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CHAPTER III:

FUELS AND COMBUSTION

1.

A bituminous coal has the following compositions:

 C= 71.5% O=7.0 % S=3.6 % W=3.4% H=5.0% N=1.3% Ash=8.2%

Calculate for complete combustion of the theoretical weight of air required in kgair/kgcoal.

 a. 9.8 c. 7.80 b. 8.8 d. 6.80

Solution:

:

0

11.5 34.5 8 4.3

11.5 71.5% 34.5 5.0%

.

7.0%

8

4.33 3.6%

2. Calculate the higher heating value of liquid dodecane fuel. The chemical formula of Dodecane is C12H26.

 a. 48, 255 kJ/kg c. 60,221kJ/kg b. 55,641 kJ/kg d. 35,245 kJ/kg

Solution:

13,500 60890 :

:

%

100

%

12 12

12 12 1

26 ∗ 100 84.71%

%

∗ 100

%

1 26

12 12

1 26 ∗ 100 15.29%

;

13,500 0.8471 60890 .1529

20,745.93

, . /

 a. 94.71 m 3 c. 91.74 m 3 b. 97.41 m 3 d. 79.41 m 3

Solution:

:

.

141.5 141.5

° 131.5 28 131.5

. 0.887

0.887 1000

887

;

1

3600 24

1

887

.

4. It is required to find the theoretical volume of air at 20°C and 100 kPa absolute pressure to burn one kilogram of Franklin County coal. The ultimate analysis of coal-as-fired is as follows:

 C= 65.65% O=18.61 Mois.= 3% H= 5.87% S=1.51% Ash= 5.36%
 a. 9.43 m 3 air/ kg coal c. 8.43 m 3 air/ kg coal b. 7.43 m 3 air/ kg coal d. 6.43 m 3 air/ kg coal

Solution:

:

:

0

11.5 34.5 8 4.3

11.5 0.6565 34.5 0.0587

8.84

;

0.1861

8

4.3 0.0151

8.84

0.287

20 273

100

;

.

5. A 650 BHP diesel engine uses fuel oil of 28° API gravity, fuel consumption is 0.65 lb/BHP-hr. Cost of fuel is P 7.95 per liter. For continuous operation, determine the minimum volume of cubical day tank in cm 3 , ambient temperature is 45°C.

a. 4,372,890 cm 3

b. 5,987,909 cm 3

Solution:

:

0.65 650 422.50

:

141.5

141.5

.

° 131.5 28 131.5

. 0.887

. 1 0.0007 15.6

0.887 1 0.0007 45 15.6

0.869

0.869 1000 869

;

191.61

869

0.220495

24

5,291,880

;

. , ,

c. 5,291,880 cm 3 d. 7,352,789 cm 3

6.

A logging firm in Isabela operates a Diesel Electric plant to supply its electric energy requirements. During a 24

hour period, the plant consumed 250 gallons of fuel at 80°F and produced 2700 kw-hrs. Industrial fuel used is 30°API and was purchased at P3.00 per liter at 60°F. Determine the over-all efficiency of the plant.

 a. 26.08% c. 29.07% b. 25.06% d. 30.01%

Solution:

2700

 24

:

41,130 139.6 °

41,130 139.6 30

45,318

:

.

141.5

° 131.5

. 0.876

. 0.876 1 0.0007 26.6 15.6

. 0.00952

0.869 1000

250 0.003785

24

1

0.00952

;

2700

 24 0.00952 43.318 %

7. A circular fuel tank 45 ft long and 5.5 ft diameter is used for oil storage. Calculate the number of days the

supply tank can hold for continuous operation at the following conditions.

Steam flow= 2000lb/hr Steam dry and saturated at 200 psia Feedwater temperature= 230°F Boiler efficiency=75% Fuel Oil=34°API hg at 200 psia =2786.6 hf at 230 0 F=461.3

200 1.38 : 2786.6

230 110 : 461.3

a.

b.

15.21 days

16.23 days

Solution:

.

