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Professor, Ph.D., Carol l National Defense University, Bucharest, Romania

A judicious planning of the logistic support provided for the national military
contingents earmarked to participate in multinational peace support operations
must take into consideration the number of contingents to be deployed, their area of
responsibility, their mission length, the facilities provided in the theater of operation
and their providers. Moreover, such planning involves a thorough knowledge and
application of STANAGs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus on some of the
fundamental aspects included in the logistic support planning guidance for the na-
tional military contingents participating in multinational peace support operations.

Key words: logistic support planning, multinational cooperation, logistic

support, theater of operations, mission length.

1. INTRODUCTION range of logistic activities necessary

to support a national contingent
Logistic support planning for deployed on a multinational support
multinational peace support missions mission can be grouped as follows:
is based on the decision of the United mission global analysis;
Nations Security Council that the initiation of the logistic support
intervention of an international planning process;
alliance such as the North Atlantic identification of the factors
Treaty Organization (NATO), the bearing on the initial logistic support
Organization for Security and planning process;
Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) is elaboration of the logistic
necessary in order to manage a crisis concept necessary to ensure logistic
requiring troops, equipment and support;
material resources. Based on this a identification of logistic support
joint force commanders concept of providers;
operations is drawn up and leads to elaboration of the logistic
on time planning of force generation, support plan;
to ensuring transportation for the requests formulation,
forces to be deployed, as well as to comparative analysis and
providing logistic support during identification of logistic deficits.
their activities in the theater of All of the above activities are
operations. planned, organized and executed as
The activities necessary to be a result of the planning conferences
undertaken in order to cover the wide in the field of logistics attended
by the national contingent. These are: the inventory of the most likely
conferences are organized depending supply capabilities available in the
on the stage of the planning process host country, the identification of
(i.e. preliminary, main, planning some alternative supply systems, the
review, final) and on the topic of analysis of the relationship between
interest (i.e. on transportation issues national responsibility and alliance
or on medical matters) and their responsibility, host nation support,
aims consist of: establishing the the capabilities of the leading nation,
C4I logistics structure, assigning specialized national support, the
responsibilities, identifying the existence of a Multinational Integrated
methods needed to ensure logistic Logistic Unit (MILU)/ Multinational
support, harmonizing logistic plans, Integrated Medical Unit (MIMU),
as well as bridging any gaps and Third Party Logistic Support Services
clarifying deployment plans. (TPLSS), the status and security of
communication and supply routes,
2. SOME LOGISTIC as well as the identification of
ACTIVITIES alternative supply routes and of the
possible combinations in the material
As mentioned before, the activities distribution system, geographical,
needed to support national contingents cultural and religious constraints
participating in multinational peace limiting the logistic chains and the
keeping missions can be grouped nature of the logistic products, etc.
under seven categories. The elaboration of the logistic
The first category, mission global concept depends on the involvement
analysis is undertaken at the level of level of each nation participating
the national contingent and it involves in operations and hence on the
the identification the logistic support subsequent responsibilities. It
needed depending on the nature and consists in establishing the way
characteristics of the missions that are in which, within the theater of
to be conducted. Thus, for instance, operation, the national contingent
in the case of disarmament missions accomplishes the supply of goods
it is required to ensure the storage, (by categories of materials), ensures
recording and destruction of large support services and transportation,
quantities of materials/ammunition/ maintains technology, provides
hazardous materials, while in the medical assistance and billeting for
case of the surveillance of the main forces, ensures financial resources
access routes, as well as the in the and quarters for personnel.
case of convoys and communication
means protection it is necessary to 3. LOGISTIC PLANNING
maintain the technologies available
in operating conditions and to ensure Logistic planning for national
the spare parts stocks by planning contingents deployed in theaters of
and transporting the needed materials operations involves:
in due time. . establishing the supply of
As for the identification of the materials needed to deploy the
factors bearing on the initial logistic national contingent and to ensure its
support planning process, the main stay in the theater of operation, as
activities grouped under this category well as the frequency for supplying
these based on criteria like: mission theater of operations by resorting
length, number of personnel in to other contingents or specialized
accordance with the payroll, average companies.
consumption rate for supplies like Usually, in the first stages of
ammunition, spare parts, medicine, mission preparation, information
and legal provisions concerning concerning the logistic support
military food ratio, necessary availability in the TO is collected
equipment, consumables; during the logistic reconnaissance
identifying transportation needs missions of the national contingent.
