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UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

UDDEHOLMS AB
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes
without permission of the copyright holder.

This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide general
notes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty of
specific properties of the products described or a warranty for fitness for a particular purpose.
Classified according to EU Directive 1999/45/EC
For further information see our Material Safety Data Sheets.
Edition 6, 09.2015
The latest revised edition of this brochure is the English version, SS-EN ISO 9001
which is always published on our web site www.uddeholm.com SS-EN ISO 14001
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

UDDEHOLM UNIMAX
The excellent properties offered enable Uddeholm Unimax to be used for many
tooling applications. Reduced cycle time and longer tool life contributes to
improve the overall economy. With an exceptional combination of high ductility
and high hardness, Uddeholm Unimax is perfect when moulding plastic details and
constructions that mean hard wear on the mould.

For the customers Uddeholm Unimax gives a lot of benefits:


excellent for reinforced plastic details, suitable for long run production and
compression moulding. The combination of high ductility and high hardness
means improved durability and wear resistance
longer tool life
good surface treatment properties.
very good hardenability which results in the same good properties throughout
the entire cross-section

The excellent combination of toughness and hardness also makes it a universal


engineering grade.
As we say; The harder, the better!

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UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

General Properties
Uddeholm Unimax is a chromium-molybde- The properties below are representative of
num-vanadium alloyed tool steel which is samples which have been taken from the
characterized by: centre of bars with dimensions 396 x 136 mm
Excellent toughness and ductility in all (15,6" x 5,35"), 125 mm (4,93") and
directions 220 mm (8,67"). Unless otherwise indicated
Good wear resistance all specimens have been hardened at 1025C
Good dimensional stability at heat treatment (1875F), gas quenched in a vacuum furnace
and in service and tempered twice at 525C (975F) for two
hours; yielding a working hardness of 56
Excellent through-hardening properties
58 HRC.
Good resistance to tempering back
Good hot strength
Good thermal fatigue resistance Physical properties
Excellent polishability
Hardened and tempered to 5658 HRC
Temperature 20C 200C 400C
Typical C Si Mn Cr Mo V
(68F) (390F) (750F)
analysis % 0,5 0,2 0,5 5,0 2,3 0,5
Density,
Standard
kg/m3 7 790
specification None
lbs/in3 0,281
Delivery
Modulus of elasticity
condition Soft annealed to approx. 185 HB
MPa 213 000 192 000 180 000
Colour code Brown/grey psi 31,2 x 106 27,8 x 106 26,1 x 106
Coefficient of
thermal expansion
per C from 20C 11,5 x 106 12,3 x 106
per F from 68F 6,3 x 106 6,8 x 106
Thermal
Applications conductivity
W/m C 25 28
Uddeholm Unimax is suitable for long run Btu in/(ft2hF) 174 195
production moulds, moulds for reinforced Specific heat
plastics and compression moulding. J/kgC 460
Btu/lbF 0,11
Uddeholm Unimax is a problem solver in
severe cold work tooling applications such as
heavy duty blanking, cold forging and thread
rolling, where high chipping resistance is Mechanical properties
required.
Approx. strength and ductility at room
Engineering and hot work applications
temperature at tensile testing.
requiring high hardness and toughness are also
an option. Hardness 54 HRC 56 HRC 58 HRC
Yield
strength, Rp0,2 1720 MPa 1780 MPa 1800 MPa
Tensile
strength, Rm 2050 MPa 2150 MPa 2280 MPa
Elongation, A5 9% 8% 8%
Reduction
of area, Z 40 % 32 % 28 %

4
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

APPROXIMATE STRENGTH
AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
Heat treatment
Longitudinal direction. The specimens were general recommendations
hardened from 1025C (1875F) and tempered
twice at 525C (975F) to 58 HRC.
Soft annealing
Protect the steel and heat through to 850C
Stress, MPa
(1560F). Then cool in furnace at 10C (20F)
2400
per hour to 600C (1110F), then freely in air.
2200
Rm
2000
1800 Stress relieving
1600 After rough machining the tool should be
1400 Rp0,2 heated through to 650C (1200F), holding
1200 time 2 hours. Cool slowly to 500C (930F),
1000 then freely in air.
800
100 200 300 400 500 600C
210 390 570 750 930 1110F
Hardening
Testing temperature Preheating temperature: 600650C (1110
1200F) and 850900C (15601650F).
Austenitizing temperature: 10001025C (1830
EFFECT OF TIME AT 1875F), normally 1025C (1875F).
HIGH TEMPERATURES ON HARDNESS Holding time: 30 minutes
Initial hardness 57 HRC.
Temperature Soaking time Hardness before
Hardness HRC C F minutes tempering
60
1000 1830 30 61 HRC
55 550C (1020F) 1025 1875 30 63 HRC
50 Soaking time = time at hardening temperature after the tool
45 is fully heated through.