:

41,130 139.6 34

45,876.4 /

:

200 1.38 : 2786.6

230 110 : 461.3

2000 907.03

0.75 907.03 2789.6 461.3 45,876.4

61.38

:

141.5 141.5

.

° 131.5 34 131.5

. 0.855

0.855 1000 855

4

5.5 45 1069.12

c. 17.57 days d. 19.26 days

30.27 855

25,880.57 .

;

25,880.5

61.38

.

421.645 .

8. Liquid Octane (C8H18) fuel is burned with ideal proportion of air. Calculate the ideal air-fuel ration by weight.

a. 13.72 kg air/ kg fuel

b. 14.56 kg air/ kg fuel

Solution:

c. 15.05 kg air/ kg fuel d. 10.69 kg air/ kg fuel

:

0 3.76 0 3.76

:

 : 1 8 8 : 1 18 2 9 : 2 2 12.5 : 3.76 47

12.5 47 → 8 9 0 47

;

12.5 32 47 28 1 96 1 18

.

9. A typical industrial fuel oil, C6H32 with 20% excess air by weight. Assuming complete oxidation of the fuel,

calculate the actual air-fuel ratio by weight.

a. 17.56 kg air/ kg fuel

b. 15.76 kg air/ kg fuel

Solution:

c. 16.75 kg air/ kg fuel d. 17.65 kg air/ kg fuel

:

0 3.76 0 3.76

:

 : 16 1 16 : 32 2 16
 : 2 2 24 : 3.76 90.24

24 90.24 → 16 16 0 90.24

20% :

. 24 90.24 → 16 16 0 . 90.24

:

: 1.2 24 1 16 2 16 2

4.8

:

28.08 108.28 16 16 0 4.8 108.28

:

28.8 32 108.28 28

12 16 1 32

.

10. The ultimate analysis of coal is given below:

 C= 68.5% S= 1.5% Ash= 12.0% H= 2.5% O=3.5%

Calculate the higher heating value of coal.

a.

b.

25,300 kJ/kg

28,300 kJ/kg

Solution:

33,820 144,212

8

9,304

33,820 0.685 144,212 0.025

0.035

8

, .

c. 27,300 kJ/kg d. 26,300 kJ/kg

9,304 0.015

11. Fuel oil in a day tank for use of an industrial boiler is tested with hydrometer. The hydrometer reading

indicates a S.G. =0.924 when the temperature of the oil in the tank is 35°C. Calculate the higher heating value of

the fuel.

a. 43,852.13 kJ/kg

b. 53, 852.13 kJ/kg

Solution:

c. 58,352.13 kJ/kg d. 48, 352.13 kJ/kg

41,130 139.6 °

0.924 . 1 0.0007 35 15.6

. 0.937

°

°

141.5

15.6

131.5

141.5

0.937 131.5

° 19.50

;

41,130 139.6 19.50

, .

12. A steam generator burns fuel oil with 20% excess air. The fuel oil may be represented by C14H30. The flue gas leaves the preheater at 0.31 Mpa. Find the minimum stack temperature to avoid condensation.

 a. 73°C c. 83°C b. 63°C d. 53°C

Solution:

0 3.76 0 3.76

:

 : 14 14 : 30 2 15 : 2 2 21.5 : 3.76 80.84

21.5 80.84 → 14 15 0 80.84

:

. 21.5 80.84 → 14 15 0 . 80.84

:

1.2 21.5 2 14 2 15 2

4.3

25.8 97 → 14 15 0 4.3 97

, :

0.31

15

4.3 97 0.03569

14 15

@0.03569 73

°

13. A gaseous fuel mixture has a molal analysis:

H2= 14%

CH4= 3%

CO=27%

O2=0.6%

CO2=4.5%

N2=50.9%

Determine the air-fuel ratio for complete combustion on molal basis.

 a. 2.130 c. 1.233 b. 3.230 d. 1.130

Solution:

:

0.14 0.070 → 0.14

0.03 0.060 → 0.03 0.06

0.27 0.135 → 0.27

0.070 0.060 0.135

0.265 0.0060 0.259

0.259 0.259 3.76

1

.

