Modified
Distribution method (MODI) to get final
solution.
(g) Explain the objective of the assignment
algorithm.
(h) Solve assignment problem using Hungarian
method.
(i) Solve unacceptable assignment problems.
(j) Explain how to handle maxmization assignment
problems.
40
5.2.3. Inventory control
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define inventory.
(b) Explain types and functions of inventory.
(c) Compute Economic Order Quantity and its
related costs using Basic Economic Order
Quantity model, Shortage Model, Back Order
Model, Lot Size Model and Quantity Discount
Model.
(d) Calculate reorder point when both lead time and
demand/usage rate are constant.
(e) Calculate reorder point when demand/usage rate
is varying but lead time is constant.

5.2.4. Queuing Theory


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define queuing system.
(b) Explain characteristics of queuing system.
(c) Explain measures of system performance
(operating characteristics).
(d) Solve single channel (server) queuing system.
(e) Develop queuing cost model.

5.2.5. Network Analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Construct arrow and activity on node diagrams.
(b) Perform network calculations Earliest Start Time
(EST), Earliest Finish Time (EFT), Latest Start
Time (LST), Latest Finish Time (LFT) and
calculate duration of the project.
(c) Calculate total float of every activity
(d) Apply Performance Evaluation Reveiew
Technique (PERT) to analyse network.
(e) Apply crashing procedure to reduce project
duration.
(f) Apply Gant chart to allocate resources
41
5.2.6. Sequencing
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain concept of sequencing.
(b) Sequencing of N-Jobs in two facilities AB in that
order and calculate idle times.
(c) Sequencing of N-jobs in three facilities ABC in
that order and calculate idle times.
(d) Sequencing of N-jobs in four facilities ABCD in
that order and calculate idle times.
(e) Sequencing of two jobs in N-facilities.

6. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES
1. Banny Render, Ralph, M. Stair, JR. and Michael, E.
Hanna, 9th Edition (2006) , Quantitative Analysis for
Management.

2. Baradyana Joseph, S. and Ame Ahmed, M, (2005),


Quantitative Techniques for Business Decisions
Mkuki na Nyota Publications Tanzania.

3. Gupta, M.P. and Khanna, R.B. (2004) Quantitative


techniques for decision making.

4. Jon Curwin and Roger Slather, 6th edition (2008),


Quantitative methods for Business decision.

5. Kothari, CR, (2004), An introduction to operational


research, 3rd revised edition reprint Vikas Publishing
House India

6. Lucey Terry, (2002), Quantitative techniques, 6th


Edition, Cengage Learning EMEA

7. Mik Winsniewski, (2006), Quantitative methods for


decision making, 4th Edition Pearson prentice Hall Uk.

42
8. Render Barry, Ralph, M. Stair Jr and Michael, E.
Hanna Quantitative analysis for management, 9th
Edition. Pearson prentice Hall Uk

9. Shama JK, (2006), Operations Research Theory and


application, 2nd Edn. Mc Millan India

10. Taha Hamdy A., Operations Research an introduction,


8th Edn. Pearson Prentice Hall UK

11. Waters Donald, 4th edition (2008), Quantitative


methods for Business.

43
1.0 SUBJECT: FREIGHT FORWARDING
MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P7

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE II

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES


(a) To equip learners with knowledge of Freight
Forwarding Management.

(b) To enable learners demonstrate the required


knowledge of Freight Forwarding Management.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to Freight Forwarding Management


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe fundamental principles of freight forwarding
(b) Explain the importance of Freight Forwarding
function.
(c) Identify and describe the role of Freight Forwarding in
International Procurement.
(d) Describe the activities of a Freight Forwarding.

5.2. International Organizations in Freight Forwarding


and Trade
Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe roles and functions of the following
organizations:-
(i) UNCTAD United Nations Conference on
Trade and Development.
(ii) ICC International Chamber of Commerce.
(iii) WCO World Customs Organization.
(iv) WTO World Trade Organization.
44
(v) FIATA International Federation of Freight
Forwarders Associations.
(vi) ISO International Organization of
Standardization.

5.3. Air, Land and Sea Freight Transport


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe Air, land and Sea Freight transport.
(b) Explain modes of transport.
(c) Identify and explain instructions for transporting
goods.
(d) Evaluate problems associated with freight transport.

5.4. Organizations of the Freight Forwarding Company


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe the organization of the freight forwarding
company.
(b) State and explain general freight forwarding
procedures.
(c) Explain quality management system ISO 9001.

5.5. Freight Forwarding Processes


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain documents, forms and permits in freight
forwarding.
(b) Explain procedures and protocols for the preparation
and processing of documentation, forms and permits in
international procurement.
(c) Describe responsibilities and liabilities of the freight
forwarders in ensuring that all required documents
forms are prepared.
(d) Carry out freight forwarding process.

5.6. International Commercial Terms (Incoterms)


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain Inco terms, their purposes and use.
45
(b) Apply Inco terms, in freight forwarding.
(c) Explain the importance of Incoterms in freight
forwarding.

5.7. Freight Insurance


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe principles and procedures of freight
insurance.
(b) Describe types of freight insurance.
(c) Apply freight insurance procedures in freight
forwarding.

5.8. Methods of International Banking and Payment


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe methods of international banking and
payment used in freight forwarding.
(b) Evaluate international banking and payment methods
used in freight and forwarding.

5.9. Information and Communication Technology in


Freight Forwarding
Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the importance of Information and
Communication Technology in freight forwarding.
(b) Apply Information and Communication Technology in
freight forwarding.
(c) Assess the effectiveness of Information and
Communication Technology in freight forwarding.

5.10. FIATA Model Rules for Freight Forwarding


Services
Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe International Federation of Freight
Forwarders Associations (FIATA) Model Rules for
Freight Forwarding Services.

46
(b) Evaluate application of International Federation of
Freight Forwarders Associations (FIATA) Model
Rules for Freight Forwarding Services.

5.11. International Sales/Purchase Contract


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the International sales/purchase contract.
(b) Explain principles and conditions of International
sales/purchase contract.
(c) Describe consequences of poor preparation of
International sales/purchase contract.

5.12. Freight Forwarding Legislations


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain national and international regulations,
conventions on freight forwarding.
(b) Explain regulations for import and export.
(c) Explain national and international transport
standards.
(d) Explain national and international environmental
standards.

5.13. Freight forwarding associations


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe the role and factors of freight forwarding
associations in Tanzania.
(b) Identify the roles regulatory organs in freight
forwarding such as TRA, SUMATRA, TPA, TBS.
(c) Identify the responsibilities of institutions related to
freight forwarding e.g. Shipping Agents, Shippers
Council.
(d) Explain the roles and functions of cargo
consolidators, Inland Container Deports (ICD).
(e) Identify and describe the Tanzania ports of entry and
exits and explain their roles.

47
5.14. Freight Forwarding Industries
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify challenges facing freight forwarding
industries.
(b) Describe the solutions to challenges facing freight
forwarding industries in Tanzania.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Bailey, P. Farmer, D. Jossop D. and Jones, D. (2005),


Purchasing Principles and Management, 9th Edition,
UK, Prentice Hall.

2. Burke, Russel John (2011) International Logistics and


Freight Forwarding Manual, A street smart guide to
international Trade and Transport.

3. Chopra, S. and Meindt P. (2006), Supply chain


management and strategy, Planning and operation, 3rd
Edition, Prentice Hall.

4. Christopher, M. (2004), Logistics and supply chain


management, financial Times, Prentice Hall.

5. Dobbler, D. W. and Burt, D. N. (1997), Purchasing


and Supply Management, Texts and Cases, 6th Edition,
Tata Mc Graw Hill.

6. Harrison, A and Van Hoek, A. (2004), Logistic


management and strategy, 2nd Edition, Financial
Times, Prentice Hall.

7. Lambert, D. M. Stock, J. R. and Grant, D. (2005),


Fundamentals of Logistics Management, MacGraw
Hill.