40 600C (1110F)

35
Protect the tool against decarburization and
30
oxidation during austenitizing.
650C (1200F)
25
20 Quenching media
1 10 100
Time, h High speed gas/circulating atmosphere.
Vacuum furnace (high speed gas with suffi-
EFFECT OF TESTING TEMPERATURE
cient overpressure).
ON IMPACT ENERGY Martempering bath, salt bath or fluidized bed
Charpy-V specimens, longitudinal and short at 500550C (9301020F).
transverse direction. Approximate values for Martempering bath at 200350C (390
specimens from 125 mm (4,9") bar. 660F).
Impact energy, KV, J Note: Temper the tool as soon as its tem-
35 perature reaches 5070C (120160F).
30
Longitudinal
25
20
Short transverse
15

10
5

0
100 0 100 200 300 400 C
212 32 212 392 572 752 F
Testing temperature

5
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

CCT GRAPH
Austenitizing temperature 1025C (1875F). Holding time 30 minutes.
F C
2000 1100
Austenitizing temperature 1025C (1875F)
Holding time 30 min
1800 1000
Ac
f
900 = 890C
1600
Ac
s Cooling
800 = 820C Curve Hardness T800500
1400 Carbides (1505F) No. HV 10 (sec)
Pearlite
700 1 835 1
1200
2 819 5
600
1000 3 798 33
500
4 782 140
800
400 5 724 630
Bainite
600 300 6 712 1064
Ms 7 674 2900
400 200
Martensite 8 525 6250
200 100 Mf
9 476 13850
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1 10 100 1 000 10 000 100 000 Seconds

1 10 100 1 000 Minutes

1 10 100 Hour

Air cooling of
0.2 1.5 10 90 600 bars, mm

Tempering Temper at least twice with intermittent


Choose the tempering temperature according cooling to room temperature. High tempera-
to the hardness required by reference to the ture tempering >525C (980F) is recom-
tempering graph below. mended whenever possible.

TEMPERING GRAPH
Hardness, HRC Retained austenite, %
60
TA=1020C (1870F) Hardness
58

56

54
TA=1000C (1830F) Hardness
52

50

48 10
TA=1020C (1870F) Retained austenite 9
46 8
7
44 6
5
42 4
3
40 2
1
38
200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650C
390 480 570 660 750 840 930 1020 1110 1200F
Tempering temperature (2 x 2h)

The tempering curves are obtained after heat treatment of samples with a size of 15 x 15 x 40 mm, cooling in forced air. Lower
hardness can be expected after heat treatment of tools and dies due to factors like actual tool size and heat treatment parameters.

6
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

HARDNESS, GRAIN SIZE AND


RETAINED AUSTENITE AS FUNCTIONS OF Surface treatments
AUSTENITIZING TEMPERATURE Tool steel may be given a surface treatment
Grain in order to reduce friction and increase wear
size resistance. The most commonly used treat-
ASTM Hardness, HRC Retained austenite %
25 65 25 ments are nitriding and surface coating with
wear resistant layers produced via PVD or
20 64
Hardness
20 CVD.
The high hardness and toughness together
15 63 15 with a good dimensional stability makes
Retained austenite Uddeholm Unimax suitable as a substrate steel
62 10
for various surface coatings.
Grain size
61 5
Nitriding and nitrocarburizing
60
Nitriding and nitrocarburizing result in a hard
990 1000 1010 1020 1030 1040 1050 C
1815 1830 1850 1870 1885 1905 1920 F surface layer which is very resistant to wear
Austenitizing temperature TA, 30 minutes and galling.
The surface hardness after nitriding is
approximately 10001200 HV0,2kg.
Dimensional changes
during hardening and tempering Depth of nitriding
The dimensional changes have been measured The thickness of the layer should be chosen to
after austenitizing at 1020C/30 minutes suit the application in question.
(1870F/30 minutes) followed by gas quenching Example of the depths and hardness that
in N2 at a cooling rate of 1,1C/second could be achieved after different kind of
between 800500C (1470930F) in a cold nitriding operations are shown in the table
chamber vacuum furnace. Specimen size: 100 x below.
100 x 100 mm (3,9" x 3,9" x 3,9").
Hardness
Process Time Depth* HV0,2
Dimensional changes, %
0,16 Gas nitriding 10 h 0.15 mm 1180
at 510C (950F) 0.0059 inch
0,12 30 h 0.25 mm 1180
0.0098 inch
0,08 Plasma nitriding
at 480C (895F) 10 h 0.15 mm 1180
0,04 0.0059 inch