14. In a boiler design, it is desirable to have the flue gas exit temperature above the dewpoint. Estimate the dew

point temperature of the flue gas produced by combustion having the gravimetric analysis of:

N2= 71.84%

O2=3.61%

CO2= 20.35%

H2O= 4.20%

Assume that air infiltration and leakage are negligible.

 a. 39°C c. 42°C b. 41°C d. 43°C

Solution:

100 :

71.84

28

2.565

20.35

44

0.4625

3.61

32

0.1128

4.2

18

0.2333

2.565 0.4625 0.1128 0.2333 3.3736

101.3 0.2333

3.3736

7 0.007

;

@0.007

15. If the theoretical air-fuel ratio is 15, what is the approximate higher heating value in kJ/kgfuel?

a. 46755 kJ/kg

b. 56755 kJ/kg

Solution:

3117

15

3117

c. 45765 kJ/kg d. 55765 kJ/kg

16. There are 20kg of flue gases formed per kg of fuel oil burned in the combustion of a fuel oil C12H26. What is the excess air in percent?

 a. 20.17 b. 26.67 b. 16.56 d. 8.21

Solution:

:

18.5 18.5 3.76 → 12 13 0 18.5 3.76

;

18.5 32 18.5 3.76 28

2 12 26 1

20 1

19

14.94

%

%

19 14.94

14.94

%

%

17. A diesel electric plant supplies energy for Meralco. During a 24 hr period, the plant consumed 200 gallons of

fuel at 28°C and produced 3930 kW-hr. Industrial fuel used is 28°API and was purchased at P 5.50 per liter at 15.6°C. What should the cost of fuel be produce one kw-hr?

a.

b.

P 1.05

1.10

Solution:

15.6 :

.

141.5

141.5

° 131.5

28 131.5

. 0.887

. 0.887 1 0.887

28° :

. 1 0.0007 15.6

0.887 1 0.0007 28 15.6

0.879

0.879

1 0.879

5.50

0.887 6.20

:

200

3.785 0.879

6.20

3930

.

c. P 1.069 d. P1.00

18. A fuel oil is burned with 50% excess air. What is the volume rate flow in m 3 /min of the wet products at a

pressure of 102 kPa and a temperature of 350°C when the fuel is burned at the rate of 45kg/min? Assume that the combustion requirements of the fuel oil are similar to those of C12H26.

 a. 1865 c. 2462 b. 3526 d. 4563

Solution:

50% :

. 18.5 18.5 3.76 → 12 13 0 18.5 3.76

27.75 104.34 → 12 13 0 9.25 104.34

27.75 32 104.34 28 12 12 26 1

22.41

22.41 1 23.41

1053.45

/ 45 min

:

Components CO 2 H 2 O O N

2

2

No. of mols

12

13

9.25

104.34

138.59

3,979.52

138.59

28.71

8.314

28.71 0.2896

:

102 1053.45 0.2896 350 273

;

.

19. A fuel gas has the following volumetric analysis:

CH4=68%

C2H6=32%

Assume complete combustion with 15% excess air at 101.325 kPa, 21°C wet bulb and 27°C dry bulb. What is the partial pressure of the water vapour in kPa?

 a. 9.62 c. 17.28 b. 12.81 d. 15.94

Solution:

:

0.68 0.32 2.48 2.48 3.76 → 1.32 2.32 2.48 3.76

15% :

0.68 0.32 . 2.48 2.48 3.76 → 1.32 2.32 2.48 3.76

0.68 0.32 2.852 10.72 → 1.32 2.32 0.37 10.72

1.32 2.32 0.37 10.72 17.73

101.325 2.32

14.73

.