48
8. Layson, K. and Faringor, B (2006), Purchasing and
Supply Chain Management UK.

9. Morrison, A and Jessop, D (2005), Storage and Supply


of Materials, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall.

10. Quale M. J. (2006), Purchasing and supply chain


management and strategy, 2nd Edition, Financial
Times/Prentice Hall

11. Quale, M. J. (2001), Logistics: An Integrated


Approach, Liverpool Publishing.

E Books

1. Freight clearing and forwarding procedures (PDF)


(EAC CU 007)

2. Freight forwarders selection guide 2012 2

3. Freight forwarders thinking outside the box

4. G. Villesa (2010) Freight forwarding and Logistics

5. Michael J. Ford Freight Forwarder Role in the export


transaction

Statutes

1. United Republic of Tanzania, Customs Management


Act (2004) Government Printers, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania.

2. United Republic of Tanzania, Excise (Management


and Tariff) Act (2008) Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.
49
3. United Republic of Tanzania, Shipping Agency Act of
2002 and 2013 amendment Government Printers, Dar
es Salaam, Tanzania

4. United Republic of Tanzania, Surface Marine


Transport Regulatory Authority 2001. Government
Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

5. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania Bureau of


Standards Act No.3 of 1975 Government Printers, Dar
es Salaam, Tanzania.

6. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania Central


Freight Bureau Act of 1981 amended 2000
Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

7. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania Revenue


Authority Act 11 (1995) Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

8. United Republic of Tanzania, The Fair Competition


Act 2003. Government Printers, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania.

9. United Republic of Tanzania, The Standards Act 2009.


Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

10. United Republic of Tanzania, Tanzania Food, Drugs


and Cosmetics Act No.1 of 2003 Government Printers,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

50
1.0 SUBJECT: BUSINESS ETHICS AND
CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

2.0 CODE: P8

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL II

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in


business ethics and corporate governance.
(b) To enable learners apply principles of business ethics
and good governance in procurement and supply chain
management functions.

5.0. SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Ethical concepts


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain principles and procedures for ethical
compliance.
(b) Demonstrate ethics in employer/employee situations
(c) Apply ethics in public practice.

5.2 General Principles and Procedures for Ethical


Compliance
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze ethical threats
(b) Demonstrate remedies

5.3 Psychology of moral development


Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply law and order orientation
(b) Demonstrate the universal ethical principles
orientation.

51
5.4 Introduction to common unethical practices
(a) Learners being able to:-
(b) Analyze unethical practices.
(c) Demonstrate procedures for handling unethical
practices.

5.5 Professional Ethical standards


Learners being able to:-
Analyze ethical standards.

5.6 Corporate governance


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain characteristics of good governance.
(b) Evaluate relationship between corporate governance
and environmental procurement.
(c) Analyze relationship between corporate governance
and society.

5.7 Due diligence investigation


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe Pre-contract award investigations, on
capability, capacity, continuity and genuineness.
(b) Describe contemporary ethical issues.

5.8 Ethics and good governance


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain ethics, its roles and functions in a society
(b) Describe the over sight bodies/organs dealing with
ethics and good governance.
(c) Explain the roles of PCCB in ethics.
(d) Explain the roles and powers of Ethics Secretariat in
ethics
(e) Explain the roles of religion and society in ethics and
good governance

52
6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCE

1. Ayere Sam, (2000), Promoting Good Governance,


Principles practice and perspectives

2. Carroll, archie B, Buchholtz, Ann K, (2006), Business


and Society ethics and Stakeholders

3. Colley, Doyle and Logan, (2005), Corporate


Governance, Executive MBA series, Tata Mc
Graw Hill

4. Ferrel, O.C Fraedrich, John and Ferrel, Linda, (2001),


Business Ethics, ethical decision making and cases,
5th Edition Heughton M. Ifflin Company Management,
6th Edition Thomson South Western

5. Sandra, BR Buchholz R.A.(2000), Rethinking


Business Ethics apragmatic, Approach Oxford
University Press.

6. Executive Guide to King III (2009) Corporate


Governance King III Report.

Statutes
1. United Republic of Tanzania, The Procurement and
Supplies Professionals and Technicians Act No. 23
(2007) Government Printers, Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania.

2. United Republic of Tanzania, The Procurement and


Supplies Professionals and Technicians Code of ethics
conduct, (2009) GN 365 Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.
3.

53
4. United Republic of Tanzania Act supplement No.7
(2011) The Public Procurement Act No. 23 (20011)
and its Regulation 2013, Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

5. United Republic of Tanzania Act Supplement (2001)


The Public Finance Act No. 6 (2001) and its
Regulation 2004, Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

6. United Republic of Tanzania Prevention and


Combating of Corruption Bureau Act No.11 (2007),
Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

54
PROFESSIONAL STAGE THREE

1.0 SUBJECT: MARKETING MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P9

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE III

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip leaners with knowledge and skills in


marketing management.
(b) To enable learners apply principles of marketing
management in procurement and supplies functions.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to marketing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the nature and scope of marketing.
(b) Define key concepts in marketing management.
(c) Identify various marketing philosophies.
(d) Identify marketing mix variables.
(e) Describe the role of marketing in the organization.
(f) Describe the relationship between marketing
department and other departments in an organization.

5.2. Marketing organization


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain the formulation of marketing
policies and strategies.
(b) Identify coordination of marketing organizational
strategy with procurement and supplies strategy.
(c) Identify the evolution of marketing departments and
the sales function.

55
(d) Examine marketing plans as basis for procurement and
supplies operations.

5.3. Marketing Planning and Control


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain the formulation of marketing
strategy.
(b) Distinguish between customer and product orientation
strategy.
(c) Identify and analyse model of consumer behaviour.
(d) Describe market segmentation and targeting.
(e) Apply market potential and forecasting methods.
(f) Describe organizational market and buying behaviour.
(g) Describe customer relationship management.
(h) Demonstrate integration and management of
marketing mix elements to achieve corporate
objectives.

5.4. Product decisions


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain product planning and development of new
products.
(b) Identify and explain product mix decisions and
strategies.
(c) Analyse concepts of introduction of new products,
product modification and product quality
differentiation.
(d) Apply branding and packaging strategies.
(e) Relate packaging and environment.
(f) Relate packaging and sales promotion.
(g) Identify the use of product portifolio management
tools.

5.5. Pricing
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and explain pricing objectives.
56
(b) Identify and evaluate pricing strategies.
(c) Apply pricing procedures and decisions.
(d) Explain factors affecting price changes.
(e) Explain pricing of productline, joint products and by
products.
(f) Identify and describe price allowances, deals and
discoutns, credit and payment terms.

5.6. Promotion
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify elements of promotion mix.
(b) Describe advertising and its effectiveness.
(c) Explain personal selling and the management of the
sales force.
(d) Explain criteria for promotion decisions for products
and services.
(e) Prepare promotion budget for a good.
(f) Explain factors influencing media selection in
promotion.
(g) Explain the significante of the intemet in promotion.

5.7. Distribution
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define marketing channel.
(b) Explain channel designing decisions.
(c) Explain factors influencing channel management
decisions.
(d) Explain the nature and scope of physical distribution.
(e) Apply physical distribution strategies.
(f) Describe market logistics, sales territories and zones.

5.8. Marketing of Services


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define the marketing of services.
(b) Differentiate marketing of goods from marketing of
services.
57
(c) Describe classification of services.
(d) Identify and describe services marketing mix.
(e) Describe importance of services.
(f) Demonstrate pricing of services.
(g) Analyse the financial and economic effects of services.

5.9. Marketing information system and research


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe concepts and components of marketing
information system.
(b) Describe the marketing environment.
(c) Describe marketing intelligence system
(d) Identify and explain the scope of marketing research.
(e) Describe procedures and objectives of marketing
research.
(f) Apply test marketing technique.

