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# parameters

## s can be related for the tocircuit

thecurrentsin Fig.
terminal 22  Open-circuit
h19.19.
currents as output admittance
minal
A and D are dimensionless, can
40
be expressed in terms
B is in ohms, and of the
C isterminal
in siemen vo
apply a voltage source
the transmission
open as in Fig. 19.8(a). The procedure parameters
for calculatingprovidethe a direct relationship
h parameters betwee
is similar
 0.625 S, y12  0.125 S, y21  0.375 S, y22  0.125 S.
ort NetworksV1 and  z11 output
forI
Figure
1 
the variables,
z
19.7 z12or
I 2
they are
y parameters. I 1 very
We y11
useful
apply
V 1  ayin cascaded
voltage
12 V 2
networks
or current
For Example 19.1.
Our last setport,
appropriate of parameters
short-circuit may(19.1) be ydefined byother
express
60 
V2  z21I1  z22I2 I2  y21Vopen-circuit
or
1  V
22 2
the
Reminder: Only
por
tw
variables
arameters relates the variableson theat the output
parameterat the port
of in
interest,
input terms
port toand of the
perform
those variables
regular at the
circuit inp a
variables (V 1 , V 2 ,
t. Thus, We obtain
reciprocal I
1
networks,
20 30 2 I =0
h 12  h 21 . This can be proved
independent. in th
The
mHybrid
 as or as
Parameters in we matrix
proved formthat as z + z . Figure 19.20 shows the hyb
12 21 be found using E
V + 40 V
a two-port network. y211 aV 1 V
c Id1  c closely drelated c d  ch paramete
d
1 2
Ido
1 not V yexist. bI V1
earameters Vz111 AV
of
V2 to the output a
port
z122 
two-port network always 12 11
So
c developing
d  c d c setd of [z] c2 d IThis

V1 A IBI
1set2 of parameters to [y]
the
). Then,
for another (a)parameters.
I y221 cVy 1 
(19.22)
(19.2)
third
22 V
setdIof21 V 2
V
(30 240)I2 Iz121 CV
z 22 2 
parametersIDI
2 2 or I
inverse2 hybrid parameters. These are used
based on making
70  V1I y=and
ParametersThe termsI2 the aredependent
known asvariables. Thus, parameters (or,
9.2 IImpedance
2 the 0terminal
1
20 30 currents
2 I
and
857 voltages as
ms are called the +impedance
parameters) and parameters,
have unitsorof simply siemens. z
oltages in terms of the V
have units of
s. Thus, the ideal trans-
ohms.1 The values + V
40 of the parameters
2 can be determined by settin
c d  c d c 1port d short-circuited)
[T] c d 1 
V1the
of
have AV1 B(input
hybridparameters
parameters, h 11 I 2
V
can 12V2 V2 by setting
be hevaluated orIV 
2(19.23)
Ig1 11 01  g12port
0 V(output I2 short-circui
(19.14)
-circuited)
I1 CorI2ID  I
0 (output
2 h21I12  h22V2 port
(b) I
open-circuited).
2 V2  g21V1  g22I2
Thus,
no dependent source in Figure 19.8
ig. 19.5(a). Comparing For Example 19.1: (a) finding z11 and z21,

` the ,trans-y12  `
2) and (19.23) relate the zinput
(b) finding and z .variables I(1V1 and I1) to I1

12 22

bles (VQUESTION:1
and I ). Notice that
Exampleiny11computing
19.1
` `
ig. 19.7. 2V 1 2 or V 1 V 1 V20 V 2 V10

ers,11I is used rather 12
z , z 
20 I2, because
than the current is I1
 z12  602I I2 30I10
1 Fig.` g19.31, `
1 I20 I I
c d c d c d c d
e z12leaving
 70  the network, as shown y Iin 2 g12asy V
11 , (19.3) 1
2 V1
21  22  [g]
` ` V2
ing
e applythe V2 source as in Fig. 19.1(b).
network
a voltage V240 This Vis1 done
V 0 merely
g221 g22 I2 V 2 V 0I2
z21as
open in Fig. 19.8(a). , z22  1

## reasons; Iwhen 1 I20 you cascade two-ports I2 I10 (output to input),

Figure 19.7 V1 +
lintoFig.think
19.9. of I2 Since
QUESTION:2 as Forleaving
Practice the
Example 19.1.Problemtwo-port.19.1 It is also cus-
the y parameters are obtained by short-circuiting the in
60 
wer industry toput consider
port, they I24 asare leaving
also calledthe two-port.
the short-circuit admittance pa
meters
rt parametersare obtained Eqs. by open-circuiting
inSpecifically, (19.22)
1 I and (19.23)
2 I the
= 0 input or out-
provide a
20 30
3
rea circuit
also called the open-circuit
transmits voltage andimpedance current from parameters.
a source
 +
are useful in the yVanalysis 11+  Short-circuit
of transmission
40
lines (such
1 2

er)Vbecause
2 to the outputthey Figure 19.9
port express  Short-circuit
yFor12Practicesending-end
Prob. 19.1. variables
transfer (V1 and from Iport
2 to port 1
circuit
). Then, input impedance
he receiving-end variables (V(a) 2 and I 2). Foradmittance
this rea- from+port 1 to port 2V
(30  40)I2
y 21  Short-circuit transfer z12 =
circuit
led transfer
 70  impedance
transmission parameters. fromThey portI 1are to also
port 2known as

