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School health services


Define School Health

School health refers to a state of complete physical, mental, social and spiritual well-
being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity among pupils, teachers and
others school personnel.

Define School Health services

It refers to need based comprehensive services rendered to pupils ,teachers and other
personnel in the school to promote, protect their health, prevent and control diseases and
maintain their health.

Aims and Objectives of School Health services:

Aim:

To promote,to protect and maintain health of school children and reduce morbidity and
mortality in them

Specific Objectives:

1) To create health consciousness among school children, parents and teachers.


2) To provide healthy and safe environment which is conducive to comprehensive
development of children
3) Impart health information and conduct health education on various aspects of
healthful living in school, home and community.
4) Prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases.
5) Identify and treat any abnormalities/defects/diseases as early as possible and do
the referral and follow up
6) Involve teachers, students and their parents in the management of health aspects of
children.

Principles:

1) School health services should be based on health needs of children


2) School health services should be planned in coordination with school,health
personnel,parents and community people
3) School health services should be pa part of community health services
4) School health services should emphasize on promotive and preventive aspects.
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5) School health services should emphasise on health education to


promote,protect,improve and maintain health of children and staff.
6) School health services should emphasise on learning through active and desirable
participation.
7) School health services should be continuos and ongoing process.
8) School health services should be ongoing and continuous programme.
9) School health services should have an effective system of record keeping and
reporting.

Components of school health Services:

1) Health promotive and Protective services


Wholesome school environment
Maintainence of personal hygiene
Nutritional services
Physical and recreational activities
Promotion of mental health
Health education
Immunization

2) Therapeutic Services
Health appraisal
Treatment and follow-up
First aid and emergency care
Specialized health care services

3) Rehabilitative services
Care of the handicapped

4) School health Records

Components of school health Services:

1) Health promotive and Protective services


Wholesome school environment
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It is essential for holistic development of children coming from varying socio-


economic and cultural backgrounds.It comprises of the site,location,the building
structure and its surroundings, the sanitary and other facilities.

i)Location;

School should be located away from the nuisance of noise, traffic, dust and easily
approachable.

Site should be dry on a raised surface with proper drainage system and with a
proper play ground.

ii) Building structure

It should be single storeyed building


Construction should be heat proof.
Well ventilated and attached to verandas and there should be cross
ventilation.
Classroom should be spacious enough with a space of 10.sq feet for each
student.
It is better to to have trees, plantations etc to keep the environments clean
and fresh.

iii) Furnishing of classrooms

It is desirable to have a single desk with chair for each student.

iv) Sanitary and other Facilities

Water supply- It should be continuous, potable and safe water supply from
the tap. Water should be chlorinated periodically for safety. Drinking water
should be handled properly with long handle and a tumbler kept along with
it.
Lavatory- Each School must have school urinals and latrines with adequate
water supply.

The habit of micturition should not be allowed anywhere.

Disposal of waste water and refuse-Each school should have a proper


system of drainage of waste water.In rural areas drainage water can be
drained in soak pit or garden or nearby agricultural field. The refuse
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comprised of dust,paper,dirt,peelings of fruit,vegetables and left out of


vegetables should be disposed off in a dustbin.

v) Canteen and Eating-School should have its own sanitary canteen facility on
subsidy basis. Food items should be prepared and maintained in a hygienic manner by the
food handlers.

2)Maintainence of personal hygiene

It is important on the part of the teachers to explain the importance of personal


hygiene among children and promote it.
They can be a role model of personal hygiene.
Daily inspection of personal hygiene(eg: checking nails, daily baths,
Proper care of the body should be explained to te students(eg:care of
hair,nails,eyes,ears)

3)Nutritional services

A good nutritional intake is very important in the growth and development of a


child and also for his educational achievement.
A nutritious mid-day meal is considered a very practical solution to combat
malnutrition.In view to curb malnutrition,in the year 1961 the mid-day meal
committee had started the mid-day meal programme which caters atleast the 1/3rd
of the caloric requirements of the child

4)Physical and recreational activities

Physical activities and recreational activities in the school promote


musculoskeletal development inculcate team-spirit and help release physical and
mental stress.
This helps to achieve optimal health and promote growth and development.

5)Promotion of mental health

Wholesome mental health and behavior of the child is making sound adjustment
with overall environment around him/her in the school and with the studies
expected.
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Maladjustment may lead to untoward behavior such as truancy,juvenile


delinquency, drug addiction etc.

6)Health education

Health education creates awareness, makes them regarding health matter;develops


motivation and promotes change in health behavior and health attitudes in them.
It consists of areas including personal hygiene, environmental health, nutrition,
prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.

7)Immunization

Immunization of children against specific communicable diseases is necessary to


prevent the occurrence of diseases like tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, measles
and polio.
Immunization schedule is complete by the time the child is 5-6 years old.
A proper record of immunization should be maintained as part of comprehensive
health record which should be handed over to the child at the time of leaving
school

2) Therapeutic Services
1) Health appraisal
Regular periodical appraisal of health of school children is very necessary to
identify the deviation from normal body parts and systems.
It requires complete physical and medical check-ups.
Initial appraisal should be done at the time of entry of the child which includes
history taking, physical and medical examination.
Physical examination includes observation of child from head to toe,
measurement of height, weight, arm and chest circumference.
Testing of vision,hearing and speech,observations such as vital signs as pulse,
respiratory rate and temperature.
A routine examination of blood, urine and stool should be carried out.
Screening for tuberculosis should be done at the tuberculosis clinic
A minimum of three health check-ups need to be carried out at

i)on school entry at the age of 5-6yrs

ii)on passing out from primary school at the age of 10-11 years.

iii)on passing out from middle school at the age of 13-14 years.
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Treatment and follow-up


*Treatment and follow-up of children who are found to have any illness or
defect is essential for their cure.
*It is therefore very important to have such arrangements exclusively for
children in the rural area specifically at the primary health centers.

First aid and emergency care


*The school should make arrangements for providing first-aid and emergency
care to children who get injured and sick at school.
*Teachers who are available at the spot can provide such care.

Specialized health care services


*School children often suffer from problems like dental carries,periodontal
diseases;eye problems like defective vision,squint, eye infection.

3) Rehabilitative services
Rehabilitative services are required for those candidates who are born with or
and acquire any disability or handicap due to road accident/infection some
serious diseases, burns, injury etc.
Children with special disabilities like autism, blindness, deafness should be
trained in special institutions for rehabilitation.

4) School health Records


*It is essential to maintain complete, accurate and continuous records of school
children.
*Such health records are very useful in monitoring the health status of the children
*They are used for i) identification and personal aspect
ii) findings of physical and medical examination
iii) findings of physical and medical examination
iv) findings of routine examination and screening
v) services rendered and the progress
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School health Team

*The concept of school health team has evolved with generalized family and community
services.

*The services to the children in school is in continuation of the services which are
rendered to age of under five children.

It consists of the several members like:

1) The School Principal

2) The School Teacher

3) The Parents

4) The Community

5) The Children

6) The Medical Officer

7) The School Health Nurse