5.10. International marketing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Distinguish between international trade and
international marketing.
(b) Appraise the international marketing environment.
(c) Describe factors influencing selection of overseas
markets.
(d) Identify and explain international marketing strategy
and marketing investment.
(e) Explain international product management.
(f) Apply pricing consideration in international
marketing.
(g) Identify Export Processing Zones (EPZ).
(h) Describe marketing for non-traditional products.
(i) Identify and explain regional and international
agreements as marketing plaforms.
(j) Demonstrate managing the marketing mix in
international markets.

58
5.11. E Marketing
Learners being able to:-
(a) Define e-marketing and distinguish it from traditional
marketing.
(b) Explain the need for electronic media in marketing.
(c) Explain market sources and sourcing through internal.
(d) Demonstrate market selection and segmentation
through electronic media.
(e) Explain the benefits and disadvantages of E-
marketing.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCE

1. Farese Lois Schneider, Kimbrell Grady and Woloszyk


Carl A, (2003), Marking essentials Mc Graw Hill
Gleneoe USA

2. Kotler, Philip and Kevin Lane Keller, (2009),


Marketing Management, 13th Edn. Pearson Prentice
Hall UK

3. Michael J Etzel, Brue J. Wlker and William J. Stanton,


(2004), Marketing, 13th Edition Mc Graw Hill Irwin
USA.

4. Philip R Cateora John L. Graham ,(2005), International


Marketing, 12th Editn Mc Graw Hill Irwin USA

5. Rmaswamy VS and Namakumari S, (2006), Markeking


Management Planning Implementation and control, 3rd
Edn. Mac Millan India

6. William D. Perreault, Jr and E Jerome Mc Carthy ,


(2005), Basic Marketing a global Managerial
approach, Mc Graw Hill USA

59
1.0 SUBJECT: FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P10

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE III

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES


(a) To equip learners with knowledge on financial
management operations.
(b) To enable learners to demonstrate the required
knowledge and skills of financial management in
business operations.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Financial Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the role of financial management, its scope
and role in corporate management.
(b) Explain the functions of financial manager and the role
he/she plays in corporate decisions.
(c) Explain the role that financial markets and institutions
play in facilitating investment, financing and corporate
development.

5.2 Sources of Finance and Behavior Aspects


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe and evaluate domestic sources of finance
such as banks, insurance companies, pension funds,
Bonds, Treasury Bills.
(b) Describe and evaluate foreign sources such as foreign
and international banks, specialized capital and money
markets such as interbank market, Eurobond markets
and other financial instruments.

60
(c) Explain leasing types of lease (operating leases,
finance leases, sales and lease back).

5.3 Investment Decisions


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the principles underlying effective
management of working capital.
(b) Explain the nature of long term investments and their
roles in corporate development.
(c) Explain the investment process and the framework for
evaluating investment projects.
(d) Detarmine the appropriate investment appraisal
techniques based on a given business, its objectives
and circumstances.
(e) Detarmine appropriate discount factors or rate used to
undertake an investment appraisal based on a given
business scenario, data and information.
(f) Estimate cash flows for investments appraisal.
(g) Demonstrate investment appraisal under inflationary
condition.

5.4 Capital Structure and Cost of Capital


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe financial gearing and capital structure.
(b) Explain the theory of capital structure.
(c) Describe the appropriate capital structure in practice.
(d) Describe EBIT-EPS analysis comparison of capital
structure ratios and indifference analysis.
(e) Explain and evaluate operational gearing and financial
gearing.
(f) Describe cost of capital.
(g) Identify and evaluate appropriate options for financing
an entity based on a given business scenario and
environment.
(h) Compute a companys overall cost of capital and
project cost of capital.
61
(i) Identify the situations in which companys overall cost
of capital and project cost of capital are used as
valuation and decision tools.

5.5 Portfolio Theory and Capital Asset Pricing Model


(CAPM)
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain portfolio investment and management process,
indifference curves and investors, investment policies
and strategies.
(b) Describe the objectives and constraints of individual
investors.
(c) Explain the theory of portfolio allocation across risky
and risk-free assets.
(d) Describe the principle of diversification the
Markowitz portfolio theory.
(e) Differentiate between SML and CAPM, and between
CAPM and Asset Pricing Theory.
(f) Derive the CAPM observing its assumptions and
limitations.

5.6 Corporate Dividend Policy


Learners being able to:
(a) Describe the alternative dividend policies that
companies can adopt and their significance.
(b) Evaluate the various arguments put forward by
different schools about dividend policy dividend
irrelevance, dividend relevance, mid-roaders schools
as well as the role of market imperfections in the
debate.
(c) Explain computation and interpretation of share price
under the models representing different schools of
thought.
(d) Examine the factors which determine a companys
dividend policy.

62
(e) Describe the alternatives to cash dividends such as
share repurchases, and script dividend showing the
advantages and disadvantages.

5.7 Financial Analysis and Planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe the objectives of financial analysis and
planning.
(b) Explain techniques of presenting accounting data.
(c) Describe the preparation of financial projections.
(d) Explain the analysis and interpretation of financial
statements.
(e) Describe basic types of financial ratios including
liquidity ratios, profitability ratios, and performance
ratios and gearing ratios their uses and limitations.

5.8 Valuation of Shares and Business


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain factors influencing share values.
(b) Describe bases for valuation assets, profits, earnings
and dividends.
(c) Describe book and market values and treatments of
goodwill and intangibles.
(d) Explain valuation of minority and controlling interests.
(e) Explain valuation for mergers, takeovers and public
issues.
(f) Explain special assignments such as management
buyout, reorganization and reconstructions.

5.9 Capital Markets in Tanzania


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe capital markets.
(b) Explain the roles and functions of capital markets.
(c) Explain problems associated with capital markets in
Tanzania.

63
6. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Brigham F.E. and Houston Joel H, 2004,


Fundamentals of Financial Management, Thomson
Learning 10th Edn.

2. Gitman, Lawrence J., 2006, Principles of Managerial


Finance, 11th Edn. Prentice Hall - India

3. International Financial Management Journals,


relevant articles and topical issues.

4. Pandey I M, 2007, Financial Management, 9th Edn


Vikas Publishing Houst PVT

5. Schall Lawrence D. & Charles W. Haley, 1988,


Introduction to financial Management, McGraw-Hill
Book Co.; N.Y. USA.

64
1.0 SUBJECT: PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS
MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P11

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE III

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVE

(a) To impart knowledge and skills to learners on


production planning and control
(b) To acquaint knowledge and skills to learners on
operations management
(c) To enable learners to apply production planning and
control techniques in procurement and supply chain
management decision making
(d) To enable learners to apply operations management
techniques for decision making in procurement and
supply chain management activities
(e) To enable learners to analyze and solve production and
operations problems encountered in procurement and
supply chain management

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to production and operations


management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe operations management model decisions,
nature and time horizon.
(b) Analyze global operations, strategy options.

65
Process Planning
Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe and compare the characteristics of different
process types.
(b) Describe process and design service and selection of
technology appropriate for production and operations
management.

5.2 Capacity Planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze long-term capacity planning
(b) Describe Capacity considerations and approaches
(c) Apply tools for capacity decisions

5.3 Facility Location and Layout


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe strategic importance of location
(b) Analyze factors affecting location decisions
(c) Analyze location alternative evaluation methods

5.4 Job Design and Work Performance Measurement


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe human resource strategy for operations
(b) Describe components of job design
(c) Describe methods analysis
(d) Analyze work measurement, time study, work study.

5.5 Aggregate Planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze nature of aggregate planning
(b) Identify aggregate planning strategies and techniques
(c) Apply aggregate planning in services, pull and push
demand, MRPI, MRPII, EOQ, JIT.