(based on personnel number to be Before logistic planning begins, the
deployed, technology and materials head of Logistics within the national
supply), alternatives to these contingent must be knowledgeable/
depending on available national/ clear about the following:
allied partners means and submiting mission end state and
transportation requests within
the deadlines established through objectives;
procedures; objectives to be met in order to
identifying maintenance work ensure logistic support;
to be done by oneself or by ESN; the actions to be undertaken and
personnel immunization, as their sequence;
well identification of the means power centers;
to ensure medical assistance and the way available resources
medical evacuation; (national/allied) are used and the
establishing forces billeting priorities;
details, as well as labor and harmonization of the logistic
environmental safety measures. efforts with the efforts of the national
The global specific needs are contingent;
established by applying specific the risks that are considered
logistic planning formulas based acceptable and the necessity to
on mission details: length, logistic maneuver forces and logistic means.
effort sharing between the national For the logistic structure of the
contingent and ESN (if in place), national contingent the logistic
the number of personnel involved, planning procedures must be logical
the technology employed. Once and analytical in order to facilitate
the global needs for materials are the decision making process and the
established the real costs of the successful mission accomplishment in
mission can be calculated. The latter a multinational theater of operations.
must be included in the budget a year The logistic procedures and the
prior to the deployment time so that logistic planning process are identical
the preparation of the mission can be
performed unhindered. Moreover, the both in times of war and in peace
logistic planning personnel conduct support operations. Thus, the stages
economic studies in order to identify of the logistic planning process for
the most efficient alternatives to multinational missions are similar to
accomplish the mission, namely those of a common planning process
whether it is more effective to supply and they are as follows: initiation;
the goods from the contingents orientation; elaboration of the logistic
country of origin, or from within the concept; elaboration of the logistic
plan; review of the logistic plan.
The initiation stage of the allied nations), of the constraints
logistic planning process starts upon and of other factors with an impact
the release of the mission order/ on mission accomplishment. When
directive by the higher echelon. The this activity is over, the head of the
latter is based on a prior orientation logistic structure alongside with
undertaken by the commandant of logistic directorate representatives
the national contingent within the must be knowledgeable about
theater of operations. the national and the lead nations
In order to initiate the logistic responsibilities listed in the technical
planning process, the head of the agreements. In this respect, a number
contingents logistic structure of documents and orders must be
alongside with logistic directorate taken into account:
representatives will analyze: the the endorsement statement- a
missions of the national contingent (the document that mentions the level of
logistic ones included); the necessary logistic support provided by the lead
logistic support and the forces that nation and constrains all planning
need it; supply, accommodation, within the TO;
storage, transportation, maintenance the logistic order issued by the
and medical facilities available higher echelon;
within the contingents country of the planning guide.
origin and in the TO. Moreover, once the mission
This process involves mission analysis is done the head of the
understanding and the identification contingents logistic structure
of matters bearing on the planning must issue the preliminary logistic
process such as: the way the orders in order to ensure the logistic
logistic support in the TO will support necessary for mission
be ensured; identification of the accomplishment and present to the
constraints limiting logistic support commander the emergency measures
related activities; logistic support that need to be taken, as well as the
coordination details. impact time has on these.
The orientation of the personnel The planning directive as a
involved in the planning process product of the orientation stage
is undertaken in order to assess the enables the commander the heads of
situation from a logistic point of view, the contingents structures to initiate
to understand the logistic concept the provision of the necessary logistic
based on which the logistic support support.