1020C Transverse Nitrocarburizing


0,00 1020C Short transverse in gas at 150 min. 0.12 mm 1130
1020C Longitudinal 580C (1075F) 0.0047 inch
0,04 in salt bath at 1h 0.08 mm 1160
500 520 540 560 580 600C 580C (1075F) 0.0031 inch
932 968 1004 1040 1076 1112F
Tempering temperature (2 x 2h) * Depth of case = distance from surface where hardness
is 50 HV0.2 higher than matrix hardness

PVD
Physical vapour deposition, PVD, is a method
for applying wear-resistant surface coating at
temperatures between 200500C (390930F).

CVD
Chemical vapour deposition, CVD, is a method
for applying wear-resistant surface coating at a
temperature of around 1000C (1830F).
7
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

Cutting data Milling


FACE- AND SQUARE SHOULDER MILLING
recommendations
Milling with carbide
The cutting data below are to be considered Cutting data parameters Rough milling Fine milling
as guiding values which must be adapted to Cutting speed (vc)
existing local conditions. m/min 120170 170210
f.p.m. 390560 560690
Feed (fz)
The recommendations in following tables are mm/tooth 0,20,4 0,10,2
valid for Uddeholm Unimax in soft annealed inch/tooth 0,0080,016 0,0040,008
condition ~185 HB Depth of cut (ap)
mm 24 0,52
inch 0,080,16 0,020,08
Turning
Carbide designation
ISO P20P40 P10
Turning with Turning US C6C5 C7
carbide with high Coated carbide Coated
Cutting data speed steel carbide
parameters Rough turning Fine turning Fine turning or cermet

Cutting
speed (vc)
m/min 150200 200250 1520
f.p.m. 490660 660820 5065 END MILLING
Feed (f) Type of milling
mm/r 0,20,4 0,050,2 0,050,3
i.p.r. 0,0080,016 0,0020,008 0,0020,012 Carbide
Cutting data Solid indexable High
Depth parameters carbide insert speed steel
of cut (ap)
mm 24 0,52 0,52 Cutting
inch 0,080,16 0,020,08 0,020,08 speed (vc)
m/min 120150 110150 20251)
Carbide f.p.m. 390490 360490 66801)
designation
ISO P20P30 P10 Feed (fz)
US C6C5 C7 mm/tooth 0,010,202) 0,060,202) 0,010,302)
Coated carbide Coated carbide inch/tooth 0,00040,0082) 0,0020,0082) 0,00040,0122)
or cermet
Carbide
designation
ISO P20P30
US C6C5
Drilling 1)
For coated HSS end mill vc 3540 m/min. (115 130 f.p.m.)
2)
HIGH SPEED STEEL TWIST DRILL Depending on radial depth of cut and cutter diameter

Drill diameter Cutting Feed (f)


speed (vc)
mm inch m/min f.p.m. mm/r i.p.r.

5 3/16 1520* 4966* 0,050,10 0,0020,004


Grinding
510 3/163/8 1520* 4966* 0,100,20 0,0040,008 A general grinding wheel recommendation is
1015 3/85/8 1520* 4966* 0,200,30 0,0080,012
1520 5/83/4 1520* 4966* 0,300,35 0,0120,014 given below. More information can be found in
1)
For coated HSS drill vc ~3540 m/min. (115130 f.p.m.) the Uddeholm publication Grinding of Tool
Steel.