66
5.6 Time management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze customer satisfaction and time management
(b) Apply waiting time theory queering analysis,
scheduling processes and constants

5.7 Total Quality Management (TQM)


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze contributions of W.E. Deming,
(b) Identify the quality tools;
(c) Analyze statistical analysis of processes and statistical
process control
(d) Analyze introduction to Six-sigma

5.8 Project management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Conduct project planning
(b) Explain project life cycle
(c) Apply project scheduling techniques
(d) Demonstrate project controlling and project risk
management

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Adam, E. (Jr.) and Bert, R.Stevenson J. William,


(2005), Operations Management 8th Edition Mc Graw
Hill, Production and Operations Management

2. Chapman, R. J, (2006), simple tools and Techniques


for enterprise risk management, John and Wiley
publication

3. Davis, M.M. and Heineke J. (2005), Operations


Management, 5th Edition. McGraw-Hill Irwin.

67
4. Heizer, J and Render, B. (2008), Production and
Operations Management, 9th Edition Pearson

5. Howard, S. Gitlow, Alan J Oppenheim, Rosa


Oppenheim and David M Levine, (2005), Quality
Management, 3rd Edition Mc Graw Hill Irwin

6. Lam, J. (2003), Enterprise risk management, from


incentive to controls, John and Willey publication.

7. Mark, A. Vonderembse and George P. White ,(1987),


Operations Management concepts, methods and
strategies, West Publishing by USA

Melnyk Steven, A. and Denzeler David R, (1996),


Operations Management, Mc Graw Hall Irwin USA
Prentice Hall.

8. Slack, N, Chambers, S. Johnston R. (2010),


Operations Management. Financial Times Prentice
Hall, UK

9. Steven Nahmias, (1997), Production and operation


analysis 3rd Edition Irwin Mc Graw Hill USA

10. Stevenson J. William, (2005), Operations


th
Management, 8 Edition Mc Graw Hall

Chase, R. B. Jacob, F.R. and Aquilano, N.J. (2007),


Operations management for competitive advantage, Tata
McGraw Hill Publishing.

68
1.0 SUBJECT: INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P12

3.0 LEVEL : PROFESSIONAL STAGE III

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and competences in


relation to the management of physical stocks and
related inventory in supply management.
(b) To enable learners to examine in depth the economies
of good flow systems and sound accountability of
inventories thus avoiding stock outs and overstocking.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 The inventory control function


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe classification and reasons for holding
inventories.
(b) Analyze responsibilities of inventory manager.
(c) Apply inventory records.
(d) Describe inventory control process.

5.2 Inventory planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze inventory forecasting requirements.
(b) Describe information feedback system trend effects,
seasonal and random effects.
(c) Apply forecasting techniques, moving averages, and
exponentials smoothing average. Regression analysis,
etc.

69
5.3 Determination of stockholding policy
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze customer expectation, supply market
condition, stock holding risks.
(b) Describe economic constraints, techniques of zero
inventories and methods of avoiding carrying stock.

5.4 Inventory ordering systems


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe inventory system.
(b) Apply inventory system.

5.5 Economic order quantity


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe different approaches for EOQ, EBQ.
(b) Apply re-order levels, sensitivity analysis, effects of
discounts.

5.6 Inventory Management Techniques


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify different inventory management techniques.
(b) Analyze inventory management techniques.

5.7 Measuring Inventory management system


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze performance measurement using stock
turnover rates customers service. level, stock out, cost
considerations, accuracy goals and their purpose.
(b) Apply balance score card knowledge in planning
inventory system.

5.8 Management of obsolete and surplus materials


Learners being able to:-
(a) Distinguish between obsolete and obsolescent
materials.
(b) Describe disposable procedures.
70
5.9 Information system
Learners being able to:-
(a) Differentiate manual and electronic systems and their
interface in relation with inventory management.
(b) Apply information and communication technology in
capturing processing storing and communicate
information.
(c) Apply electronic media, development of electronic
data interchange bar coding in inventory movement
tracking and control.
(d) Describe the uses of internet in inventory management,
cross docking, stock minimization, electronic point of
sales etc.

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Compton, H.H. (1995), Supplies and Materials


Management, Mc Donald and Evans London UK

2. David J. Plasecki (2003) Inventory Accuracy, People


Processes and Technology OPS publishing.

3. David J. Plasecki (2009) Inventory Management


Explained. A focus on Forecasting: Lot sizing safety
stock and ordering systems OPS Publishing.

4. Dobbler Donald, W. (1995), Purchasing and Materials


Management, Mc Graw Hill Co Ltd India

5. Jon Schreib feder (2010) achieving effective Inventory


Management 5th Edition effective Inventory
Management. Inc

6. Lysons K. & Farrington B. (2006), Purchasing and


Supply Chain Management, 7th Edition, FT Prentice
Hall
71
7. Max Muller (2011) Essentials of Inventory
Management 2nd Edition American Management
Association OPS Publishing.

8. Morrison A Sossop (complete reference)

9. Richard N. and Eagle R.H, (1986), Modern Inventory


Management John Wiley & Sons Inc.

10. Sameh Ibrahim (2011) data analysis for Inventory


Management in a multi echelon supply chain ops
Publishing.

11. Stevenson William, J. (2005), Operations


Management 8th Edition Mac Graw Hill USA
Walter D. (2003), Inventory Control and Management,
John Wiley & Sons UK.

72
PROFESSIONAL STAGE FOUR

1.0 SUBJECT: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT


MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P13

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE IV

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in public


procurement management.

(b) To enable learners demonstrate and apply the acquired


knowledge and skills to manage public procurement
functions.

5.0. SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to Public Procurement


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe public procurement and its objectives.
(b) Explain the importance of public procurement.
(c) Evaluate public procurement as a policy tool.
(d) Describe the principles/pillars of public procurement.
(e) Explain similarities and differences between
procurement in public sector and private sector.

5.2. International Legal Instruments governing public


procurement
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and analyse the global public procurement
reforms.

73
(b) Identify and analyse the public procurement reforms
in Tanzania.
(c) Assess the effects of global public procurement
reforms.
(d) Describe the functions of World Bank (WB), World
Trade Organisation (WTO), United Nation
Commission on International Trade Laws
(UNCITRAL), European Union (EU), and their roles
in promoting public procurement.
(e) AGA, African machinery.

5.3. Institutional models for public procurement and


integration with public expenditure management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe the typical institutional structure for public
procurement.
(b) Apply WB-OECD/DAC methodology for assessment
of national public procurement systems.

5.4. Public Procurement reforms in Tanzania


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain and analyse public procurement reforms in
Tanzania.
(b) Describe the institutional framework for public
procurement in Tanzania.
(c) Describe the Tanzanias legislative frameworks which
apply to the public sector.
(d) Describe the role of key players in public procurement
in Tanzania PPD, PPRA, PPAA, PSPTB and GPSA.

5.5. Procurement Planning


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe procurement planning.
(b) Explain the importance of procurement planning in
public organization.

74
(c) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
procurement planning.
(d) Describe the procurement planning process.

5.6. Procurement Methods


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the factors influencing the choice of
procurement methods.
(b) Describe the procurement methods with reference to
UNCITRAL Model law, PPA (T)
(c) Describe framework agreements and Private Public
Partnership.
(d) Describe the circumstance under which procurement
methods can be used.
(e) Apply thresholds for using each procurement method.

5.7. Procurement of Goods and non cons services


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe goods and non cons services.
(b) Explain on the tendering process as the preferred
procurement method.
(c) Prepare tender documents.
(d) Explain the evaluation of evaluate Tenders for goods
and non cons services.
(e) Explain other procurement procedures for goods and
non con services.

5.8. Procurement of works


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define terms and concepts used in procurement of
works.
(b) Differentiate procurement of works from procurement
of goods.
(c) Describe special features of works procurement
(d) Explain procurement procedures for procurement of
works.
75
(e) Prepare tender documents for works.
(f) Prepare basic designs, bills of quantities.
(g) Demonstrate the evaluation of works Tenders.

5.9. Procurement of Consultancy Services


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe consultancy services.
(b) Explain selection procedures for consultant selection
QBS, QCBS, FBS, LCS.
(c) Explain consultant selection process.
(d) Prepare Request for Proposal (RFP) document.
(e) Evaluate Technical and Financial Proposals.