will be provided by the higher echelon The elaboration of the logistic
and to ensure planning guidance. concept is one of the most important
Mission analysis involves the stages in the logistic planning
assessment of the situation by process. Thee latter is based on a
the representatives of the logistic thorough analysis of a number of
structure assigned to the contingent, alternatives to providing logistic
as well as the understanding of support in the TO. The sequence of
the overall mission context, of activities undertaken at this stage is
the logistic support concept (i.e. as follows:
responsibilities of the contingents situation analysis at contingent
logistic structure and of other level and within the context of the
logistic structures belonging to other mission;
a comparative analysis between the national contingent (e.g. stocks
the logistic means available within replenishment, ensuring packaging,
the contingents country of origin loading and transportation means),
and those within the TO in terms of to the higher echelon or to the
their efficiency. specialized structures- the Joint
the contingents commander Logistics Command. Moreover, as
participation in the decision-making a result of these factors, in the final
meeting; stage of the logistic planning process
the logistic concept development the national contingents logistic
in accordance with the best and most structure draws up The Logistic
efficient course of action identified. Support Plan that is annexed to
During the analysis of the the Operational Plan. During the
situation, the logistic structures elaboration of the latter, the head
must take into account the 4 Ds: of the logistics office will provide
destination, demand, distance and
duration. the information necessary to draw
Destination, namely mission up the logistic support concept and,
location, influences: transportation with the heads of the other structures
means (air, ground, sea or joint), assigned to the national contingent,
supply alternatives and stock size: will elaborate Annex Q of the plan
for six months or less, strategic (unless an independent logistic plan is
communication limits. developed). Once the logistic support
The demand is determined by plan endorsed the order providing for
the technical agreements signed the logistic support to the national
among the nations participating in
the mission. It refers to the way the contingent is issued. According to
logistic support in the TO is ensured. this, during the mission preparation
In this respect, on a weekly basis, stage, the logistic structure assigned
the national contingent submits, to the national contingent undertakes
through ESN (see the example of the following:
the Afghanistan TO), the logistic establishes the inventory
report to the Logistics Directorate of the goods needed by taking
for information purposes, and to the into account the national/allied
Joint Logistic Command and to the responsibilities mentioned in the
General Staff of the service to which
it belongs in order to obtain the technical agreements, the number
necessary logistic support. of people deployed as listed on the
Distance influences the planning, payroll, their food ratios, the time of
organization and execution of the year when the mission unfolds
transports, the communication and the area characteristics where the
means, the stocks size (both in the multinational operation takes place;
TO and in the contingents country calculates and requests the
of origin) and the mission length. necessary funds in accordance with
Mission duration influences stock supply priorities and the budget
replenishment frequency, equipment drafted in the previous fiscal year and
replacement necessity, contingent approved for the current FY;
rotation and size of transports.
Based on the analysis of these 4 supplies the necessary goods
Ds a number of deductions emerge released by the logistic structures
and they lead to the formulation of the higher echelon or by the Joint
of tasks that are either assigned to Logistics Command;
stores the goods by their Moreover, in order to organize and
category and takes the necessary ensure appropriate travel conditions
measures (i.e. packaging, placing it is necessary for the contingents
them on pallets/in containers) to ship logistic structure to:
them; establish the inventory of
prepares the technology and necessary goods and their packaging,
equipment necessary for transport storage and transport modes;
and mission conduct (only if the analyze the quantity of goods,
nation participates for the first time in establish and provide the necessary
the mission). If the case of contingent quantity of packaging materials
rotation when the technology and and craters in accordance with
equipment are already in place in ISO 20 provisions;
the TO, during the reconnaissance design and manufacture
activities the contingents logistic
structure elaborates a report on the unstandardized packaging materials;
spare parts needed to make repairs establish the volume and weight
and on the technology and equipment center for every crate (ISO 20);
no longer of use; do inventory for the materials
undertakes logistic in the crates(ISO 20);
reconnaissance tasks in the TO calculate the number of wagons
in accordance with the technical for rail freight transport and submit the
agreements and the facilities offered request to the Financial Comptroller
by the host nation. On a case by case and to the Joint Logistics Command
basis, it concludes other agreements, for agreements to be signed with the
as well as commercial contracts; Railway Authority, for the allocation
does book-keeping and keeps of a military code and for the release
records of the assets necessary for of transport documents;
mission accomplishment; prepare the technology to be
supplies food ratios for the shipped, check its status, provide
personnel deployed in the TO; temperature monitoring devices and
provides equipment and transportation frames for the craters,
immunization for contingents dye the latter in camouflage colors,
personnel; weigh them and establish their weight
establishes the transport concept center;
and submits the requests for transport establish the lists of personnel,
modes (rail, road, maritime, air) technology, goods for each
hierarchically; transportation mode;
establishes the consumption draw up the embarkation plan
rate for every supplied good and plans
with the ESN the replenishment; for the railway shipment;
uses economic criteria to size provide data for the cargo plan
up the goods and, based on these, to be elaborated by the maritime
establishes replenishment frequency; authority;
conducts regular assessments centralize data about craters
of objectives accomplishment in (crater no. ISO 20, contents, category,
the field of logistics and submits the weight, packaging mode);
conclusions to the higher echelon in draw up the general personnel,
order to make necessary changes for technology and goods transportation
the future. plan to/from the TO.