20. The following is an analysis of coal in percent:

 C=74 O2=8 S=1 H2=6 N2=1.6 Ash=9.4

If burned in a boiler, the coal produces the following Orsat analysis in percent:

CO2= 12

O2=6.5

CO= 0.1

The refuse contains 0.0008 kg of carbon per kg of coal burned. Determine the percentage of excess air used.

 a. 45.6% c. 54.6% b. 46.5% d. 56.4%

Solution:

%

&

:

11.5 34.5 8 4.3 11.5 0.74 34.5 0.06

0

10.278

0.08

8

4.3 0.01

100 12 0.1 6.5 81.4%

0.12 144 0.001 28 0.065 32 0.814 28

5.28 0.028 2.08 22.792 30.18

22.792

30.18 0.7552

0.74 0.008 0.732

5.28

0.028

30.18 3.67 30.18 2.33 0.0481

: 1 2.67 3.76

1 1.33 2.37

0.732 0.0481 15.218

1

11.493

0.768

14.965

: 76.8 77% % :

;

%

14.965 10.278

10.278

%

21. A gaseous mixture has a dew point temperature of 15°C. The total pressure is 143. 27 kPa. Determine the

amount of water vapour present in 100 moles of the mixture.

Note: Saturation pressure at 15°C is 1.7051 kPa

 a. 1.10 c. 1.19 b. 2.19 d. 2.0

Solution:

1.7051 143.27

;

.

100

22. A coal fired utility boiler has the following characteristics:

Coal Feed Rate=6,940 kg/hr

Electric Power Rating= 50<W

Refuse Removal Rate= 410 kg/hr

Carbon in Refuse= 30%

Ultimate Analysis in percent:

 C= 76.56 O2= 7.70 S= 2.44 H2= 5.50 N2= 1.70 Si=6.10

Heating value of coal is 32,773 kJ/kg

If stack gas particle collectors are required to meet the limit of 0.043kg particulates per million kg of fuel set by Environmental Management Bureau under the jurisdiction of the DENR, what efficiency must the collection system have? Molecular weight of Si=28.09.

 a. 99.999953% c. 79.999953% b. 89.999953% d. 69.999953%

Solution:

0.30 410 123

0.7656 160.66

123

28.09 32

28.09

2.139

: :

0.061 6779.3 413.54

410 160.66 249.34

884.56 249.34 635.22

0.043

,

63522 0.00029842

635.52

1,000,000

6940

. %

23. The dry exhaust gas from oil engine has the following gravimetric analysis:

CO2= 21.6%

N2= 74.2%

O2=4.2%

Specific heats at constant pressure for each component of the exhaust gas in kCal/kg°C are:

CO2= 0.203

N2= 0.248

O2=0.219

Calculate the specific gravity if the molecular weight of air is 28.97kg/kgmol.

 a. 1.055 c. 1.255 b. 1.155 d. 0.958

Solution:

:

 2 0.216 0.216/44 0.004909 2 0.042 0.042/32 0.01312 2 0.742 0.742/28 0.026500

; , :

0.032721 30.56

1

;

30.56

28.97 .

0.032721

24.

A coal fired steam boiler uses 3000kg of coal per hour. Air required for combustion is 15.5 kg per coal at a

barometric pressure of 98.2 kPaa. The flue gas has a temperature of 285°C and an average molecular weight of

30. Assuming a ash loss of 11% and an allowable gas velocity of 7.5m/s, find the diameter of the chimney.

 a. 1.88m c. 2.88m b. 1.64m d. 2.64m

Solution:

.

4

:

11% :

1

15 1 0.11

15.89

:

15.89 3000 47,670

:

 8.314 8.314 0.277 30

:

47.670 0.277 285 273

98.2

20.84

;

20.84

7.5

4

.