5.10. Procurement Remedies


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe the importance bidders right to appeal.
(b) Describe the remedies available to bidders.
(c) Describe bidders complaints procedures.

5.11. Ethics in Public Procurement


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe ethics in procurement ethics.
(b) Explain the importance of ethics in public
procurement.
(c) Describe the effects of non-compliance to public
procurement ethic.

5.12. Corruption in Public Procurement


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe different types of corruption in public
procurement.
(b) Explain the impact of corruption in procurement to the
public organizations and the country as a whole.
(c) Describe the indicators/red flags of corruption in
procurement activities.

76
(d) Describe the activities vulnerable to corruption in the
tendering process and their occurrence.
(e) Explain controls that can be instituted in a public
organization to curb corruption.

5.13. Procurement under international financing


institutions
Learners being able to:-
(a) Desribe principles governing international institutions
procurement procedures and other donor agencies.
(b) Describe procurement methods for goods, works and
services under IFI and other donor agencies.
(c) Describe IFI procurement procedures and other donor
agencies.
(d) Apply IFI procurement guidelines and other donor
agencies.

6.0. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. A. Kovacs, (2004) Enhancing procurement practices:


Comprehensive approach to acquring complex
facilities and projects (Boston:Kluwer academic).
2. Christopher Boris (2012) European Union Public
Procurement Law, Edward Elgar Publishing.
3. G. Piga and K. Thai (2007) (Eds), Advancing public
procurement: Practices, innovation and knowledge-
sharing (Boca Raton: PR Academics press).
4. K.V. Thai (Eds.) International Handbook of public
procurement (CRC press 2008).
5. MK. Bharday (2004) A guide to public procurement,
excel book.

77
6. N. Dimitri, G. Piga and G. Spagnolo (2006) (Eds)
Handbook of Procurement (Cambridge: Cup).
7. P. Trepte, (2004) Regulating procurement;
Understanding the ends and means of public
procurement regulation (oxford: OUP) Ch.1 and 2.
8. S. Kelman, (1990) Procurement and public
management (Washington:AEI Press) Chs.1, 2 and 5.
9. S. Kelman, Procurement and Public Management
(Washington:AEI press 1990), P. Trepte, Regulating
Procurement: Understanding the ends and means of
public procurement regulation (Oxford: OUP 2004).
10. S. Schooner, (2000) Desiderata: Objectives for a
system of government contract law 11 public
procurement law review 103.
11. Sue Arrowsmith and M. Trybus (2002) (Eds) Public
Procurement; the Continuing Revolution (Londo:
Kluwer Law International).
12. Sue Arrowsmith, J. Linarelli and D. Wallace, (2000)
Regulating public procurement: National and
International Perspectives (London: Kluwer Law
International) Ch.1 and Ch.2 pp.27-32, 61-63 and 73 -
98.

Statutes
1. United Republic of Tanzania, World Bank
Procurement guidelines for works, goods and
consultancies Revised in 2014. Government Printers,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

2. United Republic of Tanzania, African Development


Bank Procurement policy procedures and processes

78
for works, goods and consultancies revised in 2014.
Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

3. United Republic of Tanzania Act Supplement (2001)


The Public Finance Act No. 6(2001) and its Regulation
2004, Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

4. United Republic of Tanzania Act supplement No.7


(2011) The Public Procurement Act No. 23 (20011)
and its Regulation 2013, Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

79
PROFESSIONAL STAGE FOUR

1.0 SUBJECT: PROCUREMENT CONTRACTS


MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P14

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE IV

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVE

(a) To equip learners with knowledge of principles,


practices and techniques for contract management with
particular emphasis on the role of the procurement and
supply chain specialist.
(b) To enable learners institute control and minimize risks
in managing procurement contracts

5.0. SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Contract Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Evaluate types of contracts and their legal
considerations.
(b) Analyze importance of managing contract.
(c) Describe the contract management cycle

5.2 Contracts formation and strategies


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain factors to consider in preparation of contract.
(b) Analyze salient features of good contracts.
(c) Describe contract negotiation processes.
(d) Evaluate proposal requirements.

80
5.3 Contract Control
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze contract risks.
(b) Explain cost time and quality control
(c) Monitor and negotiate improvement of suppliers
performance.

5.4 Contract Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze Contract control
(b) Evaluate cost control
(c) Manage negotiation of variations and claims
(d) Analyze contract closure, liability for defects
(e) Demonstrate ability for post implementation appraisal.

5.5 Managing contract relationships


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate ability to building corporate
relationships.
(b) Analyze relationship problems
(c) Apply dispute resolution techniques

5.6 Financing and payments


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze contract funding
(b) Analyze sources and conditions of funding payment
methods
(c) Demonstrate payment milestone ability to undertake
price adjustments, modification and variations

5.7 Evaluation of contract


Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze performance evaluation, achievement plans,
programme appraisal
(b) Apply methods of assessment

81
5.8 Procurement Contract Management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyze objectives of procurement contract
management
(b) Demonstrate ability merging suppliers/contractors
responsibilities with procurement entitys
responsibilities and interests
(c) Analyze factors affecting the contract for procurement
(d) Demonstrate ability stages in procurement contract
management

5.9 Discharge of the contract


Learners being able to:-
(a) Demonstrate contact closeout, ethical considerations,
claims and settlement.
(b) Analyze Salient features for managing procurement
contracts

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Carmichael, D.G. (2000), Constracts and


International Contract Management, Balkema A.A.
Publishers,

2. Cary Coben, (1997), Effective contract administration;


the complete handbook and guide.

3. Dobler Donald, W. (1995), Purchasing and Materials


Management Mc Graw Hill Co Ltd India

4. EU, WB ADB Guidelines

5. Kfuller, G. (2001), Purchasing Contracts, a practical


guide, CIPS UK

82
6. Lysons, K. and Farrington B. (2006) , Purchasing and
Supply Chain Management

7. Margaret Griffiths and Ivor Griffiths (2002), Law of


Purchasing and Supply ,3rd Edition Prentice Hall UK

8. MLS ITC module 8 and 9 of 2000.

9. Murdoch, J.R. Hughes, W. (2000),Construction


Contracts; Law and Management

10. Public Finance Act No. 6 (2001), and its Regulations


(2004), Government Press Tanzania.

11. Public Procurement Act No. 21, (2011), and its


Regulations (2013), Government Press Tanzania.

83
1.0 SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS AND
TRANSPORT
2.0 CODE: P15
3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE IV
4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES
(a) To equip learners with knowledge in international
logistics and transport operations.
(b) To enable learners apply principles of international
logistics and transport in managing international
imports and export.
5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING
OUTCOMES

5.1 Concepts of Logistics and Transport


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define concepts of logistic and transport in modern
society.
(b) Explain exelutionary stages of logistcs, today and
future of logistics.
(c) Differentiate transport modes, design and select
suitable modes for a network under different situations.
(d) Explain different types of International Logistics.
(e) Apply different techniques in Logistic and Transport.

5.2 Managing Logistics


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify different types of Logistics Management
tasks.
(b) Describe global network for carriers.
(c) Evaluate trade restrictions and agreements on
international logistics.

84
(d) Identify problems associated with inbound and
outbound logistics.

5.3 Transportation
Learners being able to:-
(a) Differentiate unbound and outbound transportation
network.
(b) Describe sutiable routes and related clearance
requirements
(c) Describe route planning and scheduling.
(d) Explain multi-modal transportation.

5.4 Logistics operations


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe logistics operation in store house.
(b) Specify packaging and packing requirement
decisions.
(c) Specify safety and security meansures and controls.
(d) Describe logistic equipments for handling and storage
of goods.
(e) Evaluate costs and performance considerations.
(f) Explain variables for physical distribution.
(g) Determine investment requirements.
(h) Differentiate pre-transactional costs form post
transactional costs.
(i) Describe fleet management.

5.5 Logistic and transport documentation


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify documents used in logistics and transport.
(b) Describe procedures involved in clearance of goods
form customs.
(c) Explain international commercial terms and their
uses.
(d) Differential roles of different players in incoterms.