I =0
rs.
I2
They are used y22in
1

the Short-circuit
20
design
30
2

telephone (19.4)
systems, V1
circuit transfer impedance + from port 2 to port 1 V
orks, and radars. V Following 40 Eq. (19.10), + V we obtain y
11 and y 21 by connec
z 22 =
circuit output impedance 1 2

ssion parameters are determined as
rent I1 to port 1 and short-circuiting port 2 as in Fig. 19.12(

2 1 2 1 2

## Substituting Eq. (19.2.4) into Eq. (19.2.3) gives

860 Chapter 19 Two-Port Networks
QUESTION:3
100
100  j80I2  j20I2 1 I2   j
j100 For a two-port network that is linear and has
I1 I2
From Eq. (19.2.4), I1  j2(j)  2. Thus, the transfer admittances are equal (y12  y21). Th
+ z11 = 40 + same way as for the z parameters. A reciprocal netw
I1  2+l0 A, I  1l
z122 = j20 90 A modeled by the -equivalent circuit in Fig. 19.13(
100 0 V V1 V2 10
z21 = j30 reciprocal, a more general equivalent network is
z22 = 50
I1 I2 I1
.2 Figure
Calculate I1 and I2 in 19.10
the two-port of Fig. 19.11. y12
QUESTION:4 For Example 19.2. + + +

## V1 y11 + y12 y22 + y12 V2 V1 y11 y

I1 I2 y12V2 y21V1
Solution: 2
This is not a reciprocal network.
+ Wez may use the equivalent
+ circuit in
11 = 6 (a) (b)
Fig. 19.5(b) but we can also use Eq.z12 =(19.1)
j4 directly. Substituting the
30 + V Figure 19.13 V2
2 V Eq. (19.1), z21 = j4
given z parameters into 1
(a) z-equivalent
=8 circuit (for reciprocal case only), (b) general equivalent circuit.
22
V1 40I1  j20I2 (19.2.1)

## Figure 19.11 V2  j30I1  50I2 (19.2.2)

Since we areFor
QUESTION:5 Example
Practice
looking for I1 and19.3
Prob. 19.2.
I2, we substitute Obtain the y parameters for the network sho

## 9.3 Admittance Parameters

V1  100l0,2 V2  10I2861 Solution:
Answer: 200l30 mA, 100l120 mA.
into Eqs. (19.2.1) and (19.2.2), which become
4 8 METHOD 1 To find y11 and y21, short-circ
wn in Fig. 19.16. 100 Problem
Practice 40I1  j20I19.3
2 (19.2.3)
connect a current source I1 to the input port as
3 Admittance Parameters 861
10I2  j30I21  50I2 6 1 I1  j2I2the 8- resistor is short-circuited, the 2- resi
(19.2.4)
mS, y22  136.36 mS. Figure 19.14 the 4- resistor. Hence,
Substituting Eq.For
wn in Fig.QUESTION:6
19.16. (19.2.4)
Practice
Exampleinto Eq. (19.2.3) gives
Problem
19.3. 19.3
V1  I1(4 7 2)  I1,
4 I1
4 100 y11  
3 V1
mS, y22  136.36 mS.100  j80I2  2j20I 2 16 I2 
j100
 j
By current division,
From Eq. (19.2.4), I1  j2(j)  24. Thus,
Figure 19.16
For Practice Prob. 19.3. 4 2 I2
I1  2 0 A, I2  1 90 A I 2  I1  I1, y21  
l l 42 3 V1
Figure 19.16 To get y12 and y22, short-circuit the input port
hown in Fig. 19.17. For Practice Prob.Example
19.3. 19.4 source I2 to the output port as in Fig. 19.15(b
QUESTION:7
short-circuited so that the 2- and 8- resistor
19.2 Calculate I1 and I2 in theI1two-port of Fig.
2 2i I19.11.
2

V2  I2(8 7 2)  I2,
8 I2 I2
us example.
own To get y11
in Fig. 19.17. + Example 19.4
+ y22  8
which port 2 is short- 5 V2 5I
I1 I2
I1 Vi1 2 84 8
4 V2 = 0
2i
t 1. At node 1, By current division,
z11 = 6
+ +
usexample.
0 To get y11 8 4 I1
which port 2 is short- z12 = j4
2 I1  I2  I2, y12  
2 30 V i +
V1 V2 82
4
1. At node 1,
z = j4
8 (a) 4 21 5 V2
z22 = 8