75032.19

25. A certain coal has the following ultimate analysis:

 C= 70.5% H=4.5% O2=6% N2=1.0% S= 3.0% Ash= 11% Moisture= 4%

A stoker fired boiler of 175,000 kg/hr steaming capacity uses this coal as fuel. Calculate the volume of air in m 3 /hr with the air at 60°F (15.6°F) and 14.7 psia (101.325 kPa) the coal is burned with 30% excess air. Boiler efficiency of 70% and factor of evaporation of 1.10.

a. 212,861.04 m 3 /hr

b. 221,861.04 m 3 /hr

Solution:

0.287 15.6 273

101.325

:

0

11.5 34.5 8 4.3

11.5 0.705 34.5 0.045

0.06

8

4.3 0.03

9.53

33,820 144,212

8

9,304

33,820 0.705 144,212 0.045

0.06

8

29,503.17

0.70 175,000 2482.7 29,530.17

 21,018.335 21,018.335 12.39

260,396.15

9,304 0.03

;

260,396.15 0.287 15.6 273

101.325

, .

c. 218,261.04 m 3 /kg d. 281,261.04 m 3 /kg

26. Methane gas burn completely when supplied with 30 percent excess dry air. The gaseous products are cooled at 32°C and 1 atm pressure. Determine the mass of moisture condensed per kg fuel.

a. 1.302

c. 1.816

Solution:

:

2 7.52 2 0 7.52

30% :

. 2 7.52

2 0 . 7.52

2.6 9.776 0.60 0 9.776

:

4.8 32

:

1 0.60 9.776

4.8

101.3 11.36

0.565

2 0.565 1.435

;

1.435 18

12 1 4

.

27. A diesel power plant consumed 1m 3 of fuel with 30°API at 27°C in 24 hrs. Calculate the fuel rate in kg/hr.

 a. 36.21 c. 29.34 b. 26.25 d.39.42

Solution:

:

:

.

141.5 141.5

° 131.5 30 131.5 0.876

0.876 1 0.0007 27 15.6

0.869

0.869 1000 0.869

;

869

1

24

.

28. A coal has the following ultimate analysis:

 C= 60 H 2= 6% Ash= 5% S 2= 7% N 2 = 5% O 2 = 9% Moisture=8%

Determine the actual air-fuel ratio using 20% excess air.

 a. 10.66 kg air/ kg coal c. 12.66 kg air/ kg coal b. 11.66 kg air/ kg coal d. 9.66 kg air/ kg coal

Solution:

0

11.5 34.5 8 4.3

11.5 0.6 34.5 0.06

0.09

8

8.88

1 8.88 1.20

;

.

4.3 0.07

29. The ultimate analysis of a petroleum fuel is 87.1% carbon and 12.9% hydrogen. A certain test of dry products

of combustion gives the following analysis by volume: 12% CO2; 0.30% CO; 4.6% O2; 83.1% N2. Calculate the number of atoms of carbon and hydrogen of the hydrocarbon fuel.

 a. n=7.26, m=12.90 c. n=8.26, m=13.9 b. n=8.36, m=7.26 d. n=13.90, m=8.26

Solution:

To obtain the no. of atoms of carbon and hydrogen in one mole of the Hydrocarbon fuel (Cn Hm) divide the individual mass of carbon and hydrogen by their corresponding molecular weight:

87.1

12

12.9

1

.

.

30. The analysis of natural gas fuel used in a gas turbine power plant has the following percentages by volume:

CH4= 80%

C2H4=5%

H2=10%

CO=2%

and the remaining non-combustible gases. Find the volume of air supplied per hour if the gas consumption is 20,000 m 3 /hr assuming 40% excess air.

a. 285,500 m 3 /hr

b. 348,500 m 3 /hr

Solution:

c. 260,000 m 3 /hr d. 360,000 m 3 /hr

:

0.80 0.10 0.05 0.02 3.76 0 3.76

:

 C: 0.80(1)+0.05(2)+0.020=b b=0.92 H: 0.80(4)+0.10(2)+0.05(4)=2c c=1.80 O: 0.02c+2a=2b+c A=1.81 N: 3.76 (a) 6.8 kgmol

0.80 0.10 0.05 0.02 1.81 6.8 → 0.92 1.8 0 6.8