85
(e) Identify and describe methods of payments in both
international logistics and local logistics.

5.6 ICT in Logistics and Transport


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain uses of ICT in Logistics and Transport.
(b) Apply modern technology in transaction cost and
waste reduction and increase efficiency.
(c) Describe internet application in logistic cycle,
requisitioning, authorization of orders receiving
certification and payment processes.

6.0. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES


1. Bloomberg D.J. and Murray A. (1996), The
Management of Integrated Logistics, Sydney, Prentice
Hall.
2. Bowesox D. E. and Closs D. J. (1996), Logistical
Management, New York, McGraw Hill.
3. Christopher, M. (2005) Logistics and supply chain
management. Elements of import practice by branch
(1990), CIPS, England.
4. Coyle J. J. et al (2002), The Management of Business
Logistics, 7th edition, St Paul, West Publishing Co.
5. Donald Waters, (2003), Logistics, Palgrave-UK-
USA,
6. Gattorna, J. (1995) Gower hand book of logistics and
distribution. The CIPS Bookshop.
7. ITC (2000) Modular Learning System, module 10,
managing International Logistics UNCTAD/WTO.

86
8. Johnson J. C. and Wood D. F. (1999), Contemporary
Logistics, Upper Sadler River N. J., Prentice Hall.
9. Lambert, DM and Stock, J.R. (1999). Strategic
Logistics Management. Singapore, Irwin/McGraw
Hill.
10. Richard E. at al, (2006), World Trade and Payments:
An Introduction, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall.
11. Ruth, A Oxley, J. and Croucher P (2002) Hand book
of Logistic and Distribution Management
12. Taylor, D. (2005) Global cases in logisticc and supply
chian management. The CIPS Bookshop.
13. Visser, H.M. and Van Goor, A.R. (2006) Logistics,
Principles and Practice 1st Ed. Groningen, Wolters-
Noordhoff, ISSBN 9020733044.

87
1.0 SUBJECT: ENTREPRENEURSHIP

2.0 CODE: P16

3.0 LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE IV

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES


(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in
entrepreneurship techniques.
(b) To enable learners to apply entrepreneurship principles
to initiate and manage business ventures.
5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING
OUTCOMES

5.1 Introduction to Entrepreneurship


Learner being able to:-
(a) Define terms and concepts in entrepreneurship.
(b) Explain the evolution of entrepreneurship.
(c) Describe reasons for becoming an entrepreneur.
(d) Analyze different schools of thought approaches to
entrepreneurship.

5.2 Entrepreneur and creative thinking


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain characteristics of entrepreneurs.
(b) Identify and explain entrepreneurial motives,
creativity, innovation and invention.
(c) Apply creative thinking techniques.
(d) Develope ideas and make consultations.
(e) Identify sources of funds for entrepreneurial research.

5.3 Formation of Business


Learner being able to:-
(a) Plan for a business and environment assessment.
88
(b) Conduct marketing research.
(c) Demonstrate financial planning of a business,
(d) Explain legal and statutory requirements for a new
business.
(e) Evaluate legal forms of an organization.
(f) Identify and evaluate various sources of capital.

5.4 Growth and development of a business


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the nature and importance of Strategic
planning.
(b) Describe the life cycle of a business.
(c) Explain how to manage business growth.
(d) Demonstrate the process of evaluating of business
performance.
(e) Identify and analyze the gap for a niche within the
existing business and scanning for opportunity.

5.5 Management succession and continuity


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the importance of business succession
(b) Describe sole proprietorship succession scenario,
(c) Examine family management scenario,
(d) Examine partnership succession scenario,
(e) Examine corporate succession scenario.

6.0. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. Alexander Osterward and Yves Pigneur (2010)


Business Model Generation. A handbook for
visionaries, game, changers and challenges John
Willey and Sons.

2. Drucker Peter F, (2006) Innovation and


Entrepreneurship Harper Business.
89
3. Eric Ries (2011) The lean start up. How todays
entrepreneur use continuous innovation to create
radically successful business 1st Edition Grown
Business.

4. Schumpter Joseph A. (1965) Revised 2011


Entrepreneurship.

5. Schumpter Joseph A. (2013) Theory on innovation.

6. Steve Blank and Bob Dorf (2012), The startup owners


manual. The step by step guide for building a great
company 1st Edition K & S Ranch.

90
PROFESSIONAL STAGE FIVE

1.0. SUBJECT: PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLY


AUDIT

2.0. CODE: P17

3.0. LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE V

4.0. SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills on


procurement and supplies audit.

(b) To enable learners apply the acquired knowledge and


skills in procurement and supplies audit functions.

5.0. SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. General Introduction to Auditing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe auditing and its objectives.
(b) Describe classes of audits internal, external,
statutory, non-statutory, operational, value for money.
(c) Describe the differences and similarities between
commercial and public sector audits.
(d) Describe fundamental principles and concepts, audit
standards and ethics.

5.2. Methodology for Auditing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe familiarization, planning and formulating
audit strategy.
91
(b) Identify and explain organizing and programming the
audit, and controlling the audit work.
(c) Explain recording the audit work, testing records, and
evidence.
(d) State and explain forming audit conclusions,
recommendations and reporting.

5.3. Audit and internal control for supplies functions


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain reviewing of the internal control system.
(b) Describe supplies records and internal checks.
(c) Develop organizational plan and setup for control and
internal checks.
(d) Describe authorization and approval procedures
(e) Explain preparation of audit, verification and
investigation programmes.

5.4. Stocktaking and verification


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe reasons for stocktaking.
(b) Describe types of stocktaking and stocktaking
documentation.
(c) Describe treatment of obsolete, deteriorated and
redundant stocks.
(d) Describe common errors in stocktaking.
(e) State and explain purpose and objectives of
verification audit.
(f) Demonstrate physical verification of stocks.
(g) Explain findings and report preparation.

5.5. Stock Valuation


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain valuation of receipt under FOB, C&F and CIF
contract.
(b) Describe pricing of issues using FIFO, LIFO, average
market price and standard price.
92
(c) Explain pricing of goods in process, scrap and capital
goods.

5.6. Procurement Audit


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe scope of audit in procurement cycle.
(b) Describe auditing basic procedures and internal
controls.
(c) Describe audit requirement during entry and exit
conferences for discussion.
(d) Describe Tender Board functions auditing.
(e) Describe technical and economic evaluations.
(f) Describe Human Resource Auditing.
(g) Describe value for money auditing in procurement.
(h) Explain technical audit in procurement for works and
consultancy services.

5.7. Other considerations in procurement and supply


chain auditing
Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe consignment stocks and purchase
commitments.
(b) Describe commodity future and hedging practices.
(c) Describe frauds involving procurement and stocks.

5.8. Verification of fixed assets


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe consignment stocks and purchase
commitments.
(b) Describe commodity future and hedging practices.
(c) Describe frauds involving procurement and stocks.

5.9. Risk based procurement and supply auditing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify risks involved in supply chain auditing.

93
(b) Describe the procedures involved in risk approach
supply chain management auditing.
(c) Describe steps involved in procurement and supply
chain management.
(d) Develop checklist of risk based supply chain auditing.

6.0. RECOMMENDED REFERENCES

1. IFAC (recent) Hand book of international auditing


Assurance and Ethics Procurement; IFAC.

2. Jack L. Robertson Auditing 8th Edn (1996) Irwin USA.

3. ORay Wittingon, Kurt Pany Walter B Mergs Robert F


Meigs (1992) Principles of Auditing 10th Edn Irwin
USA.

4. ORegan, David (2003) International Auditing


Practical Resource Guide, WILEY

5. ORegan, David (2008) Auditing the procurement


function. Institute of Internal Auditors Research
Foundation.

6. Rick Hayer, Roger Dassen Arnold Schilder Philip


Wallage, (2005) Principles of Auditing, an
Introduction to International std auditing 2nd Edn.