CARBIDE DRILL RECOMMEDED GRINDING WHEELS

Type of drill Soft annealed Hardened


Type of grinding condition condition
Cutting data Indexable Solid Brazed
parameters insert carbide carbide1) Face grinding
straight wheel A 46 HV A 46 HV
Cutting speed Face grinding
(vc) m/min 180220 120150 6090 segments A 24 GV A 36 GV
f.p.m. 590720 390490 195295
Cylindrical grinding A 46 LV A 60 KV
Feed (f) mm/r 0,030,102) 0,100,253) 0,150,254) Internal grinding A 46 JV A 60 IV
i.p.r. 0,0010,0042) 0,0040,013) 0,0060,014)
Profile grinding A 100 LV A 120 KV
1)
Drill with replaceable or brazed carbide tip
2)
Feed rate for drill diameter 2040 mm (0.81.6)
3)
Feed rate for drill diameter 520 mm (0.20.8)
4)
Feed rate for drill diameter 1020 mm (0.40.8)

8
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

Electrical Discharge Photo-etching


MachiningEDM Uddeholm Unimax is particularly suitable for
Following the EDM process, the applicable die texturing by the photo-etching method.
surfaces are covered with a resolidified layer Its high level of homogeneity and low sulphur
(white layer) and a rehardened and untem- content ensures accurate and consistent
pered layer, both of which are very brittle and pattern reproduction.
hence detrimental to die performance.
If EDM is used the white layer must be com-
pletely removed mechanically by grinding or Polishing
stoning. After finish-machining the tool should
Uddeholm Unimax has good polishability in
be given an additional temper at approx. 25C
the hardened and tempered condition because
(50F) below the highest previous tempering
of a very homogeneous structure. This coupled
temperature. Further information is given in
with a low level of non metallic inclusions, due
the Uddeholm brochure EDM of Tool Steel.
to ESR process, ensures good surface finish
after polishing.
Note: Each steel grade has an optimum polish-
Welding ing time which largely depends on hardness
and polishing technique. Overpolishing can lead
Welding of die components can be performed,
to a poor surface finish, orange peel or
with acceptable results, as long as the proper
pitting.
precautions are taken during the preparation
Further information is given in the Udde-
of the joint, the filler material selection, the
holm publication Polishing of mould steel.
preheating of the die, the controlled cooling of
the die and the post weld heat treatment
processes. The following guidelines summarize
the most important welding process param-
eters. For more detailed information refer to
Further information
Uddeholms Welding of Tool Steel brochure. Please contact your local Uddeholm office
for further information on the selection, heat
Welding method TIG MMA treatment, application and availability of
Preheating 200250C 200250C Uddeholm tool steel.
temperature (390480F) (390480F)
Filler material UNIMAX
TIG-WELD
UTP ADUR600 UTP 67S
UTP A73G2 UTP 73G2
Maximum
interpass 350C 350C
temperature (660F) (660F)
Post weld cooling 2040C/h (4570F/h) for the first
two hours and then freely in air.
Hardness
after welding 5460 HRC 5558 HRC

Post weld heat treatment


Hardened
condition Temper at 510C (950F) for 2 h.
Soft annealed Soft-anneal according to the Heat
condition treatment recommendations.

9
UDDEHOLM UNIMAX

10
Network of excellence
UDDEHOLM is present on every continent. This ensures you
high-quality Swedish tool steel and local support wherever you
are. ASSAB is our exclusive sales channel, representing Udde-
holm in various parts of the world. Together we secure our
position as the worlds leading supplier of tooling materials.

www.assab.com www.uddeholm.com
UDDEHOLM 150204 / 1509.75 / STROKIRK KNAPPEN 09.2015
UDDEHOLM is the worlds leading supplier of tooling materials. This
is a position we have reached by improving our customers everyday
business. Long tradition combined with research and product develop-
ment equips Uddeholm to solve any tooling problem that may arise.
It is a challenging process, but the goal is clear to be your number one
partner and tool steel provider.

Our presence on every continent guarantees you the same high quality
wherever you are. ASSAB is our exclusive sales channel, representing
Uddeholm in various parts of the world. Together we secure our
position as the worlds leading supplier of tooling materials. We act
worldwide, so there is always an Uddeholm or ASSAB representative
close at hand to give local advice and support. For us it is all a matter of
trustin long-term partnerships as well as in developing new products.
Trust is something you earn, every day.

For more information, please visit www.uddeholm.com, www.assab.com


or your local website.