Another important activity coverage of logistics fields; planning
conducted in the pre-deployment ability in the field of logistics;
stage is the contingents logistic knowledge of command and control
evaluation. Its aim is to check the procedures; job descriptions in place;
logistic capabilities of the contingent. operating procedures in place (SOP,
It takes place 20 days before the SOI);
deployment in the TO and should last C2 Supply/ knowledge of
no longer than 72 hours. reporting procedures; identification
The logistic evaluation consists of of supply requests; establishment of
two stages. Stage 1 covers the static priorities; logistic support level by
evaluation including the verification categories;
of the logistic planning documents, C3 Maintenance: ability to
of personnel training, of the logistic manage maintenance; elaboration of
available. Stage 2 includes the field the maintenance plan; existence of
evaluation, namely the checking of spare parts; essential technology and
the way transportation and mission equipment operational status;
conduct are logistically supported. C4 Transports: knowledge
For the mission to be of national and NATO transport
accomplished, there should be documents and requirements;
no vacancies within the military existence of the plan for transport
contingent and the following to/from the TO; the existence of
requirements must be met: the necessary transport means;
the technology, the essential elaboration of transport requirements
equipment, the armament and the to cover gaps; personnel, technology
rest of the assets must be available and equipment preparation for
for the static evaluation; transport;
the documents testifying C5 Medical support:
the existence and the status of knowledge of NATO medical
the technology, of the weaponry, provisions; knowledge of the
ammunition, fuel and lubricants medical situation within the TO
are checked and then the delivery- the data base; ability to analyze
receiving process in the TO is and use daily medical information;
monitored to make sure that the the management of the on mission
operational level of the unit meets medical activities; existence of
the standards; personnel immunization program;
a tactical exercise unfolds in medicine and pharmaceutical
order to conduct the field evaluation products availability;
of the contingent. The latter is C6 labor and environmental
planned and conducted in accordance safety: organization of labor
with NATO BiSC Exercise Directive and environmental safety; legal
75-3/2007 and national provisions in metrological and technical monitoring
place. management.
Evaluation forms are used for the Depending on the positive/
static evaluation and they include negative results of the national
the following indicators and sub- contingent, the ratings may be:
indicators: EXCELLENT (EX): when
C1-General logistic requirements/ results for all functional areas are EX
the level of personnel training: and only one is SATISFACTORY;
SATISFACTORY (ST): results of a reasonable number of logistic
for all functional areas are EX and only forces, their freedom of movement
two of these are SATISFACTORY; in undertaking activities like
MARGINAL (MA): results for replenishments and evacuations, the
all functional areas are EX, ST, MA feasibility of the plan when checked
and only one indicator is rated as against real events, etc.
UNSATISFACTORY; The evaluation and reevaluation
UNSATISFACTORY (NS): of the logistic plan involves allocating
two or more results were rated as time for this activity, as well as
unsatisfactory. quantifying results. In case of major
If the rating is MARGINAL, changes, the plan will be updated.
the evaluation of the contingent In conclusion, a judicious logistic
is repeated once the measures to planning must take into account
change the situation were taken and the deployed forces, their area of
the deadlines for these were met. responsibility, their mission length,
Once the evaluation process is the resources and facilities available
over, the evaluation report must be in the TO, the knowledge and
finalized in three working days and application of STANAGs. In order
submitted to the General Staff and to to better meet the interoperability
the General Staff of the service the standard set by NATO, as well as in
national contingent is part of. The text order to avoid duplication in providing
of the report details any deficiencies logistic support to a contingent
identified during the evaluation in deployed in a multinational peace
order to allow a clear identification keeping operation a nation must
of the measures to be taken. adequately balance and coordinate
The reanalysis of the logistic plan its financial efforts. Moreover, the
involves two phases: plan review and volatile, unpredictable nature of
plan evaluation/reevaluation. contemporary conflicts requires
The review phase is necessary
because the situations underlying logisticians to adapt their efforts in
plans formulation are of a changing accordance with the inherent changes
nature. The review must focus on in their field and, hence, to measure
aspects, like: new threats and risks up to the challenges characteristic of
in the logistics field, the existence multinational theatres of operations.

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