7. Karta Johnstone, Audrey Gramling and Larry E.


Rittenberge (2013) Auditing A risk based approach to
conducting a quality Audit Cengage Learning.

8. Karta Johnstone, Audrey Gramling and Larry E.


Rittenberge (2010) Risk based approach to the Audit
of procurement CIFA.

94
Statutes

1. United Republic of Tanzania Act supplement No.7


(2011) The Public Procurement Act No. 23 (20011)
and its Regulation 2013, Government Printers, Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania.

2. United Republic of Tanzania Act Supplement (2001)


The Public Finance Act No. 6(2001) and its Regulation
2004, Government Printers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

3. United Republic of Tanzania, Public Procurement


Auditing Manual, PPRA (2009) Government Printers,
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

95
1.0 SUBJECT: STRATEGIC PROCUREMENT AND
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

2.0 CODE: P18

3.0 LEVEL : PROFESSIONAL STAGE V

4.0 SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills in


strategic procurement and supply chain management.
(b) To enable learners to apply acquired knowledge and
skills to facilitate smooth supply chain.

5.0 SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to strategic procurement and supply


chain management
Learner being able to:-
(a) Define terms and concepts.
(b) Differentiate procurement from supply chain.
(c) Describe the evolution of supply chain management
concepts (Supply Chain Transition).
(d) Explain transition from traditional purchasing to
strategic procurement.
(e) Describe importance and objective of supply chain
management.
5.2. Overivew of strategic management
Learner being able to:-
(a) Analyze concept of strategy and the process of
developing strategy.
(b) Apply SWOC analysis and strategies formulation.
(c) Identify mission, vision and long term objectives for
business sastenability.
96
(d) Evaluate stategic performance through applying
relevant strategic tools.
(e) Describe business management strategies.
(f) Differenciate business strategies and corporate
stategies.

5.3. Strategic procurement overview


Learner being able to:-
(a) Compare and contrast strategic procurement with
operational procurement.
(b) Explain significance of strategic procurement.
(c) Evaluate the procurement role in achieving corporate
goals.
(d) Develop strategic procurement objectives and
performance targets.
(e) Analyze procurement environment (i.e. supplier
competitor and market analysis PESTLEG).
(f) Demonstrate management portifolio analysis using
Karljic Kamanncube, BCG Model.
(g) Formulating, implementing and evaluating
procurement strategies.

5.4. Major generic procurement functional strategies


and alternative strategies
Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain different types of generic procurement
strategies i.e. supply assurance, cost reduction, support
strategies etc.
(b) Describe procurement and supply strategies.
(c) Explain the role of supplier, buyer partnering (risk
sharing, supplier development etc.).
(d) Explain the importance of backward integration.
(e) Explain importance of out sourcing.
(f) Describe JIT, consignment buying, market hedging
(furtures market) in achieving procurement objectives.

97
(g) Explain value analysis/engineering, green
procurement, etc. in achieving procurement objectives.

5.5. Strategic procurement planning


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain process of strategic procurement planning.
(b) Develop and manage strategic procurement plan.
(c) Analyze supply assurance.
(d) Analyze cost, price and market in procurement plan.

5.6. Drivers of change procurement


Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the nature and impact of globalization in
supply chain.
(b) Explain drivers of change in global supply market
competition in cost reduction.
(c) Explain the role of technological advancement in
supply chain.
(d) Explain the effect of speed of new product
development, changing of customer demand in supply
chain.
(e) Identify and explain strategies to address effects of
drivers of change in supply chain.

5.7. Structure design and supply chain network


Learner being able to:-
(a) Identify different types of supply chain.
(b) Explain types of supply chain network.
(c) Describe determinate of structure.
(d) Explain the lean and agile organization.

5.8. Coordination and controling supply chain systems


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe supply chain coordination, the Bull whip
effect and their impact in performance.

98
(b) Identify and evaluate the Bull whip effect and
obstancels to coordination in supply chain.
(c) Discuss managerial leaners that help to achive
coordination in supply chain.
(d) Describe actions that facilitate the building strategic
partnership and trust within supply chain.

5.9. The role of information technology in the supply


chain
Learner being able to:-
(a) Explain the role of information technology.
(b) Explain the use of information technology in supply
chain.
(c) Describe the application of internet in operating
transactional aspects of requisitioning, authorization of
orders, receiving, certification and payment processes.
(d) Develop e-procurement strategy and implement.
(e) Apply e-procurement in selection of vendors and
evaluation.
(f) Apply e-procurement tools to transact business,
sharing information and networking.
(g) Apply paper less transaction.
(h) Identify the following:-
(i) Supply chain information technology frame
work (Supply chain macro-process).
(ii) Internal supply chain management.
(iii) Supplier relationship management.

5.10. Product Design


Learner being able to:-
(a) Describe the impact of design on cost of a product.
(b) Explain effect of product, market and process
characteristics in the supply chain.
(c) Describe the value analysis and its role in procurement.
(d) Explain the vale analysis procedure.
99
(e) Explain early buyer involvement.
(f) Identify and explain area of buyer involvement.
(g) Explain early supplier involvement.
(h) Describe benefits and disadvantages of ESI.
(i) Explain Simultaneous Engineering (SE) multi-
disciplinary terms and integration of a number of
techniques.

5.11. Purchasing supply relationship


Learner being able to:-
(a) Differenciate transactional and relationship
purchasing.
(b) Apply cox, bensaou and IMP models in evaluating
supplier relationship:-

6.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES


1. Bowersox D.J. & Closs D.J., (2000), Logistical
Management: The Integrated Supply Chain Process,
Tata McGraw-Hill

2. Charles W. L. Hill, Gareth R. Jones, Melissa A.


Schiling (2014), Strategic Management: Theory and
Cases: An Intergrated approach: Cengage Learning.

3. Chopra S. & Meindl P., (2007), Supply Chain


Management: Strategy, Planning and Operations, 3rd
Edition, Pearson Education, New Jersey

4. David Simchi Levi, Philip Kaminsky and Edith


Simchi Levi, (2000), Designing and managing the
supply chain concepts, strategies and case studies, Mc
Graw Hill USA

100
5. Gregory Dess, and G.T. (Tom) Lumpkin, Alan
Eisner, Gerry McNamara (2011) Strategic
management test and cases. MacGraw- Hill/Ilwin.

6. Lysons K. & Farrington B.,(2006), Purchasing and


Supply Chain Management 7th Edition, FT Prentice
Hall

7. Michael A. Hitt, R. Duane Highland, Robert E.


Hoskisson (2012) Strategic management concept test
and cases: Competitiveness and Globalization.
Cengage Learning.

8. Paul cousins, Richard Lamning, Benn Lawson and


Brian Squire, (2008), Strategic Supply Management
Principles, Theories and Practice, Prentice Hall UK.

9. Paul Myerson (2012) Lean Supply Chain and Logistics


Management 1st Edition McGraw- Hill Professional

10. Saunders M., (1997), Strategic Purchasing and Supply


Chain Management , 2nd Edition, FT Prentice Hall.

101
1.0. SUBJECT : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND
CONSULTANCY

2.0. CODE : P19

3.0. LEVEL : PROFESSIONAL STAGE V

4.0. SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowlege and skills in research


and consultancy.
(b) To acquaint learners with report writing skills.
(c) To enable learners apply research and consultancy
skills in procurement and supplies research and
consultancy assignments.
(d) To enable learners apply report writing skills in
preparing reports for research and consultancy
assignments in procurement and supplies functions.

5.0. SUBJECT CONTENTS AND LEARNING


OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to research methodology


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain meaning and objectives of research.
(b) Explain types of research processes, ethics and
literature.
(c) Describe formulation of research topics, research
design and structure of research proposal.

5.2. Sampling techniques


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define research environment scaling.
(b) Differentiate probability sampling techniques from
non probability sampling techniques.
102
5.3. Reaseach instruments and field survey
Learners being able to:-
(a) Design questionnaire, carry out pilot study and conduct
interviews.
(b) Train and utilize research assistants.
(c) Collect data from primary and secondary sources.