0 I1
Figure 19.17 2 2
I2 METHOD 2 Alternatively, comparing Fig. 1
4 For Example
Figure 19.11
+
19.4. + 1
For Practice Prob. 19.2. y12   S  y21
V1 = 0 4 8 V2 I2 2
I1
g22
I2 Thus, the inverse hybrid parameters are specific
ale80571_ch19_853-905.qxd
+ 11/30/11 3:20
+ PM Page 866 g11  Open-circuit input admitta
QUESTION:8
V1 g11 Practice Problem
g12I2 + g V19.4V2 g12  Short-circuit
Obtain the y parameters for the circuit in Fig.
reverse curre1
21 1
6 2
g21  Open-circuit forward volta
Answer: y11  0.625 S, y12  0.125 S, y21  0
g22  Short-circuit output imped
Figureio19.21
The g-parameter Figure 19.21 shows the inverse hybrid model
3 model of2iao two-port
866
network. The g 19
Chapter parameters
Two-Portare frequently used to model
Networks

## 19.4 Hybrid Parameters 865 19.4 Hybrid Parameters

At the output,
Figure 19.19 The z and y parameters of a two-port network d
For Practice Prob. 19.4. I2  0
19.4 QUESTION:9
Hybrid Parameters Example 19.5 865 there
Find is
thea hybrid
need forparameters
developingfor
another set of param
the two-port net
Substituting
parameters isEqs.
based(19.6.5) and (19.6.6)
on making V1 and Iinto
2 theEqs
dep
2 3 we obtain
obtain
Solution:
To find h11 and h21, we 60short-circuit
 40I1  hthe output po
11I1  h12V
6 source I1 to the input portVas1  h11I1inFig.
shown h1219.23
V2
or
g. 19.24. Practice Problem 19.5 V I2  h21I137 h
I1(2 6)22
V24I
60 1 (h11  40)I1  h12V1
Figure 19.22 3 Hence,
and
 400 mS.
22
Fig. 19.24.
QUESTION:10 Practice
For Problem
Example 19.5. 19.5 V1
0  h21I1  hh2211V2  4 I1 
1
2 3 5 I1
h22  400 mS.
2 3 I2 Also, substituting
Now from Fig. 19.23(a) we obtain,
Eq. (19.6.8) by(19.6.7)
into Eq. current
Figure 19.242 5
60  cI
+ + 6 h22 2
For Practice Prob. 19.5. 2 
(h 11  40) I1  h
I1
I1 V1 6 V2 = 0 6  3 h21 3 12
Figure 19.24 or
Hence,
QUESTION:11 For Practice Prob. 19.5.
t port of the circuit in Example 19.6 60 I2 2
(a) VTh  V2   h
(h11  40)hh2221h21I 
h 12 3 12
I1 = 0 402 3 I2
1
ut port of the circuit in Example 19.6 Substituting
To obtain h12theand
values
h22,ofwetheopen-circuit
h parameters,
the inp
h11 = 1 k
ure, keeping in mind the +
40 h12 = 2 voltage source V2 to the output
60  port
10 as in Fig
60 V + + V   29.69
h model. To obtain ZTh, V1 6 21 = 10
h V2 division, Th
h22
h11= =200 S
1 k 20.21
nd apply a 1-V voltage
dure, keeping in mind the h12 = 2 6 2
a). From Eq. (19.14),
h model. To obtain ZTh, 60 V + V1  V2  V2
h21 = 10
(b) h22 = 200 S
63 3
and apply a 1-V(19.6.1)
voltage Figure 19.25
QUESTION:12
6(a). From Eq. (19.14),
For Practice
Example
Figure 19.6.Problem 19.6
19.23 Find the impedance at the input port of the circ
Hence,
(19.6.2) For Example 19.5: (a) computing h11 and
(19.6.1) hFigure 19.25
21, (b) computing h12 and h22.
V1 2
into Eqs. (19.6.1) and For Example 19.6.
Answer: 1.6667 k. h12  
h11 = 2 k V2 3
(19.6.2) h = 104 12
h21 = 100 50 k Also,
sehinto
12 Eqs. (19.6.1) and
(19.6.3) h22 = 105 S
0  h11 V2  (3  6)I2  9I2
h12 (19.6.4)
(19.6.3)
40  h11 Zin
I1 I2
Figure 19.27
(19.6.4) For Practice Prob. 19.6.
h12  h2240 +
s 40 40 V1
I1
[h]
I2
1V +

1h12  h2240 +
 1)
mpedance
(19.29)
e
ain QUESTION:13 Example 19.7 Find the g parameters as functions of s for the c

in ohms and siemens, 1H 1F Solution:
1 In the s domain,
smission parameters, a
1
1H 1 sL  s, 1F 1

1 (19.30) Figure 19.28 To get g11 and g21, we open-circuit the outpu
the g parameters in the
QUESTION:14 Practice
For Problem
Example 19.7. 19.7 voltage source V1 to the input port as in Fig. 19.2
as the transfer imped- 1H 1H V1
ly, we will be able to I1 
s1
30) from the fact that
.
1 1

Figure 19.30
For Practice Prob. 19.7.
networkQUESTION:15
in Fig. 19.32. Example 19.8
I1 3I1 I2
10
open as in Fig. 19.33(a) +
ers
he input port. We have
l20I
voltages and currents 20
1  3I1  17I1
ould be dependent vari-
ny sets of parameters.
Figure 19.32
I1 For Example 19.8.
 0.0588 S
17I1
port so that V2  0 as
ce V1 at the input port.
gives

(19.8.1)