5.4. Data coding and interpretation


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify research constraints and limitations.
(b) Analyse and intepret the results and treatment of
research responses.
(c) Carryout reliability and validity tests .

5.5. Data analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and distinguish different data analysis
techniques such as qualitative, quantitative and
computer soft ware packages.
(b) Apply data analysis techniques.

5.6. Introduction to Management consulting


Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain nature and purpose of consulting assignments
(b) Explain range, scope and characteristics of consulting
work.
(c) Describe the roles and relationship of consultant and
client.

5.7. Consulting assignments in purchasing and supplies


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify clients, competitor partners and collaboration
in consulting assignments.
(b) Describe potential risks and conflict of interest in
consulting assignments.

103
(c) Identify and describe consulting opportunities,
preparation of terms of reference and consulting ethics.

5.8. Designing a consulting project


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe characteristics of a good consultant.
(b) Identify the scope of consulting assignment and define
pricing.
(c) Prepare a consulting proposal.
(d) Describe quality control of consultancy assignment.
(e) Explain clients characteristics and methods of
managing clients with different behaviours.

5.9. Data collection and analysis


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify different types of data.
(b) Apply different data collection methods for collecting
clients information.
(c) Analyze, interpret and test data for reliability and
validity.

5.10. Introduction to report writing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Define a report
(b) Distinguish different types of report and their
importance.
(c) Identify different uses of the consultancy and research
reports.

5.11. Organizing a report


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify different types of targets of clients and
audience.
(b) Differentiate formal from informal report.
(c) Identify matters to be reported and matters not to be
reported.
104
(d) Classify information from the client and research into
categories.

5.12. Managing data and use of graphics


Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply quantitative and quantitative data in research
and consultancy.
(b) Interpret data using graphs, tables and figures.

5.13. Report writing


Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify characteristics of reports at different levels.
(b) Desribe different roles of reports and memorandums.
(c) Differentiate memorandum from short reports.
(d) Describe different types of a report, such as executive
summary, main report, special parts of a report, oral
presentation.
(e) Demonstrate skills of composing a report.

6.0. RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS

1. Babbie, Earl R., (1989), The Practice of social


Research, Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont.

2. Bell, J., (1987), Doing Your Research Project; Oxford


University Press, Oxford.

3. Black, James A and D.J. Champion, (1986), Methods


and Issues in Social Research, New York, John
Willey.

4. Chara, F. and Nachmias, D.N., (1996), Research


Methods in the Social Sciences, Martins Press; GB.

5. Easterby, Smith, M., (1991), Management Research


an introduction, SAGE., London.

105
6. Jaber F. Gubrium and James A. Holstein (Eds), (2002),
Handbook of Interview Research: Context and
Method, Sage Publications, Inc., London.

7. Kramar, J.Z., (1971), Marketing Research in


Developing Countries, Praegar Publishers NY.

8. Kubr, M. (1996) 3rd (revised) edition, Management


Consulting a guide the profession Edited by
International Labour Office - Geneva.

9. Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill,


(2007), Research methods for Business studies, 4th
Editor Prentice Hall U.K.

10. Smith, M. Thorpe R. & Lowe, (1991), A Sage


Management Research Introduction;

106
1.0. SUBJECT: PROCUREMENT AND SUPPLY
CHAIN RISKS MANAGEMENT

2.0. CODE: P20

3.0. LEVEL: PROFESSIONAL STAGE V

4.0. SUBJECT OBJECTIVES

(a) To equip learners with knowledge and skills of


managing procurement and supply chain risks.
(b) To enable learners apply a range of techniques in
monitoring ad mitigating procurement and supply
chain risks.
5.0. SUBJECT CONTENT AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

5.1. Introduction to Risk Management


Learners being able to:-
(a) Describe risk management process
(b) Describe risk schedule
(c) Describe importance of Risk Management function.

5.2. Nature of Risks affecting procurement and supply


chain management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Explain the meaning of procurement and supply chain
management risk
(b) Analyze the main procurement and supply chain
management risks.
(d) Analyse the main methods for eliminating
procurement and supply chain management corruption
and fraud.
(e) Analyse the main procurement and supply chain
management operational risks.

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(f) Evaluate the main risks in the procurement and supply
chain management that can impact in
organizational corporate social responsibility and
sustainability standards.

5.3. Procurement and supply chain risks management


process
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyse the use of contractual remedies for managing
risks in procurement and supply chain.
(b) Analyse the use of outsourced 3rd parties and risk
management in procurement and supply chain.
(c) Evaluate the use of insurances for protection
(d) Analyse the use of contingency plans to overcome
risks in procurement and supply chain.

5.4. Risks mitigation strategies in procurement and


supply chain
Learners being able to:-
(a) Apply the use of probability and impact assessments
to manage risks in procurement and supply chain.
(b) Explain the development of a risk management culture
and strategy to improve procurement and supply chain
(c) Develop mitigation strategies in procurement and
supply chain.

5.5. Mitigating procurement and supply chain


management risks in Project Management
Learners being able to:-
(a) Analyse the main risks in procurement and supply
chain management projects that are addressed by
effective project management.
(b) Compare and contrast project lifecycle models that can
mitigate risks in procurement and supply chain.

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(c) Demonstrate organization, implementation,
monitoring and control of project mitigating risks
in procurement and supply chain.
(d) Describe result-based Management (RBM) in Risk
Management
(e) Apply RBM in Procurement and Supply Chain Risk
Management.

5.6. Risk Management in Global Supply Chain


Learners being able to:-
(a) Desribe lead time risk
(b) Analye political risks
(c) Assess foreign exchange risks
(d) Assess environmental risks
(e) Analyse supply risks
(f) Demonstrate how to deal with Global Supply Risks

5.7. Assessment of Risks Internal Controls and Internal


Procurement and Supply Chain Controls
Learners being able to:-
(a) Identify and assess internal procurement and supply
chain controls, compliance risks in the
procurement and supply chain in public and private
sectors.
(b) Advise on the identification and assessment report on
internal Procurement and supply chain controls
and compliance risks.
(c) Evaluate the internal Procurement and Supply Chain
control measures and their effectiveness.

8.0 RECOMMENDED REFERENCES


1. Baily, et at (2008), Prentice Hall, Pearson Education,
UK. Procurement Principles and Management 9th
Edition.

109
2. Bob Pieplow (2012), A Scalable Approach, Project
Delivery. Project Risk Management Handbook.
3. Cho, C.C, Garvey, P. R and Robert J.Giallombado
(1997), A Decision Aid for Prioritizing, Displaying
and Tracking Program ,Risk, Military Operation
Research (www. owors.org)
4. Garvey, P. R. (2000), Marcel Dekker, Inc, 270
Madison Avenue, New York Probability methods for
cost uncertainty Analysis: A Systems Engineering
Perspective,
5. Garvey, P. R (1999), Engineering, John Wiley & Sons
Inc. Risk Management Encyclopedia of Electrical
and Electronics
6. Gorvey, et al (1998), Risk Matrix: An Approach for
Identifying, Assessing and Rankin Program Risks,
Airforce Journal of Logistics Vol.XXII
(www.mitre.org/resources/centre/sepo/risk/risk_matr
ix)
7. Heinz:- Peter, Berg (2010), Risk Management
procedures, methods and experience, Vol. 1,
Bundesant fiir Strontenschutz, Salzgitter, Germany.
8. Parshev, K. V. (2009), Reducing Corruption Risks and
Practices in Public Procurement: Evidence from
Bulgaria Government Monitoring Association, Sofia,
Bulgaria.
9. The Procurement Tool kit-Good Practice Guide-
(December 2012).
10. UN ( 2011), Result-Based Management Handbook
New York, United States.

110
11. UN Procurement capacity development centre, (May,
2012)
12. United Republic of Tanzania (2013), GN No. 446,
(2013), Government Printer, Dsm.
13. United Republic of Tanzania (2011), Act No. 7,
(2011), Government Printer, Dsm.

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